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Annual Review

2005/6
Contents Page

People, policy and practice 1
Spotlight on South Africa 2
The future of forests 4
Raising the stakes 6
Starting to rebuild 8
A better deal for pastoralists 11
Spreading the word, increasing the impact 14
Putting in the groundwork 18
Stepping in to step up 20
Influencing policy 22
Our supporters 24

Lady Susan Wood (Shushu) 1918 – 2006
“This Annual Review is dedicated to the memory
of Lady Susan Wood, widow of FARM-Africa’s co-founder
Sir Michael Wood, who died in Kenya on 16th May.
Shushu, as she was known to her family and many friends,
was a truly remarkable woman and her passing marks the
end of an extraordinary life and the end of an era. She was a source of
inspiration and support to me and many in FARM-Africa and will be terribly
missed. Her and Michael’s spirit will live on in FARM-Africa and in the lives
of the countless people they touched.”
Christie Peacock

FARM-Africa
9-10 Southampton Place
London WC1A 2EA, UK

T +44 (0)20 7430 0440
F +44 (0)20 7430 0460
E farmafrica@farmafrica.org.uk
W www.farmafrica.org.uk

Registered Charity Number: 326901 Registered Company Number: 01926828

© FARM-Africa, 2006 Photographs: FARM-Africa unless stated otherwise
Photograph of Lady Susan Wood courtesy of Kazuri Beads www.kazuriwest.com
CEO’S INTRODUCTION

People, policy and practice
“Improving It’s been uplifting to reflect on our many One way we are ‘scaling-up’ is through
successes over the last 18 months, helping Training and Advisory Units, which share
agriculture is more than one million African farmers and our technical knowledge with other NGOs
central to reducing their families find a pathway out of poverty. and government departments.The Units
poverty in Africa. respond to the growing number of requests
Yet there is still much to be done, as from government departments and other
FARM-Africa’s many more Africans continue to suffer agencies for training and support, so we can
combination of from drought and disease and struggle to share our expertise with those we know
technical expertise make a living. We know our work makes a can truly make a difference.
difference to the lives of small-scale farmers
and experience and herders in Eastern and South Africa, Our dedication to extending our
of working at and we continue to go from strength to programmes has led us to Southern Sudan,
community level is strength. In the last year we have established where we began work this year. After many
eight new projects across Ethiopia, Kenya, years of civil war, the dream of peace is now
helping to improve Tanzania, Uganda and Southern Sudan, and a fragile reality, meaning we can work with
the lives of poor have launched the new national NGO communities, helping them to rebuild their
farmers in Africa.” FARM-South Africa. agriculture and their lives.

Hilary Benn, 2005 was ‘The Year of Africa’, which 2005 also saw the launch of the FARM-
Secretary of State started in January with the launch of the Africa Innovation Fund, set up to encourage
for International MAKEPOVERTYHISTORY campaign to put new thinking from staff, with the best ideas
Development, UK pressure on the Commission for Africa and being funded.The response so far has been
the G8 Summit.The international community’s overwhelming and this annual review presents
commitment to solving Africa’s problems some of these new micro-projects.
was expressed in the G8 Final Communiqué
and we took the opportunity to bring our We have seen our supporter base grow
extensive experience to the fore, providing and our profile increase. We were delighted
policy makers with evidence of successful to be presented with a Chartered Institute of
strategies for rural development. Public Relations award – ‘PR on a Shoestring’
– for our press coverage of our campaign to
In 2005/6 we began to ‘scale-up’ our work get more attention on, and investment in,
– sharing models of best practice with other smallholder agriculture.
organisations and individuals so the benefits
can be extended to more rural Africans. I would like to say a huge thank you to all our
We are a small organisation, but this new staff in the UK and Africa, our trustees and
emphasis increases the impact of our our patrons, and for the incredible support
projects, making our voice much louder. of our donors large and small. I am happy
to report that FARM-Africa is in a stronger
position to continue its grass roots work. We
have become a soundly-financed organisation
with an income that has quadrupled in four
years, giving us the resources to work even
more effectively with large numbers of poor
smallholder farmers and herders.

Dr Christie Peacock, CEO FARM-Africa

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SOUTH AFRICA

Spotlight on South Africa
“As a patron of the newly-established South African organisation FARM-South Africa,
I wish them great success in working with communities and stakeholders to achieve
solutions to the specific challenges of poverty in our country. God bless you.”
Desmond Tutu, Emeritus Archbishop of Cape Town.

April 2005 saw the launch of FARM-South New farmers benefiting from land “I always wondered
Africa as a newly registered national NGO reform will be helped to develop their
in its own right.This marks an exciting own farm management plans and gain
how it would feel
new drive to scale-up and further extend access to credit. Working in partnership to have your own
the impact of our work with marginal black with other institutions, FARM-South Africa possessions, your
farming communities in South Africa. We will also provide a wide range of training
are delighted to welcome Desmond Tutu, to government departments and newly
own animals.
Emeritus Archbishop of Cape Town, as emerging black farmers, ensuring that we Now I am a proud
patron, and have already established a make a lasting difference to their lives. owner, I can sell
strong, dynamic South African board to
help us work even more closely with the With our support to date, eight land reform
some of the young
government and other organisations groups have created land management plans rams and provide
across the country. and developed profitable new agricultural for my family.”
businesses. Furthermore, since 2004, over
While the international donor community 20 other groups have benefited from a Marie Visser, blind mother
focuses on providing aid to very poor partnership with the government using of five and loan beneficiary
countries, which often excludes South Africa, FARM-Africa’s guidance and knowledge. from a FARM-Africa initiated
this new national status will ensure that livestock bank.
essential support to those living in chronic In the Eastern Cape, FARM-South Africa
poverty can continue. FARM-South Africa is training government and local NGO staff
benefits from 14 years’ direct project to help unemployed people become skilled
experience and we are confident that this farmers and make their small farms more
expertise and technical knowledge can help productive.This continues work already
yet more poor farmers build strong and carried out with seven farming communities
secure livelihoods from their land. of nearly 6,000 people, whose incomes
increased significantly through improved
Since the South African Government’s agricultural production.
landmark decision in 1994 to return 30
per cent of the country’s agricultural land
to black ownership by 2015, FARM-Africa
has amassed a wealth of experience in land
reform initiatives.This unique knowledge
and technical ability provides an extremely
solid framework for FARM-South Africa’s
work on land reform in the Northern
Cape and other provinces.

