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FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project

Two years report

Pastoralists Livelihood Initiative /PLI/ENABLE Project

Donors: USAID/CARE consortium

Implementation Agency: FARM-Africa

Project Goal: To support pastoralists of target sites to
improve livelihood security and maintain assets during drought
cycles.

Project Location: Zone 3 Amibara and Gewane Districts – 2
PAs from each
Zone 5: Dalifaghi District– All PAs Semu-robi
And Gelealo District

Project Duration: Oct 2005 – Sept 2007

Project Objectives: To strengthen the capacity of target
pastoralists to plan and manage mitigation of effects of drought
and other shocks through sustainably improved preparedness,
livelihood and income.

Sub grantees: None

Reporting Date: Oct 2007
Reporting period: Oct 1 2005 – Sept 30 2007 (2 years final
report)

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PLI ENABLE reporting format
FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

1. Executive Summary

FARM Africa has been operating PLI/ENABLE project in Dalifage, Gewane,
Amibara, and Semu Robi during Oct 05 – Sept 07. The principal
achievements during the two years progress of the project are recapped
below.

- The project launched in Semera to jointly examine its objectives and
outputs with stakeholders
- Three community field days to jointly plan at the beginning of
activities and review achievements were held in Dalifage and Zone
3. These have helped in connection with project phase-out strategy
- Six sessions of Emergency Mobile slaughtering, dried meat
preparation, skin and hide management and marketing were held
and a total of 148 participants (25% women) attended the sessions.
Participants were from more than 8 districts (6 Afar and 2
Oromia/Fentale and Borana)
- Training manual on emergency livestock slaughtering in Ethiopia
was prepared and the draft is being tested
- A regional workshop to review different forms of emergency
livestock intervention and articulate guiding policy for emergency
livestock slaughtering was set in Afar region.
- Two sessions of new CAHWs trainings (in Dalifage and Semu Robi)
were attained: 20 and 9 new CAHWs trained and equipped with
veterinary kit and drugs, respectively out of which 3 were females.
- The CAHWS who attended the new training (29 CAHWs) have also
received training on Business skill so that they can manage the
transactions and cost recovery
- A total of 86 CAHWS (7 females) have attended refresher trainings
provided in 4 sessions in Dalifage and Semu Robi
- TOT on camel husbandry, and health management was provided to
21 relevant professional from GO and NGO partners
- The training provided on camel husbandry and health management
has been cascaded to the CAHWs in Dalifage and Semu Robi, hence
49 CAHWs (4 females) attended the training

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PLI ENABLE reporting format
FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

- Training on hazards and safety requirements to handle veterinary
drugs was offered to all the CAHWs in our targets and safety
devices were provided
- In the process of establishing sustainable drug supply to CAHWs 2
Semi-private shops were setup in Dalifage and Semu Robi
- Three vaccination campaigns which were targeted to prevent
disease outbreaks in the borders of the project sites were handled
and subsequently 25,000 different species of animals were
vaccinated against different diseases
- CAHWs monthly reports indicated that 153,968 different Spp of
animals were treated against different diseases
- CAHWs training manual on bird flu is completed to draft level and
submitted to FAO and MOARD veterinary department for further
enrichment.
- Four Prosopis utilization and rangeland rehabilitation cooperatives
were established in Gewane and Amibara and consequently 65 ha
of land is cleared and is at different level of reclamation
- Two range rehabilitation demonstration/training sites (one in
Dalifage with rain fed and another in Amibara) identified and
supported to implement standard rehabilitation operation
- The cooperative members were trained and supported in the areas
of land reclamation and management; awareness creation training
on Prosopis invasion and control by utilization; labor saving
techniques on harvesting, preparation and storage of livestock
forage and seeds; traditional tree resources management; and
practical application of pod crushing machine and improved kilns.
All in all 327 pastoralists have attended the trainings.
- Twenty six set of Hand tools provided to prosopis utilization
cooperatives in Amibara and Gewane.
- A workshop on prosopis management to harmonizing and share
experiences of FARM Africa to partners and stakeholders was held
at regional level in Afar
- As part of our dissemination strategy Prosopis invasion and
management experience was published on ESAP newsletter
- Consultants were commissioned to study the opportunities and
prospects of water harvesting techniques and forage development
in Amibara, Gewane and Dalifage
- A media event to bring the negative impact of Prosopis invasion to
public attention and advocate its utilization was carried-out. This
event has helped to put pressure on regional leaders to endorse
prosopis management regulation.
- In the effort of women’s income diversification 8 income generation
groups were established after a series of dialogue with the
community
- The groups selected the type of IGA they want to involve in and
were trained in different disciplines based on need assessment/type

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PLI ENABLE reporting format
FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

of business they wanted to involve. Accordingly, a total of 170
group members were trained in livestock and livestock products
marketing, saving and credit, record keeping and leadership.
- All the groups were linked to relevant markets in the nearby towns
especially in Bati
- All groups were provided with seed money after opening saving
account, and signing trilateral agreement (Group-Government-FARM
Africa)
- Currently all groups have involved in different business activities
such as livestock marketing, petty trading, irrigation and livestock
feed production.
- Group representatives and relevant government staffs attended
cross learning visit arranged by the project to Metahara modern
slaughterhouse, Amibara and Gewane

2. Introduction

FARM Africa has been Operating its USAID/CARE funded PLI/ENABLE
project with special type of consortium partnership from Oct 2005 to Sept
2007 for 2 years.

The operational targets were four Woredas: Dalifage (11 PAs), Amibara
and Gewne (2 PAs each focusing on Prosopis juliflora management and
rangeland rehabilitation) and Semu Robi (in collaboration with FARM
Africa’s SRCD project, focusing only on improved veterinary services in
the second year).

