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Mathematics examinations

Please note the word version of the Formula sheets document requires the plug-in 'MathType' to

view correctly, if you do not have this we recommend downloading the PDF version.

Formula sheets for examinations

The list of permissible items for use in WACE mathematics examinations no longer includes the

Curriculum Council revised Mathematical formulae and Statistical tables book.

Instead a Formula Sheet will be provided to candidates.

This document includes formula sheets for each pair of units in Mathematics which have a

WACE examination.

Copyright Panitia Mathematics SMK Sungai Pelek

Mathematics:Formula Sheet

Number and algebra

Equation of a line: y = mx + c, where m = gradient; c = yintercept

Space and measurement

opposite adjacent opposite

hypotenuse hypotenuse adjacent

In a right triangle: sin cos tan u u u = = =

2 2 2

Pythagoras Theorem:

In a right triangle , where , are the short sides and is the hypotenuse ABC a b c

c a b = +

2

Circle: 2 , where is the circumference, is the radius and is the diameter

, where is the area

C r D C r D

A r A

t t

t

= =

=

1

2

Triangle: , where is the base and is the perpendicular height A bh b h =

Parallelogram: A bh =

1

2

Trapezium: ( ) , where and are the lengths of the parallel sides

and is the perpendicular height

= + A a b h a b

h

Prism: where is the volume, is the area of the base and

is the perpendicular height

V Ah, V A

h

=

1

Pyramid: A

3

V h =

2

2

Cylinder : 2 2 , where is the total surface area S r h r S

V r h

t t

t

= +

=

2

2

1

3

Cone : , where is the slant height = +

=

S r s r s

V r h

t t

t

2

3

4

3

Sphere : 4 S r

V r

=

=

t

t

2 1

1 1 2 2

2 1

Gradient of line, , through the points ( , ) and ( , ) is given by

y y

x x

m x y x y m

=

2 2

1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1

Distance, , between the points( , ) and ( , ) is given by ( ) ( ) d x y x y d y y x x = +

Note: Any additional formulas identified by the examination panel as necessary will be

included in the body of the particular question

Copyright Panitia Mathematics SMK Sungai Pelek

Mathematics: Formula Sheet

Number and algebra

Index laws:

For any numerical value 0 and integers and ,

m n m n

a m n

a a a

+

=

=

m n m n

a a a

=

Simple interest : I , where is the principal, is the rate per year and is the time in years P r t P r t =

Space and measurement

opposite adjacent opposite

hypotenuse hypotenuse adjacent

In a right triangle: sin cos tan u u u = = =

2 2 2

Pythagoras Theorem:

In right triangle , where , are the short sides and is the hypotenuse ABC a b c

c a b = +

2 2 2

2 2 2

sin sin sin

2

1

2

In any triangle :

2 cos cos

sin , where is the area

a b c

A B C

b c a

bc

ABC

a b c bc A A

A ab C A

+

= =

= + =

=

2

Circle: 2 , where is the circumference, is the radius and is the diameter

, where is the area

C r D C r D

A r A

t t

t

= =

=

1

2

Triangle: , where is the base and is the perpendicular height A bh b h =

Parallelogram: A bh =

1

2

Trapezium: ( ) , where and are the lengths of the parallel sides

and is the perpendicular height

= + A a b h a b

h

Prism: where is the volume, is the area of the base and

is the perpendicular height

V Ah, V A

h

=

1

Pyramid: A

3

V h =

2

2

Cylinder : 2 2 , where is the total surface area S r h r S

V r h

t t

t

= +

=

Copyright Curriculum Council 2011

2

2

1

3

Cone : , where is the slant height = +

=

S r s r s

V r h

t t

t

2

3

4

3

Sphere : 4 S r

V r

=

=

t

t

Space and measurement

2 1

1 1 2 2

2 1

Gradient of line, , through the points ( , ) and ( , ) is given by

y y

x x

m x y x y m

=

2 2

1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1

Distance , between the points( , ) and ( , ) is given by ( ) ( ) d x y x y d y y x x = +

1 2

Lines are perpendicular if 1 m m =

Chance and Data

( ) ( ) 1 P A P A + =

Note: Any additional formulas identified by the examination panel as necessary will be

included in the body of the particular question.