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© Pieter Roos, 2004.

A young farmer
looks out over the
land in Witbank,
the Northern Cape.
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FORESTRY

The future of forests
For many years communities in Ethiopia The first agreement was signed in
and Tanzania have relied upon forests to Ethiopia in October 2003 between the
make a living, using land to graze their Wacha community and local government
animals and timber for fuel. However the in Bonga.This has been followed by a
forest resources have dwindled, leaving further 17, seven of them in 2005.
more people vulnerable to poverty.
The approach has been so successful
Over the last 10 years, FARM-Africa has that the Ethiopian Government has
been working with governments and local adopted it as part of its national forest
people in Bonga, Chilimo and Borana in policy, spreading the benefits throughout
Ethiopia, and Nou in Tanzania.This work the country and extending the FARM-Africa
has developed plans to reduce their reliance model more effectively than could ever Marietta Samson’s
on the forest and to manage them in a have been anticipated. life has been
sustainable way, encouraging the greater
use of non-timber products. To complement this change in
transformed since
perspective, FARM-Africa has encouraged she and her
FARM-Africa’s Participatory Forest communities to develop long-term plans husband took
Management approach has helped to safeguard the forests far into the future.
communities working in partnership We do this by helping local people to
advantage of new
with government to take responsibility for recognise the value of alternative non- livelihood
managing and protecting their forests. In forest livelihoods such as beekeeping opportunities on
the last 18 months alone there has been a and poultry production.
significant increase in the number of groups
their five-acre farm
taking up this challenge, representing a new A proportion of the income raised in Nou Forest,
era and a more hopeful future for Africa’s by Forest User Groups from alternative Tanzania.They used
forests after decades of over-use. livelihood activities is paid into a
Development Fund.This fund can then
to use the forest to
In Ethiopia, Forest Management Agreements be used for new initiatives, such as the gather firewood and
have been made with regional government recent example of the Chilimo raise cattle but now,
departments, transferring the responsibility Co-operative establishing its own
of the forest to the local population. grain bank.
with an increased
awareness of
conservation after
Investing in innovation joining local
Olika Belachew, Assistant Community Development Officer for FARM-Africa farmers’ groups,
Ethiopia, promotes Participatory Forest Management in Chilimo. He noted that most they grow wheat,
of the 14,000 residents of the township of Ginchi regularly attend the town’s nine breed goats and
churches and one mosque. He came up with the idea to ask religious leaders to
encourage their congregations to talk about protecting the forest resources, in the produce honey. In
hope that they would understand more about the importance of conservation. this way, they don’t
have to depend on
Using money from the Innovation Fund, five representatives from each congregation
were then trained in tree nursery management. Additionally 10 nursery sites were the forest alone to
established to supply seedlings on church/mosque premises and conservation make a living.
became a regular topic during religious services.

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FORESTRY

In Tanzania, the Nou Joint Forest
Management Project is continuing to
support partnerships between 18 forest
communities and the Government of
Tanzania to conserve its fragile forests.
Teams made up of a cross section of local
people have carried out assessments of
forest resources supported by FARM-Africa,
so they can identify alternative livelihood
options and see where degradation is at
its worst. In 2005/6 18 were completed.

As in Ethiopia, the project encourages
the use of non-timber products to
support rural economies. Latest project
activities include mat weaving and exploring
the forest’s potential for eco-tourism,
the findings of which will be presented
to the Tanzania Tourist Board later this
year.This is a very exciting opportunity
to generate income for local people,
providing additional motivation for
them to protect their forests.

Promoting medicinal planting
Olani Edessa,Team Leader in Chilimo for FARM-Africa Ethiopia, applied to the
Innovation Fund to find out whether Prunus africana, an indigenous tree species
noted for its medicinal properties, could become an additional income earner for
forest communities.

His assessment, working with local communities, was carried out in the Autumn
of 2005 in Chilimo and Jibat Forests.Together, they produced ideas to support and
manage the depleted native plant population and decided to increase numbers by
establishing seedling nurseries.

The enthusiastic response led to a series of crop trials to determine the best
methods to produce and establish seedlings. Olani will now take this further and
investigate market opportunities for the new plants.