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PLI ENABLE reporting format
FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

During the two years implementation period the climatology has been
more or less good in our sites except incidence of less severe drought and
delay in the rainy seasons. But the drought that happened during May –
July 2007 has been severe and significantly affected the project activities.
On the contrary there were also flood catastrophes in Gewane and
Amibara Woredas.

The trend of livestock market during this period has shown fascinating
improvements that may be mainly linked with the price inflation observed
in the country and also the interventions of the various projects including
this. A young goat (bekel/girgire) that has been offered ETB 10-35 at the
beginning of project is currently earning ETB 70-130. This price
improvement is more than 300%.

The major incidents of conflict in our operational targets were the ones
between Afar and Issa and inter-clan conflict that happened in Gewane.

There were a number of disease outbreaks during the 2 years. The most
outstanding outbreaks recorded were a massive outbreak of camel
respiratory syndrome that affected and killed large population of camels
in Afar; contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, in Dalifage, and outbreaks
of PPR on the borders of Dalifage. The outbreaks were curbed by the
unreserved efforts of the CAHWs trained by the project.

A series of outbreaks of Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD; Cholera??) have
been threatening our activities in Amibara, Gewane and Dalifage.
Supports to investigate the situation and to control the problem were
provided.

Tree locust invasion of the livestock browse was another bankrupt to the
pastoralists in Afar during the project period. The locust has been
occurring all-through following the rainy seasons and severely devastated
the livestock browse.

We had also taken the opportunity of regional and National Pastoralist day
celebration during the period of the project to provoke experience sharing
among our partners and other pastoral areas. Subsequently, 12
participants attended the regional episode (Semera) and 2 the national
(Addis Ababa/National Palace) from each of our targets.

There has been intermittent supply of food aid following signs of drought
in our targets.

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PLI ENABLE reporting format
FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

3. Progress Report

Strategic Objective 1: Borana and Afar pastoralist households’
have improved resilience to predictable emergencies.
Intermediate Result (IR) 1.1: Increased marketing of livestock
and livestock by-products by households.
Process indicator Unit 2 Achievement Remark
years Year- Year Tota s
plan 1 2 l
Livestock marketing groups grou 4 - 3 3
established ps
Livestock marketing groups Grou 4 - 3 3 41 members
trained in business ps attended the
management training
LM groups and communities grou 4 - 3 3
networked to primary ps
markets
Livestock marketing groups grou 4 - 3 3
funded p
Livestock marketing groups Sessi 8 2 4 6 8 Woredas
trained on livestock ons were
emergency slaughtering and addressed
dried meat preparation and 148
people
(25%women
) attended
Livestock marketing groups Visit 1 - 1 1
that participate in cross
visits

IR 1.1 Indicators
Activity 1.1.1: Support and Increased market linkages between
producers and the variety of trades, services and buyers via existing
livestock marketing groups and traders located at primary markets.
Promotion of livestock market linkages were addressed through voluntary
establishment of 3 Livestock marketing (LM) groups in Dalifage, provision
of relevant trainings, linkage with nearby markets and cross learning visit.
Every activity was performed with close collaboration of relevant
government to ensure institutionalization and subsequent sustainability.
One of the trainings were Livestock, livestock products, commodity
marketing and record keeping trainings offered to the groups for a total of

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PLI ENABLE reporting format
FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

5 days each. A total of 41 participants (10 men and 31women from
different PAs) have attended the trainings.
The contents of the training were
- introduction and objectives
- concepts and principles of cooperatives/groups
- livestock and livestock products management and marketing
- commodity marketing
- Livestock market chain
- market competitiveness
- risks and threats
- record keeping
Trainers were invited from different government offices. They were
selected based on relevance of their academic background and
experience.
The methodologies were designed in such a way that illiterate trainees
can easily understand the concepts without being bored. Models, pictures,
and other aids were used to enhance understanding.
Group discussions, role play, questions and answers, presentations, and
practical demonstration were used during the trainings.
A new method of record keeping is also innovated to help illiterates easily
record their expenses and revenues. A sample of record sheet is
presented in the table below.

Table 1 record keeping format (an example)
Items or animals Pic of Pic of Pic of Pic of 5 Pic of 1
100 birr 50birr 10birr birr birr
note note note note note
Picture of small goat // / /
purchased at 261
birr

Furthermore, representatives of the groups (2-3 from each) were taken to
Bati town to get linked with the livestock traders and transportation
access. They were also taken to a Modern slaughterhouse in Metahara.
The authorities of the slaughterhouse have explained to the groups that
they prefer to purchase livestock directly from the herders to avoid the
fraudulence of intermediate traders and they underlined that livestock
from Afar are most preferred by the export market. This has motivated
the LM groups.
The visit also included Hali Dege LMC and Hali Dege Milk Marketing
cooperatives (Amibara) where the visitors shared experiences successes
of people of their own replicates (Afars).

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PLI ENABLE reporting format
FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

After the groups obtained sufficient capacity building, their own saving
and action plan, they were provided with seed money of ETB 10,000 to
proceed with their activities. One of the groups was interested to involve
in irrigation to produce livestock feed and other commercial crops; hence,
they were provided with irrigation pump.
Currently members of the livestock groups have started purchase of
animals mostly cattle and goats to add value (grow and fatten) for latter
sale at profit.
Table 3: saving profile of livestock marketing groups in Dalifage
s/N Name of the group Addres No. of Monthly Total remark
o s member saving save s
s d
4 Bilu men group Biluna 10 10/30 420
Dermei
na
5 Bilu women group ,, 12 10/30 240
8 Hadona bidar Hadon 20 - 1200 +Irrigat
group a Bidar ion

