Þos. l3-4l?

8, l4-5003, l4-5006

IÞ THI
!"#$%& ($)$%* +,-.$ ,/ 011%)2* /,. $3% 4%"$3 +#.5-#$

ÐI!IK KITCHIÞ, IT A!.,
Ploin/iffe-Appelleee,
v.
CA!Y !. HI!II!T, IT A!.,
DefenJon/e-Appellon/e

AµµonI from fho !nIfod Sfnfos ÐIsfrIcf Courf
for fho ÐIsfrIcf of !fnh (Þo. 2:l3-cv-002l?)

MA!Y IISHOI, IT A!.,
Ploin/iffe-Appelleee,
v.
SA!!Y HOWI SMITH, IT A!.,
DefenJon/e-Appellon/e

AµµonI from fho !nIfod Sfnfos ÐIsfrIcf Courf for fho
Þorfhorn ÐIsfrIcf of OkInhomn, (Þo. 4:04-cv-00848)

I!III AM1C1 CII1A1 OI CATO IÞSTIT!TI AÞÐ
COÞSTIT!TIOÞA! ACCO!ÞTAII!ITY CIÞTI!
IÞ S!IIO!T OI I!AIÞTIIIS-AIII!!IIS AÞÐ AIII!MAÞCI

IIIznbofh I. Wydrn* IIyn ShnµIro
COÞSTIT!TIOÞA! CATO IÞSTIT!TI
ACCO!ÞTAII!ITY CIÞTI! l000 Mnssnchusoffs Avo, ÞW
l200 l8
fh
Sf., ÞW, Sfo 50l WnshIngfon, ÐC 2000l
WnshIngfon, Ð.C. 20036 (202) 842-0200
(202) 296-6889
oIIznbofh¸fhousconsfIfufIon.org
*Couneel of IecorJ

Couneel for Anici Curioe
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: l Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: l
I

"#$#%&%'# (%)$(*+') ,-'"%'# #- .+/%

Tho µnrfIos hnvo fIIod wIfh fho Courf bInnkof Ioffors of consonf fo
fho fIIIng of onicue curioe brIofs. AccordIngIy, Cnfo InsfIfufo nnd
ConsfIfufIonnI AccounfnbIIIfy Confor hnvo consonf fo fIIo fhIs brIof.
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 2 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 2
II

,-(0-($#% *+",/-"1(% "#$#%&%'#

Iursunnf fo !uIo 26.l of fho IodornI !uIos of AµµoIInfo Irocoduro,
onici sfnfo fhnf noIfhor orgnnIznfIon Is n µubIIcIy-hoId corµornfIon, nor
do fhoy Issuo sfock or hnvo µnronf corµornfIons. Anici nro non-µrofIf
50l(c)(3) orgnnIznfIons.
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 3 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 3
III

#$2/% -. ,-'#%'#"
Sfnfomonf !ognrdIng Consonf fo IIIo ......................................................... I
Corµornfo ÐIscIosuro Sfnfomonf ................................................................. II
TnbIo of Confonfs ........................................................................................ III
TnbIo of AufhorIfIos .................................................................................... Iv
Inforosf of fho Anici Curioe ....................................................................... l
Summnry of Argumonf ................................................................................ 2
Argumonf ...................................................................................................... 5
I. Tho Toxf Of Tho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso !nnmbIguousIy
Irofocfs AII Iorsons Irom ArbIfrnry And InvIdIous
ÐIscrImInnfIon .............................................................................. 5
II. Tho OrIgInnI MonnIng Of Tho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso
ConfIrms Thnf Ifs Cunrnnfoo Of IqunI !Ighfs And IqunIIfy
!ndor Tho !nw AµµIIos IrondIy To AII Iorsons...................... l2
III. Tho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso Cunrnnfoos AII Iorsons An
IqunI !Ighf To Mnrry Tho Iorson Of ThoIr ChoIco ............... l8
IV. Tho MnrrIngo !nws Of !fnh And OkInhomn InfrIngo Tho
IqunI !Ighf To Mnrry And Thus VIoInfo Tho Cunrnnfoo Of
Tho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso Thnf AII Iorsons ShnII Hnvo
IqunIIfy !ndor Tho !nw .......................................................... 25

ConcIusIon .................................................................................................. 34
CorfIfIcnfo of ComµIInnco .......................................................................... 35
CorfIfIcnfo of SorvIco.................................................................................. 36
ICI CorfIfIcnfIon of SorvIco ..................................................................... 3?




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Iv

#$2/% -. $1#3-(+#+%"
0456
Cnsos
BorIier t. Connoll,,
ll3 !.S. 2? (l885) ................................................................................. l6
Bielop t. Ini/eJ S/o/ee ex rel. HolJer,
20l4 W! ll60l3 (Þ.Ð. OkIn. Jnn. l4, 20l4) ....................................... 2?
BJ. of Coun/, Conn`re, WouIuneee Coun/,, Kon. t. InIelr,
5l8 !.S. 668 (l996) .......................................................................... 28-29
BoJJie t. Connec/icu/,
40l !.S. 3?l (l9?l) ............................................................................... 24
Boe/ic t. Ioine,,
CIvII Þo. l3-395 (I.Ð. Vn. Iob., l4, 20l4) ........................................... 3l
Bouere t. HorJuic/,
4?8 !.S. l86 (l986) ............................................................................... 28
Citil Iigl/e Coeee,
l09 !.S. 3 (l883) ............................................................................... 6, l6
DreJ Sco// t. SonJforJ,
60 !.S. (l9 How.) 393 (l85?) .................................................................. ?
GooJriJge t. Dep`/ of PuIlic Heol/l,
?98 Þ.I.2d 94l (Mnss. 2003) ................................................................ 33
Heller t. Doe,
509 !.S. 3l2 (l993) .......................................................................... 28-29
HernonJec t. IoIlee,
855 Þ.I.2d l (Þ.Y. 2006) ...................................................................... 32

Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 5 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 5
v

#$2/% -. $1#3-(+#+%" 789:;<:=6>?
0456
Ho Al Kou t. Aunon,
l2 I. Cns. 252 (C.C.Ð. CnI. l8?9) .................................................... l6-l?
1llinoie S/o/e 1nplo,eee Council 34 t. Leuie,
4?3 I.2d 56l (?fh CIr. l9?2) ................................................................. 30
J.1.B. t. AloIono ex rel. T.B.,
5ll !.S. l2? (l994) ....................................................................... 4, 8, ll
Kerrigon t. Conn`r of PuIlic Heol/l,
95? A.2d 40? (Conn. 2008) .................................................................... 32
Ki/clen t. HerIer/,
20l3 W! 669?8?4 (Ð. !fnh Ðoc., 20, 20l3) ................................... 2?-28
Lourence t. Texoe,
539 !.S. 558 (2003) ............................................................................... 28
Loting t. Virginio,
388 !.S. l (l96?) ........................................................................... poeein
M.L.B. t. S.L.J.,
5l9 !.S. l02 (l996) ......................................................................... l8, 24
Mo,norJ t. Hill,
l25 !.S. l90 (l888) .......................................................................... 25-26
McDonolJ t. Ci/, of Clicogo,
l30 S. Cf. 3020 (20l0) .......................................................... 6-?, 9, l0, l3
PlonneJ Poren/looJ t. Coee,,
505 !.S. 833 (l992) ......................................................................... 29, 3l
Pleee, t. Iergueon,
l63 !.S. 53? (l896) ............................................................................... l?
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 6 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 6
vI

