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CONSTANTS

R=
Mair =
Psc =
Tsc =

10.73
28.97
14.65
60

(psi*ft3)/(lb-mol*Ro)
lb/lb-mol
psia
oF
520 oR

n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane
n-Nonane
n-Decane
Ethylene
Propene
Acetylene
Carbon Dioxide
Hydrogen Sulfide
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrogen
Water

Convert Gas Gravity in separator to Gas Gravity in reservoir (need to account for liquids):
FIRST METHOD IS VIA SEPARATOR EQUATIONS - SECOND IS VIA YIELD EQNS
1 stage separator
2 or 3 stages: dry gas sg at end of 1st, liq sg at end of last
API, cond =
50
a3
-0.0001785
y,o =
0.779614
a2
1.25

M,o =
Vo [scf/stb]

144.8385
717.5929 scf/stb

rho,g b4 sep=
Rg scf/stb =
yg,sp =
rho,l =

0.108294 lbm/ft3
3333.333
0.65
48.64793 lbm/ft3

y,g res =

1.417462

a1
9.13875382
Rs
11.4048379
ps1
55
ts1
520
Vo [scf/stb] 728.997688

y,g res =

EQUATION USING YIELD TO DETERMINE y,g res


YIELD =
y,g res =

300 STB/MMSCF
1.421

FOR COND WELLS WHERE THERE IS 2 PHASE IN RES:


above Dew Point - liq only - same as wet gas above
below dew point - dual phase
need to use two-phase z-factor:
when c7+ > 4%. Knowing sg of flowing gas
yc7+ =
pr
tr
z,tp =
Rt =
Bt (total) =

11.14%
1.81 ?
1.55 ?
0.66847
4062.331
43.93421 cf/stb

1.418556

scf/stb
psia
oR
scf/stb

gas in sol after 1st stg

T=
P=

100 oF
1216 psi

560 oR
yg,corr
for nonHC

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS FOR PURE COMPONENTS


MOLECULAR
COMPOUND

FORMULA

WEIGHT

Pc

Tc

psia

Vc
ft3/lb

Zc

yi

Methane

16.04

667.8

343

0.0091

0.2884

0.786

Ethane

30.07

707.8

549.8

0.0788

0.2843

0.07

Propane

44.10

616.3

665.7

0.0737

0.2804

0.01

n-Butane

10

58.12

550.7

765.3

0.0702

0.2736

0.002

iso-Butane

10

58.12

529.1

734.7

0.0724

0.2824

0.006

n-Pentane

12

72.15

488.6

845.4

0.0675

0.2623

0.003

iso-Pentane

12

72.15

490.4

828.8

0.0679

0.2701

0.001

neo-Pentane

12

72.15

464

781.11

0.0674

0.2537

n-Hexane

14

86.18

436.9

913.4

0.0688

0.2643

0.001

n-Heptane

16

100.20

396.8

972.5

0.0691

0.2633

0.001

n-Octane

18

114.23

360.6

1023.9

0.069

0.2587

n-Nonane

20

128.26

332

1070.3

0.0684

0.2536

n-Decane

10

22

142.28

304

1111.8

0.0679

0.2462

Ethylene

28.05

729.8

508.6

0.0737

0.2765

Propene

42.08

669

656.9

0.0689

0.2752

Acetylene

26.04

890.4

555.3

0.0695

0.2704

Carbon Dioxide

44.01

1071

547.6

0.0342

0.2742

0.05

Hydrogen Sulfide

34.08

1306

672.4

0.0459

0.2831

0.02

Sulfur Dioxide

64.06

1145

775.5

0.0306

0.2697

Nitrogen

28.13

493

227.3

0.0514

0.2916

0.05

Water

18.02

3208

1165

0.05

0.235

0
1

yhc =
A=
B=
e=

gas in sol after 1st stg

yg

Ppr
0.70

Tpr
1.81

1.55

0.63

112.4068 K
5.464533 X
1.307093 Y

0.70

yiMWi

yiPci

yiTci

12.61

524.89

269.60

2.10

49.55

38.49

0.44

6.16

6.66

0.12

1.10

1.53

0.35

3.17

4.41

0.22

1.47

2.54

0.07

0.49

0.83

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.09

0.44

0.91

0.10

0.40

0.97

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.20

53.55

27.38

0.68

26.12

13.45

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.41

24.65

11.37

0.00
691.99
663.29
N/A
N/A
680.04
1759.02
672.72
667.64
N/A
0.88 #VALUE!
0.07 #VALUE!
0.02
11.3768

0.00
378.12
377.59
N/A
N/A
367.06
-40.86
366.01
362.08
N/A
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

