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Sensors and Actuators B 97 (2004) 122131

CMOS readout circuitry for ISFET microsystems


Arkadiy Morgenshtein a, , Liby Sudakov-Boreysha a , Uri Dinnar a , Claudio G. Jakobson a , Yael Nemirovsky b
a b

Bio-Medical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa, Israel Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa, Israel

Received 10 April 2003; received in revised form 1 August 2003; accepted 5 August 2003

Abstract CIMP (complementary ISFET/MOSFET pair)a novel technique for implementation of readout interface in CMOS ISFET-based microsystems is described. This design technique allows body effect elimination, temperature compensation and design simplicity, while maintaining constant biasing of ISFET sensor. Several congurations of CIMP interface provide applicability for array-type sensors. The general concept presentation is followed by a detailed analysis, test results showing 0.1% accuracy and layout implementations in a standard 1.6 m CMOS technology. 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: CMOS technology; ISFET; MOSFET

1. Introduction The monolithic implementation of biomedical sensors on-chip together with signal processing electronics for improved diagnostics and therapy triggers numerous research efforts. Several fabrication processes of ISFET devices in standard CMOS technology were recently presented [1,2], offering a basis for future development of miniature implantable device for in vivo monitoring of pH and pCO2 changes in biological uids [3]. In order to obtain a measuring signal, the ISFET has to be associated with an analog interface circuit. Although the existing readout techniques are widely used in discrete system applications [4,5]; because of the body effect concerns, only few interfaces are suitable for integration in a microsystem in CMOS technology. In CMOS-based integrations n-channel ISFETs are mostly used due to low drift and high mobility properties [7] and p-type substrate is globally and constantly grounded. The body effect in n-channel sensors is limiting the possibilities of source biasing in ISFET, which is a fundamental component in currently presented interfaces for monolithic ISFET integration [810]. Thus, the applicability of the existing interfaces in standard CMOS technology is problematic and development of new design techniques for ISFET readout is essential.
Corresponding author. E-mail address: arkadiy@tx.technion.ac.il (A. Morgenshtein).

This paper proposes a new design technique for readout interface, which allows solving the problems of applicability in CMOS microsystemscomplementary ISFET/MOSFET pair (CIMP). Basic circuit principles and various congurations of CIMP interface are presented followed by a detailed analysis, layout, simulations and test results.

2. Body effect in FETs The threshold voltage of eld-effect transistor in CMOS technology is expressed as QB VT = VFB (1) + 2 F Cox where VFB is the at-band voltage, QB is the depletion charge in the silicon and F is the Fermi potential [4]. The regular assumption for an ISFET is that VFB also contains terms, which reect the interfaces between the liquid and the gate oxide, and the liquid and the reference electrode; which makes VFB sensitive to the changes of pH. Terms QB , F and Cox are assumed to be constant and uninuenced by pH or operation point changes. However, even if not inuenced by pH, the threshold voltage VT is not constant with respect to the voltage difference VBS between the substrate and the source of the MOS transistor. When an on-chip implementation of ISFET together with related readout interfaces is considered, it is important to

0925-4005/$ see front matter 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2003.08.007

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remember, that all devices comprising an MOS device are made on a common substrate. In a standard CMOS technology, it is a p-type substrate with an equal voltage of 0 V. In most of the existing readout techniques, the source of ISFET is not constantly biased, and is used as an internal node of the circuit, or a point of feedback application. When VBS is not 0, the expression for the threshold voltage is modied to incorporate VBS as follows: 2Si q NA (2B + |VBS |) VT =VFB +2B + (2) Cox where B is the bulk potential. This expression is critical, because of the inuence of VBS on the value of VT in integrated implementations of ISFET. The term of VBS , if getting a non-zero value (which will happen in most of the on-chip realizations of known readout interfaces) causes a parasitic change in VT that is not due to the change of pH level. The error that occurs in case of body effect is signicant, and depending on technology and operation point, the threshold shift can reach more than a half of the initial VT .