#$2/% -. $1#3-(+#+%" 789:;<:=6>?
0456
Pl,ler t. Doe,
45? !.S. 202 (l982) ............................................................................... l3
Ioner t. 1tone,
5l? !.S. 620 (l996) ....................................................................... poeein
Iu/on t. IepuIlicon Por/, of 1llinoie,
49? !.S. 62 (l990) ............................................................................ 28-29
Sece,e, LLC t. Vigil,
666 I.3d 6?8 (l0fh CIr. 20l2) .............................................................. 5-6
S/inner t. O/lolono ex rel. Willioneon,
3l6 !.S. 535 (l942) ...................................................................... 2, 22-25
Sni/l/line Beeclon Corp. t. AIIo// LoIe.,
Þos. ll-l?35?, l?3?5 (9fh CIr. Jnn. 2l, 20l4) .................................... l8
S/rouJer t. Wee/ Virginio,
l00 !.S. 303 (l880) ......................................................................... l6, 30
Turner t. Sofle,,
482 !.S. ?8 (l98?) ............................................................................. 3, 25
Ini/eJ S/o/ee t. Virginio,
5l8 !.S. 5l5 (l996) ................................................................................. 2
Ini/eJ S/o/ee t. WinJeor,
l33 S. Cf. 26?5 (20l3) ................................................................... poeein
Vornun t. Brien,
?63 Þ.W.2d 862 (Iown 2009) ................................................................ 32
Yic/ Wo. t. Hop/ine,
ll8 !.S. 356 (l886) ................................................................................. 6
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 7 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 7
vII

#$2/% -. $1#3-(+#+%" 789:;<:=6>?
0456
ZoIloc/i t. IeJloil,
434 !.S. 3?4 (l9?8) ...................................................................... 3, 23-26
ConsfIfufIonnI IrovIsIons, Sfnfufos, nnd !ogIsInfIvo MnforInIs
!.S. COÞST. nmond. XIV .................................................................... poeein
Cong. CIobo:
39
fh
Cong., l
sf
Soss. (l866):
3l8 ..................................................................................................... 20
343 ................................................................................................ l9-20
504 ..................................................................................................... l9
l090 ..................................................................................................... 8
l093 ................................................................................................ 9-l0
l263 ................................................................................................... l0
2459 ................................................................................................... l4
2462 ................................................................................................... l4
2502 ................................................................................................... l4
2539 ..................................................................................................... ?
2?66 .............................................................................................. l2-l3
296l ............................................................................................... ?, l3
nµµ. 2l9 ............................................................................................. l3


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vIII

#$2/% -. $1#3-(+#+%" 789:;<:=6>?
0456
4l
sf
Cong., 2
nd
Soss. (l8?0):
3658 ..................................................................................................... 9
38?l ..................................................................................................... 9
42
nd
Cong., 2
nd
Soss. (l8?2):
84? ................................................................................................ l5-l6
Inforcomonf Acf of l8?0, l6 Sfnf. l40 ....................................................... 9
!IIO!T OI THI JOIÞT COMMITTII OÞ !ICOÞST!!CTIOÞ (l866) .............. l0

Iooks, ArfIcIos, nnd Ofhor MnforInIs
IIÞJAMIÞ I. KIÞÐ!ICK, THI JO!!ÞA! OI THI JOIÞT COMMITTII OI
IIITIIÞ OÞ !ICOÞST!!CTIOÞ (l9l4) ................................................... ll
AKHI! !IIÐ AMA!, THI II!! OI !ICHTS: C!IATIOÞ AÞÐ !ICOÞST!!CTIOÞ
(l998)...................................................................................................... ll
ChnrIos InIrmnn, Doee /le Iour/een/l AnenJnen/ 1ncorporo/e
/le Bill of Iigl/e:, 2 STAÞ. !. !IV. 5 (l949) ........................................ l5
HI!II!T C. C!TMAÞ, THI I!ACK IAMI!Y IÞ S!AVI!Y AÞÐ I!IIÐOM,
l?50-l925 (l9?6) ................................................................................... l9
IICCY COOII! ÐAVIS, ÞIC!ICTIÐ STO!IIS: THI COÞSTIT!TIOÞ &
IAMI!Y VA!!IS (l99?) ........................................................................... 20
Sfovon C. CnInbrosI & !IvIn IIno, Tuo Cleere for Profeeeor Bol/in`e
Originolien, l03 ÞW. !. !. !IV. 663 (2009)........................................ 20
JIII IInIno Hnsdny, IeJerolien onJ /le Ionil, Iecone/ruc/eJ,
45 !.C.!.A. !. !IV. l29? (l998) ................................................ 20, 2l-22
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Ix

#$2/% -. $1#3-(+#+%" 789:;<:=6>?
0456
I!IIÐOM: A ÐOC!MIÞTA!Y HISTO!Y OI IMAÞCIIATIOÞ, l86l-l86?
(I. IorIIn of nI. ods. l982) ..................................................................... 2l
Kurf T. !nsh, Tle Cone/i/u/ionol IeferenJun of 1S66. AnJreu Jolneon
onJ /le Originol Meoning of /le Pritilegee or 1nnuni/iee Clouee,
l0l CIO. !.J. l2?5 (20l3) ..................................................................... l4
!IOÞ I. !ITWACK, IIIÞ IÞ THI STO!M SO !OÞC: THI AITI!MATH OI
S!AVI!Y (l9?9) ...................................................................................... 2l
JAMIS MCIHI!SOÞ, THI ÞIC!OIS` CIVI! WA! (l99l) ............................. 22
Cincinno/i Connerciol
Juno 2l, l866 ......................................................................................... l5
Aug. 20, l866 ......................................................................................... l5
Clicogo TriIune, Aug. 2, l866 .................................................................. l5

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l

+'#%(%"# -. #3% !"#$# $&'#!(
@

Anicue Cnfo InsfIfufo wns osfnbIIshod In l9?? ns n nonµnrfIsnn
µubIIc µoIIcy rosonrch foundnfIon dodIcnfod fo ndvnncIng fho µrIncIµIos
of IndIvIdunI IIborfy, froo mnrkofs, nnd IImIfod govornmonf. Cnfo`s
Confor for ConsfIfufIonnI SfudIos wns osfnbIIshod In l989 fo µromofo
fho µrIncIµIos of IImIfod consfIfufIonnI govornmonf fhnf nro fho
foundnfIon of IIborfy. Townrd fhoso onds, Cnfo µubIIshos books nnd
sfudIos, conducfs conforoncos, µroducos fho nnnunI Co/o Suprene Cour/
Ietieu, nnd fIIos onicue brIofs. Cnfo`s Inforosf In fhIs cnso IIos In
onforcIng fho ngo-oId µrIncIµIo of ¨oqunIIfy undor fho Inw,¨ ns onshrInod
In fho ConsfIfufIon fhrough fho IIffh nnd Iourfoonfh Amondmonfs.
Anicue ConsfIfufIonnI AccounfnbIIIfy Confor (CAC) Is n fhInk
fnnk, µubIIc Inforosf Inw fIrm, nnd ncfIon confor dodIcnfod fo fuIfIIIIng
fho µrogrossIvo µromIso of our ConsfIfufIon`s foxf nnd hIsfory. CAC
works In our courfs, fhrough our govornmonf, nnd wIfh IognI schoInrs
nnd fho µubIIc fo Imµrovo undorsfnndIng of fho ConsfIfufIon nnd fo
µrosorvo fho rIghfs, froodoms, nnd sfrucfurnI snfogunrds fhnf our

l
Anici sfnfo fhnf no counsoI for n µnrfy nufhorod fhIs brIof In whoIo or In µnrf, nnd
no µorson ofhor fhnn onici or fhoIr counsoI mndo n monofnry confrIbufIon fo fho
brIof`s µroµnrnfIon or submIssIon.
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: ll Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: ll
2