0.00
20.38

Z (graph) rhog [lb/ft3] B


mu,g [cp]
0.830
4.43 0.010815 0.013354

mu,g [cp]
0.014715
124.1448
0.007225
1.367877
6.324058
0.07109
added higher MW particles

SUTTON: HIGH MW, RICH IN C7+, MINOR C02 AND N2, NO H2S. 0.57<YG<1.68
G&G: H2S < 3%, N2<5%
STANDING: Low MW, No non-HCs
ELSHARKAWY: BEST FOR CONDENSATE
AHMED
GENERAL - NGPE
CONDENSATE - NGPE - HIGH GAS GRAV DUE TO HIGH C7+
STANDING - NGPE - INTERMEDIATE - PURE HC
STANDING CORRECTED FOR NON HC
STANDING - MODIFIED FOR Z-CHART

Rsw, scf/stb
R,brine
9.967435084 7.689965
K
SIG
Y
X
rho,g

3.73583
0.005420337
-2.43143E-07

added higher MW particles

H2S. 0.57<YG<1.68

50000 S, ppm

Hall-Yarborough (1973) z-factor calculation


Hall, K.R. & Yarborough, L. (1973): A New Euation of State for Z-factor Calculations,
The Oil and Gas Journal, June 18, 82-92
Molecular weight oxygen, MO
Molecular weight sulfur, MS
Molecular weight, carbon, MC
Molecular weight, hydrogen, MH
Molecular weight air, MA
Components
Methan, CH4
Ethan, C2H6
Propan, C3H8
i-Butane, C4H10
n-Butane, C4H10
i-Pentane C5H12
n-Pentane C5H12
Hexane C6H14
Heptane C7H16
Hydogen, H2
Nitrogen, N2
Oxygen, O2
Carbon dioxid, CO2
Hydrogensulfid, H2S
Dihydrogenoksid, H2O
Total molecular weight gas

Spesific gravity
Temperature
Pressure
Method used (1, 2 or 3)

15.9994
32.07
12.01
1.01
28.97

g/mole
g/mole
g/mole
g/mole
g/mole

Molecular weight Mole fraction


g/mole
yi
16.042
0.786
30.07
0.07
44.10
0.01
58.12
0.006
58.12
0.002
72.15
0.001
72.15
0.003
86.18
0.001
100.21
0.001
2.02
0
28.01
0.05
32.00
0
44.01
0.05
34.08
0.02
18.02
0
Mole fraction
1.0000
20.38 g/mole

0.70
o
37.78 C
8.384E+06 Pa

Tci Pci
Pci
K
psia Mpa
190 667.8 4.61
305
708 4.88
370
616 4.25
408
529 3.65
425
551 3.80
460
491 3.39
469
489 3.37
507
437 3.01
540
397 2.74
33
187 1.29
126
492 3.39
154
731 5.04
304 1071 7.38
373 1306 9.01
647 3199 22.06

310.93 K

Compressebility factor, z

0.8298

Method 1 (Properties from composition, Key's rule)


Pseudo critical temperature
TPc (oil field units)
TPc (SI units)

378.13 oR
209.74 K

Pseudo critical pressure


PPc (oil field units)

Tci
oR
343
549.8
665.7
734.7
765
829
845
913
972
60
227.4
277.8
547.6
672.4
1165

TPc Ti y i
PPc Pi y i

691.90 psia

Method
pseudo

PPc (SI units)

4.8E+6 Pa

Method 2 (Sutton's correlations)


Pseudo critical temperature
TPc (oil field units)
TPc (SI units)

378.43 oR
209.90 K

Pseudo critical pressure


PPc (oil field units)
PPc (SI units)

662.87 psia
4.6E+6 Pa

Method 3 (Standing's correlation)


Pseudo critical temperature
TPc (oil field units)
TPc (SI units)

390.42 oR
216.57 K

Pseudo critical pressure


PPc (oil field units)
PPc (SI units)

Pseudo reduced properties


TPR
PPR

TPc 169.2 + 349

PPc = 756.8 - 13

If we have a "dry" gas, SG

T pcHC 168 325 gHC

p pcHC 667 15,0 gHC


659.00 psia
4.5E+6 Pa

T pr

T
T pc

Ppr

p
p pc

1.482
1.757

Hall-Yarborough
t
a
Reduced-density parameter, y0

0.675
0.037
0.01

t 1

a 0,061

T pr

Continue until f(y) < 1x10^(-5)