Copyright Panitia Mathematics SMK Sungai Pelek

Mathematics: Formula Sheet

Number and algebra

Index laws: For , 0 a b > and m ,n real,

( )

0

( ) ( )

1

1

for an integer and a positive integer

+

= = =

= = =

= =

m m m m n m n m n mn

m

m m n

m n

m

m

n n

m

n

a b ab a a a a a

a

a a a

a a

a a a m n

Simple interest : I , where is the principal, is the rate per year and is the time in years Prt P r t =

( )

Compound interest :

1 compounded annually

(1 ) compounded times a year

t

nt

r

n

A P r

A P n

= +

= +

1 1

Differentiation: If ( ) , then ( )

Powers: If ( ) , then ( ) or If , then

n n n n

dy

dx

dy

dx

f x y f x

f x x f x n x y x n x

' = =

' = = = =

then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Product rule: If ( ) ( ) or If

then

du dv

y f x g x f x g x v u

dx dx

y f x g x y uv

dy

dx

' ' ' = + = +

= =

1

1

Integration : , 1

n

n

x

n

x dx c n

+

+

= + =

}

1

Antiderivative: Given then y= , 1

1

n

n

dy x

x c n

dx n

+

= + =

+

Space and measurement

2 2 2

2 2 2

sin sin sin

2

1

2

In any triangle :

2 cos cos

sin , where is the area

a b c

A B C

b c a

bc

ABC

a b c bc A A

A ab C A

+

= =

= + =

=

Copyright Curriculum Council 2011

Space and measurement

2

Circle: 2 , where is the circumference, is the radius and is the diameter

, where is the area

C r D C r D

A r A

t t

t

= =

=

1

2

Triangle: , where is the base and is the perpendicular height A bh b h =

Parallelogram: A bh =

1

2

Trapezium: ( ) , where and are the lengths of the parallel sides

and is the perpendicular height

= + A a b h a b

h

Prism: where is the volume, is the area of the base and

is the perpendicular height

V Ah, V A

h

=

1

Pyramid: A

3

V h =

2

2

Cylinder : 2 2 , where is the total surface area S r h r S

V r h

t t

t

= +

=

2

2

1

3

Cone : , where is the slant height = +

=

S r s r s

V r h

t t

t

2

3

4

3

Sphere : 4 S r

V r

=

=

t

t

Chance and data

( ) ( ) 1 P A P A + =

In a normal distribution approximately:

68% of values lie within one (1) standard deviation of the mean

95% of values lie within two (2) standard deviations of the mean

99.7% of values lie within three (3) standard deviations of the mean.

Note: Any additional formulas identified by the examination panel as necessary will be

included in the body of the particular question.

Copyright Panitia Mathematics SMK Sungai Pelek

Mathematics: Units 3C and 3D

Formula sheet

Number and algebra

1

If ( ) then ( ) If ( ) then ( )

If ( ) then ( )

n n

x x

dy

f x y f x f x x f x n x

dx

f x e f x e

' ' = = = =

' = =

then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Product rule:

If ( ) ( ) or If

then

du dv

y f x g x f x g x v u

dx dx

y f x g x y uv

dy

dx

' ' ' = + = +

= =

2 2

( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ( ))

Quotient rule:

If or If

then then

f x

g x

du dv

f x g x f x g x

dx dx

g x

u

y y

v

v u

dy

y

dx v

' '

= =

' = =

( )

Chain rule:

If ( ( )) or If ( ) and =g

then ( ( )) ( ) then

dy du

du dx

y f g x y f u u x

dy

y f g x g x

dx

= =

' ' ' = =

1

Powers , 1 Exponentials

1

: :

x

n

n

x

x

x dx c n e dx e c

n

+

= + = = +

+

} }

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus :

and

x b

a a

d

f t dt f x f x dx f b f a

dx

' = =

} }

Incremental formula :

dy

dx

y x ~ o o

Exponential growth and decay :

If , then

kt

dy

dt

ky y Ae = =

Copyright Curriculum Council 2011

Space and measurement

2

Circle: 2 , where is the circumference, is the radius and is the diameter

, where is the area

C r D C r D

A r A

t t

t

= =

=

1

2

Triangle: , where is the base and is the perpendicular height A bh b h =

Parallelogram: A bh =

1

2

Trapezium: ( ) , where and are the lengths of the parallel sides

and is the perpendicular height

= + A a b h a b

h

Prism: where is the volume, is the area of the base and

is the perpendicular height

V Ah, V A

h

=

1

Pyramid: A

3

V h =

2

2

Cylinder : 2 2 , where is the total surface area S r h r S

V r h

t t

t

= +

=

2

2

1

3

Cone : , where is the slant height = +

=

S r s r s

V r h

t t

t

2

3

4

3

Sphere : 4 S r

V r

=

=

t

t

2

2

Volume of solids of revolution :

V rotated about the x axis

V , rotated about the y axis

y dx

x dy

t

t

=

}

=

}

Chance and data

Probability laws:

( ) ( ) 1 P A P A + =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B P A P B P A B = +

( ) ( ) ( / ) ( ) ( / ) P A B P A P B A P B P A B = =

Binomial distributions :

Mean : and standard deviation : (1 ) np np p o = =

Copyright Curriculum Council 2011

A confidence interval for the mean of a population is :

where is the population mean, is the population standard deviation and

where is the sample mean, is the sample size and

z is the

n n

x z x z

x n

o o

o

s s +

cut off value on the standard normal distribution corresponding to the confidence level.

Note: Any additional formulas identified by the examination panel will be included in the body

of the particular question.

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