nnfIon`s chnrfor gunrnnfoos. CAC nccordIngIy hns n sfrong Inforosf In
fhIs cnso nnd In fho scoµo of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s µrofocfIons
for IIborfy nnd oqunIIfy.
Anici fIIod joInf brIofs In fho !.S. Suµromo Courf In
Hollingeuor/l t. Perr, nnd Ini/eJ S/o/ee t. WinJeor.
"1&&$(A -. $()1&%'#
Tho foxf of fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso of fho Iourfoonfh
Amondmonf Is swooµIng nnd unIvorsnI: ¨Þo Sfnfo shnII . . . dony fo nny
µorson wIfhIn Ifs jurIsdIcfIon fho oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inws.¨ !.S.
COÞST. nmond. XIV, § l. Ðrnffod In l866 nnd rnfIfIod In l868, fho
CInuso wrofo Info fho ConsfIfufIon fho IdonI of oqunIIfy fIrsf InId ouf In
fho ÐocInrnfIon of Indoµondonco, osfnbIIshIng n brond gunrnnfoo of
oqunIIfy for nII µorsons nnd domnndIng ¨fho oxfonsIon of consfIfufIonnI
rIghfs nnd µrofocfIons fo µooµIo onco Ignorod or oxcIudod.¨ Ini/eJ
S/o/ee t. Virginio, 5l8 !.S. 5l5, 55? (l996). HIsfory shows fhnf fho
orIgInnI monnIng of fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso socuros fo nII µorsons
¨'fho µrofocfIon of oqunI Inws,`¨ Ioner t. 1tone, 5l? !.S. 620, 634
(l996) (quofIng S/inner t. O/lolono ex rel. Willioneon, 3l6 !.S. 535,
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: l2 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: l2
3

54l (l942)), µrohIbIfIng nrbIfrnry nnd InvIdIous dIscrImInnfIon nnd
socurIng oqunI rIghfs for nII cInssos nnd grouµs of µorsons.
Tho ConsfIfufIon nIso µrofocfs fundnmonfnI rIghfs undor fho
subsfnnfIvo IIborfy µrovIsIons of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf. Tho
Suµromo Courf`s cnsos µrofocfIng fho oqunI rIghf fo mnrry hnvo boon
roofod In bofh fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso`s gunrnnfoo of oqunIIfy
undor fho Inw nnd oqunIIfy of rIghfs nnd fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s
µrofocfIon for subsfnnfIvo IIborfy. See, e.g., Loting t. Virginio, 388 !.S.
l (l96?) (InvnIIdnfIng bnn on mnrrIngos bofwoon InforrncInI couµIos
undor fho IqunI IrofocfIon nnd Ðuo Irocoss CInusos); ZoIloc/i t.
IeJloil, 434 !.S. 3?4 (l9?8) (hoIdIng fhnf n sfnfo Inw fhnf
dIscrImInnforIIy donIod fho rIghf fo mnrry vIoInfod fho IqunI IrofocfIon
CInuso); Turner t. Sofle,, 482 !.S. ?8 (l98?) (sfrIkIng, ovon undor
rnfIonnI bnsIs rovIow, roguInfIons donyIng µrIsonors` rIghf fo mnrry);
Ini/eJ S/o/ee t. WinJeor, l33 S. Cf. 26?5, 2693 (20l3) (concIudIng fhnf
Ðofonso of MnrrIngo Acf`s dIscrImInnfIon ngnInsf mnrrIod snmo-sox
couµIos vIoInfos ¨bnsIc duo µrocoss nnd oqunI µrofocfIon µrIncIµIos¨).
Tho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s µrofocfIon of oqunIIfy nnd subsfnnfIvo
IIborfy convorgo In socurIng fo nII µorsons nn oqunI rIghf fo mnrry.
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: l3 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: l3
4

In fhIs brIof, onici sµocIfIcnIIy focus on suµµorfIng IInInfIffs-
AµµoIIoos` nrgumonf for mnrrIngo oqunIIfy undor fho IqunI IrofocfIon
CInuso of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf. ThIs brIof wIII domonsfrnfo fhnf
fho foxf of fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso wns Infondod fo bo unIvorsnI In
Ifs µrofocfIon of ¨nny µorson¨ rosIdIng wIfhIn fho jurIsdIcfIon of fho
!nIfod Sfnfos; fhnf fhIs brond nnd swooµIng gunrnnfoo of oqunIIfy of
rIghfs wns undorsfood nf fho fImo of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s
rnfIfIcnfIon fo µrofocf nny µorson, of nny grouµ or cInss; nnd fhnf, In
IookIng fo whnf rIghfs woro undorsfood fo bo µrofocfod oqunIIy, fho
frnmors of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf undorsfood sfnfo-snncfIonod
mnrrIngo ns n µorsonnI, IndIvIdunI rIghf fhnf musf bo mndo nvnIInbIo on
nn oqunI bnsIs fo nII µorsons. As fho Suµromo Courf roconfIy oxµInInod
In WinJeor, ¨|s]fnfo Inws dofInIng nnd roguInfIng mnrrIngo, of courso,
musf rosµocf fho consfIfufIonnI rIghfs of µorsons.¨ l33 S. Cf. nf 269l.
Tho foxf nnd hIsfory of fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso mnko cIonr
fhnf fho chnIIongod mnrrIngo Inws of !fnh nnd OkInhomn
unconsfIfufIonnIIy dony fho oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inws rognrdIng
mnrrIngo fo snmo-sox couµIos, nnd µorµofrnfo nn ImµormIssIbIo Injury
fo fhoso couµIos` ¨µorsonnI dIgnIfy.¨ See J.1.B. t. AloIono ex rel. T.B.,
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: l4 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: l4
5

5ll !.S. l2?, l53 (l994) (Konnody, J., concurrIng). !Iko fho µrovIsIon
of fho Ðofonso of MnrrIngo Acf InvnIIdnfod In WinJeor, fhoso sfnfo Inws
¨Imµoso InoqunIIfy,¨ ¨domonn |snmo-sox] couµIo|s], whoso mornI nnd
soxunI choIcos fho ConsfIfufIon µrofocfs¨ nnd ¨humIIInfo|] . . .
fhousnnds of chIIdron now boIng rnIsod by snmo-sox couµIos.¨ WinJeor,
l33 S. Cf. nf 2694. Tho mnrrIngo Inws of bofh !fnh nnd OkInhomn, In
fronfIng snmo-sox nnd oµµosIfo-sox couµIos dIfforonfIy, dony gny mon
nnd IosbInns fho IIborfy fo mnrry fho µorson of fhoIr own choosIng.
Thoy fhus µInco n bndgo of InforIorIfywIfh fho fuII nufhorIfy of fho
Sfnfo bohInd Ifon snmo-sox couµIos` roInfIonshIµs nnd fnmIIy IIfo.
ThIs sfnfo ncfIon Is ¨dIrocfIy subvorsIvo of fho µrIncIµIo of oqunIIfy nf
fho honrf of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf.¨ Loting, 388 !.S. nf l2. If
donIos fho oqunI IIborfy fo µursuo ono`s own hnµµInoss fhnf hns guIdod
our nnfIon sInco Ifs foundIng.
$()1&%'#
+B #3% #%C# -. #3% %D1$/ 0(-#%,#+-' ,/$1"%
1'$&2+)1-1"/A 0(-#%,#" $// 0%("-'" .(-&
$(2+#($(A $'* +'E+*+-1" *+",(+&+'$#+-'

