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TIMO EIROLA, HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY JUKKA TUOMELA, UNIVERSITY OF JOENSUU KALLE RIIHIMAKI, TM SYSTEM FINLAND OY LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY MATTI HEILIO, HEIKKI HAARIO, LAPPEENRANTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

Contents 1. Introduction 2. NTU-method Solution for Pure Crossow Heat Exchanger Without Phase Change 3. Dierential equations 4. Discretization 5. Numerical results 6. Conclusions List of Symbols References 1 2 5 6 7 8 9 9

1. Introduction Basic idea of the heat exchanger is to transfer heat from the hot uid ow to the cold one. This phenomenon can be done with many various equipment and in this report it is presented how to evaluate heat recovery process in the plate type heat echanger where heat is recovered from the hot air ow to the cold air. Flowsheet and key factors for this type of crossow heat exchanger is presented in gure 1. Physically plate exchanger is a set of metal plates, which separate hot and cold uid ows from each other. General layout of the heat exchangers is presented in gure 2. The basic system is the heat exchanger where all uid ows remain in gas phase and no condensing occurs over the heat surfaces. This type of system can be dened with the basic energy equations. The special case is presented when the temperature of the heat surface decreases below the saturation temperature (dew-point) of the humid air. In this situation the vaporised water will condense and release its latent energy. To model this exchange process we need simultaneous modelling of energy and mass transfer.

1

Figure 2. Physical layout of the crossow heat exchanger 2. NTU-method Solution for Pure Crossflow Heat Exchanger Without Phase Change The NTU-method (number of transfer units) is one of the traditional solution methods for the heat exchanger problems. The main limitation of this method is that it is dicult to handle heat exchangers where heat transfer coecient changes remarkably over the heat surface. However in this report the main target is to develop a sucient model for dry surface heat

2

exchanger and NTU-solution is to be used as a reference point for the new solution method. The equations and routines for NTU-method are widely presented in many references like [Incropera 1990] and [VDI-Heat Atlas, 1993] and method is described here only generally. The general assumptions for the problem solution are as follows: (1) All physical properties for incoming uid ows are known. (2) Heat exchanger is insulated from its surroundings, in which case the only heat exchange is between hot and cold uids. (3) Conduction along the walls is negligible. (4) Potential and kinetic energy changes are negligible. (5) Fluid is owing only in one direction inside each heat exchanger tube or channel. (6) All uids enter the heat exchanger with a uniform velocity. (7) Overall heat transfer coecient changes over the heat surfaces are negligible. When there is no condensation or evaporation on the heat surfaces the total heat transfer rate of the cross-ow heat exchanger can be calculated with the equation (1) where f Tln Atot heat transfer rate correction factor to x the error got from the assumption for the log-mean-temperature overall heat transfer coecient log mean temperature dierence computed under the assumption of counter-ow conditions Total eective heat surface area [W] [-] [W/m2 K] [K] [m2 ] = f Tln Atot ,

out T1 = Tin T in T2 = Tout T The overall heat transfer coecient for the heat exchanger is dened: (3) where

3

1

1 hcold

1 hhot

hcold convection coecient between cold uid ow and heat surface hhot convection coecient between hot uid ow and heat surface s thickness of the heat exhanger wall conductivity of the heat exhanger wall

The correction factor f can be either checked from the dimensioning diagrams for the pure cross-ow heat exchanger (See gure 3) or to be calculated with the equations presented in [VDI Heat Atlas, p. Ca 7-9].

Figure 3. Dimensioning diagram for the pure crossow heat exchanger [VDI Heat Atlas, p. Ca 25] The dimensioning base for the sample system is: qm,cold Tcold,in xcold qm,hot Tcold,in xcold = 24, 3 kg/s = 30 o C = 20 g/kg = 28, 0 kg/s = 85 o C = 160 g/kg

Physical dimensions of the heat exchanger are presented in gure 4. The convection coecients are calculated with the correlations developed for the forced convection over the vertical plate [Incropera, Chapter 7.2].

4

Figure 4. Sample heat exchanger Calculated values for the current exchanger and operating conditions are: hcold hhot s = 56.6 = 42.9 = 20 = 0.5 10 3 = 24, 3 W/m2 K W/m2 K W/mK m W/m2 K

The total heat surface area for the current conguration is 816 m 2 . Using equation (1) and solving it iteratively we get the results: Tcold,out Thot,out f = 55, 2 o C = 67, 8 o C = 0.953 = 636, 6 kW

3. Differential equations Here we develop a numerical scheme based directly on the dierential equations govering the heat ows. In this case both uid ows are assumed to remain under the non-condensing conditions and due to that mass transfer is not to be modelled.

5

Consider rst the dierential equations of two dimensional heat conduction in two domains below and above the plate separating the air ows (4) ut = u v, u (u u ) , u t = u v , u ( u u) .