3. Gate-feedback CIMP 3.1. Circuit structure A novel CIMP technique, that was developed in order to solve the CMOS integrability problems, contains several circuit congurations based on similar concept. The principle can be best described by assuming a CMOS pair with not-shorted gates (this structure is also known as Quasi-Inverter), in which one of the MOSFETs (p- or n-channel transistor) replaced by an identical ISFET (Fig. 1). Both devices can operate either in saturation or linear regime. An operational amplier is used to supply a direct or indirect feedback signal from drain to gate of the devices, compensating the changes in VT of the ISFET as a result of pH changes. The direct feedback conguration presented in Fig. 1a consists of a complementary pair of n-channel MOSFET and p-channel ISFET. The operational amplier fulls a double function: (1) preserving a constant Vds bias in n-ISFET and p-MOSFET; (2) applying the feedback signal to the reference electrode. In direct feedback conguration the drain current of ISFET remains constant. It is important to notice that the body effect problem does not exists in CIMP, due to constant VBS = 0 bias of ISFET. Fig. 1b shows an indirect feedback conguration of CIMP. The presented circuit based on n-channel ISFET, and can be easily rebuilt for p-channel device. The reference electrode is constantly biased, while the feedback is applied to the gate of MOSFET. In this conguration the drain current is not constant, but Vds does not change during the operation. The body effect elimination is also guaranteed.

Fig. 1. Direct (a) and indirect (b) CIMP circuits with gate feedback.

3.2. Operational analysis CIMP interface can be represented by a small-signal model (Fig. 2) for further analysis. The example in Fig. 2 is for indirect feedback conguration. The parameters of amplier and transistor at the saturation region are g0 = gds = Id gm = 2 |Id | (1 + Vds ) (3) (4)

with as a channel length modulation parameter.

Vout rin Vin Vg


G D D G

AvVin

gm pVgsp

r0p
S

gm nVgs n
S

r0n

Fig. 2. Small-signal model of indirect CIMP interface.

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Fluctuations of pH are converted into changes in channel resistance of ISFET, causing feedback response and change of the output voltage applied to the complementary MOSFET gate. This causes change in channel resistance of MOSFET, until the input node of operational amplier adjusted to match the set point dened by V1 . The steps of operation process can be seen using the small-signal model: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Assume an increase in ISFETs VT due to pH change. As a result, drain current Id decreases. The transconductance g0 decreases. The voltage distribution in the drain area changes and Vd falls. The input voltage Vin of the op-amp increases. The amplication causes a rising gate voltage Vg in the p-channel device. As a result, drain current Id increases. The transconductance g0 increases. The voltage distribution in the drain changes and Vd rises (back to initial value).

Assuming an ideal amplier with innite input resistance (rin ) the currents are equal, which as follows: Idp = Idn , a (Vgp Vsp VTp ) = (Vgn Vsn VTn ) (9) In case of direct feedback circuit, the desired dependence is of Vgn on VTn : Vgn = K1 = Vgp Vsp VTp + Vsn + VTn a Vgp Vsp VTp + Vsn = constant a (10) (11) (12)

Vgn = K1 + VTn

The following expression denes the response of direct feedback system: Vgn = VTn (direct) (13)

The schematic description of process ow is VTp Id Id g0 g0 Vd Vin Vd Vgp

In case of indirect feedback circuit, the desired dependence is of Vgp on VTn : Vgp = K2 = Vgn Vsn VT + Vsp + VTp n a a Vgn Vsn + VTp + Vsp = constant a (14) (15) (16)

3.3. Sensitivity and applicability analysis As was mentioned, the CIMP conguration can successfully work in both saturation and linear regimes of FETs. In order to obtain a linear response curve of output voltage to pH, it is essential to obtain the same operational regime in both ISFET and MOSFET. The calculations of system response to pH changes in various operating modes and congurations are presented in the following section. 3.3.1. Saturation region In order to see the dependence of Vout (Vgp ) on VTp we should use the Shockley model [6], where the drain current Id in saturation is expressed as follows:
1 Id = 2 (Vgs VT )2 (1 + Vds )

VT Vgp = K2 n a VT Vgp = n a

The response of indirect feedback system is dened by (indirect) (17)

Finally, the dependencies of Vout on pH changes in saturation region are described by the following expressions: Vout = Vout = Vgn = Vgp = VTn (pH) VTn (pH) a (direct) (indirect) (18) (19)