Tho µInIn foxf of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s gunrnnfoo of fho
¨oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inws¨ Is swooµIng nnd unIvorsnI. WhIIo fho
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Amondmonf wns wrIffon nnd rnfIfIod In fho nfformnfh of fho CIvII Wnr
nnd fho ond of sInvory, If µrofocfs oll µorsons, n ¨µrofound rocognIfIon of
fho ossonfInI . . . oqunIIfy of nII humnn boIngs.¨ Sece,e, LLC t. Vigil,
666 I.3d 6?8, 684 (l0fh CIr. 20l2). If socuros fho snmo rIghfs nnd snmo
µrofocfIon undor fho Inw for nII mon nnd womon, of nny rnco, whofhor
young or oId, cIfIzon or nIIon, gny or sfrnIghf. See Yic/ Wo. t. Hop/ine,
ll8 !.S. 356, 369 (l886) (¨Thoso µrovIsIons nro unIvorsnI In fhoIr
nµµIIcnfIon, fo nII µorsons wIfhIn fho forrIforInI jurIsdIcfIon, wIfhouf
rognrd fo nny dIfforoncos of rnco, coIor, or of nnfIonnIIfy . . . .¨); Citil
Iigl/e Coeee, l09 !.S. 3, 3l (l883) (¨Tho fourfoonfh nmondmonf
oxfonds Ifs µrofocfIon fo rncos nnd cInssos, nnd µrohIbIfs nny sfnfo
IogIsInfIon whIch hns fho offocf of donyIng fo nny rnco or cInss, or fo nny
IndIvIdunI, fho oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inws.¨). Þo µorson, undor fho
Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s foxf, mny bo consIgnod fo fho sfnfus of n
µnrInh, ¨n sfrnngor fo |fho Sfnfo`s] Inws.¨ Ioner, 5l? !.S. nf 635.
Tho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s frnmors crnffod fhIs brond
gunrnnfoo fo brIng fho ConsfIfufIon bnck Info IIno wIfh fundnmonfnI
µrIncIµIos of AmorIcnn oqunIIfy ns sof forfh In fho ÐocInrnfIon of
Indoµondonco, whIch hnd boon bofrnyod nnd sfunfod by fho InsfIfufIon
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of sInvory. See McDonolJ t. Ci/, of Clicogo, l30 S. Cf. 3020, 3059
(20l0) (Thomns, J., concurrIng) (¨|S]Invory, nnd fho monsuros dosIgnod
fo µrofocf If, woro IrroconcIInbIo wIfh fho µrIncIµIos of oqunIIfy . . . nnd
InnIIonnbIo rIghfs µrocInImod by fho ÐocInrnfIon of Indoµondonco nnd
omboddod In our consfIfufIonnI sfrucfuro.¨). Affor nonrIy n confury In
whIch fho ConsfIfufIon snncfIonod rncInI sInvory nnd fho Suµromo
Courf found fhnf AfrIcnn AmorIcnns, ns nn onfIro cInss of µooµIo, ¨hnd
no rIghfs whIch fho whIfo mnn wns bound fo rosµocf,¨ DreJ Sco// t.
SonJforJ, 60 !.S. (l9 How.) 393, 40? (l85?), fho Iourfoonfh
Amondmonf codIfIod our foundIng µromIso of oqunIIfy fhrough fho foxf
of fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso. As fho Amondmonf`s frnmors oxµInInod
fImo nnd ngnIn, fho gunrnnfoo of fho oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inws wns
¨ossonfInIIy docInrod In fho ÐocInrnfIon of Indoµondonco,¨ Cong. CIobo,
39
fh
Cong., l
sf
Soss. 296l (l866), nnd wns nocossnry fo socuro fho
µromIso of IIborfy for nII µorsons. ¨How cnn ho hnvo nnd onjoy oqunI
rIghfs of 'IIfo, IIborfy, nnd fho µursuIf of hnµµInoss` wIfhouf 'oqunI
µrofocfIon of fho Inws¨` ThIs Is so soIf-ovIdonf nnd jusf fhnf no mnn . . .
cnn fnII fo soo nnd nµµrocInfo If.¨ 1J. nf 2539.
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Tho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf, of courso, wns Infondod nof onIy fo
rosforo fho gunrnnfoo of oqunIIfy fo Ifs rIghffuI consfIfufIonnI µInco, buf
nIso fo socuro n brond, unIvorsnI gunrnnfoo of oqunI rIghfs fhnf wouId
µrofocf oll µorsons. WhIIo fho Amondmonf`s frnmors woro obvIousIy
focusod on onsurIng oqunIIfy undor fho Inw for nowIy frood sInvos, fhoy
wrofo fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso fo oIImInnfo n whoIo hosf of
dIscrImInnfory sfnfo µrncfIcos, nof jusf dIscrImInnfIon on fho bnsIs of
rnco, fhroughouf fho nnfIon. ThIs brond vIow of fho scoµo of fho IqunI
IrofocfIon CInuso nffIrms fhnf fho CInuso`s ¨noufrnI µhrnsIng,¨
¨oxfondIng Ifs gunrnnfoo fo 'nny µorson,`¨ J.1.B., 5ll !.S. nf l52
(Konnody, J., concurrIng), wns Infondod fo socuro oqunIIfy for nII.
Ior oxnmµIo, fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s frnmors wnnfod fo
gunrnnfoo oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inws fo non-cIfIzons, who fncod
µorvnsIvo dIscrImInnfIon In fho wosforn !nIfod Sfnfos. Congrossmnn
John IInghnm, ono of fhoso rosµonsIbIo for drnffIng fho Iourfoonfh
Amondmonf, domnndod fhnf ¨nII µorsons, whofhor cIfIzons or sfrnngors,
wIfhIn fhIs Innd . . . hnvo oqunI µrofocfIon In ovory Sfnfo In fhIs !nIon
In fho rIghfs of IIfo nnd IIborfy nnd µroµorfy.¨ Cong. CIobo, 39
fh
Cong.,
l
sf
Soss. l090 (l866). Indood, In l8?0, fwo yonrs nffor fho Iourfoonfh
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Amondmonf`s rnfIfIcnfIon, Congross usod Ifs oxµross consfIfufIonnI
µowor fo onforco fho Amondmonf`s gunrnnfoo of oqunIIfy undor fho Inw
fo nII µorsons by µnssIng fho Inforcomonf Acf of l8?0. ThIs Acf socurod
fo ¨nII µorsons wIfhIn fho jurIsdIcfIon of fho !nIfod Sfnfos¨ fho ¨snmo
rIghf . . . fo mnko nnd onforco confrncfs, fo suo, bo µnrfIos, gIvo
ovIdonco, nnd fo fho fuII nnd oqunI bonofIf of nII Inws nnd µrocoodIngs
for fho socurIfy of µorson nnd µroµorfy ns Is onjoyod by whIfo cIfIzons,¨
nnd µrofocfod ngnInsf fho ¨doµrIvnfIon of nny rIghf socurod or µrofocfod
by fho Insf µrocodIng socfIon of fhIs ncf, or fo dIfforonf µunIshmonf,
µnIns, or µonnIfIos on nccounf of such µorson boIng nn nIIon . . . .¨ l6
Sfnf. l40, l44; Cong. CIobo, 4l
sf
Cong., 2
nd
Soss. 3658 (l8?0) (¨|W]o wIII
µrofocf ChInoso nIIons or nny ofhor nIIons whom wo nIIow fo como horo,
. . .; Iof fhom bo µrofocfod by nII fho Inws nnd fho snmo Inws fhnf ofhor
mon nro.¨); iJ. nf 38?l (obsorvIng fhnf ¨ImmIgrnnfs¨ woro ¨µorsons
wIfhIn fho oxµross words¨ of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf ¨onfIfIod fo
fho oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inws¨).
In nddIfIon, whIfo !nIonIsfs noodod fho oqunI µrofocfIon of fho
Inws fo onsuro fhnf Soufhorn sfnfo govornmonfs rosµocfod fhoIr
fundnmonfnI rIghfs. McDonolJ, l30 S. Cf. nf 3043 (dIscussIng fho
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¨µIIghf of whIfos In fho Soufh who oµµosod fho IInck Codos¨); Cong.
CIobo, 39
fh
Cong., l
sf
Soss. l093 (l866) (¨Tho ndoµfIon of fhIs
nmondmonf Is ossonfInI fo fho µrofocfIon of fho !nIon mon¨ who ¨wIII
hnvo no socurIfy In fho fufuro oxcoµf by forco of nnfIonnI Inws gIvIng
fhom µrofocfIon ngnInsf fhoso who hnvo boon In nrms ngnInsf fhom.¨);
iJ. nf l263 (¨|W]hIfo mon . . . hnvo boon drIvon from fhoIr homos, nnd
hnvo hnd fhoIr Innds confIscnfod In Sfnfo courfs, undor Sfnfo Inws, for
fho crImo of IoynIfy fo fhoIr counfry . . . .¨).
To socuro oqunIIfy nof onIy for fho nowIy frood sInvos buf for nII
µorsons wIfhIn fho !nIfod Sfnfos, fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s frnmors
choso brond unIvorsnI Inngungo sµocIfIcnIIy Infondod fo µrohIbIf
nrbIfrnry nnd InvIdIous dIscrImInnfIon nnd socuro oqunI rIghfs for nII.
2


