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Assignment # 01
Digital Signal Processing
Electronics Engineering

Farhan Nasir
University Of Engineering & Technology,Taxila

Chapter#01 Summary Signal: A variable that carries or contain information that can be transmit, displayed or on which we perform different operations. e.g.: speech, audio, video (TV), radar signal, image etc. In nature signals are analog in nature. In signal Processing digital signals are used to analyze, modify or extract information, to remove interferences or noise, to obtain spectrum of data etc. Advantages of Dsp are: Guaranteed Accuracy: Accuracy is measured by number of bits. Perfect Reproducibility: we can reproduce several copies of digital recording (documents etc) using Dsp techniques. Greater Flexibility: Dsp systems can be used to perform different tasks with changing hardware by only replacing the programming (code). Superior Performance: Dsp can be used to perform functions not possible with analog signal processing. No drift in performance with temperature or age. Disadvantages of Dsp: 1. Dsp design is expensive especially when large bandwidth signals are involved. And not fast enough and only process signals of moderate bandwidth. 2. Dsp design can be time consuming and in some cases almost impossible. Engineers with adequate knowledge of this subject are not available. Application Areas of Dsp: Optical Character Recognition (OCR). Face Recognition System Object Recognition Cruise Missile Calibration of non Over lapping Cameras Object Tracking(by multiple Cameras) Anticipation of abnormal activity Biomedical Related application QRS Extraction Automotive Safety Google Car Augmented Reality

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Special Effects :Shape and motion Capture Space Exploration(Vision for robotics) Medical Imaging And many more Key Dsp Operations: Convolution: Multiply, Addition, Shifting, Flipping (Analysis & Noise Removal) Correlation: Multiply, Addition, Shifting, No Flipping (Similarity & Noise Removal) Two forms of correlation are (1) cross correlation (2) auto correlation : Measure of similarities between two signals e.g. detection of radar return signal, pattern matching, delay measurements etc : It involves only one signal and provides information about structure of the signal in the time domain. Useful in identifying hidden periodicities. Filtering: It is one of the operations perform on signals. It is the convolution of signal and filter impulse response in time domain.(low pass, high pass, band pass etc) where h(k),k=0,1,2,..N1 are coefficients of filters and X(n) and Y(n) are inputs and outputs. Transforms: Discrete transforms permit us to show discrete time signal in frequency domain or conversion between time and frequency domain. The spectrum of signal is obtained by decomposing it into its frequency components. Modulation: The signals are modulated to match their characteristics with transmission media (channel) too minimize signal distortion. In this process properties of signal varies with high frequency carrier. Three most common digital modulation techniques. ASK (amplitude shift keying), PSK (phase shift keying), FSK (frequency shift keying) Digital Signal Processors: Dsp systems characterized by real time operation, high throughput rate, algorithms requiring intensive arithmetic operations. heavy flow of data through processors. Architectures of standard microprocessors are unsuited to Dsp operations. New Dsp processors must have features at least: 1. Built in hardware multiplier to allow fast multiplication 2. Separate memories and buses for program and data that permits overlap of instruction fetch and execute. 3. Cycle saving instruction for branching or looping. 4. Very fast speed 5. Pipelining which reduce instruction time and instruction speed. Real World Applications of Dsp: Dsp is the core of new digital products and applications. Products for large consumer market (Mobile phone, digital TV, Video games)

Medicine & health Care (Xrays, cardiology & brain mapping system) Digital Audio (CD players, Audio Mixers, electronic music) Personal computer system (modem, sound card, video conferencing) Audio Applications of Dsp: Digital Audio Mixing Speech Recognition & Synthesis Compact Disc digital Audio system Telecommunication application of Dsp: Digital cellular Telephony Settop box for digital television reception Adaptive telephone echo cancellation Biomedical Applications of Dsp: Fetal ECG monitoring Closed loop controlled anaesthesia