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**Decision Analysis ! Oct 19
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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 1 of 22

Practice Midterm

Taken from

MS&E 252: Decision Analysis I

Midterm Examination 2001-2002

Please read the following instructions carefully!

1. This exam is closed book and closed notes, except for a single sheet (2 sides). You may use a

calculator and a foreign language dictionary. Please sit in alternate seats.

2. The answer sheet is stapled to the back of the exam. Please tear it off, print your name, SU

ID#, Section TA, and sign the Honor Code and exam agreement. Your exam will not be

graded unless you have printed your name and signed this statement.

3. There are three blank pages at the end for you to use as scratch paper. All exam questions

carry the same weight. Don’t spend too much time on any one question.

4. Read over each question carefully. You may not need all the information given.

5. At the end of the exam, please make sure your probability assignments are written clearly in

the appropriate boxes on the answer sheet. If the teaching team cannot read your probability

assignment we will use our best judgment as to what you meant to write down and this

decision will be final. You will not be allowed to rewrite your assignment after the exam has

been graded. You will be graded solely on the basis of your probability assignments. Turn

in your answer sheet ONLY.

6. The exam will end at 12:15 pm. You will have five minutes to turn in your answer sheet. In

fairness to all members of the class, we will not accept exams after 12:20 pm.

7. You will receive a photocopy of your answer sheet. You will have until 11:59 pm on Friday

November 9, 2001 to enter your responses on the web. Please select “Midterm” from the

pulldown menu on the answer sheet page.

8. In the spirit of the Honor Code, the Teaching Team will not remain in the classroom during

the exam. If you have questions please ask. Clarifications will be announced to the class.

9. Unless stated otherwise, the characters in the exam prefer more money to less, and follow the

Five Rules of Actional Thought. Do not make any additional assumptions.

10. If your probability assignments do not add up to one, the teaching team will normalize them.

If you leave boxes blank and your assignments add up to less than one, we will distribute the

remaining probability equally among the empty answer boxes. If your assignments add up to

more than one and you have left boxes blank, we will normalize the non-blank boxes and

place zeroes in the empty boxes. For example, the following assignments:

Question Number a b c d

i 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3

j 0.7

k 0.9 0.2

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 2 of 22

would become:

Question Number a b c d

i 0.214 0.357 0.214 0.214

j 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.1

k 0.82 0.18 0 0

If you leave a question blank it will be interpreted as an assignment of 0.25 across the board.

10. Your exam be will graded according to the following scoring function:

Question Score = )

4 ln

ln

1 ( *

15

100 p

+

where p is the probability you assign to the correct answer.

11. The graph and table below show the number of points you will receive per question

depending on the probability you assign to the correct answer.

12. Relax and make good decisions!

-17.50

-15.00

-12.50

-10.00

-7.50

-5.00

-2.50

0.00

2.50

5.00

7.50

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1

Probability Assigned to Correct Answer (p)

S

c

o

r

e

(

p

)

p Score

0 −∞

0.01 -15.48

0.05 -7.74

0.10 -4.41

0.15 -2.46

0.20 -1.07

0.25 0.00

0.30 0.88

0.35 1.62

0.40 2.26

0.45 2.83

0.50 3.33

0.55 3.79

0.60 4.21

0.65 4.60

0.70 4.95

0.75 5.28

0.80 5.59

0.85 5.89

0.90 6.16

0.95 6.42

1.00 6.67

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 3 of 22

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL INSTRUCTED TO DO SO!

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page + of 22

1. How many of the following are not among the Five Rules of Actional Thought?

I Order Rule

II Value Rule

III Consistency rule

IV Price Rule

a) 1

b) 2

c) 3

d) 4

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 5 of 22

2. There are two concerts you would like to go to next week: “Back Street Boys” and “New

Kids on the Block.” Your PIBPs for each of the concerts individually are $30 and $55

respectively. Later you find out that the tickets are only being sold in the following way:

I A bundle, both concerts for $85

II “Back Street Boys” for $35

Tickets you buy are for your own use only. (You cannot resell them or give them to a

friend.) What should you do?

a) Buy only the “Back Street boys” ticket

b) Buy the bundle for both concerts

c) You are indifferent between I and II

d) Cannot be determined from the information given

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 6 of 22

3. The ula-ula is a very rare bird that lives only on the island of Dia-Tia. Until recently, only

two types of ula-ula were known: the blue ula-ula, and the red ula-ula. Logically, the

scientific community used a perfectly clear distinction, “Color of the Ula-Ula” with two

degrees, “Blue” and “Red.”

A promising young researcher, A. Carver, recently discovered a third type of ula-ula in a

remote area of the island: the yellow ula-ula. Assuming that there is no mixed-color ula-

ula, why would it be a problem to use the distinction “Color of the Ula-Ula” with only

two degrees “Blue” and “Red”?

a) The degrees would be mutually exclusive, but not collectively exhaustive

b) The degrees would be collectively exhaustive, but not mutually exclusive

c) The degrees would be neither mutually exclusive nor collectively exhaustive

d) There is no problem: the degrees are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page / of 22

4. Which of the following statements represent a decision?

I After careful thought, Armando says he prefers vanilla ice cream to

chocolate ice cream.