Activity 1.1.3: Mobile Emergency livestock slaughtering, dry meat
preparation, skin and hide management and marketing training
Six sessions of emergency mobile slaughtering, dry meat preparation,
skin and hide management and marketing trainings were provided to
Afar, Borana and Fentale community, Government partners, and NGO
partners.
The objectives of the trainings were:
 To strengthen the capacity of the pastoral community to manage
their livestock resources during period of drought through
slaughtering, dry meat preparation and hide and skins management
 To encourage slaughtering animals during the alert stage of drought
and prepare dry meat (quwanta) for sale in big towns to improve
income for marginalized pastoralists located far from market area.
 To promote dry meat preservation to feed household families during
drought period

A total of 148 (25% women) participants from different levels of
community and government structure attended the training sessions.
Among the participants CAHWS, Saving and credit groups, livestock
marketing groups, PA Chairmen, elders, clan leaders, Animal Health
Assistants, skin and hide experts, cooperative desk, sanitarian, Woreda

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FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

Administrators, Woreda PARD coordination heads, Women’s Affairs heads,
Public information and organization heads, Woreda DPP & FS heads, and
NGO operating in the respective Woredas’ can be mentioned.
The training composed of two sessions: 3 days theory (held in ventilated
areas in towns) and 4 days practical demonstration (held in one of the
community PAs). The practical sessions were held in the field so that
trainees can appreciate how easily the mobile slaughter slab can be
established in the villages of the pastoralists.
Two methods of skin and hide preservation were demonstrated: wet and
dry. Wet preservations were made by salting while drying was made by
using skin and hide drying frames which were made from locally available
materials.
What made the trainings special was participants were from different
geographical locations such as Afar, Borana, Kereyou and one occasion
from South Omo; where different experiences at different settings
(emergency interventions elsewhere, traditional approaches of different
culture etc.) were shared among each other. Furthermore, we have
demonstrated effective partnership with in and out of our consortium
with these activities.
Participants have revealed interest and motivation to promote mobile
emergency slaughtering, dry meat and skin & hide marketing. They
indicated that previously they never tried to exploit any of the products of
livestock that usually perish during drought time.

Pastoralists who received the training in HaliDege (Amibara District) were
observed to prepare dried meat and preserve hide as per procedures on
the training.

IR 1.2: Increased use of veterinary services in Dalifage and
Semu Robi.
Process indicator Unit 2 Achievements Remark
years Year Year Tot s
plan 1 2 al
New and existing CAHWs CAHWs 45 9 77 86 completed in
refreshed in animal health four sessions
care
New CAHWs trained in CAHWs 25 20 9 29 20 Dalifage &
animal Health Care 9 Semu Robi
(Dalifage and Semu Robi)

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FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

New and existing CAHWs CAHWs 25 20 9 29 ,,
trained business
management
New CAHWs provided with CAHWs 25 20 9 29 ,,
start-up equipment and
drugs
Private drug supply setup shops - - 2 2
Professionals attend a TOT Prsns 25 - 23 23
on Camel Husbandry,
productivity &
management practice
training
Train CAHWs on Hazards CAHWs - - 49 49 22 in Semu
and safety procedures in Robi
handling veterinary drug and 27 in
Dalifage
Provision of safety devices CAHWs - - 20 20 11 in Dalifage
used to handle drugs for and
CAHWs 9 in Semu
Robi
Vaccination campaign in Campaig 4 1 3 4 25,000
Dalifage ns animals
vaccinated
against
various
diseases
Train CAHWs on Camel CAHWs 51 - 49 49
husbandry and health
management
IR 1.2 Indicators
Activity 1.2.1: Community-based animal health workers trained.
1. Basic trainings
Twenty nine New CAHWs (3 women) were trained in basic community
animal health delivery in Dalifage and Semu Robi. Similarly two days
business management training was given to the new CAHWs so that they
can manage the money they collect from services and sale of drugs and
account cost recovery. All the trainees were equipped with kits and drugs.
As the project cannot purchase drugs, costs were covered by the country
office of the organization and other projects which denotes the
commitment of the organization to this partnership.

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PLI ENABLE reporting format
FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

Trainers were invited from the region (Vet from Gewane ATVET1 College)
that has practical experience in CAHWs training. Moreover, the team
leader of this project and an animal health assistant from the District
pastoral and rural development office have participated in the facilitation
of the training. This has an implication in building local capacity, creating
ownership and recognition of what is being done in the area.
The training was designed according to the standardized national
curriculum guide. It was also augmented by the experiences of the
trainers and the existing circumstances of the area. Participatory
approaches (trainee centered approaches) were employed.

Field practice was also carried out and the trainees have diagnosed and
given treatment for various species of animals and different types of
diseases.
2. Refresher trainings
Four sessions of 3 days refresher training were given for the existing and
newly trained 49 CAHWs (7 women).
Government veterinary officers facilitated the training. The training
approach was participatory. Hum and small group, discussion, question
and answer was applied.
The Course delivered included
• Major problems and constraints encountered by the CAHWs in the
field
• Emphasis on the treatment and prevention of major diseases of the
area
• Emphasis on the current camel disease situation
• Veterinary privatization and the issue of cost recovery
• Disease reporting
3. Camel husbandry and health management training
Having noticed that the understanding and attention to camel husbandry
and health is poor at regional level and nation wide at large, the project
has commissioned an international consultant who has an extensive
experience on Camel husbandry, productivity and management practice
to provide TOT2 on this issue to relevant professionals. The trainer is also
Camel herder, and camel researcher.

The TOT was provided for GOs & NGOs Veterinary professionals with the
following objective
• To come up with knowledge, skill and attitudinal changes required
to perform early response regarding problems with camel.
• To train professionals to deliver the same training for CAHWS in
their perspective woreda

1
Agricultural and Technical Vocational Education and Training
2
Training of Trainers

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FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

• To share the experiences of Camel husbandry, productivity and
management practice.

A total of 23 professionals (2 females and 21 males) have attended the
training. The trainee were from Afar (16), Oromia (4) and SNNPR3(3)
regional State

The training took 4 days of theoretical and intensive practical sessions.
Participants have traveled to Kereyu Camel camps for three days (at 6 am
every day). More than 300 camels have been visited. The content
contained practical experiences in camel management practice with
special focus on veterinary practices. During the practical sessions a total
of 15 camel calves and 6 adults were examined and treated against
various diseases.