Iteration 1
f(y)
Derivated of f(y), df(y)
Newton Rapson: Reduced- density parameter, y1
Compressebility factor, z

f y 0 ap p

-54.5E-3
0.945
0.067670896
0.9486

df y 1 4 y

dy

p pr
y

Iteration 2

yi 1 yi

f y
f ' y

f(y)
Derivated of f(y), df(y)
Newton Rapson: Reduced-density parameter y2
Compressebility factor, z

Iteration 3
fy
Derivated of f(y), df(y)
Newton Rapson: Reduced-desity parameter y3
Compressebility factor, z

Iteration 4
f(y)
Derivated of f(y), df(y)
Newton Rapson: Reduced-density parameter y4
Compressebility factor, z

-7.0E-3
0.731
0.077219952
0.8313

-95.9E-6
0.712
0.077
0.8298

-16.3E-9
0.712
0.077
0.8298

Iteration 5
f(y)
Derivated of f(y), df(y)
Newton Rapson: Reduced-density parameter y4
Compressebility factor, z

-478.6E-18
0.712
0.077
0.8298

yi 1 yi

f y
f ' y

Instructions
1.
2.
3.
4.

Insert mole fractions.


Insert temperature [C] and pressure [Pa].
Choose which pseudo method you will use.
Read your z-factor beneath.

(Insert values in cells where the font color is red)

Convertion
oC -> K
atm -> bar
cp -> Pas
bar -> Pa
m m -> m
oR -> K
psig -> bar
oF -> oR

273.15
1.01325
1.00E-03
1.00E+05
1.00E-03
0.56
0.07
460

Methods for finding pseudo critical pressure and


pseudo critical temperature
1. Properties from composition, Key's rule (Preferred choice).
Newton-Rapson iteration.
2. Sutton's correlations
3. Standing's correlations

c 169.2 + 349.5 g - 74,0 g

Pc = 756.8 - 131,0 g - 3.6 g

If we have a "wet" gas, SG 0,75

we have a "dry" gas, SG < 0,75

168 325 gHC 12,5 gHC

T pcHC 187 330 gHC 71,5 gHC

667 15,0 gHC 37,5 gHC

p pcHC 706 51,7 gHC 11,1 gHC

a 0,06125t e 1, 21t
2

f y 0 ap pr

y y2 y3 y4

1 y

14,76t 9,76t 2 4,58t 3 y 2 90,7t 242,2t 2 42,4t 3 y 2,18 2,82t

df y 1 4 y 4 y 2 4 y 3 y 4

29,52t 19,52t 2 9,16t 3 y 2,18 2,82t 90,7t 242,2t 2 42,4t 3 y 1,18 2,82t
dy
1 y 4

42,4t 3 y 2,18 2,82t

242,2t 2 42,4t 3 y 1,18 2,82t

Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

2500

ac
ft

Swi =
T=
yg =
pi =
cw=

123 F
0.64
1422 psia

PRODUCTION
Pressure z
p/z
Gp
psia
MMSCF
1661 0.8287
2004
166
1406 0.8456
1663
293
1135 0.8687
1307
406
847 0.8841
958
490
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
0
0 #DIV/0!
0
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

VOLUMETRIC:
P/Z PLOT:
F/EG PLOT:

2000
p/z, psia

Temp
Specific Gravity
Initial Press.
Water Compress

GENERAL INPUT
Ad =
h=

0 MMSCF
13000 MMSCF
13000 MMSCF

1500
1000
500

CALCULATED
Bg
F/Eg
cf/scf
MMscfD
0.008232 #DIV/0!
0.009923 1719.085
0.012628 1166.195
0.017222 938.6614
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

0
0

2000
1800
1600

F/Eg, MMscf

Drainage Area
Net Pay
Porosity
Initial W.Sat

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

Second plot leads to less error fo


First plot - masks any forms of de

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Gp, MMscf

2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

10000

20000

30000

40000

Gp, MMscf

Second plot leads to less error for VOLUMETRIC DEPLETIONS


First plot - masks any forms of depletion, the F/Eg plot gives more insight

50000

Res. Press
Res. Boundary
Gross
Net
Permeability
WB Radius
SGU gas
Skin
Res. Temp
Porosity
Compressibilit
Water Sat.
Fract Cond
Half Length

pr =
re =
hg =
hn =
k=
rw =
yg =
S=
T=
phi =
ct =
Sw =
kf*w =
xf =

3500
1589
24
24
0.13625
0.34
0.7
0
190
0.11
0.00024
0.35
582
369
25

psia
ft
ft
ft
md
ft

oF
/psi

Gas Viscosity
Velocity Coeff
Non-D Coeff.

