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Goodman-Kruskal (GK) measure of correlation between the criterion vector c and the cue vector q is commonly used in the recognition heuristic literature (see, for example, Gaissmaier & Marewski, 2011; Smithson, 2010). The values of this association measure ranges from 1 (perfect negative association) to 1 (perfect positive association). Next, I shall explain how this measure works. Suppose we have two vectors a= (a1 ; a2 ; :::; an ) and b= (b1 ; b2 ; :::; bn ), where ai and bj for i; j = 1; 2; :::; n; are positive real numbers. We compare each pair (ai ; aj ) with (bi ; bj ) for i; j = 1; 2; :::; n and i < j . Then pairs (ai ; aj ) and (bi ; bj ) are said to be: Concordant if and only if ai < aj and bi < bj or ai > aj and bi > bj : Discordant if and only if ai < aj and bi > bj or ai > aj and bi < bj : Note that the pairs with the same element s values are discarded, (i.e. those where ai = aj or bi = bj ): Finally, the Goodman and Kruskal measure, is calculated as follows C D ; GK = C +D where C is the number of concordant pairs and D is the number of discordant pairs. The following example shall clarify its use. Example 1 Suppose we have the following vectors c = (1; 2; 3; 4); x = (1; 1; 0; 1) and q = (2; 1; 4; 3), which I display in Table 1.

Table 1

c 1 2 3 4

x 1 1 0 1

q 2 1 4 3

To calculate the GK measure we conform two vectors a (which represents the criterion vector) and b (representing the cue vector) of three elements each one (after eliminating the third row that corresponds to the unrecognized object) 3 yielding: a = (1; 2; 4) and b= (2; 1; 3) : Then, we have C2 = 3 possible pairs comparisons. Table 2 shows the results of these comparisons

Table 2

Remark 2 As I have noted earlier, the accuracy of the recognition heuristic is strongly linked with the correlation between the ranking vector c and the cue vector q. Another reason why GK is a convenient association measure is its relation with the knowledge validity. As pointed out by Smithson (2010, p.232), the GK can be expressed as a function of S (x; q) as follows GK = 2

S (x; q)

1:

(1)

Note that since the cue vector q is used only when both objects are recognized, the Goodman and Kruskal gamma coe cient is estimated discarding the corresponding values of the unrecognized objects. For instance, if q = c 1 =(cN ; cN 1 ; :::c2 ; c1 ); then GK = 1 and hence S (x; q) yields its minimum value, which is equal to 0. On the other hand, when c = q then GK = 1, and thus S (x; q) yields its maximum value, which is equal to 1. For intermediate levels of GK we would, of course, have 0 < S (x; q) < 1.

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