(5)

We dene a constant value A as


1 A(,,Vds ) = 2 (1 + Vds )

The amplication factor in indirect conguration can approach unity by proper sizing or biasing of the devices. 3.3.2. Linear region In linear region the current of the FET is dened by Shockley model as Id = Vgs VT Vds 2 (1 + Vds ) (20)

(6)

while the constant A is dened for each device depending on its dimensions and process parameters. The ratio of p-channel and n-channel constants is dened by Ap(,,Vds ) a= (7) An(,,Vds ) This allows rewriting the equations of the drain current: Idp = a An (Vgp Vsp VTp )2 , Idn = An (Vgn Vsn VTn )2 (8)

Here the equation of currents is written using (7) as Idp = Idn , a Vgp VTp Vdp + Vsp 2 = Vgn VTn Vdn + Vsn 2 (21)

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D

125

Id

gm n VTn gm nVgsn

r0n g0n
S

Gate-feedback CIMP applicability in potential REFET implementations seems to be problematic: although the circuit will respond accurately for simultaneous threshold voltage uctuations in both FETs in the complementary pair, the practical application is not possible because of the need in two separate gate contacts, meaning two separate reference electrodes for ISFET and REFET.

Fig. 3. Updated small-signal model of ISFET in indirect CIMP circuit.

The nal expressions of output voltage dependency on pH uctuations are dened by Vout = Vout = Vgn = Vgp = VTn (pH) VTn (pH) a (direct) (indirect) (22) (23)

4. Source-feedback CIMP 4.1. Circuit structure and operation The basic structure of source-feedback CIMP interface is shown in Fig. 4. The feedback from operational amplier output is applied to the source of one of the FETs in the complementary pair. Because of the constraint of body effect, only p-type ISFET is suitable for application of direct feedback, and n-type ISFET for indirect feedback. This limitation does not exist if the circuit is implemented in applications with discrete sensors. The operational principle is based on maintaining the equilibrium of serial transconductances of ISFET and MOSFET in the complementary pair. Assuming a high-impedance input of the attached operational amplier, the currents owing through the FETs are equal and dene the ratio of transconductances, basing on the set-point voltage applied to one of the inputs of operational amplier.

As can be seen, in case of linear operation regime, the control of the amplication factor of system response by transistors sizing is linear. 3.3.3. Small signal model of ISFET In order to understand the aforementioned operation process of CIMP system, it is important to see how do the changes in Id and g0 occur in small-signal model as a result of the change in operating point in the large-signal model, that were described in (18) and (19). Fig. 3 shows the updated model of ISFET, which considers some additional instances, related to the change in VT . The decrease in Id is represented by a current source in opposite direction to gm . In order to nd the dependence of Id on VT we perform a following operation: gm(VT ) = Id = gm VT VT (24) (25)

Id = gm

The change in Id manifests itself in the change of g0 , which can be found by g0 = gm VT (26) (27)

g0 Id = = gm VT VT

As a result, the transconductance that is added to a smallsignal model is negative. 3.3.4. Applicability analysis The simplicity and the low-area implementation of the presented CIMP circuit, makes it suitable for applications in various elds of miniaturized medical equipment and biotelemetry devices. The indirect conguration of CIMP interface can be used in array-type sensor, due to the fact that the reference electrode of the ISFET is constantly biased. However, the direct gate feedback cannot serve as basis for array-sensor, because the condition of constant and common reference is not preserved during its operation.

Fig. 4. Indirect (a) and direct (b) CIMP circuits with source feedback.