650

Linear flow ends


P.Radial Begins
PSS time start
DIM FRAC COND =
Eff WB Radius

mD-ft
ft
P2 VALID UP TO 3000 PSI
pwf
p2
psia
qsc McfD
3500
0
3000
73
2000
185
1000
252
500
269
0
275

0.020578
1.00
2.5528E+11
0.0003548
0.01872
44626.0538
2.06440509
10
257
419
11.5760424
0.44
162.36
312110

cp
1/ft
D/MSCF

Find u at
2177120.07
100.3209782

1750 psi

days
days
days in transient flow
from figure 4.24 based on cfd
ft

p2-nonD m(p)
qsc McfD
qsc McfD qsc McfD
0
7.82E+08
0
73
5.61E+08
102
183
3.10E+08
217
249
7.70E+07
324
266
1.87E+07
351
271
0.00E+00
359

0
101
215
319
345
353

0
709.5342
1511.796
2258.874
2445.585
2505.504

P2 method
4000
3500
3000
pwf, psia

ug =
z=
Beta =
D
ug, avg=
agp =
bgp =
tL,end =
t,pr beg=
tpss =
cfd =
rw'/xf =
rw' =
agt =

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

100

200
Flow Rate, MSCFD

300

B
1212678
1212678
5118.7
5118.7
111
108.03

p2 Darcy
p2 non-Darcy
m(p) Darcy
m(p) non-Darcy
400

C
1915.7
1915.7
355.9
355.9
0
0

0.878
0.878
1.4871
1.4871
1.9365
1.9635

CALCULATING BHP FROM WHP GIVEN RATE:


Single Phase water or Undersaturated oil: No Viscosity/Density changes with T,P
WHP =
2534 PSI
Depth
8500 ft
Visc of water
uw =
1 cp
Water Rate
qw
1680 bpd
1.17 bpm
roughness
e=
0.00005 ft
70 bph
Angle (+90 up)
theta =
90 degrees
Inside Diameter
ID =
3.826 in
Density
pg =
62.5 lbm/ft3
1500
Superficial Velocity
8500
v=
1.37 ft/sec
Re =
40548.49 TURBULENT IF > 2100
TURBULENT
f=
0.022316
0.127134 psf/ft
friction
first term
neglect kinetic
second term
62.5 psf/ft
gravity
third term
dp/dl=
0.434911 psi/ft
TOTAL
3696.741 Delta P from 1 to 2
if (-) then WHP < BHP
BHP =
6231 psi
7.504422
3689.236
IN SINGLE PHASE, BOTH FORCES ACT DOWNWARD WHEN PRODUCING AT
INCREASING RATES, SO VLP CURVE ALWAYS INCREASES.

0
10000
20000
50000
90000
95000

7840
7920
8064
9115
11811
12251

15000
10000
5000
0
0

20000

40000

60000

80000 100000

Dry Gas: WHP from BHP while f


Qg, MMcf/d
Depth
BHP =
ID =
e=
T=
SGU =
Theta =
Assumption =
P avg =
z (from INPUT) =
ug (from INPUT) =
Nre =
f=
C2 =
c1/c2 =
WHP =

Dry Gas: WHP from BHP while flowing:


Qg, MMcf/d

10
5000
2500
2.91
0.00005
110
0.7
90

Assumption =

Input Yellow boxes and Green assumption


Find z and ug
Use WHP at bottom as new assumption
Type in Green Box.
Find new z and ug
repeat til convergence.

ft
psi
inches
ft
F

1500 psi WHP

z (from INPUT) =
ug (from INPUT) =

2000
0.754 Type Pavg, T, and SGU into I&R sheet
0.0174 Type Pavg, T, and SGU into I&R sheet
2765493.542
0.0142
3.05389E-05

843753.6892
2094
30
1500
0.29
8500
1.67
1.96

40

50
0.72
4.12
4.84

60
1
5.69
6.69

70
1.32
7.5
8.82

BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURE FROM SURFACE


Pwh =
1050 psig
Depth =
9500 ft
yg =
0.72
T_bar =
100 oF
Theta =
90 degrees (going up)
Assume
p1 (bhp) =
pbar =
z=

1383 psig
1216.5 psig
0.83

C2 =
p1 =

2.9E-05
1384

p2

find p1 (BHP)

Guess
Pick

Make this new guess, find new z, til convergence

1383.589 alternative equation


This is how gas lift injection at bottom is calculated
0.15 psi/ft

BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURE FROM SURFACE


Pwh =
1050 psig
Depth =
9500 ft
yg =
0.72
T_bar =
100 oF
Theta =
90 degrees (going up)
Assume
p1 (bhp) =
pbar =
z=