The trainings were cascaded to the community of Dalifage and Semu Robi
through CAHWs. The training at CAHWs level contained traditional
management practices of camel and things to be improved. Furthermore,
details on feeding, hygiene, breeding and health issues were discussed.
There were also practical demonstrations on healthy camel. The CAHWs
were advised to aware their respective community on the issues rose on
the training.

4. CAHWS trained on Hazards and Safety Precautions related with
handling veterinary drugs (PERSUAP)
Hazards in relation to handling veterinary drugs especially of acaricides
are becoming common phenomena to the community handling it and
particularly to the CAHWS. In response, the project has offered training for
the CAHWS so that they can protect themselves and their community
from the risk. Demonstration of safety devices and provision to some of
the CAHWs was also accomplished in Dalifage and Semu Robi. The safety
devices provided to the CAHWs included eye goggles, nose and mouth
mask, overall, and rubber boots.

The contents of the training were:
- risks and hazards related with veterinary drugs (taking all drugs into
account)
- prevention of the risks associated with drugs
- practical demonstration of application of safety devices
- orientations provided to the CAHWs to perform awareness
campaign to the community in their PAs

3
Southern Nations and Nationalities People’s Region

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FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

Activity 1.2.2: Community-based animal health workers
supported.
1. Technical support and monthly reports
Monthly follow-up, technical support and advice is provided to the CAHWS
by the project in collaboration with government Animal Health Assistants
to consolidate their performance and record their monthly activities.
CAHWs’ monthly reports are summarized below.
Table 2 CAHWs’ monthly reports summarized on Quarterly basis
Year Quart No of animals Remarks
ers treated
Year Q1 -
1
Q2 -
Q3 300
Q4 99
Total 399
Year Q1 844
2
Q2 6535
Q3 484,730 Includes the ectoparasites treatment
campaign by CAHWs
Q4 7186
Total 499,295

Grand total 499,694

2. Drug supply to CAHWs
One of the issues of institutionalization and sustainability of CAHWs
system is establishment of lasting drug supply.
Two semi-private veterinary drug suppliers that support the CAHWs were
established in Dalifage and Semu Robi with the drugs provided by FAO.
The PVP would recover the loan through service provision such as
technical support to the CAHWs, involving in refresher training, and other
activities as required.
The process briefly includes
- Signing trilateral MOU with regional PARDB, FAO and FARM Africa,
as well as at Woreda level with the PVP, and PARD coordination.
- Preparation of business plan by the PVP

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FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
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- Preparation of shop and furniture by PVP and
- Delivery of the drugs to PVP
3. Vaccination campaign
Four vaccination campaigns that aimed at preventing disease outbreaks
in the neighboring Districts and regions were conducted by which about
25,000 animals were vaccinated.

IR 1.4: Improved management of community rangelands in
Amibara and Gewane.
Process indicator Unit 2 Achievements Remarks
years Yea Yea Tota
plan r1 r2 l
Bush clearing sites Sites 4 4 1 5 1 ha of
identified demonstration
site in Dalifage
People trained in prsns 120 38 45 83
rangeland rehabilitation
People/communities Coop 4 3 1 4
provided with rangeland
rehabilitation equipment
Communities provided with Sites 4 - 4 4
funds for rehabilitation
labor saving techniques on Prsns 120 - 120 120
development, harvesting,
preparation and storage of
livestock forage and feed
Prosopis pod collection , sites 2 1 1 2
crushing & feeding
demonstration sites
established
Metal kiln charcoal Sites 2 - 2 2
production demonstration
Training on metal kiln Sites 2 - 2 2
charcoal production,
Provide Awareness Prsns 120 - 84 84
creation training on
Prosopis invasion control &
management through
utilization.
Hectares of Land cleared Ha 300 43 32 75
from Prosopis (Gewane &
Amibara)
Land preparation Ha 75 - 65 23

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(ploughing, crushing, ridge
making and canal and land
layout preparation) for
demonstration
Seed distribution PA 4 - 4 4
Train cooperatives on Coop 4 - 3 3 30 pastoralists
practical application of pod attended the
crushing machine training
Community trained on Coop 4 - 3 3 30 pastoralists
traditional tree resources attended
management awareness
Develop marketing unions Unio 1 - - - Ban of Charcoal
through meetings with n production
coop reps and consultant discouraged
coop
Promotion of charcoal and Even 5 - 1 1 ,,
firewood associations' ts
activities and their
marketing (host media
reps)

IR 1.4 Indicators
The strategy used to clear and rehabilitate Prosopis invaded land in
Gewane and Amibara was through establishment of voluntary
cooperatives having 30-60 members in each of the four PAs. The
cooperatives were trained in various disciplines, supported with fund /ETB
800/ha (for labor, fuel, forage seeds etc), and were offered technical
supports. Furthermore, the cooperatives were supported in the process of
regional registration, supply of irrigation pumps in collaboration with
regional and Woreda government systems.
Activity 1.4.1: cooperatives supported in land preparation and
reclamation
Five sites: one in Dalifage (for rain fed rangeland rehabilitation) and 4
sites (2 from each of Gewane and Amibara) were selected for bush
clearing and rehabilitation.

Gewane District

Umerfage PA

The cooperative has 38 members of which 10 are women. Although there
were recurrent conflicts in the area, the problems were resolved by the
discussions made in the presence of Woreda Admin. Currently they have

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FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
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received new land and cleared about 11ha of land out of which 7 is
prepared well for reclamation.

Adbaru PA
A cooperative with 43 members (6 women) is established. The
cooperative has completed clearing of. Follow-up has not been
accomplished as planned because there was change of direction of River
Awash that has closed the road. Now the community has built bridge and
land clearing and preparation for reclamation has reached 5ha.