Here u ( u) is the temperature of the cold (hot) air, and v , v are the velocities of the ow. In the case of cross ows we take v = (vc , 0) , v = (0, vh ) . When the velocities are large and temperature dierences signicant, we can omit the horizontal diusion, i.e., set = = 0 . Then at the equilibrium we have vc ux (x, y ) + (u(x, y ) u (x, y )) = 0 , (5) vh u y (x, y ) + ( u(x, y ) u(x, y )) = 0 , in the domain (x, y ) (0, Lx ) (0, Ly ) . Further, the inow temperatures are constants, so we have the boundary conditions u(0, y ) = Tc , u (x, 0) = Th . The velocities v, v represent the heat capacity rates for the ows divided evenly over the heat exhanger plate surfaces. Factor is overall heat transfer coecient calculated according to the equation (3). Note Since u(0, y ) = Tc is known, we can solve u (0, y ) = e

y v h

Th +

vh

e

0

v (y ) h

u(0, ) d .

Then we nd easily the dew point ( u (0, ydew ) = Tdew ) on the x = 0 boundary: Th T c vh ln . ydew = Tdew Tc Similarly, since u (x, 0) is known, we could solve u(x, 0) explicitly. 4. Discretization Inside the rectangle we consider numerical approximation in a uniform grid consisting of points (i hx , j hy ) , i = 0, 1, . . . , m , j = 0, 1, . . . , n , where hx = Lx /m , hy = Ly /n . Let us denote ui,j u(i hx , j hy ) and similarly for u . Using central dier1 ) h , j h ) and ( i h , ences and averages at ( (i + 1 x y x (j + 2 ) hy ) we get the 2 equations ui+1,j ui,j ui+1,j + ui,j u i+1,j + u i,j vc =0, + hx 2 2 (6) u i,j +1 u i,j u i,j +1 + u i,j ui,j +1 + ui,j vh =0. + hy 2 2

6

3 At the inow boundaries we extrapolate: u ( 1 1,j 1 2,j and 2 hx , jhy ) 2 u 2u 3 1 1 u(ihx , 2 hy ) 2 ui,1 2 ui,2 . Another option would be to use the explicit solutions for u (0, y ) and u(x, 0) (see the note above) in the averages.

Matrix form = [ Let us write the unknowns into m n matrices: U = [ui,j ] , U ui,j ] . Then we get (7) where Dx =

1 1 1

= ( vc ) T c J x , vc D x U + M x U E x U hx 2

vh T T DT + MT vh U U U Ey = (h y y 2 ) T h Jy , y

.. .. , . .

1 1

Mx =

2 1 2

1 2

.. .. . .

1 2

1 2

Ex =

3

2 1 2

1 2 1 2

.. .. . .

1 2

1 2

and Jx has ones on the rst row, otherwise it is zero. Dy , My , Ey , Jy are obtained similarly (but they may be of dierent size). Vector form , u = . , i.e., Now, write the unknowns in long vectors: u = . . . . . u

m,n

u1,1 u2,1

u 1,1 u 2,1

) on top of each other. Then we get the the columns of U (respectively U linear system u = b, A u where A= I (vc Dx + Mx ) I Ex Ey I (vh Dy + My ) I ,

u m,n

and b is obtained by organizing the right hand sides of (7) accordingly. In matlab we set these up as sparse matrices using kron for the Kronecker product . Then we use the direct sparse solver.

5. Numerical results We apply the equations above with the same parameter values as in earlier solution with the NTU-method. Tc = 30o C, Lx = 4, vc = 121.4, m = 60, hx = Th = 85o C, Ly = 2, vh = 90.6, n = 40, hy =

7 1 15 , 1 20 .

The overall heat transfer coecient is = =24.3 W/m2 K. Figure 5 shows the temperature proles in the equilibrium solved with the above listed parameters.

80

70

60

50

40

30 2 1.5 1 2 0.5 0 0 1 3 4

Figure 5. Temperature for the hot and cold air stream across the heat exchanger slot At the outow boundaries we get the following average temperatures, which can be compared with the temperatures got from NTU-solution with the assumption of counter-ow conditions: Tcold,out = 55, 5o C Thot,out = 67, 9o C The power of the heat exchanger is = 632.3 kW. 6. Conclusions The model for cross-ow heat exchanger was developed and the results were compared with the results calculated with the traditional dimensioning method (NTU). The results were as follows: Parameter NTU-method Developed method Tcold,out 55.2 o C 55.5 o C Thot,out 67.8 o C 67.9 o C 636.6 kW 632.2 kW

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As seen above the model seems to work well under the specied operation conditions. The future actions to develop the model further is to focuse on the following areas: (1) Additional test runs for dierent heat exchanger geometries (2) Modelling of the material and uid properties (3) Heat and mass transfer model for the condensing conditions (4) Model for the multi-pass heat exchanger conguration List of Symbols Symbols f h q s v x Atot T Tln 1, 2 correction factor to x the error got from the assumption of counter-ow temperatures convection heat transfer coecient ow thickness velocity, heat capacity rate absolute water content of the air total eective heat surface area Temperature log mean temperature dierence conductivity overall heat transfer coecient power indices [-] [W/m2 K] [unit/s] [m] [J/Ks] [kg/kg] [m2 ] [K] [K] [W/mK] [W/m2 K] [W] []

Incropera, Frank P. & DeWitt, David P., 1990. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 3. p. Indiana. John Wiley & Sons. VDI-Heat Atlas, 1993. 6.p. D usseldorf. VDI-Verlag GmbH.

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