2
Tho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s frnmors soffIod on fho wordIng of fho IqunI
IrofocfIon CInuso nffor nn oxhnusfIvo InvosfIgnfIon by fho JoInf CommIffoo on
!oconsfrucfIon, whIch fook fho Iond In drnffIng fho Amondmonf In Congross. Tho
JoInf CommIffoo`s Juno l866 roµorf, ¨wIdoIy roµrInfod In fho µross nnd dIsfrIbufod
by Mombors of fho 39
fh
Congross fo fhoIr consfIfuonfs,¨ McDonolJ, l30 S. Cf. nf
3039, found fhnf fho Soufhorn sfnfos rofusod fo ¨µInco fho coIorod rnco¨ uµon ¨forms
ovon of cIvII oqunIIfy,¨ or ¨foIornf|o] . . . nny cInss of µooµIo frIondIy fo fho !nIon, bo
fhoy whIfo or bInck . . . .¨ !IIO!T OI THI JOIÞT COMMITTII OÞ !ICOÞST!!CTIOÞ
xvII (l866). As fho oxfonsIvo fosfImony fnkon by fho JoInf CommIffoo showod, fho
frood sInvos nnd fhoIr !nIonIsf nIIIos hnd ns much chnnco of hnvIng fhoIr oqunI
rIghfs rosµocfod ns ¨n rnbbIf wouId In n don of IIons.¨ 1J., µf II, l?. AccordIngIy, fho
commIffoo chnrgod wIfh drnffIng fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf wrofo fho IqunI
IrofocfIon CInuso fo oIImInnfo sfnfo Inws nnd µrncfIcos fhnf vIoInfod fho
fundnmonfnI rIghfs of µnrfIcuInr cInssos of µooµIo, bnsod on moro fhnn jusf rnco.
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Tho JoInf CommIffoo fhnf drnffod fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf rojocfod
numorous µroµosnIs fhnf wouId hnvo IImIfod fho Iourfoonfh
Amondmonf`s oqunIIfy gunrnnfoo fo n µrohIbIfIon on Inws fhnf
dIscrImInnfod on nccounf of rnco, µroforrIng fho unIvorsnI gunrnnfoo of
oqunI µrofocfIon, whIch socurod oqunI rIghfs fo nII µorsons, fo n rnco-
sµocIfIc gunrnnfoo of oqunIIfy fhnf µroscrIbod rncInI dIscrImInnfIon nnd
nofhIng oIso. See IIÞJAMIÞ I. KIÞÐ!ICK, THI JO!!ÞA! OI THI JOIÞT
COMMITTII OI IIITIIÞ OÞ !ICOÞST!!CTIOÞ 46, 50, 83 (l9l4). Whofhor
fho µroµosnIs woro brond In scoµo or woro nnrrowIy drnffod fo µrohIbIf
rncInI dIscrImInnfIon In cIvII rIghfs, fho frnmors consIsfonfIy rojocfod
IImIfIng fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s oqunIIfy gunrnnfoo fo rncInI
dIscrImInnfIon. See J.1.B., 5ll !.S. nf l5l (Konnody, J., concurrIng)
(¨Though In somo InIfInI drnffs fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf wns wrIffon
fo µrohIbIf dIscrImInnfIon ngnInsf 'µorsons bocnuso of rnco, coIor or
µrovIous condIfIon of sorvIfudo,` fho Amondmonf submIffod for
consIdornfIon nnd Infor rnfIfIod confnInod moro comµrohonsIvo forms.¨);
AKHI! !IIÐ AMA!, THI II!! OI !ICHTS: C!IATIOÞ AÞÐ !ICOÞST!!CTIOÞ
260-26l n.* (l998) (¨|S]ocfIon l µoInfodIy sµoko nof of rnco buf of moro
gonornI IIborfy nnd oqunIIfy.¨).
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Tho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s swooµIng gunrnnfoo of oqunI
µrofocfIon monnf, fIrsf nnd foromosf, oqunIIfy undor fho Inw nnd
oqunIIfy of rIghfs for nII µorsons. !ndor fho µInIn foxf, fhIs swooµIng
gunrnnfoo unnmbIguousIy nµµIIos fo fho µInInfIffs In fhIs cnso nnd fo nII
gny mon nnd IosbInns who wIsh fo oxorcIso fho rIghf fo mnrry fho
µorson of fhoIr choIco.
++B #3% -(+)+'$/ &%$'+') -. #3% %D1$/ 0(-#%,#+-'
,/$1"% ,-'.+(&" #3$# +#" )1$($'#%% -. %D1$/
(+)3#" $'* %D1$/+#A 1'*%( #3% /$F $00/+%"
2(-$*/A #- $// 0%("-'"
Tho orIgInnI monnIng of fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso confIrms
whnf fho foxf mnkos cIonr: fhnf oqunIIfy of rIghfs nnd oqunIIfy undor
fho Inw nµµIy brondIy fo nny nnd nII µorsons wIfhIn fho !nIfod Sfnfos.
Tho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s frnmors` own oxµInnnfIons durIng
congrossIonnI dobnfos, µross covorngo of fho µroµosnI nnd rnfIfIcnfIon
µrocoss, nnd fho Suµromo Courf`s onrIIosf docIsIons InforµrofIng fho
CInuso nII nffIrm fhIs bnsIc undorsfnndIng.
InfroducIng fho Amondmonf In fho Sonnfo, Jncob Hownrd
oxµInInod fhnf fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso ¨osfnbIIshos oqunIIfy boforo
fho Inw, nnd . . . gIvos fo fho humbIosf, fho µoorosf, nnd mosf dosµIsod
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. . . fho snmo rIghfs nnd fho snmo µrofocfIon boforo fho Inw ns If gIvos fo
fho mosf µoworfuI, fho mosf wonIfhy, or fho mosf hnughfy.¨ Cong.
CIobo, 39
fh
Cong., l
sf
Soss. 2?66 (l866). Tho gunrnnfoo of oqunI
µrofocfIon, ho wonf on, ¨nboIIshos nII cInss IogIsInfIon In fho Sfnfos nnd
doos nwny wIfh fho InjusfIco of subjocfIng ono cnsfo of µorsons fo n codo
nof nµµIIcnbIo fo nnofhor. . . . If µrofocfs fho bInck mnn In hIs
fundnmonfnI rIghfs ns n cIfIzon wIfh fho snmo shIoId whIch If fhrows
ovor fho whIfo mnn.¨ 1J. See oleo iJ. nf 296l (nofIng fhnf fho IqunI
IrofocfIon CInuso nImod fo ¨uµroof nnd dosfroy . . . µnrfInI Sfnfo
IogIsInfIon¨); iJ. nf nµµ. 2l9 (oxµInInIng fhnf fho CInuso wns nocossnry
bocnuso Soufhorn sfnfos hnd ¨nn nµµofIfo so dIsonsod ns sooks . . . fo
dony fo nII cInssos of Ifs cIfIzons fho µrofocfIon of oqunI Inws¨).
Sonnfor Hownrd`s rondIng of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonfnovor
confrovorfod durIng fho dobnfos nnd wIdoIy roµorfod ¨In mnjor
nowsµnµors ncross fho counfry,¨ McDonolJ, l30 S. Cf. nf 30?4 (Thomns,
J., concurrIng)domonsfrnfod fhnf ¨|f]ho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso wns
Infondod fo work nofhIng Ioss fhnn fho nboIIfIon of nII cnsfo-bnsod nnd
InvIdIous cInss-bnsod IogIsInfIon,¨ Pl,ler t. Doe, 45? !.S. 202, 2l3
(l982), onsurIng ¨fho Inw`s noufrnIIfy whoro fho rIghfs of µorsons nro nf
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sfnko.¨ Ioner, 5l? !.S. nf 623. Indood, Hownrd`s sµooch wns so cIosoIy
foIIowod fhnf ¨µubIIc dIscussIon of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf
commonIy roforrod fo fho µroµosnI ns fho 'Hownrd Amondmonf.`¨ Kurf
T. !nsh, Tle Cone/i/u/ionol IeferenJun of 1S66. AnJreu Jolneon onJ
/le Originol Meoning of /le Pritilegee or 1nnuni/iee Clouee, l0l CIO.
!.J. l2?5, l299-l300 (20l3).
In fho Houso, fho frnmors, foo, omµhnsIzod fhnf oqunIIfy of rIghfs
nnd oqunIIfy undor fho Inw woro fho fouchsfono of fho oqunI µrofocfIon
gunrnnfoo. Thnddous Sfovons obsorvod fhnf ¨|w]hnfovor Inw µrofocfs
fho whIfo mnn shnII nfford 'oqunI` µrofocfIon fo fho bInck mnn.
Whnfovor monns of rodross Is nffordod fo ono shnII bo nffordod fo nII,¨
Cong. CIobo, 39
fh
Cong., l
sf
Soss. 2459 (l866), whIIo fufuro IrosIdonf
Jnmos CnrfIoId oxµInInod fhnf fho CInuso ¨h|o]Id ovor ovory AmorIcnn
cIfIzon, wIfhouf rognrd fo coIor, fho µrofocfIng shIoId of fho Inw.¨ 1J. nf
2462. Tho µInIn monnIng of oqunI µrofocfIon, frnmor nffor frnmor
oxµInInod, wns fhnf fho ¨Inw whIch oµornfos uµon ono mnn shnII
oµornfo equoll, uµon nII,¨ iJ. nf 2459 (omµhnsIs In orIgInnI), fhoroby
¨socurIng nn oqunIIfy of rIghfs fo nII cIfIzons of fho !nIfod Sfnfos, nnd of
nII µorsons wIfhIn fhoIr jurIsdIcfIon.¨ 1J. nf 2502.
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Þowsµnµor covorngo of fho dobnfos ovor rnfIfIcnfIon of fho
Iourfoonfh Amondmonf confIrms fhIs snmo bnsIc undorsfnndIng of fho
oqunI µrofocfIon gunrnnfoo. In nn nrfIcIo onfIfIod ¨Tho ConsfIfufIonnI
Amondmonf,¨ µubIIshod shorfIy nffor Congross sonf fho Iourfoonfh
Amondmonf fo fho sfnfos for rnfIfIcnfIon, fho Cincinno/i Connerciol
oxµInInod fhnf fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf wrofo Info fho ConsfIfufIon
¨fho gronf ÐomocrnfIc µrIncIµIo of oqunIIfy boforo fho Inw,¨ InvnIIdnfIng
nII ¨IogIsInfIon hosfIIo fo nny cInss.¨ Cincinno/i Connerciol, Juno 2l,
l866, nf 4. ¨WIfh fhIs socfIon ongrnffod uµon fho ConsfIfufIon, If wIII bo
ImµossIbIo for nny !ogIsInfuro fo onncf sµocInI codos for ono cInss of Ifs
cIfIzons . . . .¨ 1J. Iross covorngo omµhnsIzod fhnf fho Amondmonf ¨µuf
In fho fundnmonfnI Inw fho docInrnfIon fhnf nII cIfIzons woro onfIfIod fo
oqunI rIghfs In fhIs !oµubIIc,¨ Clicogo TriIune, Aug. 2, l866, µ.2,
µIncIng nII ¨fhroughouf fho Innd uµon fho snmo foofIng of oqunIIfy
boforo fho Inw, In ordor fo µrovonf unoqunI IogIsInfIon . . . .¨ Cincinno/i
Connerciol, Aug. 20, l866, µ.2. See ChnrIos InIrmnn, Doee /le
Iour/een/l AnenJnen/ 1ncorporo/e /le Bill of Iigl/e:, 2 STAÞ. !. !IV.
5, ?2-?5 (l949) (dIscussIng µross covorngo).
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l6