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When a uctuation occurs in pH level, it results in a change of threshold voltage of the ISFET. The transconductance of the ISFET is changed, causing a shift in the voltage in the internal node between the FETs, which is connected to the input of the amplier. Due to the difference of potentials in its inputs, the amplier changes the output voltage, which is attached through feedback to the source of the MOSFET (indirect feedback), or the ISFET itself (direct feedback). This alteration of the source potential inuences the transconductance of the feedback device and compensates the change which occurred in the ISFET, by restoring the ratio of transconductances and bringing the internal node back to set point dened by V1 . 4.2. Sensitivity and applicability analysis The sensitivity analysis of source feedback is based on equalization of sourcedrain currents in both ISFET and MOSFET. It is important to notice that the desired linear response in source feedback conguration is obtained only when both devices are operating in saturation regime. Using the saturation current expression from (5), it can be seen that the sensitivity of source feedback application is similar to gate feedback, while the only difference is that the uctuations in threshold voltage of ISFET are compensated by changes in source potential instead of gate potential. Assuming that the channel shortening effect is negligible (which is justied for relatively low Vds close to the linear region), it can be seen that the source-threshold voltage dependence is opposite to gate-threshold voltage dependence that was described in (18) and (19). Thus, the nal expressions of source-feedback CIMP sensitivity are Vout = Vout = Vsn = VTn (pH) Vsp = VTn (pH) a (direct) (indirect) (28)

in the manner that prevents transitions between linear and saturation regimes.

5. Feedback stability analysis Among the various parameters inuencing the performance of the ISFET with any electronic interface, like drift, temperature and light sensitivity (which are mostly fabrication-driven), the major interface-driven parameter is the feedback stability. The stability analysis of the feedback is important when ac operation of the stand-alone circuit is considered, or if the circuit is a part of multiple-sensor array. The parameters of stability analysis in feedback are derived from ac small signal models of its components by loop transmission (LT) calculations. 5.1. Gate-feedback CIMP Fig. 5 shows the small signal ac representation of indirect gate feedback in CIMP structure. In this conguration the rst-order effects have to be accounted, as parasitic capacitances and transconductance of the FET and the applied operational amplier. The ISFET sensor, the attached electrode and electrolyte are not part of the feedback, therefore their small signal models are not considered in the LT calculations for obtaining the feedback stability. The loop transmission is derived by solving a system of Kirchoff equations related to the sources in the feedback circuit. Four elements are found as follows: I11 = I22 = Iin Vin Iout Vout Iout Vin Iin Vout
Vout =0

= g0 + gin + s C = gout + 2 s C

(30)

(31)

(29) A= B=

Vin =0

These expressions describe the operation in saturation region. As can be seen in case of indirect feedback, the amplication factor can be controlled by relative sizing of the complementary transistors. If the transistors are operating in ohmic regime, the resulting dependence of source voltage in threshold voltage is not linear, but square according to (20). The design and implementation complexity of the source-feedback CIMP circuit is analogous to the gatefeedback conguration, supplying it with the same set of advantages in miniaturized applications. Moreover, both direct and indirect congurations of source-feedback CIMP can be used in array-type sensor and in potential REFET-based implementations because the gates of the sensors can be biased by a common reference electrode. As was shown above, the dependence of Vout on VpH is not the same in the saturation and linear regions (this is correct for both source and gate-feedback congurations). In order to avoid non-uniform behavior of the readouts, the dynamic range and the operation point of the transistors should be set

Vout =0

= (A gout + s C) = (gm + s C)

(32)

(33)

Vin =0

Fig. 5. Small signal model for ac response of gate feedback in CIMP.

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The LT expression is derived using the four elements: LT = (A gout + s C)(gm + s C) AB = I11 I22 (g0 + gin + s C)(gout + 2 s C) (34) As can be seen, the gate-feedback conguration of CIMP contains two poles and two zeros. In all the critic points the stability is preserved. The dominant zero is dependent on gm and inuences the bandwidth of the feedback. For typical device characteristics and technology parameters, the frequency of the dominant zero is beyond the bandwidth of the common operational amplier, thus not limiting the total circuit bandwidth. Moreover, due to the fact that the dominant zero is inuenced by gm , it can be adjusted by changing the ratio of gate areas of the complementary FETs. 5.2. Source-feedback CIMP The feedback to the source of FET can be represented by a small-signal model, as shown in Fig. 6. Characterization of this feedback is performed basing on LT calculations, as follows: I11 = I22 = A= Iin Vin Iout Vout Iout Vin
Vout =0

Fig. 6. Small-signal model of source-feedback CIMP conguration.