II After careful thought, Ali buys a red Ferrari.

III After careful thought, Mathias goes for a run.

IV After careful thought, Andy claims there is a 50% chance that someone

will get a negative infinity on the midterm.

a) II only

b) I and II

c) II and III

d) III and IV

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 8 of 22

5. Given the choice between hiring The Clairvoyant and hiring The Wizard to help you with

a decision problem, which should you hire?

a) The Clairvoyant

b) The Wizard

c) You need more information about the decision problem and the fees charged by The

Clairvoyant and The Wizard before you can answer this question.

d) You should be indifferent between hiring The Clairvoyant and hiring The Wizard.

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 9 of 22

6. Consider the following relevance diagram.

How many of the following operations can be performed directly on the diagram above,

without having to make other arrow manipulations beforehand?

I Adding an arrow from D to C

II Adding an arrow from B to C

III Removing the arrow from A to B

IV Reversing the arrow from B to D

a) Only one of the above

b) Two of the above

c) Three of the above

d) None of the above

A

D

B

C

A

D

B

C

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 10 of 22

7. Consider the following relevance diagram.

After performing any necessary manipulations, how many of the following statements

must be true?

I A is relevant to B, given &

II C is irrelevant to D, given B and &

III We can reverse the arrow between B and D

a) Only one of the above

b) Two of the above

c) All three of the above

d) None of the above

A

D

B

C

A

D

B

C

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 11 of 22

8. DA Industries Inc., a risk-neutral corporation, is ready to launch its new product, the

“Gizmo.” Given the current market uncertainty, the CEO thinks three cases are possible:

• Gizmo could be a “Hit” and result in $200 million in profit (probability = 0.3)

• Gizmo could be “OK” and result in $30 million in profit (probability = 0.4)

• Gizmo could be a “Flop” and result in a $240 million loss (probability = 0.3)

A clairvoyant proposes the following deals:

I Full perfect information for $75 million

II A discounted offer: for $10 million, the Clairvoyant will reveal

whether Gizmo will be “OK” or not. However, if Gizmo is not

“OK,” the Clairvoyant will not reveal whether the product will be a

“Hit” or a “Flop.”

What should DA Industries Inc. do?

a) Buy neither I not II

b) Buy I only

c) Buy II only

d) Buy both I and II

NS8E 252 Handout #10

Decision Analysis ! Oct 19

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 12 of 22

9. Joanna is risk neutral, and last week was considering the decision situation depicted

below.

Joanna decided to go with Alternative 1. As it happened, uncertainty “X” turned out to be X

1

and Uncertainty “Y” turned out to be Y

2

. Which of the following is true?

a) Joanna made a good decision and had a good outcome

b) Joanna made a good decision, but had a bad outcome

c) Joanna made a bad decision, but had a good outcome

d) Joanna made a bad decision and had a bad outcome

0.25

0.75

$20

0.6

0.4

$20

$80

Alternative 1

Alternative 2

Uncertainty X Uncertainty Y

X

1

Y

1

Y

2

X

2

$30

Decision

0.25

0.75

$20

0.6

0.4

$20

$80

Alternative 1

Alternative 2

Uncertainty X Uncertainty Y

X

1

Y

1

Y

2

X

2

$30

Decision

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 13 of 22

10. Last year, Decisions Inc. had to choose between two projects. The “Agro” project was to

cost $50 million, and would return $80 million in one year. The “Bio” project was to cost

$40 million, would return $60 million in one year. The firm could not finance both

projects, and chose to invest in the Agro only.

Now, one year later, the Agro project has already cost $90 million, and has not yet

generated any return. The Agro manager is asking for $10 million in addition, and admits

there is just a 50% probability of generating $80 million, and a 50% probability of

generating only $20 million. The R&D budget is $50 million, and the Bio project is still

available.

Assume the firm is risk-neutral and there is no discounting. What should Decisions Inc.

do?

a) Invest in neither project

b) Invest the $10 additional million in Agro, but do not invest in Bio

c) Invest the $40 million in Bio, but do not invest further in Agro

d) Invest both the $10 million in Agro and the $40 million in Bio

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 1+ of 22

11. In Italy, one person in 400 carries a harmful virus. A diagnostic test can detect this virus

with 99% sensitivity; that is, for those who carry the virus, the probability of the test

reporting that the virus is present (a “positive” test result) is 99%. The specificity of the

test is also 99%; that is, for those who do not carry the virus, the probability of the test

reporting the virus is not present (a “negative” test result) is also 99%.