Amibara District

Bedulale PA
Members are 90 out of which 31 are women. A total of 22 ha of land have
been cleared. This site is being used as a demonstration site.
- 15ha of land is well prepared: ploughed, soil crushed, ridges made,
irrigation canals laid, irrigation introduced, land layout prepared and
divided in to six plots for sowing different seeds
- Members split in to groups and responsibilities shared
- Sesame plant was over sown on 3ha of land
- Adama red onion seedlings were grown on 16 seedbeds and
transplanted over 2.5ha of the land
- Forage seeds like syncrus, Rhodes (13kg), panicum and buffle were
obtained from research centre, germination test carried out, and
covered over 1ha of land by the women who took the training on
labour saving techniques of forage development
- The project contributed about 40% of the expenses required to
prepare the land (fuel for tractor, tractor operator’s per diem)
- Seed supplied (22.5 kg of forage seeds are purchased and the
remaining is provided by Melkaworer Agricultural research institute
and PARD Bureaus).

Ambashna Bonta PA
There was extensive clearing of Prosopis where they cleared about 28ha
of land. However, land preparation is not progressing well because of
some disparity between members. Currently only 1 ha of land is ready for
forage development and this is being assumed by women that trained in
labor saving techniques on development, harvesting, preparation and
storage of livestock forage and feed.

Activity 1.4.2 Conduct training on range land rehabilitation,
forage development with irrigation, Prosopis clearance and hay
making

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FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

A 2 days training was conducted for 45 members of the cooperative 15
from each 3 cooperatives. Trainers were from the respective Amibera and
Gewane woreda pastoral and rural development office, 2 from Gewane
and 1(woman) from Amibera.

Training was focused on the following major topics:
Prosopis clearance from 15cm below the surface in order to protect the
resprout/coppicing/
Methodology and techniques of forage, cash crop development under
irrigation and introducing the characteristics of exogenous grass species
(Rhodes, Panicum and the like) that would be easily developed in arid
areas.
Techniques of harvesting and preparation of hay using the indigenous
grass also introduced.

Activity 1.4.3: Training of communities on traditional tree
resources management.

The training was provided by government professional and project staff.
Trainees were drawn from members of cooperatives in Amibara and
Gewane. The training focused on the traditional methods of tree
resources management by the community with the objective of
consolidating the strong practices and avoiding the bad customs. The
training was aimed at helping the maintenance of indigenous knowledge
of tree resources management that was disrupted since the introduction
of Prosopis.

Most of the training was handled in such a way that participants were
brainstormed to describe the traditional practices and the current
situation in their areas.

Activity 1.4.4: Training of cooperative members on practical
application of Prosopis pod crushing machine

This training was aimed at improving the knowledge and skill of handling
Prosopis pod crushing machine. The training was provided by government
professional and project staff.

The training included theoretical session and practical demonstration of
crushing machine in the field.

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FARM-Africa PLI/ENABLE project
Two years report

The contents of the training focused on the purpose of crushing the pod to
the extent of its nutritional value and its use in the control of Prosopis and
the practical application of the Machine. All participants have practiced
operation of the machine. The participants have particularly interested
with the purpose of crushing described to prevent the toxic effect of
Prosopis. During the training the members were so motivated that they
have pledged to collect at least 10kg of pod per person. Currently the
cooperatives have collected about 1000kg of pod.

Activity 1.4.5 Training on Improved metal kiln charcoal
production
5 days practical quality charcoal production training is conducted for 5
members from each of Bedulale and Bontaambash cooperatives on
improved metal kilns.
The most encouraging thing is, sample of the charcoal which is produced
during the training was sent for export market in Saudi Arabia by a person
who will export Prosopis charcoal from cooperatives. However, ban of
charcoal production by the regional government has discouraged the
community and currently we are turning our attention in the endorsement
of prosopis management regulation which is already in progress with the
help of FARM Africa’s Prosopis marketing project.

Activity 1.4.6 Awareness creation training on prosopis
management
60 members from Bedulale and 24 from Bontaambash attended a 1 day
training which is focused on the following main issues;
1. History of Prosopis introduction to Afar region
2. major characteristics, problems and disseminators of Prosopis
3. Protection and Control of Prosopis juliflora
4. Ways of Prosopis invasion control through utilization scheme based
on other counties’ and FARM-Africa’s best experiences.

Activity 1.4.7: Training and support of community based
organizations in land preparation for rehabilitation.

Dalifage demonstration site
One hectare demonstration site that serves for practical training was
prepared in Asaharana Dintu PA of Dalifage. The selected land was
covered with undesirable invaders (Acacia spp) as defined by the
community. According to the community elders, before the invasion the
land was a very large field of grazing pasture on which various types of
forage grasses grow.
The purpose of the demonstration site was discussed with the community,
and then they identified the site, cleared the undesirable invaders,
prepared the site and they over sow the seeds.

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A total of 50 community members have participated in all the activities
voluntarily.
In the mean time the participants were trained on how to make land
structures such as:

- water retention micro-basins
- strip- bunds
- micro-terrace: a total length of about 1000 meter
The structures help retention of maximum amount of rain water.

Locally made instruments (wooden materials and plastics) like
- sprint level (A-square) which was used to level the micro plot
- T-square: which was used to fix alternating micro-basins

The plot was partitioned into four micro plots to accommodate various
structures and different types of forage spp.

Drought resisting forage plants were selected and planted on the site. Out
of the four partitions of the plot three were used to plant
- cyncrus (forage plant)
- Rhodes(forage plant)
- Panicum (forage plant) - Also available in the local grassland
- Cow-pea (legume forage)
- Pigeon pea(legume forage)
- Lucinia (tree forage)

The remaining one partition was left free to evaluate the forage seed
bank of the soil.