In shorf, If wns commonIy undorsfood nf fho fImo fho Iourfoonfh
Amondmonf wns rnfIfIod fhnf fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso ¨wns
Infondod fo µromofo oqunIIfy In fho Sfnfos, nnd fo fnko from fho Sfnfos
fho µowor fo mnko cInss IogIsInfIon nnd fo cronfo InoqunIIfy nmong fhoIr
µooµIo.¨ Cong. CIobo, 42
nd
Cong., 2
nd
Soss. 84? (l8?2).
ConsIsfonf wIfh fhIs hIsfory nnd fho cIonr nnd unoquIvocnI
consfIfufIonnI foxf, fho Suµromo Courf quIckIy confIrmod fho brond
ronch of fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso`s gunrnnfoo of oqunIIfy undor fho
Inw nnd oqunIIfy of rIghfs. In l880, fho Courf oxµInInod fhnf ¨|f]ho
Iourfoonfh Amondmonf mnkos no nffomµf fo onumornfo fho rIghfs If
|Is] dosIgnod fo µrofocf. If sµonks In gonornI forms, nnd fhoso nro ns
comµrohonsIvo ns µossIbIo. Ifs Inngungo Is µrohIbIfory; buf ovory
µrohIbIfIon ImµIIos fho oxIsfonco of rIghfs nnd ImmunIfIos, µromInonf
nmong whIch Is nn ImmunIfy from InoqunIIfy of IognI µrofocfIon, oIfhor
for IIfo, IIborfy, or µroµorfy.¨ S/rouJer t. Wee/ Virginio, l00 !.S. 303,
3l0 (l880). See oleo BorIier t. Connoll,, ll3 !.S. 2?, 3l (l885) (¨Tho
fourfoonfh nmondmonf . . . undoubfodIy Infondod . . . fhnf oqunI
µrofocfIon nnd socurIfy shouId bo gIvon fo nII undor IIko cIrcumsfnncos
In fho onjoymonf of fhoIr µorsonnI nnd cIvII rIghfs; fhnf nII µorsons
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l?

shouId bo oqunIIy onfIfIod fo µursuo fhoIr hnµµInoss . . . .¨); Citil Iigl/e
Coeee, l09 !.S. nf 24 (¨|C]Inss IogIsInfIon . . . |Is] obnoxIous fo fho
µrohIbIfIons of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf . . . .¨); Ho Al Kou t.
Aunon, l2 I. Cns. 252, 256 (C.C.Ð. CnI. l8?9) (IIoId, J.) (¨|H]osfIIo nnd
dIscrImInnfIng IogIsInfIon by n sfnfo ngnInsf µorsons of nny cInss, socf,
crood or nnfIon, In whnfovor form . . . Is forbIddon by fho fourfoonfh
nmondmonf . . . .¨).
3