B=

Iin Vout AB I11 I22

Vin =0

= (gm + g0 )

(38)

LT = =

(A gout + g0 )(gm + g0 ) (g0 + gin + s C)(gout + s C + g0 gm )

(39)

= g0 + gin + s C = gout + s C + g0 gm

(35) (36) (37)

The LT expression points on two stable poles, which dene a bandwidth limited by the operational amplier in use, rather than by the FET. 5.3. Practical example The experiments that are presented in this paper were performed on a test chip, fabricated in 1.6 m CMOS technology in MOSIS. Following device parameters were derived

Vin =0

Vout =0

= (A gout + g0 )

Fig. 7. Simulation results of indirect CIMP conguration.

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Fig. 8. Simulation results of direct CIMP conguration.

from T2AH MOSIS fabrication run data and from our laboratory measurements: Vth n = 0.57 V, Vth p = 0.97 V, = 0.6 1/V, Cgs n = Cgd n = 172 pF, Cgs p = Cgd p = 213 pF, 0 = 0.7 V, Kn = 35.3 A/V2 , Kp = 11.6 A/V2 . The operational amplier OP77 was used in feedback conguration, with following specications: Rout op = 60 , Aop min = 2000, Rin op = 60 M and BW = 600 kHz.

Assuming the operation point of Vgs = 3 V and dimensional ratio of the FETs W/L = 10, the following results were obtained for the CIMP circuits: Gate feedback: Two poles at 1 GHz and at 5 MHz, and zero at 5 MHz. Source feedback: Two poles at 1 GHz and at 10 MHz.

Fig. 9. Transient simulations of indirect gate feedback with various area ratios.

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In both cases the feedback bandwidth is limited by the operational amplier to 600 kHz (less then any of the derived values), thus the circuit will be stable within these frequencies. Note that for typical pH uctuation frequency of up to several Hz in biological uids, this bandwidth of stability is suitable for both stand-alone and sensor-array applications of the ISFET.

to the changes in MOSFET, and thus rejected as common mode signals. The verication of temperature compensation was performed using a simulation with sweep temperature parameter, for source feedback conguration. The temperature was changed in range of 2040 C and the resulting changes in output voltage were measured. A sensitivity of 0.1 mV/ C was observed, which correlates to less than 0.002 pH/ C sensitivity in pH measurement. 6.2. Layout implementation In order to estimate the feasibility of CIMP implementation in miniaturized measurement equipment, a realistic layout of both feedback congurations was carried out. The layout implementations of indirect and direct CIMP congurations in 1.6 m CMOS technology are presented in Fig. 10, for gate-feedback circuit. The layout area of 840/860 m makes each circuit suitable for implementation in a common catheter with 1 mm diameter for clinical applications or any kind of miniaturized systems. In the direct

6. Tests and layout implementations 6.1. Simulation results The basic validation of the new readout techniques has to be focused on the proper operation of the electronic interfaces designated for attachment to the ISFET sensors. Thus, it was performed by simulation and measurement of the readout circuit, while the sensors are substituted by MOSFET devices with similar properties. The operation of both CIMP congurations was veried by simulations, showing a consistent and accurate response in good correlation with the theory. Some of the results are presented in this Section. Cadence design tool was used to implement the schematic circuits. Test simulations were performed by SpectreS simulator, using 1.6 m technology models. An n-channel 300/30 m ISFET sensor was emulated by MOSFET device and was used in simulation with 400 mV amplitude voltage source applied to its gate, to imitate the changes in pH. The simulations were performed at 1500 Hz frequencies, to assure operation in different conditions of pH uctuations. The results of the simulation of indirect CIMP circuit can be seen in Fig. 7. An accuracy of <0.1% (about 0.007 pH for 58 mV/pH sensitivity) was observed, by measuring the ratio between the pH-caused VT uctuations and the resulted Vout (the second graph). In this case a unity was achieved according to (19), by sizing the PMOS length to 5.6 m (a compensation of conductivity difference compared to NMOS) and slight accuracy uctuations followed the change of VT and dened the bounds of VT /Vout ratio on 0.9991.001. Same set of simulations was performed using a direct interface, showing the same accuracy. The results can be seen in Fig. 8, where the last graph presents the values of Vd that is constant at 2.5 V set point that was dened by V1 in the test setup. In order to demonstrate the inuence of sizing on circuit operation, a series of transient simulation was carried out, while changing the ratio factor b between the gate areas of n-type ISFET and p-type MOSFET. The results are presented in Fig. 9. An important feature of CIMP interface is the ability of temperature compensation. It becomes possible due to the complementary structure, which involves two FETs with similar electroconductive properties and similar response to temperature uctuations. Thus, the transconductance changes caused by temperature in ISFET sensors are similar

Fig. 10. Layout of direct (a) and indirect (b) CIMP congurations.