This initiative has helped the community to make their own enclosure in
their backyards individually as well as communally in a similar fashion. As
a result a total of 20ha of rangeland has been enclosed.

Activity 1.4.8: Train and support women in labor saving
techniques on harvesting, preparation and storage of livestock
forage.
A two days practical training was offered to 120 women from Oumerfage,
Adbar, Ambash and Bonta & Bedulale target sites in labor saving
techniques on development, harvesting, preparation and storage of
livestock forage and feed. The practical exercise is carried out at Gewane
Technical agricultural college forage development demonstration site for
Gewane Woreda whereas, for Amibara, Worer Agricultural research center
forage development demonstration site was utilized. In Gewane the
training was facilitated by 2 Gewane college staffs of which 1 is a woman

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while in Amibara a facilitator from the research center and the Woman
facilitator from the college participated.

Activity 1.4.9. Promotion of charcoal and firewood associations'
activities and their marketing (host media reps)

A media event that involved the ETV, Ethiopian Radio and Walta
Information Service was hosted on a community field day occasion. On
the occasion senior regional and Amibara and Gewane Woreda
administration officials, members of the cooperatives of Bedulale and
invited community members from neighbouring Pas were invited. The
regional guests included PARDB head, Regional finance and economic
development head and speaker of the regional council.

The media people have investigated the situation of prosopis in Amibara
and Gewane from the community and government officials, they prepared
a documentary report on how FARM Africa with the donation of USAID and
CARE is resolving the problems connected with prosopis by utilization.

IR 1.5: Increased income generation by women.
Process indicator Unit 2 Progress Remarks
years Yea Yea Tota
plan r1 r2 l
Establish and support Grou 4 1 4 5 3 livestock
women ps marketing and
groups/associations 3 SACG

Women groups funded grou 4 - 5 5
ps
Women savings and credit grou 4 - 5 5
groups/associations ps
trained on business
Women saving and credit grou 4 - 5 5
groups linked to market ps
and transportation
Women saving and credit grou 4 - 5 5
groups attended cross visit ps

IR 1.5 Indicators
Activity 1.5.1: Establish women savings and credit
groups/associations.

Five saving and credit groups were voluntarily established in Dalifage.

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The process involves
- voluntary membership
- election of 5 executive committee and 3 monitoring committee
- registration fee and monthly contribution
- bylaw that considers HIV/AIDS positive and membership

All processes of establishing and organizing were made along with
government officials to avoid conflicts and ensure subsequent
institutionalization as well as sustainability.
The groups identified the types of business they wanted to perform,
contributed registration fee and savings. Based on their saving and
business plan they were supported to open saving account in Bati
Commercial Bank.

Activity 1.5.2 Train and support women savings and credit
groups/associations
Saving and credit, business skill and leadership trainings provided to all
five groups separately. The trainings were provided by 2 Woreda finance
staffs that have relevant educational background and experience.
Duration of the trainings was two days and the contents encompass:
- concepts and principles of cooperatives/groups
- business concept and opportunities
- materials, human and financial resources management
- record keeping
- profit and loss analysis
- concepts of saving and credit
- distribution of profit
The methodologies were designed in such a way that illiterate trainees
can easily understand the concepts without being bored. Models, pictures,
and other aids were used to enhance understanding.
Group discussions, role play, questions and answers, presentations, and
practical demonstration were used during the trainings.
The new method of record keeping shown above for livestock groups was
also used here.

Activity 1.5.2: seed money provision, market and transportation
linkage, start-up of business, and bylaw preparation to saving
and credit groups
All the five groups were provided with starter fund of ETB 10,000.00.
The procedures pursued were:
- Preparations based on the type of IGA they planned (e.g. shop
construction if they planned to involve in petty trading)
- The commodities best marketed in their villages identified by
members

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- Market visit and linkage performed in the nearby town such as
Bati
- The groups linked with transportation access
- Purchase of commodities performed
- Orientation/training of how to measure and price commodities
provided to groups

Table 4: saving profile of income generation groups in Dalifage
s/N Name of the group Addres No. of Monthly Total remarks
o s member saving save
s d
1 Dohra Dalifag 20 3110 Cafeteria service
multipurpose coop e town .63
2 Angafaytuna Asahar 13 5 250 Petty trading
hinelidear group ana
Dintu
3 Adagarana Daba Asahar 12 5 250 Petty trading
group ana
Dintu
6 Lubak women Atayen 12 5/50 700 Petty trading
group a
Dul’ale
7 Molta women ,, 12 5/50 700 Petty trading
group

The achievements of the groups so far are:
- all the groups have started petty trading and cafeteria
- government professionals that provide technical support
assigned for each group with top up payment
- one of the groups is renewed to cooperative and registered at
regional level
- three groups have started to run go and bring commodities
independently
- dohra cooperative was support for audit and technical comments
provided to improve their financial management
- General assembly of Dohra coop have shared their bank deposit
to survive the drought that was evident during May – July 2007
(women affair and relevant GO bodies have involved on the
meeting)

Awareness creation training on HIV AIDS for one women group
Awareness creation training on HIV/AIDS was piloted to one woman group
(9 members) in collaboration with the HIV /AIDS office and Dlifaghii
woreda Health station by taking the opportunity of gathering for saving
and credit training.

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Strategic Objective 2: Local capacity, systems and partnerships
among government and local/traditional institutions that support
pastoralist livelihoods resilience strengthened.
IR 2.3: Policy makers are informed of local level drought
conditions and best practices affecting sustainable pastoralist
livelihoods in the Afar and Oromiya Regions.

