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TRIM: 2010/5118[V4] Copyright Curriculum Council 2011

Formula sheets for

Mathematics examinations

Please note the word version of the Formula sheets document requires the plug-in 'MathType' to

Formula sheets for examinations

The list of permissible items for use in WACE mathematics examinations no longer includes the
Curriculum Council revised Mathematical formulae and Statistical tables book.

Instead a Formula Sheet will be provided to candidates.

This document includes formula sheets for each pair of units in Mathematics which have a
WACE examination.

Copyright Panitia Mathematics SMK Sungai Pelek
Mathematics:Formula Sheet

Number and algebra

Equation of a line: y = mx + c, where m = gradient; c = yintercept

Space and measurement

In a right triangle: sin cos tan u u u = = =
2 2 2
Pythagoras Theorem:
In a right triangle , where , are the short sides and is the hypotenuse ABC a b c
c a b = +

2
Circle: 2 , where is the circumference, is the radius and is the diameter
, where is the area
C r D C r D
A r A
t t
t
= =
=
1
2
Triangle: , where is the base and is the perpendicular height A bh b h =
Parallelogram: A bh =
1
2
Trapezium: ( ) , where and are the lengths of the parallel sides
and is the perpendicular height
= + A a b h a b
h

Prism: where is the volume, is the area of the base and
is the perpendicular height
V Ah, V A
h
=

1
Pyramid: A
3
V h =
2
2
Cylinder : 2 2 , where is the total surface area S r h r S
V r h
t t
t
= +
=

2
2
1
3
Cone : , where is the slant height = +
=
S r s r s
V r h
t t
t
2
3
4
3
Sphere : 4 S r
V r
=
=
t
t
2 1
1 1 2 2
2 1
Gradient of line, , through the points ( , ) and ( , ) is given by
y y
x x
m x y x y m

=
2 2
1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1
Distance, , between the points( , ) and ( , ) is given by ( ) ( ) d x y x y d y y x x = +
Note: Any additional formulas identified by the examination panel as necessary will be
included in the body of the particular question

Copyright Panitia Mathematics SMK Sungai Pelek
Mathematics: Formula Sheet

Number and algebra

Index laws:
For any numerical value 0 and integers and ,
m n m n
a m n
a a a
+
=
=

m n m n
a a a

=

Simple interest : I , where is the principal, is the rate per year and is the time in years P r t P r t =

Space and measurement

In a right triangle: sin cos tan u u u = = =

2 2 2
Pythagoras Theorem:
In right triangle , where , are the short sides and is the hypotenuse ABC a b c
c a b = +

2 2 2
2 2 2
sin sin sin
2
1
2
In any triangle :
2 cos cos
sin , where is the area
a b c
A B C
b c a
bc
ABC
a b c bc A A
A ab C A
+
= =
= + =
=
2
Circle: 2 , where is the circumference, is the radius and is the diameter
, where is the area
C r D C r D
A r A
t t
t
= =
=
1
2
Triangle: , where is the base and is the perpendicular height A bh b h =
Parallelogram: A bh =
1
2
Trapezium: ( ) , where and are the lengths of the parallel sides
and is the perpendicular height
= + A a b h a b
h

Prism: where is the volume, is the area of the base and
is the perpendicular height
V Ah, V A
h
=

1
Pyramid: A
3
V h =
2
2
Cylinder : 2 2 , where is the total surface area S r h r S
V r h
t t
t
= +
=

2
2
1
3
Cone : , where is the slant height = +
=
S r s r s
V r h
t t
t
2
3
4
3
Sphere : 4 S r
V r
=
=
t
t

Space and measurement

2 1
1 1 2 2
2 1
Gradient of line, , through the points ( , ) and ( , ) is given by
y y
x x
m x y x y m

=

2 2
1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1
Distance , between the points( , ) and ( , ) is given by ( ) ( ) d x y x y d y y x x = +

1 2
Lines are perpendicular if 1 m m =

Chance and Data

( ) ( ) 1 P A P A + =

Note: Any additional formulas identified by the examination panel as necessary will be
included in the body of the particular question.