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Fig. 11. Measured response of indirect gate-feedback CIMP to 300 mVpp sinus uctuations at 2 kHz.

Fig. 12. Measured response of direct source-feedback CIMP to 180 mVpp triangle uctuations at 2 kHz.

CIMP circuit an additional Vg input is needed, to supply a gate voltage to MOSFET. 6.3. Test results The nal verication of the CIMP readout interface was performed in laboratory, using a 4 mm 4 mm test chip in 1.6 m CMOS technology with MOSFET devices and an ultra-low leakage operational amplier OP77. The pH uctuations were emulated by applying gate signals of various forms and frequencies to n-type MOSFET. The output signal was plotted together with the input for indirect and direct congurations in Figs. 11 and 12. As can be seen from the plots, ne response is obtained for various input signals and feedback congurations of CIMP. The measurements were accurate for a wide range of operation voltages and with various FETs.

7. Conclusions A novel CIMP technique for monolithic implementation was presented, followed by a detailed analysis. Simulation results showing 0.1% accuracy were presented. Layout implementation of CIMP interface was also performed in 1.6 m CMOS technology. The developed structures allow solution of the body-effect problems, and obtain operation at constant Vds and/or Ids . Simple implementation on 840/860 m area makes the design compatible for in vivo monitoring of pH changes in biological uids. Temperature compensation is maintained in the readout interface due to its complementary structure. The presented structure is suitable for array-type sensors in both congurations of source feedback and in indirect gate feedback. An implementation of combined ISFET/ REFET conguration is potentially possible in source

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feedback circuit, although stipulated by future development of robust REFET device with electrical and thermal characteristics close to ISFET and MOSFET. The operation of CIMP interfaces was veried by measurements of the fabricated test chip, showing an accurate operation and good response for various input signals. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Women Division/ATS MEP XXV Project. References
[1] B. Palan, F.V. Santos, B. Courtois, M. Husak, Fundamental noise limits of ISFET-based microsystems, Eurosensors 13 (1999) 169172. [2] C.G. Jakobson, M. Feinsod, U. Dinnar, Y. Nemirovsky, Ion sensitive eld effect transistors in standard CMOS fabricated by post-processing, IEEE Sens. J. 2 (4) (2002). [3] P. Bergveld, A. Sibbald, Analytical and biomedical applications of ion-selective eld effect transistors, Comprehens. Anal. Chem. 12 (1988). [4] P. Bergveld, Biosens. Biomed. Sens. (1999). [5] S. Casans, D. Ramirez, A.E. Navarro, Circuit provides constant current for ISFETs/MEMFETs, EDN Access, Design Ideas (2000). [6] P.E. Allen, D.R. Holberg, CMOS analog circuit design, HRW (1987) 124127. [7] Y.L. Chin, J.C. Chou, T.P. Sun, W.Y. Chung, S.K. Hsiung, A novel pH sensitive ISFEFT with on chip sensing using CMOS standard process, Sens. Actuators B 76 (2001) 582593. [8] Y.L. Chin, J.C. Chou, T.P. Sun, H.K. Liao, W.Y. Chung, S.K. Hsiung, A novel SnO2 /Al discrete gate ISFET pH sensor with CMOS standard process, Sens. Actuators B 75 (2001) 3642. [9] B. Palan, F.V. Santos, J.M. Karam, B. Courtois, M. Husak, New ISFET sensor interface circuit for biomedical applications, Sens. Actuators B 57 (1999) 6368. [10] K. Tukkineami, Study of CHEMFET interface electronics, MIXDES (2002).