Process indicator Unit 2 yrs Achievements Remarks
plan Yea Yea Tota
r1 r2 l
Meeting with other PLI Meetin 8 6 7 13
Program components to gs
coordinate activities
Reports of field conditions Report 24 6 12 18
and results of the ENABLE s
Project’s activities.
Community field days Events 4 1 2 3
Study on water harvesting Study 1 1 1
techniques and forage
development
Lesson dissemination of Works - - 1 1
best practices on Prosopis hop
management through
workshop
Emergency livestock Works 8 - 1 1 Region-wide
slaughtering, dry meat hop all in one
preparation, skin and hide workshop
preparation and marketing conducted
manual
Publishing Prosopis Event 1 - 1 1 Published on
Management experience ESAP
on journals Newsletter
Develop Mobile Emergency Manua 1 Dra 1 1 Final draft has
Slaughtering training l ft been tested
manual
CAHWS Training manual on manua 1 - 1 1 Draft is sent
bird flu l to MOARD and
FAO; yet no
response

IR 2.3 Indicators

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Activity 2.3.2: Provide reports on project activities, progress
achieved, and studies conducted to the relevant PLI Program
components.
Monthly and quarterly reports were submitted to CARE PLI/ENABLE
coordination unit. The reports included situational updates including
drought conditions, disease outbreaks, political changes; and progresses
on the planned activities. The same reports were translated to Amharic
and provided to Woreda partners.

Lessons identified from this reporting scheme were, although the reports
notify the forecasts and occurrence of disaster such as drought, there was
no response from the coordination unit. The recent drought of Afar in
May-July 2007 can be mentioned as example where monthly reports
starting from April 2007 depicted the forecast and occurrence of drought;
however, assessment was done in late July 2007.
All important events in the project targets, such as experiences, studies,
and lessons were discussed in workshops and different forums.
Activity 2.3.1 conduct community field days
Community field day events were held twice in Dalifage and once in
Amibara. Community day celebration is one of the phase-out strategies of
the project.

The general objectives of the events were
- To evaluate the project achievements so far
- To identify the challenges and gaps
- To prepare joint action plan to the way forward

On the first occasion in Dalifage all stakeholders such as line department,
the community, religious and clan leaders were invited.
The purpose of this community day was
- To announce and inform the establishment of the MOC and to
introduce the project plan and outputs to all concerned stakeholders
- To establish a good relationship with stakeholders.
- To discuss and identified the contribution, roles and responsibilities
and partnership among stakeholders
- To establish a CDC* which closely works with the kebele and the
woreda

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CDC* Community Development Committee consisting of 7 members
including the administration, pastoral and Rural development, Livestock
and natural resource, women affair, woreda elders, religious leader and
Farm Africa was established.

On the second occasion in Dalifage the participants were represented
from Woreda Admin, Pastoral and Rural development coordination,
Women Affairs, Information and Public Organization department, DPP&FS
desk, relevant District professionals, coop desk, religious leader, Woreda
Elder, target PA Chairmen and elders, CAHWs, and representatives from
all groups.

The total number of participants was 23 among which 7 were females,
and 13 were represented from the rural community.
Strengths and weakness of the project were identified.
Among the strengths
- Good partnership with government offices
- the training on emergency mobile slaughtering was recognized as a
good model for pastoralists prone to drought
- the CAHWs system
- Community rangeland management from which many have taken
lesson and
- Women income generation were appreciated

The weaknesses marked were
- the difference between PLI/ENABLE and other FARM Africa projects
(lack of well organized development committee (from Woreda to
PA), CDF etc)
- delay of some of the WIGGs to start their activities
- poor performance of the government professionals assigned for
follow-up and technical support
- late start of the project

Challenges such as vehicle accident, long distance between project sites,
tree locust that brought about shortage of pasture and death of goats
when they eat defecate of the locust, and shortage of rain have been
recognized. Regarding the tree locust the community representatives
were advised to seek if there is any traditional control.

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Finally action points to the way forward were stipulated.
- responsibilities to speed up completion of the remaining activities
shared
- strengthening the follow up and technical support
- any problem if happens should be solved immediately by the CDC

Some people have also taken the opportunity to discuss the major
problems of the Woreda:
- lack of bridge on River Borkena which hampers communication of 9
PAs during the rainy season,
- lack of large scale irrigation farming
- shortage of educated local people
- absence of community human health workers
- And they have suggested if FARM Africa has the capacity and
expertise to help the above problems or otherwise to call upon
other actors that have such practices and experience.

The 3rd community field day was held in Amibara.
Participants included
- regional decision makers (president office chairman, PARDB head,
Regional finance and economy head, regional council speaker, and
natural resources department head)
- Amibara woreda council head, PARDB head and 4 experts from
various disciplines
- Gewane woreda PARDB head, 2 woreda advisor elders, 1 expert
- About 65 Bedulale cooperative members out of which 25 were
women
- Media people (ETV, Ethiopian Radio and Walta information
journalists)
The community members have explained the crisis they faced due to
prosopis invasion, achievements made with the support from FARM Africa
and Woreda PARD coordination and their plan in the future to the regional
officials and media people. The regional officials have also acknowledged
the efforts and promised to endorse the prosopis management regulation.
Members of the cooperative with outstanding contribution were awarded
with certificate and hand tools. Government officials and media people
have visited the cleared land which is covered by various crops such as
maize, sesame, onion, and forage.

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2.3.3 Workshop on harmonization of Prosopis Control and
Management in Afar
The workshop was held in Awash 7 Killo, Buffet La Gare hotel to
harmonize the control strategies of prosopis among various actors and
prepare implementation guideline. The participants were from regional
offices, Woreda offices (Gewane and Amibara) CARE consortium partners
and USAID. A total of 13 participants attended the workshop out of which
one was female.