Suµromo Courf µrocodonf fodny fIrmIy osfnbIIshos fhnf fho IqunI
IrofocfIon CInuso roquIros ¨noufrnIIfy whoro fho rIghfs of µorsons nro
nf sfnko,¨ forbIddIng sfnfos from ¨sIngIIng ouf n corfnIn cInss of cIfIzons
for dIsfnvorod IognI sfnfus or gonornI hnrdshIµs . . . .¨ Ioner, 5l? !.S.
nf 623, 633. Tho consfIfufIonnI gunrnnfoo of oqunI µrofocfIon

3
In Pleee, t. Iergueon, l63 !.S. 53? (l896), fho Suµromo Courf furnod Ifs bnck on
fhoso µrIncIµIos, uµhoIdIng onforcod rncInI sogrognfIon on fho fhoory fhnf Inws
roquIrIng fho soµnrnfIon of AfrIcnn AmorIcnns nnd whIfo µorsons In µubIIc µIncos
¨do nof . . . ImµIy fho InforIorIfy of oIfhor rnco fo fho ofhor . . . .¨ 1J. nf 544. JusfIco
HnrInn, nIono fnIfhfuI fo fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s foxf nnd hIsfory,
domonsfrnfod fhnf onforcod rncInI sogrognfIon vIoInfod fho Iourfoonfh
Amondmonf`s gunrnnfoo of oqunIIfy undor fho Inw nnd oqunIIfy of rIghfs: ¨|I]n fho
oyo of fho Inw, fhoro Is In fhIs counfry no suµorIor, domInnnf ruIIng cInss of cIfIzons.
Thoro Is no cnsfo horo. Our consfIfufIon Is coIor-bIInd, nnd noIfhor knows nor
foIornfos cInssos nmong cIfIzons. In rosµocf of cIvII rIghfs, nII cIfIzons nro oqunI
boforo fho Inw. . . .¨ 1J. nf 559 (HnrInn, J., dIssonfIng).
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l8

¨wIfhdrnws from Covornmonf fho µowor fo dogrndo or domonn,¨
µrovonfIng sfnfos from ncfIng fo ¨dIsµnrngo nnd Injuro¨ gny nnd
IosbInns couµIos, dony fhoIr oqunI dIgnIfy, nnd fronf fhoIr IovIng
roInfIonshIµs ns ¨Ioss rosµocfod fhnn ofhors.¨ WinJeor, ll3 S. Cf. nf
2695, 2696; Sni/l/line Beeclon Corp. t. AIIo// LoIe., Þos. ll-l?35?,
l?3?3, sIIµ oµ. nf 25 (9fh CIr. Jnn. 2l, 20l4) (oxµInInIng fhnf WinJeor
roquIros courfs ¨fo onsuro fhnf our mosf fundnmonfnI InsfIfufIons
noIfhor sond nor roInforco mossngos of sfIgmn or socond cInss sfnfus¨).
!ndor fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso, sfnfos mny nof dony fo gny mon or
IosbInns rIghfs bnsIc fo ¨ordInnry cIvIc IIfo In n froo socIofy,¨ Ioner, 5l?
!.S. nf 63l, ¨fo mnko fhom unoqunI fo ovoryono oIso.¨ 1J. nf 635.
+++B #3% %D1$/ 0(-#%,#+-' ,/$1"% )1$($'#%%" $//
0%("-'" $' %D1$/ (+)3# #- &$((A #3% 0%("-'
-. #3%+( ,3-+,%
Tho frnmors of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf rocognIzod fho rIghf fo
mnrry ns n bnsIc cIvII rIghf of nII µorsons, ¨ono of fho vIfnI µorsonnI
rIghfs ossonfInI fo fho ordorIy µursuIf of hnµµInoss . . . .¨ Loting, 388
!.S. nf l2. Tho oqunIIfy of rIghfs socurod by fho Iourfoonfh
Amondmonf`s IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso fhus unquosfIonnbIy IncIudos
fho oqunI rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of ono`s choIco, ¨shoIforod by fho
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l9

Iourfoonfh Amondmonf ngnInsf fho Sfnfo`s unwnrrnnfod usurµnfIon,
dIsrognrd, or dIsrosµocf.¨ M.L.B. t. S.L.J, 5l9 !.S. l02, ll6 (l996).
Tho frnmors furfhor rocognIzod fho rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of
ono`s choosIng ns n crucInI comµononf of froodom nnd IIborfyn rIghf
fhnf hnd Iong boon donIod undor fho InsfIfufIon of sInvory. SInvos dId
nof hnvo fho rIghf fo mnrry, nnd sInvos In IovIng roInfIonshIµs oufsIdo
fho µrofocfIon of fho Inw woro fImo nnd ngnIn soµnrnfod whon ono sInvo
wns soId fo n dIsfnnf µnrf of fho Soufh. See HI!II!T C. C!TMAÞ, THI
I!ACK IAMI!Y IÞ S!AVI!Y AÞÐ I!IIÐOM, l?50-l925, nf 3l8 (l9?6). As
Son. Jncob Hownrd oxµInInod, n sInvo ¨hnd nof fho rIghf fo bocomo n
husbnnd or fnfhor In fho oyo of fho Inw, ho hnd no chIId, ho wns nof nf
IIborfy fo InduIgo fho nnfurnI nffocfIons of fho humnn honrf for chIIdron,
for wIfo, or ovon for frIond.¨ Cong. CIobo, 39
fh
Cong., l
sf
Soss. 504
(l866).
In fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf, fho frnmors fhus soughf fo
gunrnnfoo fo fho nowIy frood sInvos fho rIghf fo mnrry fhnf fhoy hnd
Iong boon donIod. ¨Tho nffrIbufos of n froomnn nccordIng fo fho
unIvorsnI undorsfnndIng of fho AmorIcnn µooµIo,¨ Son. Jncob Hownrd
obsorvod, IncIudod ¨fho rIghf of hnvIng n fnmIIy, n wIfo, chIIdron, homo.¨
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20

1J. Tho frnmors InsIsfod fhnf fho ¨µoor mnn, whoso wIfo mny bo
drossod In n chonµ cnIIco, Is ns much onfIfIod fo hnvo hor µrofocfod by
oqunI Inw ns Is fho rIch mnn fo hnvo hIs jowoIod brIdo µrofocfod by fho
Inws of fho Innd.¨ 1J. nf 343. Ivon oµµononfs of fho Iourfoonfh
Amondmonf rocognIzod fhnf ¨mnrrIngo nccordIng fo ono`s choIco Is n
cIvII rIghf.¨ 1J. nf 3l8. See oleo IICCY COOII! ÐAVIS, ÞIC!ICTIÐ
STO!IIS: THI COÞSTIT!TIOÞ & IAMI!Y VA!!IS 39 (l99?) (¨Sµonkor nffor
sµonkor µronouncod mnrrIngo rIghfs fundnmonfnI nnd rosoIvod fhnf
froodom In fho !nIfod Sfnfos wouId onfnII fho rIghf fo mnrry.¨); Sfovon
C. CnInbrosI & !IvIn IIno, Tuo Cleere for Profeeeor Bol/in`e
Originolien, l03 ÞW. !. !. !IV. 663, 6?0 (2009) (¨Tho common Inw . . .
hnd Iong rocognIzod n rIghf of mnrrIngo, nnd If wouId bo nsfonIshIng If
fhnf rIghf woro nof nIso doscrIbod In l868 ns hnvIng boon
fundnmonfnI.¨); JIII IInIno Hnsdny, IeJerolien onJ /le Ionil,
Iecone/ruc/eJ, 45 !.C.!.A. !. !IV. l29?, l338 (l998) (nofIng frnmors`
judgmonf fhnf fho froodom µromIsod by nboIIfIon ¨wns uIfImnfoIy
worfhIoss wIfhouf fho rIghf fo mnrry, fo rnIso n fnmIIy, nnd fo mnInfnIn
n homo¨).
4