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MARKETING

Raising the stakes
Many African smallholders are unable Information and Communication
to generate enough income, despite Technologies are opening up the world
improvements in the productivity of their for small-scale farmers. An interesting
crops and livestock, simply because they example is the use of mobile phones in
have little access to markets. Magugu district to keep farmers in touch
with developments in the rice market. By
We want to strengthen the position of tapping into this network, farmers became
smallholders in the marketplace so they can aware of a potential rice shortage, which
get fair prices for their products, providing prompted one group of smallholders in the
much-needed income. area to keep back 130 tonnes of their rice
when the price was TSh 250-400 per kg.
As a result in 2005/6, we expanded When the shortage occurred four months
our work to link greater agricultural later, they jumped at the opportunity, took
productivity to existing and emerging their rice to market and were able to sell
markets.Through this, we hope to improve at TSh 800-1,000 per kg, more than
access to information about markets, doubling their profits.
develop relationships between farmers and
“Farmers are poor, traders and add value to basic produce In Ethiopia we have been working with
not because they through processing, for example, turning pastoralists to control the highly invasive
goats’ milk into cheese. plant Prosopis juliflora. Prosopis has taken
don’t produce, over the landscape and is so dense that it
but because they In Babati,Tanzania, FARM-Africa was cuts out sunlight and prevents anything
are not paid the awarded the 2005/2006 contract to from growing underneath. In partnership
implement part of the government’s with the Ethiopian Government, we set
market value of Agricultural Marketing Systems Development up four Prosopis charcoal producing
their produce due Programme. It aims to improve agricultural cooperatives. Previous government policy
to lack of market marketing in the country by helping had prevented people from producing and
smallholders to diversify production and selling charcoal to protect native forests.
information.” become more active in marketing. It also However, working with the cooperatives,
Smallholder Mr Abdi encourages traders to take their business we encouraged the government to permit
Mchana has been to rural areas. charcoal production from Prosopis. Once
working with FARM-Africa they were allowed to sell Prosopis charcoal
on the government As part of this work, FARM-Africa has at market, the cooperatives soon produced
programme in Tanzania. run training courses and workshops to thousands of sacks to sell at profit, and so
help farmers strengthen their marketing far, over EBirr 6.9 million (£431,600) has
power. For example, in the Magugu rice- been raised. Hundreds of acres of land are
growing district, we held a number of now being returned to grazing, safeguarding
workshops to increase communities’ areas for both native forest and agriculture.
awareness of marketing opportunities and
create links between smallholders and
buyers. Recognising women’s particular
aptitude for trading, we have made sure
that they have been involved in all the
activities, developing their marketing
skills yet further.

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MARKETING

“When I hear the
name FARM-Africa,
the boys appear in
my mind.They
would not have
been able to go
to school without
FARM-Africa’s
help.”
Fatuma Wako,
Mulude Women’s Group,
Maikona, Marsabit, Kenya

The Meru Goat Breeders’ Association, Trust and The Rockefeller Foundation,
originally set up by FARM-Africa, is now provides small grants to farmers working
a stand-alone organisation trading in pure in partnership with researchers and the
and cross-bred goats throughout Kenya and private sector to develop and share
East Africa.This initiative means that farmers new agricultural technologies.
linked to the association have better access
to markets to sell and trade their goats at a Coffee producers receive only a small
good price. By 2005 over 20,000 improved percentage of the final price of processed
goats had been bred and animal sales earned coffee. Recognising the potential of the global
members over KSh 8 million (£65,000). coffee market,Technoserve, a specialist
business development NGO in Tanzania,
The Meru Dairy Goat and Animal received a MATF grant to implement a post-
Healthcare Project, which closed in 2004, harvest processing and marketing initiative
increased the supply of goat milk in Meru. to improve the quality of Arabica coffee.
To make the most of this opportunity and Nine pulpery units were set up among
use the surplus milk most effectively, FARM- farmer groups in the southern highlands.The
Africa set up the Meru Goat Milk Marketing new technology eliminated the post-pulping
Project.This pioneering new project fermenting process, which was when the
developed a goat milk processing plant to quality of the coffee was lost. As a result, the
produce longer lasting milk. It will target coffee value has dramatically improved in the
specific customer sectors, particularly last two years and the income earned by
hospitals, as goat milk has been found to farmers increased by 60 per cent.
benefit patients with HIV/AIDS.
By promoting a market perspective
Developing opportunities to promote throughout our work, FARM-Africa can
and sell products is also a goal of many of make sure that farmers’ potential incomes
the projects being funded by FARM-Africa’s from crops and livestock extend far beyond
Maendeleo Agricultural Technology Fund the limits of their farms.
(MATF). MATF, supported by The Kilimo

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SUDAN

Starting to rebuild
At ten times the size of the UK, Sudan The project area is afflicted by both
is the largest country in Africa. As well as drought and flooding, and crops are
mineral reserves, including oil, Sudan has susceptible to pests and disease. Poor
a huge potential for agricultural production. families in the area often fail to produce
even half their annual food needs from
Sadly much of the country lies in ruin after crop production, so are forced to rely on
a 21-year civil war, which cost the lives of other sources, such as relief aid, to make
1.5 million people and displaced many more. up the shortfall.