Copyright Panitia Mathematics SMK Sungai Pelek
Mathematics: Formula Sheet

Number and algebra

Index laws: For , 0 a b > and m ,n real,
( )
0
( ) ( )
1
1
for an integer and a positive integer
+

= = =
= = =
= =
m m m m n m n m n mn
m
m m n
m n
m
m
n n
m
n
a b ab a a a a a
a
a a a
a a
a a a m n

Simple interest : I , where is the principal, is the rate per year and is the time in years Prt P r t =

( )
Compound interest :
1 compounded annually
(1 ) compounded times a year
t
nt
r
n
A P r
A P n
= +
= +

1 1
Differentiation: If ( ) , then ( )
Powers: If ( ) , then ( ) or If , then
n n n n
dy
dx
dy
dx
f x y f x
f x x f x n x y x n x

' = =
' = = = =

then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Product rule: If ( ) ( ) or If
then
du dv
y f x g x f x g x v u
dx dx
y f x g x y uv
dy
dx
' ' ' = + = +
= =

1
1
Integration : , 1
n
n
x
n
x dx c n
+
+
= + =
}

1
Antiderivative: Given then y= , 1
1
n
n
dy x
x c n
dx n
+
= + =
+

Space and measurement

2 2 2
2 2 2
sin sin sin
2
1
2
In any triangle :
2 cos cos
sin , where is the area
a b c
A B C
b c a
bc
ABC
a b c bc A A
A ab C A
+
= =
= + =
=

Space and measurement

2
Circle: 2 , where is the circumference, is the radius and is the diameter
, where is the area
C r D C r D
A r A
t t
t
= =
=
1
2
Triangle: , where is the base and is the perpendicular height A bh b h =
Parallelogram: A bh =
1
2
Trapezium: ( ) , where and are the lengths of the parallel sides
and is the perpendicular height
= + A a b h a b
h

Prism: where is the volume, is the area of the base and
is the perpendicular height
V Ah, V A
h
=

1
Pyramid: A
3
V h =
2
2
Cylinder : 2 2 , where is the total surface area S r h r S
V r h
t t
t
= +
=

2
2
1
3
Cone : , where is the slant height = +
=
S r s r s
V r h
t t
t
2
3
4
3
Sphere : 4 S r
V r
=
=
t
t

Chance and data

( ) ( ) 1 P A P A + =

In a normal distribution approximately:
68% of values lie within one (1) standard deviation of the mean
95% of values lie within two (2) standard deviations of the mean
99.7% of values lie within three (3) standard deviations of the mean.

Note: Any additional formulas identified by the examination panel as necessary will be
included in the body of the particular question.

Copyright Panitia Mathematics SMK Sungai Pelek
Mathematics: Units 3C and 3D
Formula sheet

Number and algebra

1
If ( ) then ( ) If ( ) then ( )
If ( ) then ( )
n n
x x
dy
f x y f x f x x f x n x
dx
f x e f x e

' ' = = = =
' = =

then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Product rule:
If ( ) ( ) or If
then
du dv
y f x g x f x g x v u
dx dx
y f x g x y uv
dy
dx
' ' ' = + = +
= =

2 2
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ( ))
Quotient rule:
If or If
then then
f x
g x
du dv
f x g x f x g x
dx dx
g x
u
y y
v
v u
dy
y
dx v
' '
= =

' = =

( )
Chain rule:
If ( ( )) or If ( ) and =g
then ( ( )) ( ) then
dy du
du dx
y f g x y f u u x
dy
y f g x g x
dx
= =
' ' ' = =

1
Powers , 1 Exponentials
1
: :
x
n
n
x
x
x dx c n e dx e c
n
+
= + = = +
+
} }

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus :
and
x b
a a
d
f t dt f x f x dx f b f a
dx
' = =
} }

Incremental formula :
dy
dx
y x ~ o o

Exponential growth and decay :
If , then
kt
dy
dt
ky y Ae = =

Space and measurement

2
Circle: 2 , where is the circumference, is the radius and is the diameter
, where is the area
C r D C r D
A r A
t t
t
= =
=
1
2
Triangle: , where is the base and is the perpendicular height A bh b h =
Parallelogram: A bh =
1
2
Trapezium: ( ) , where and are the lengths of the parallel sides
and is the perpendicular height
= + A a b h a b
h

Prism: where is the volume, is the area of the base and
is the perpendicular height
V Ah, V A
h
=

1
Pyramid: A
3
V h =
2
2
Cylinder : 2 2 , where is the total surface area S r h r S
V r h
t t
t
= +
=

2
2
1
3
Cone : , where is the slant height = +
=
S r s r s
V r h
t t
t
2
3
4
3
Sphere : 4 S r
V r
=
=
t
t

2
2
Volume of solids of revolution :
V rotated about the x axis
V , rotated about the y axis
y dx
x dy
t
t
=
}
=
}

Chance and data

Probability laws:
( ) ( ) 1 P A P A + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B P A P B P A B = +
( ) ( ) ( / ) ( ) ( / ) P A B P A P B A P B P A B = =
Binomial distributions :
Mean : and standard deviation : (1 ) np np p o = =

A confidence interval for the mean of a population is :
where is the population mean, is the population standard deviation and
where is the sample mean, is the sample size and
z is the
n n
x z x z
x n
o o

o
s s +
cut off value on the standard normal distribution corresponding to the confidence level.

Note: Any additional formulas identified by the examination panel will be included in the body
of the particular question.