Valentina, an Italian, just received a “positive” test result. Which of the following is

closest to the probability you should assign to her carrying the virus?

a) 0.20

b) 0.50

c) 0.99

d) 0.999

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 15 of 22

12. Consider the certificate below:

Quincy, a risk-neutral decision maker, has just acquired this certificate for $190 at an

auction. A clairvoyant offers to reveal the spinner outcome before Quincy chooses his

deal. Which of the following is closest to the most Quincy should be willing to pay for

this information?

a) $10

b) $200

c) $450

d) Cannot be determined from the information given

BEARER MAY FIRST CHOOSE ONE OF THE

FOLLOWING DEALS, AND THEN SPIN THE SPINNER:

REDEEM AT ANYWIZARD B ANK BRANCH OFFICE

* VOID IF TRADED OR SOLD *

DEAL Y:

Black = Win $500

White = Win $0

DEAL X:

Black = Win $100

White = Win $400

BEARER MAY FIRST CHOOSE ONE OF THE

FOLLOWING DEALS, AND THEN SPIN THE SPINNER:

REDEEM AT ANYWIZARD B ANK BRANCH OFFICE

* VOID IF TRADED OR SOLD *

DEAL “Y”

Black = Win $500

White = Win $0

DEAL “X”

Black = Win $100

White = Win $400

50%

50%

BEARER MAY FIRST CHOOSE ONE OF THE

FOLLOWING DEALS, AND THEN SPIN THE SPINNER:

REDEEM AT ANYWIZARD B ANK BRANCH OFFICE

* VOID IF TRADED OR SOLD *

DEAL Y:

Black = Win $500

White = Win $0

DEAL X:

Black = Win $100

White = Win $400

BEARER MAY FIRST CHOOSE ONE OF THE

FOLLOWING DEALS, AND THEN SPIN THE SPINNER:

REDEEM AT ANYWIZARD B ANK BRANCH OFFICE

* VOID IF TRADED OR SOLD *

DEAL “Y”

Black = Win $500

White = Win $0

DEAL “X”

Black = Win $100

White = Win $400

50%

50%

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 16 of 22

A D

C B

A D

C B

A D

C B

A D

C B

13. Hubert has hired you to help him get control of a complex situation. You decide to draw

a relevance diagram for him.

There are 4 uncertainties, and Hubert tells you the following facts about them:

A is relevant to B, given &

B is relevant to C, given &

C is relevant to D, given &

However if he knew D, A would no longer be relevant to B.

Which of the following diagrams best describes this situation?

a) b)

c)

d) The situation cannot be logically represented with a relevance diagram

NS8E 252 Handout #10

Decision Analysis ! Oct 19

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 1/ of 22

14. Josephine is about to receive a $2000 check, and is contemplating using it to buy stock in

a company for a 1-year investment. In researching the firm, Josephine read an analyst

report claiming there is a 20% chance that it will acquire a major competitor. Josephine

further believes that the GNP growth in one year is relevant to the final stock price. She

draws the following tree:

Although risk-neutral, Josephine is somewhat baffled by the two uncertainties. Luckily,

Josephine’s friend Claire is a clairvoyant. How much should Josephine pay for joint

clairvoyance on both uncertainties?

a) $0

b) $60

c) The sum of the value of clairvoyance on the acquisition, plus the value of clairvoyance on

the GNP

d) None of the above

Buy Stock

0.2

0.8

Do Nothing

Acquisition

No Acquisition

GNP “Well”

GNP “Well”

GNP “Badly”

GNP “Badly”

0.2

0.8

0.7

0.3

$3000

$0

$1000

$2000

$2000

Buy Stock

0.2

0.8

Do Nothing

Acquisition

No Acquisition

GNP “Well”

GNP “Well”

GNP “Badly”

GNP “Badly”

0.2

0.8

0.7

0.3

$3000

$0

$1000

$2000

$2000

NS8E 252 Handout #10

Decision Analysis ! Oct 19

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 18 of 22

15. Corina has an unknown risk attitude and the following certain equivalents:

If presented with a choice between the following two deals, which would she prefer?

Deal I Deal II

a) Deal I

b) Deal II

c) Corina is indifferent between Deal I and Deal II

d) Cannot be determined from the information given

0.9

0.1

$30

$100 ~

0.4

0.6

$20

$80

$30 ~

$200

0.9

0.1

$30

$100 ~

0.4

0.6

$20

$80

$30 ~

$200

$200

$20

$80

0.5

0.4

0.1

$100

$20

$30

0.6

0.2

0.2

$100

$20

$30

0.6

0.2

0.2

$200

$20

$80

$100

$20

$30

0.6

0.2

0.2

$100

$20

$30

0.6

0.2

0.2

$100

$20

$30

0.6

0.2

0.2

NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 19 of 22

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NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 20 of 22

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NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 21 of 22

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NS8E 252 Handout #10

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NS8E 252 Practice Nidterm Page 22 of 22

MS&E 252: DECISION ANALYSIS I

Midterm Answer Sheet

Name (print) _________________________________________ SU ID# ________________

TA: (circle one) Ali John Andy Mathias Armando

In recognition and in the spirit of the Honor Code, I certify that I will neither receive nor give

unpermitted aid on this exam and that I will report, to the best of my ability, all Honor Code

violations observed. I also understand that obtaining a score of negative infinity on this exam

will result in failing this course. If I assign a zero probability to any answer, I declare that it is

done consciously and against the advice of the teaching team.

Signature ________________________________________ Date ______________

Question

Number

a b c d

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

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