On 9 January 2005,The Sudan Comprehensive Given the scarcity of clean water
Peace Accord was signed, bringing with it supplies, FARM-Africa has joined forces
opportunities to build a prosperous future, with local NGO SUPRAID to install up
“Everyone I met based on agricultural development. to ten water points, each serving 500-800
families. At the same time, FARM-Africa
was so enthusiastic FARM-Africa has responded quickly will make sure that 1,500 very vulnerable
that we were to the challenge of post-conflict Sudan. households get seeds and essential tools
coming to do On the very day of the peace agreement, such as hoes and ox ploughs.
our staff visited proposed project areas and
agricultural work, met with County Development Committee Farmers’ Extension Groups will be set
because until then, staff, senior government officials, other up to train communities in appropriate
no-one had really NGOs and groups of villagers.This was agricultural techniques, and female-headed
followed by a second assessment visit in households will be targeted to receive
helped them to April 2005, which included meetings with goats for breeding.
redevelop their officials of the Southern Peoples’ Liberation
livelihoods.” Movement and other organisations Training and drug kits will also be provided to
working in the area. build a Community Animal Health Network in
Edward Watkiss, Sudan, based on a model initiated in Tanzania
FARM-Africa Before the civil war, most of the population which led to 40 per cent fewer deaths in cattle
Programme Officer of Southern Sudan made a living from and 30 per cent fewer in goats and sheep.
subsistence crop production or cattle
herding. All agriculture was disrupted by Many project activities are being delivered
the war, resulting in depopulation and mass by our Mobile Outreach Camps, pioneered
displacement of people. Now, thousands with pastoralists in Ethiopia.Through these,
of people are moving back to their homes, support and services are available to
but there is little or no infrastructure for communities, as the camps are able to
them to re-start farming or to prevent the travel with them as they move around.
possibility of localised conflict over scarce
natural resources. While recognising the complex issues of
working in Southern Sudan, we know that
In January 2006, FARM-Africa’s Livelihoods our considerable experience with smallholder
and Recovery Project started, promoting farmers and herders in remote areas in East
farming in Northern Bahr El Ghazal and Africa will greatly improve the lives of those
Warab States in Southern Sudan.The project worst affected by the recent civil war. We
will work with around 24,000 rural households, look forward to the challenge of assisting
focusing on the most vulnerable and at-risk these communities as they embark on a
– those headed by women and returnees. more secure and hopeful future.

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As night falls
over Southern Sudan,
children begin the long
journey to collect water.
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PASTORALISM

For a pastoralist,
his livestock is his life.
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PASTORALISM

A better deal for pastoralists
Pastoralism is a traditional way of life We take a direct approach to tackling
that has adapted over time so that people poverty, inter-community conflict, natural
can survive in some of the harshest resource degradation and a weak policy
environments in Sub-Saharan Africa.There environment by helping pastoralist
are more than 12 million pastoralists in communities to plan and manage their
Kenya and Ethiopia alone, many living far own development. We focus on gender,
beyond the boundaries of mainstream encouraging women to get more involved
society, with high rates of poverty and poor in decision-making, and raising awareness
access to education and health services. of harmful traditional practices such as
Female Genital Mutilation.
FARM-Africa’s pastoralist programmes in
Ethiopia,Tanzania and Kenya aim to reduce We have also been working with
poverty and the effects of drought, improve pastoralists to clear the highly invasive plant
the way pastoralists manage their natural Prosopis juliflora.This plant forms a blanket
resources and make sure that their views over the land, making it impossible for other
are included in national and local policy. forage to grow. Part of the clearing process
includes turning Prosopis into charcoal
One of our approaches continues to that pastoralists can then sell for profit.
be the use of Mobile Outreach Camps. FARM-Africa helped pastoralists lobby the
These camps have proved to be an government to legalise the sale of this
extremely cost-effective way to deliver charcoal and so far, over EBirr 6.9 million
services, such as training and animal (£431,600) has been made and land has
health care, to a population that is widely been transformed for grazing and agriculture.
dispersed and constantly on the move.
The Northern Tanzania Pastoralist
The Ethiopia Pastoralist Programme is an Programme started in January 2006 after a
ambitious £1 million project, funded by Comic pilot stage in 2005. It is run in collaboration
Relief, CORDAID and DFID. It began in 2004 with the Tanzanian Government and other
and is set to run to 2008 in the Afar and agencies, funded by the European Union,
South Omo regions of Southern Ethiopia. DFID and FARM-Africa.

In this programme, we are working with The purpose of this four-year programme
a range of partners, including village and is to help the Barabaig in Hanang, Babati and
community organisations, as well as specialist Mbulu districts to improve the security of
NGOs, the World Bank and the Ethiopian their livelihoods as well as their access and
Government’s own Pastoral Community rights to land and other resources.
Development Programme.
The main vehicle for reaching the
In recent years, Afar and South Omo regions dispersed communities is, again, by way
have suffered from increasing droughts, none of the innovative Mobile Outreach Camps,
more so than in the current year. Additionally, tailored to the movement and migration
pastoralist influence on government and patterns of the Barabaig, to provide support
policy makers has been limited, making them in livestock production, animal health and
more vulnerable to poverty and leading to access to grazing and water points.
an increased dependence on humanitarian
aid even in the absence of drought.

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Livestock is the economic and cultural foundation of in living memory due to the failure of seasonal rains
a pastoralist’s way of life. In Tanzania, the problem of a for two successive years.This has lead to the widespread
chronic lack of state veterinary services is being addressed death of livestock, overgrazing, conflict over natural
by setting up animal health delivery systems to provide resources and increasing malnutrition.
training to at least 120 Community Animal Health Workers.
They will then work with village and district livestock We were able to react quickly to the crisis, helping
institutions to ensure animals are healthy and are treated farmers sell their animals to raise funds for food as well
correctly.There will also be a surveillance system to as helping transport essential water to isolated villages.
help the control of disease and a drug supply chain
throughout the region. Rather than adopting a ‘blanket coverage’ approach
to delivering aid, we asked communities to prioritise
FARM-Africa is also working with pastoralist communities their main emergency needs.This ensured that funding
in Marsabit and Moyale districts in Kenya.The area has from FARM-Africa and other agencies was used to
been experiencing the longest and most severe drought best effect.