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, in 1995, and the electronic engineer degree from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1992. His PhD research focused on CMOS compatible ISFET microsystems, noise and drift in ISFETs, as well as the application of ISFETs for brain monitoring at the cerebro-spinal uid. The research was granted the Eshkol scholarship from the Israeli Ministry of Science and the support of the Women Division/ATS MEP XXV Project. His MSc thesis was on low noise CMOS analog channels for X-ray detection. His research contributed to the space X-ray detection experiment at the Technion satellite TECHSAT, including VLSI electronics that successfully operated on space. In 2001 he joined Bluebird Optical MEMS Ltd. and is now working on the development of MEMS and microsystems. Other elds of research and expertise are VLSI analog electronics, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), readout interfaces for CMOS compatible sensors, and noise phenomena in MOSFETs. Yael Nemirovsky (IEEE Fellow, IEE Fellow 99) received the BSc degree in 1966 and DSc degree in 1971 from the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa. She joined the Department of Electrical Engineering in Technion in 1980. Prior to that she was a research scientist specializing in microelectronics in Rafael, a national R&D organization. She graduated from Technion in chemistry and her DSc thesis was in electrochemistry. For over 20 years she has been active in electro-optical devices in IIVI compound semiconductors and additional advanced semiconductor materials as well as infrared focal plane arrays. She has been involved in growth, processing, device design and modeling of detectors as well as VLSI circuits. She has a well-equipped MOCVD laboratory for growth of heterostructures, extensive facilities for device and interfaces processing and characterization. She has been a principal investigator in large funded research programs that ended in prototype infrared detectors and systems that were transferred to industry. Twice she was the head of the microelectronics research center of the Department of Electrical Engineering at Technion. Currently her research focuses on micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS), CMOS compatible micro machining and microsystems implemented in CMOS technology and integrated with silicon devices. She has published over 130 papers in the open literature, has led several patents and a large number of classied reports. She has collaborated with the microelectronics industry as a consultant in sensors and VLSI technology and has been quite active in national and international conferences. She has supervised over 40 graduate students for MSc and DSc. She is an IEEE Fellow, an IEE Fellow and has been the chairperson of the Israeli Association for Crystal Growth. Currently she is the chairperson of the microelectronics and photonics section of URSI. In the past she received awards as a best teacher at Technion, a national award of high esteemThe Award for the Security of Israel and a Technion award for Novel Applied Research. She has received The Kidron Foundation award for Innovative Applied Research (a US$ 100,000 grant for research program). She is a distinguished lecturer of the electron device society of IEEE. Uri Dinnar was born in Israel in 1939. He received the BSc degree in medical engineering from the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, in 1964 and the MSc and PhD degrees in engineering and applied physics from Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1967 and 1969, respectively. He is currently Head of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Technion, where he is also the Director of the Laboratory of Biological Fluid Dynamics and holds the Henry Goldberg chair of Biomedical Engineering. He joined the Technion in 1969 and was appointed Full Professor with the Department of Biomedical Engineering in 1990. He held visiting appointments at the College of Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, from 1976 to 1978, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, in 1983, University of Houston, Houston, TX, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, in 1991, and the City College of New Your in 1999. His research interests are in cardiovascular uid dynamics, blood ow in bones, and micro-devices for physiological monitoring.

Biographies
Arkadiy Morgenshtein was born in Cishinev, Moldova, in 1977. He received the BSc degree in electrical engineering from Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, in 1999. He is currently working on his MSc degree in biomedical engineering at Technion. He has been a Teaching and Research Assistant at Electrical Engineering Department, Technion since 1999. His research interests include low-power design techniques for digital circuits, biosensor microsystems for biotelemetry, and digital cameras design in CMOS technology. Liby Sudakov-Boreysha received her BSc degree in electrical engineering from Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, in 2001. She is currently working on his MSc degree in biomedical engineering at Technion. She is a Teaching and Research Assistant at Electrical Engineering Department, Technion. She works at IBM Haifa Research Labs as a Staff Member since 2000. Her research interests include analog and mixed signals circuits, biosensor microsystems for brain monitoring, and wideband linear ampliers. Claudio G. Jakobson was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1966. He received the PhD degree from the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, in 2001, the MSc degree in electrical engineering from the