1383 psig
1216.5 psig
0.83

C2 =
p1 =

2.9E-05
1384

p2

find p1 (BHP)

Guess
Pick

Make this new guess, find new z, til convergence

1383.589 alternative equation


This is how gas lift injection at bottom is calculated
0.15 psi/ft

GAS FLOWRATE THROUGH AN ORIFICE


yg =
Valve Size =
P1, upstream, Pinj at depth =
P2, downstream, Flowing Prod Press =
T1, Inj gas temp at depth, TgD =

0.72
0.375
950
900
140

inch
psig
psig
deg F

qgsc =

1311.23593 Equation for chart, need to correct for Temp

CgT =

1.13068277

qga =

1159.68507 Mscf/d

Rate for new choke size:


Orifice size =
qgc =

0.5 inch
2331.08609 Mscf/D

GENERAL INPUT
Ground Elevation =

438 ft
Laredo, TX is 438 ft
San Antonio, TX is 650 ft
GAS PROPERTIES
WH Flow Rate
qsc =
2.5 MMscfD
Gas Specific Grav.
yg =
0.72
SUCTION SIDE
Suct Pressure
ps =
35 psig
Suct Temp
Ts =
100 oF
Z-factor
zs =
0.72
DISCHARGE SIDE
Disch Pressure
pd =
1100 psig
Z-factor
zd =
0.72
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
Specific Heat
k=
1.25
Adiabatic Eff
na =
1
Polytropic Eff
np =
0.75
EFFICIENCY
Mech Efficiency
Em =
0.95

scan eo vs rp plot
scan type vs rate plot

CALCULATED VALUES
Patm =
14.43
psi

pabs =
Tabs =

49.4
560

psia
oR

pabs =
zavg =

1114.4
0.72

psia

(n-1)/(nk) =

0.267

THERMODYNAMIC COMPARISON
ISOTHERMAL
HEAD =
POWER REQ'D =

92,975 [(ft-lbf)/lb]
310 HP

HEAD =
POWER REQ'D =

129,025 [(ft-lbf)/lb]
431 HP

HEAD =
POWER REQ'D =

144,941 [(ft-lbf)/lb]
645 HP

ADIABATIC

POLYTROPIC

DESIGN PROCESS
1. NUMBER OF STAGES
Total Compression Ratio
Discharge Temperature

RT =
Td =

Number of Compress Stages


Compression Ratio per Stage
Factor

# STG =
rp =
F=

3
2.82
1.1

2. RATE
Actual cubic feet per minute
Type based on rate/pressure

ACFM =

400 cfm

3. POWER - for general compressor


Quick eqution calculation
Precise equation calculation

From Figure

BHP =
BHP =

SPECIAL CASE - RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR


Engine Speed
N=
Stroke Length
St =
Cylinder Diameter
D=
Rod Diameter
d=
Clearance
C=
Overall Eff based on rp
Eo =
Piston Displacement
Single Acting
Double Acting
Volumetric Efficiency
Capacity
Piston Speed
Tension Load
Power Required

22.55
279 oF

Pd,s =
Pd,d =
Select:
EV =
Q=
Ps =
Tl =
BHP =

513 HP
435 HP

1100
3.5
4.3
1.25
15
0.84

-15%

RPM
in
in
in
%
From Figure

32 cfm
62 cfm
double
70.9
44.0
642
14098
356

%
cfm
fpm
lbf
HP

Keep between 600-800

single
double

Orifice Diameter
Pipe ID
Static Pressure
Differential
Specific Gravity
Base Pressure
Base Temperature

GENERAL INPUT
d1 =
0.323 in.
d2 =
3 in.
pf =
200 psia
hw =
100 in. of water
yg =
0.6
p=
14.6 psia
o
T=
75 F
z=
0.99

CALCULATING FLOW RATE - ORIFICE METER

q sc C ' hw p f
Fb =
Ftb =
Fpb =
Fg =
Ftf =
b=
Fpv =
Beta =
C'=

qsc =

341.7 TABLE
1.028846
1.008904
1.290994
0.985882
0.0332 TABLE
Calculates Fr =
1.005038
0.107667 hw/pf =
0.5
Find
455.2

1.54

MMSCFD

1.000235
Y=

1.003

TABLE

FT

PSIA
0
328
500
656
1000
1312
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
10000

14.70
14.50
14.40
14.30
14.20
14.00
13.90
13.70
13.40
13.20
12.90
12.70
12.40
12.20
12.00
11.80
11.50
11.30
11.10
10.90
10.70
10.50
10.10

14.80
14.60
y = -0.0005x + 14.665

14.40
14.20
14.00
13.80
13.60
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Series1
Linear (Series1)