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Esther Warini tends
to her family’s cattle at
home in Babati,Tanzania

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TRAINING AND ADVISORY UNITS

Spreading the word...
Following an increasing number of requests The Ethiopian TAU has already secured
from government and non-governmental a contract with the government’s Pastoralist
agencies for support and training. FARM- Community Development Project, funded
Africa has set up Training and Advisory Units by the World Bank, to conduct baseline
(TAUs) – core knowledge centres – from surveys and train field staff. A Training of
which we will share our knowledge and Trainers course for 133 government and
practical experience through training, project staff from the regions of Somali,
networking and publications. Afar, SNNPR and Oromiya has already
been completed as part of this work.

Other courses carried out by the
Ethiopian TAU include:
• A training course on Participatory
Rural Appraisal and planning for staff of
the international medical relief charity,
Merlin, and its partners;
• A course on planning and community
participation for representatives of
© Pieter Roos, 2004.

district cabinets and local development
committee members from Afambo
woreda (district) Afar region;
• A Training of Trainers course on
participatory processes for local
government staff from Afar and
Sharing our expertise in this way will
Southern regions.
help us to extend or ‘scale-up’ the impact
of our work with Africa’s smallholders and
pastoralists, bringing the benefits of over 20 In Kenya, the TAU focuses on the government’s
years’ experience to many more poor farming agriculture and livestock staff as well as field
communities in East and South Africa. staff of community-based associations and
local NGOs.
TAUs have already been set up in
Ethiopia, Kenya,Tanzania and Uganda. The current range of training topics
Each unit consists of a small team of offered by the Kenyan TAU includes farmer-
experts drawn from our country led participatory research, community
programmes with specialist knowledge participation, community forest management,
of local FARM-Africa projects. animal health, dairy goat improvement and
camel husbandry and health.
We believe that ‘Training of Trainers’ is
the most effective way of targeting our In 2005, the Kenyan TAU provided training
expertise. By building a skilled body of to Ugandan government extension staff
training staff in both government and non- working with farmers on dairy goat projects.
governmental institutions, FARM-Africa’s During the course, it was found that many
models and experiences can be shared advisors knew little about dairy goats even
more widely, both within and outside though increasing numbers of farmers in
their respective organisations. Uganda were keeping them.

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TRAINING AND ADVISORY UNITS

“The training was a rare opportunity to upgrade my
technical knowledge, given that knowledge acquired
during my professional training was not sufficient to
assist me in offering sound technical advice.”
Mr Libaako, a District Dairy Officer and course participant.
The TAU in Tanzania has concentrated on (ICTs) across the world, websites are
training Community Animal Health Workers becoming easier to access and Internet
to reach a nationally recognised standard use in Africa is on the rise. We have a user-
and has also offered courses in participatory friendly main website – www.farmafrica.org.uk
approaches and marketing. – providing access to project information,
resources and fundraising news, and several
Another key way we aim to influence project sites including www.maendeleo-atf.org,
others and extend our outreach to a wide www.cah-net.net and the newly redesigned
variety of audiences is through publications www.pfmp-farmsos.org.
and website work.
We have also made it easier for supporters
With the continual development of to buy FARM FRIENDS and read about our
Information and Communication Technologies beneficiaries through www.farmfriends.org.uk.

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TRAINING AND ADVISORY UNITS

...increasing the impact
In the last 18 months we have produced a • MATF Newsletters
variety of publications, all of which are available
• Moving Innovations from Research into
at www.farmafrica.org.uk/resources.cfm
Farmers’ Fields: 2nd MATF experience
• Land Reform and its Impact on Livelihoods: sharing workshop
Evidence from eight land reform groups in
• Sowing the Seeds – Supporting
the Northern Cape Province of South Africa
smallholder farmers in South Africa
• Supporting Land Reform in South Africa:
• Investing in Innovation – Supporting
Participatory planning experience in the
livelihoods and learning in Kenya
Northern Cape Province
• Pushing Back Poverty – Building livelihoods
• Soil Fertility Practices in Wolaita Zone,
with communities in Ethiopia
Southern Ethiopia: Learning from farmers
• Farming for Change – Supporting rural
• Key Experiences of Land Reform in the
development in Tanzania
Northern Cape Province of South Africa
• Reaping the Rewards – Improving incomes
• Unlocking Farmers’ Potential:
through technology in Uganda
Institutionalising farmer participatory
research and extension in Southern • 20th Anniversary Annual Review
Ethiopia
• Iddi and Esther DVD
• FARM-Africa Ethiopia: Planning for small-
scale irrigation intervention
Producing publications and websites
• Cattle in Southern Ethiopia: Participatory provides us with an opportunity to share
studies in Wolaita and Konso woredas our knowledge about what really works
with a global audience.This complements
• Goats: Unlocking their potential for
the more direct outreach work of the
Africa’s farmers
TAUs, and in this way, we hope that the
• Eastern Cape Smallholder Support Project innumerable benefits of our grass roots
– Assessment of the revolving fund projects can be shared by many more
African farming communities.
• CAHNET Newsletters

Reaching out through education
Following a successful application to FARM-Africa’s Innovation Fund, the FARM-
Africa communications team headed to Tanzania to film young children benefiting
from the Babati Agricultural and Environmental Education Project.

Designed to help young people in the UK understand the lives of children in
Tanzania, this documentary presents Iddi Khalfani and Esther Warini, as they go
about their daily activities. It explores their home lives and family situations, and
introduces an average school day as well as what the children enjoy doing in
their spare time.