The objectives of the workshop were:
 To review the previous experiences by FARM Africa
 To update what is being done under PLI concerning Prosopis control
 Discus on emerging issues, identify gaps, and develop joint action
plan on control of Prosopis invasion

The action points identified by the workshop were;
 Examination of the previous experiences to learn from the lessons
and avoid duplication of efforts should be done
 awareness creation on the regulation and implementation plan
should be done at all levels of government structure and community
systems
 for all cooperatives involving in prosopis management there should
be a viable business project plan before embarking in to the
business
 lobbying of the regional council to endorse the regulation should be
done by policy and advisory organizations such as the Tuft
University
 detailed implementation guideline should be prepared following the
endorsement of the regulation
 before getting in to actions any agent involving on prosopis
management should conduct study and resource mapping with the
help of GIS or any relevant technology to prioritize areas of
implementation
 involving the relevant federal government organizations,
environmental protection authority, professional societies, and
research institutions in prosopis intervention plans should not be
undermined

Activity 2.3.4 Regional Workshop on Emergency livestock
slaughtering: experiences, lessons learnt and the way forward

A two days workshop was held in Awash 7Killo. The objectives of the
workshop were
• to identify the key lessons learned in livestock emergency
interventions in Afar

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• to identify policy and strategic issues on emergency livestock
interventions that need to be considered in the best practices
guidelines/ policy development process
• Develop action plan for Afar national regional state for emergency
livestock interventions

Senior management staffs from relevant regional bureaus and Woredas
participated on the workshop.
Presentations were deliberated by Regional PARD and DPPFS bureaus
CARE and FARM Africa on Emergency livestock interventions: Afar region
experiences; Review of Experiences on emergency de-stocking in fixed
slaughter slab and in mobile slaughter slab respectively. In this cases the
experiences so far, their strengths and weaknesses, lessons learnt and
recommendation to the way forward were addressed.

FARM Africa has also presented on Emergency mobile slaughtering as a
policy entity in emergency livestock intervention. This was addressed in
such a way that buzz groups established and identify policy and strategy
issues. Then based on the national livestock emergency intervention
guideline which is currently well in progress approaches were presented
in the context of Afar.

Group discussions were also tabled on three issues
1. What are the important livestock interventions that should be done
during the drought cycle with focus on alert and emergency stage
2. Who and how shall the livestock emergency be handled?
3. How do we manage the advocacy to implement the emergency
interventions on time?

The key points that were recognized by the group discussions were
1. Drought is always occurring and not an event. During alert and
emergency phase livestock feeding, emergency mobile and fixed
slab slaughtering, and well established early warning system shall
be there.
2. Institutionalization of the livestock emergency was recommended.
The group has suggested to structure a department or unit or focal
body in PARDB that works on livestock emergency preparations,
early warning and intervention
3. The third group focused how to materialize the decisions made in
the workshop. They suggested that a taskforce that advocates the
issue to regional council is necessary. PARDB Deputy Head, DPPFSB
NGO Desk head, Regional Council PR and Women’s Affair
representative have taken the responsibility. They have also
planned to call a workshop/consultation meeting to address the
issue with PARD standing committee of the regional council.

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4. Project Management

The project management began with project planning, budget preparation
and partnership meetings held internally, with CARE, USAID and Tufts
University.

Launching of the project at consortium level was supported by FARM
Africa and, further FARM Africa has also launched the project at
organizational level at Semera. Participants were relevant government
and community representatives from regional and Woreda Departments.

Staffing, materials inventory and procurement and commencement of the
project implementation followed. It has been a great challenge to fill the
vacancy for the positions.

The project established Mobile Outreach Camp (MOC) in Dalifage Woreda.
The MOC has been moving from place to place based on the migration
trend of the community.

Project staffs have also attended various technical monitoring meetings,
trainings and submitted reports. Few among others were:
- CARE consortium monthly technical coordination meetings
- Tufts University regional technical coordination meetings (quarterly)
- Monthly and quarterly donor reports (narrative as well as financial)
- Miscellaneous meetings and workshops (IGA training, Harmonization
workshops, consultative workshops, national guideline on livestock
de-stocking and restocking, value chain analysis, gender and
pastoralism, etc)
- Hosting Monitoring visits of CARE, USAID, USFS and Tufts University
- Annual planning meetings
- Annual review meetings

Generally, the project has been managed in such a way that FARM Africa
country office provides strategic support to the project and a project
coordinator liaising between the project sites, country office, government,
donors and other partners. The remaining staff has been working in the
project targets, the key staffs being in the mobile outreach camp located
in Dalifage.

5. Financial report
Reports are submitted on a separate sheet.
6. Problems encountered and actions taken
The outstanding problems encountered were
• Bureaucratic and lengthy procurement policy

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• Lack of electronic facility such as laptop, printer, camera etc has
challenged our documentation and reporting efforts
• The restrained drug act policy of USAID has limited the drug
purchase for CAHWs and the provision of seed money for vaccine
purchase too.
• Undue expectation of the GO staff from the project such as vehicle,
Perdiem etc. have also lead to reduced back up and minimum
participation to activities.
• Duplication of efforts between PLI and PCDP programs; but the
PCDP is deploying more resources hence turning the attention of
the community and creating dependency
• Awash River diversion from its main course
• Afar-Issa and intra clan conflict in Gewane Woreda
• frequent engagement of relevant GO partners and target
community on government meetings
• Difficulty to obtain finance staff has critically hampered our
progress
• Vehicle accident on early January 2007, delay of maintenance until
end of May and incompetence of rental vehicles
• Outbreak of AWD-like disease in Dalifage
• Shortage of Sugum rain in 2007 that led to drought
• Delay of Information about the fate of the project (extension or
termination)
Actions taken
- FARM Africa Country Office support to facilitate procurement and
funding of unallowable purchases
- enduring dialogue and discussion with government and community
representatives
- commitment of project staff even to work extra time

7. Activities planned for the next reporting period

Plan for the cost and No cost extension is submitted.

8. Annexes

Annexes attached in excel sheet includes
- Location and profile of CAHWs
- CAHWs Information by Woreda
- Performance of CAHWs
- Groups’ activities
- List of members of eight marketing groups

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- Performance of rangeland activities and
- List of trainings and workshop

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