A clip of this documentary can be viewed at www.farmafrica.org.uk/resources.cfm

16 FARM-Africa ANNUAL REVIEW
060612_farmafrica_text_aw 14/6/06 18:26 Page 17

A satisfied
dairy goat!
060612_farmafrica_text_aw 14/6/06 18:26 Page 18

MEASURING IMPACT

Putting in the groundwork
FARM-Africa is building on its work Tracking livestock banks in
with smallholder farmers through increased
involvement with regional and national
seven land reform groups in
governments to influence development the Northern Cape Province,
policies. South Africa.
To do this effectively we must be able to Livestock banks aimed to address the
demonstrate the impact of our programmes many constraints imposed by the South
on our beneficiaries. We need to generate African Government’s Land Reform
reliable data that can be presented to Programme.These problems include poor
governments, major donors and local implementation, no access to finance, weak
stakeholders. infrastructure, remoteness of land from
homesteads and the poor agricultural skills
To date we have conducted a staff training of the communities set to benefit from the
programme on baseline data collection in all land reform programme itself.
the countries we work in.This will provide
information on the social and economic The livestock banks were introduced as
conditions of individual households and part of FARM-Africa’s support to poor land
communities so that the results of our reform communities to increase their flocks
development programmes can be of sheep and goats.
assessed more accurately.
Under the scheme, seven banks were
FARM-Africa has always commissioned set up and the funds were converted to
independent assessors to verify the findings livestock. Most of the communities decided
of programmes, as it is important to promote that the most effective way of increasing
accountability and transparency. In this way, livestock numbers was to merge the
donors have a clear picture of how their individual flocks into one, so that they
money is used and what has been achieved. could be managed by a more skilled group
for a specific period, before loans would
The following are a small selection of be made to individual members.
projects that have recently been the subject
of in-depth assessments.

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MEASURING IMPACT

There were varying degrees of success, but It aimed to build on our previous work in
on average there was a 74 per cent increase the area by developing community-based
in the number of sheep and goats, enough initiatives to increase agricultural production
to provide a surplus of 900 animals which and encourage sustainable land use.
were sold for R272,418.
The external assessment concluded that
Although the banks are operated by the project had successfully achieved its
smallholders with little or no experience of goals, with particular emphasis on developing
livestock farming, they have so far shown an local partnerships that were then used to
economic return of 7.5 per cent per annum. develop and test community-based
initiatives.
“I am optimistic Evaluating the Babati Rural
about the future – Development Project,Tanzania Techniques introduced by the project
had also improved agricultural productivity
I will be able to This five-year project, which concluded resulting in increased harvests and numbers
grow much more in 2005, was run in collaboration with Babati of animals.
food so I can feed District Council, village communities, and
local NGOs and Community-Based
my family.” Organisations.
Mr Samson,
Farmers’ Research Group
060612_farmafrica_text_aw 14/6/06 18:27 Page 20

DELIVERING INPUTS

Stepping in to step up
Government services to smallholders are “I have to build on the foundations
in decline. Our response to this has been to laid by FARM-Africa. It is possible to
work with communities, local institutions and feed my family and make an income.
the private sector to explore new ways of I am very grateful to FARM-Africa
providing a wide range of inputs and services for giving me hope.”
needed by farmers. Where the state has
stepped back, we have moved forward, Goats and private
looking at novel ways of ensuring essentials, veterinary services
such as tools, access to credit and animal
health services, are supplied to poor Veterinary services in rural areas in
farming communities. Africa are sparse. Governments tend
to focus services in more lucrative areas,
Providing access to credit makes a lasting leaving rural populations dependent on a
difference to rural people, helping them to patchy private sector and vast numbers
invest in their farms and buy seeds, equipment, of livestock vulnerable to disease.
fertiliser and livestock. FARM-Africa’s approach
roots these micro-credit systems deep into For many years, FARM-Africa has been
the community, who is then responsible for working with communities and private
managing them and ensuring good sector vets to find long-term solutions
repayment rates. to the lack of animal health services. Our
approach has set up systems to supply
In South Africa’s Eastern Cape Province, goats to farmers and improve access to
Revolving Credit Funds were set up to help community animal healthcare.This model,
farmers put their community land use plans developed through the successful Meru
into action. Members of established Farmers’ Dairy Goat and Animal Healthcare Project
Associations each paid a joining fee of R10 in Kenya, has now been replicated in Sironko
and were then able to apply for loans, outlining and Mbale Districts, Uganda, and Kitui and
which specific activities they wanted to fund. Mwingi Districts in Kenya.
Farmers’ incomes have risen as a direct result,
as they have used the funds to set up and The Project established two community
manage profitable agricultural enterprises. associations, which have been operating
independently since 2003.The Meru Goat
In our new programme in Sudan, we are Breeders’ Association manages cross-breeding
providing blacksmiths with access to metal, of goats, improves marketing and conducts
so much-needed tools, like hoes and ox training, while the Meru Animal Health
ploughs, can be produced and sold, giving Workers’ Group includes private vets
people in Sudan the basics they need to and Animal Health Assistants and
regenerate their agriculture and rebuild provides training and access to credit
their lives after 21-years of civil war. for its members.

Mr Zalisile Njuze lives in Gugwini, Eastern The Meru Animal Health Workers’ Group
Cape, South Africa, with his eight children. is registered as a co-operative so it can
Following training from FARM-Africa, and a operate a savings and credit scheme. It has
loan from a revolving fund, he was able to raised money to start a revolving fund,
invest in seeds and tools to produce enough providing loans for members to buy animal
food to support his family. medicines and set up veterinary shops.

20 FARM-Africa ANNUAL REVIEW
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DELIVERING INPUTS

In 2005 the group secured a contract from replaced her cows with goats after discovering
the Central Artificial Insemination Station at that cows are less economical. Now she
Kabete to distribute semen in the Meru can pay her daughter’s school fees.
district.The group was able to invest 17.5
per cent of its capital into this enterprise. A group of women in the Meru South
Since the contract was signed, sales of doses District got together to keep goats after
have quadrupled and income generated is being trained by the local female farmer
over KSh1,000,000 (£8000). extension worker. Registered with the
Ministry of Social Services as a welfare
The Meru Goat Breeders’ Association is organisation, they can now purchase a
also raising the stakes, as it is involved in the female goat for cross-breeding for each
National Goat Task Force set up by FARM- member and they are even planning
Africa and the Governments of Kenya and a buck station.
Tanzania in January 2006.This initiative will
considerably improve the supply of cross- Toggenburg Breeders’
bred goats in both countries. Morris Kinyua Association, Babati,Tanzania
received training in goat management from
the Meru Goat Breeders’ Association even This farmer-led organisation was set up
though he lives outside their area. His first with funding from FARM-Africa, but is now
goat kidded in December 2003 and he now independent.There are now over 60 groups
has more than five goats.The value of his each with an average of 15 members. While
goats is currently KSh 36,000. its main source of income is the sale of
breeding stock, the association also uses
“I have opted to keep goats only. I want the farmer-to-farmer approach to share
to make my farm a factory for producing ideas and developments with members
goats.” and potential members.

Janet Muthoni improved her goat “Go buy a goat and do
management when she joined a local dairy
goat group. Since then, her farmer extension
some good!”
worker has linked her to a market that pays Kate Adie, writing in The Daily Telegraph,
higher prices than local brokers. She has June 2005, after a visit to Kenya.

Ewe can make a difference with FARM FRIENDS
FARM FRIENDS have made it fun and easy to help poor African families improve
their standard of living.

Give £10, £30 or £35 and, at the same time, someone you nominate gets an animal
toy and a pack explaining what you’ve done on their behalf.

Our projects across Africa have a significant impact on the lives of many poor
families and FARM FRIENDS has made a huge contribution to FARM-Africa’s income
from individual supporters, meaning we can help more people in Africa.

Support our work with a gift of a FARM FRIEND. Visit www.farmfriends.org.uk or
call 0845 270 4480.

ANNUAL REVIEW FARM-Africa 21
060612_farmafrica_text_aw 14/6/06 18:27 Page 22

INFLUENCE

Influencing policy
2005/6 has been an exciting period for the first of the UN’s Millennium Development
FARM-Africa, with the start of many new Goals. Depressingly, the World Bank forecasts
projects, more and more supporters and a that the number of poor living on less than
huge increase in our public profile. It has also US$1 a day is set to rise between now
been a time when Africa has been thrust and the target date 2015.
into the limelight, with key campaigns and
events raising awareness of the problems However, the external environment is
Africans face everyday. becoming more positive. In addition to
DFID’s agricultural policy, the governments
In the last 18 months, our work has helped of Africa have also made steps towards
over one million poor rural communities recognising agriculture as a central component
escape poverty, providing them with a in the fight against poverty. A specific
platform from which they can make the commitment has been made by the African
move towards prosperity.This proves that Union of Member States in its New
investment in small-scale agriculture works Partnership for Africa’s Development
and can form the basis for vibrant rural (NEPAD), providing a framework for
economies. We have taken the responsibility restoring agricultural growth, rural
to make sure that those walking the development and food security through
corridors of power recognise this its Comprehensive African Agriculture
experience and use evidence from our Development Programme.
programmes to make policies that keep
agriculture at the centre of the poverty Our contributions to the debate are
reduction agenda. numerous, notably our submission calling for
a commitment to smallholder agriculture to
Since the launch of our policy paper the Commission for Africa, chaired by UK
‘Reaching the Poor: A call to action’ in 2004, Prime Minister Tony Blair.The Commission’s
we have remained at the forefront of the report, published in 2005 ahead of the G8
campaign to get investment in smallholder Summit, proposed measures to achieve
agriculture back on the agenda.There have a strong and prosperous Africa.
been promising signs of progress over the
last 18 months, including DFID’s new We were also an active member of
agricultural policy ‘Growth and Poverty the MAKEPOVERTYHISTORY coalition,
Reduction: The role of agriculture’, launched mobilised to put pressure on the G8
in December 2005, but we will continue to Summit meeting. We used lessons from
lobby for delivery of the many commitments our successful programmes to lobby
that have been made by national governments governments and joined the international
and international agencies. rally which took place in Edinburgh in July.
The G8 Final Communiqué, which resulted
In particular, we highlighted the from that meeting (July 2005), also pledged
increasing gap between the promises made greater support to the African Union’s
internationally and the actions yet to be agricultural plan.
taken on agricultural investment.This must
be addressed if we are to succeed in
eradicating extreme poverty and hunger,

22 FARM-Africa ANNUAL REVIEW
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INFLUENCE

The lobby for small-scale agriculture This has led us to partner with The
is certainly gathering momentum and Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
our expertise has been increasingly to produce an analysis of our programme
acknowledged and called upon. work in Africa and how it has contributed
to changes in national government policy.
In October 2005, Dr Christie Peacock It will be published in 2006.
was invited to give a presentation on goats
and how they can assist African farmers As an organisation, FARM-Africa is
at the 7th African Union Conference of in a unique position: we work directly
Ministers Responsible for Animal Resources, with poor rural communities in Africa
which took place in Kigali, Rwanda. and engage with policy makers at national
and international levels. In this way, we
Our lobbying work has brought with it are a direct link between poor farmers
enhanced understanding of the constant and government ministers, ensuring
need to demonstrate our successes to that successes at the local level can
policy makers and provide them with be translated into meaningful
evidence to support their arguments. international policy.

© Aubrey Wade / Panos 2006

ANNUAL REVIEW FARM-Africa 23
060612_farmafrica_text_aw 14/6/06 18:27 Page 24

INFLUENCE AND ACHIEVEMENTS

Our supporters
“I am very happy to be associated with
FARM-Africa as it continues in its steady,
persistent quest to improve the standards
of living in rural Africa.They have the
© John Swannell

right ideas and the right attitude.”
Michael Palin

“Nearly two million of the poorest farmers
and herders in Africa have worked their
way out of poverty with the help of FARM-
Africa – please help others to benefit by

© Harpers Bazaar
giving them your support.”
Cherie Booth QC

“One of the biggest challenges for Africa
is to improve agricultural productivity without
increasing the cost of inputs.That is why I like
the innovative low-tech approach of FARM-
Africa and the way it helps poor communities
© IFPRI

by scaling-up its findings.”
Dr Peter Hazell
FARM-Africa board member,
former Director of Development Strategy and Governance, IFPRI

24 FARM-Africa ANNUAL REVIEW
FARM-Africa Board
FARM-Africa UK Board

The Rt Hon Lord De Ramsey DL (Chairman)
Dr Elizabeth Hopkins (Secretary and Deputy Chair)
Norman Coward (Treasurer)
Bernard Dewe Mathews CBE TD
Jan Bonde Nielsen
Dr Michael Collinson
Dr Peter Hazell
Shabanji Opukah
Janet Pugh OBE
Dr Paul Zuckerman

CEO

Dr Christie Peacock

FARM-South Africa Board

Blanche Pitt
Leonard Ngada
Zamani Jali
Prof Tim Bembridge
Dr Christie Peacock
Dr Elizabeth Hopkins
www.farmafrica.org.uk
060612_farmafrica_insert_aw 14/6/06 18:29 Page 1

Food and Agricultural Research Management Ltd
balance sheet as at 31 December 2005
2005 2004
£ £
Current assets
Tangible assets 54,333 9,757
Current assets 3,759,639 3,473,932
Less liabilities (718,176) (373,397)

Total net assets 3,095,796 3,110,292

Funds
Restricted funds (1) 1,885,067 2,150,780
Unrestricted funds:
Designated funds (2) – 324,498
General reserves (3) 1,210,729 635,014

3,095,796 3,110,292

Notes

(1) The restricted fund reserve represents funds received, or due to be received, from institutional donors and certain trusts.
These monies are governed by individual contracts and are earmarked to specific projects.They cannot in any circumstance be
used for any other purpose.

(2) The designated funds are funds set aside by the trustees out of unrestricted general funds for specific purposes or projects.

(3) The unrestricted general funds are those funds that are available, at the discretion of the trustees and in accordance with
our charitable objects, for any purpose.They are principally used to ensure the long-term sustainability of FARM-Africa. However,
when the level of reserves exceeds that currently approved by the trustees, with their approval, certain sums are being used to
fund direct programme activities overseas.

The summary is based on the financial accounts for the year ended 31 December 2005.

Report by the Trustees on summarised financial statements
The above summarised financial statements are extracted from the full trustees’ annual report and financial statements which
were approved by the trustees and signed on their behalf on 17 May 2006.The full financial statements, on which the auditors
Horwath Clark Whitehill LLP gave an unqualified audit report on 17 May 2006, will be submitted to the Charity Commission
in June 2006.

The auditors have confirmed to the trustees that, in their opinion, the summarised financial statements are consistent with the
full financial statements for the year ended 31 December 2005.

The summarised financial statements may not contain sufficient information to gain a complete understanding of the financial
affairs of the charity.The full trustees’ report, audit report and financial statements may be obtained from the Finance Director
at FARM-Africa, 9-10 Southampton Place, London WC1A 2EA.

Signed on behalf of the trustees

Norman Coward (Treasurer)
May 2006
060612_farmafrica_insert_aw 14/6/06 18:29 Page 2

Food and Agricultural Research Management Ltd statement of financial activities for the year
ended 31 December 2005
Income has been analysed differently in this statement to the annual accounts in order to reflect the source of funds more clearly.

2005 2004
£ £
Income
Income from individual supporters, appeals and other income 3,194,947 1,821,918
Grants from institutional donors and other NGOs 1,443,009 2,409,453
Income from trusts and corporate donations 2,055,046 1,616,263
Interest receivable and similar income 76,553 43,949

Total income 6,769,555 5,891,583

Expenditure
Fundraising and publicity costs (1,505,545) (909,720)
Grants payable to other institutions (906,490) (934,102)
Operational programmes (3,990,565) (2,918,494)
Support costs (322,831) (320,010)
Management and administration (58,620) (66,716)

Total expenditure 6,784,051 (5,149,042)

Net income/(outgoing) resource for the year (14,496) 742,541
Surplus funds brought forward at the beginning of the year 3,110,292 2,367,751
Surplus carried forward at the end of the year 3,095,796 3,110,292

We received £6.77 million in 2005.Where did we get our income from?

We spent £6.78 million in 2005.Where did this go?