4
In fho dobnfos durIng fho 39
fh
Congross, onIy ono mombor of fho Houso, !oµ.
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2l

Indood, fow rIghfs woro moro µrocIous fo fho nowIy frood sInvos
fhnn fho rIghf fo mnrry. WIfh fho nboIIfIon of sInvory, ¨ox-sInvos
fhomsoIvos µrossod for coromonIos nnd IognI rogIsfrnfIons fhnf nf onco
coIobrnfod fho now socurIfy of bInck fnmIIy IIfo nnd broughf fhoIr mosf
InfImnfo fIos Info conformIfy wIfh fho sfnndnrds of froodom.¨ II
I!IIÐOM: A ÐOC!MIÞTA!Y HISTO!Y OI IMAÞCIIATIOÞ, l86l-l86?, nf
660 (I. IorIIn of nI. ods. l982). ¨|M]nss woddIng coromonIos InvoIvIng
ns mnny ns sovonfy couµIos nf n fImo bocnmo n common sIghf In fho
µosfwnr Soufh.¨ !IOÞ I. !ITWACK, IIIÞ IÞ THI STO!M SO !OÞC: THI
AITI!MATH OI S!AVI!Y 240 (l9?9).
Tho nowIy frood sInvos rojoIcod fo fInnIIy, nf Iong Insf, hnvo fho
rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of fhoIr choIco µrofocfod nnd socurod by Inw.
As ono AfrIcnn AmorIcnn soIdIor µuf If, ¨I µrnIso Cod for fhIs dny! I
hnvo Iong boon µrnyIng for If. Tho MnrrIngo Covonnnf Is nf fho
foundnfIon of nII our rIghfs. In sInvory wo couId nof hnvo IognIIsod
mnrrIngo: now wo hnvo If.¨ II I!IIÐOM: A ÐOC!MIÞTA!Y HISTO!Y nf
6?2 (omµhnsIs omIffod). On Jnnunry l, l866, AfrIcnn AmorIcnns cnIIod

MouIfon, donIod fhnf fho rIghf fo mnrry wns n µrofocfod rIghf, ¨|b]uf ho know fhnf
ho wns In fho mInorIfy. . . . !oconsfrucfIon`s ndvocnfos woro Infonf on cronfIng . . .
consfIfufIonnI µrofocfIon for fnmIIInI rIghfs . . . .¨ Hnsdny, 45 !.C.!.A. !. !IV. nf
l350.
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22

fho fIrsf nnnIvorsnry of fho ImnncIµnfIon IrocInmnfIon ¨n dny of
grnfIfudo for fho froodom of mnfrImony. IormorIy, fhoro wns no
socurIfy for our domosfIc hnµµInoss. . . . Iuf now wo cnn mnrry nnd IIvo
fogofhor fIII wo dIo . . . .¨ Hnsdny, 45 !.C.!.A. !. !IV. nf l338 n.l46. In
shorf, fho rIghf fo mnrry ¨by fho nufhorIfy nnd µrofocfIon of !nw,¨
confIrmod fhnf fho nowIy frood sInvos, fInnIIy, woro ¨bogInnIng fo bo
rognrdod nnd fronfod ns humnn boIngs.¨ JAMIS MCIHI!SOÞ, THI
ÞIC!OIS` CIVI! WA! 604 (l99l).
In wrIfIng Info fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf n roquIromonf of
oqunIIfy undor fho Inw nnd oqunIIfy of bnsIc rIghfs for nII µorsons
whIch IncIudod fho rIghf fo mnrryfho Amondmonf`s frnmors onsurod
fhnf dIscrImInnfory sfnfo Inws wouId nof sfnnd In fho wny of AmorIcnns
oxorcIsIng fhoIr rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of fhoIr own choosIng. !nws
fhnf dIscrImInnfo nnd dony fo mombors of corfnIn grouµs fho rIghf fo
mnrry fho µorson of fhoIr choIco fhus confrnvono fho orIgInnI monnIng
of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf.
Tho Suµromo Courf hns mnny fImos vIndIcnfod fhIs µrIncIµIo.
Mosf fnmousIy, In Loting t. Virginio, fho Courf InvnIIdnfod fho Inws of
VIrgInIn nnd fIffoon ofhor sfnfos fhnf oufInwod InforrncInI mnrrIngo.
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23

ObsorvIng fhnf mnrrIngo Is ¨ono of fho 'bnsIc cIvII rIghfs of mnn,`¨
Loting, 388 !.S. nf l2 (quofIng S/inner, 3l6 !.S. nf 54l), fho Courf
hoId fho donInI of fho ¨fundnmonfnI froodom¨ fo mnrry ¨soIoIy bocnuso
of rncInI cInssIfIcnfIons vIoInfos fho confrnI monnIng of fho IqunI
IrofocfIon CInuso.¨ 1J.
5
¨Tho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf roquIros fhnf fho
froodom of choIco fo mnrry nof bo rosfrIcfod by InvIdIous rncInI
dIscrImInnfIons. !ndor our ConsfIfufIon, fho froodom fo mnrry or nof
mnrry, n µorson of nnofhor rnco rosIdos wIfh fho IndIvIdunI . . . .¨ 1J.
To uso nnofhor oxnmµIo, In ZoIloc/i t. IeJloil, 434 !.S. 3?4
(l9?8), fho Suµromo Courf hoId fhnf n WIsconsIn sfnfufo fhnf donIod
fho rIghf fo mnrry fo µnronfs who hnd fnIIod fo snfIsfy µro-oxIsfIng chIId
suµµorf obIIgnfIons vIoInfod fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso, omµhnsIzIng
fhnf fho ¨rIghf fo mnrry Is of fundnmonfnI Imµorfnnco for nII
IndIvIdunIs.¨ 1J. nf 384. ZoIloc/i oxµInInod fhnf Loting`s hoIdIng dId
nof doµond on ¨fho confoxf of rncInI dIscrImInnfIon,¨ buf rnfhor fhnf

5
Loting rosfod on fwo Indoµondonf grounds: fhnf VIrgInIn`s mnrrIngo Inw vIoInfod
fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso by dIscrImInnfIng on fho bnsIs of rnco nnd nIso fhnf If
vIoInfod fho subsfnnfIvo nsµocfs of fho Ðuo Irocoss CInuso by donyIng fho rIghf fo
mnrry fho µorson of ono`s choosIng. In fhIs brIof, whIch focusos on fho foxfunI nnd
hIsforIcnI ronsons for InvnIIdnfIng sfnfo mnrrIngo Inws fhnf fronf snmo-sox couµIos
dIfforonfIy fhnn oµµosIfo-sox couµIos, wo roIy on Loting sImµIy fo show fhnf fho
rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of ono`s choosIng musf bo µrovIdod oqunIIy fo nII. Our
focus Is on mnrrIngo oqunIIfy, nof fho sImIInrIfIos or dIfforoncossuch ns fhoy mny
bobofwoon dIsfIncfIons bnsod on rnco nnd soxunI orIonfnfIon, rosµocfIvoIy.
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24

¨fho Inws nrbIfrnrIIy doµrIvod fho couµIo of n fundnmonfnI IIborfy . . . ,
fho froodom fo mnrry.¨ 1J. nf 383-84. AµµIyIng sfrIcf scrufIny, fho
Courf InvnIIdnfod fho sfnfufo`s dIscrImInnfory donInI of fho rIghf fo
mnrry fo µnronfs who hnd fnIIod fo µny chIId suµµorf, fIndIng If Imµosod
¨n sorIous InfrusIon Info . . . froodom of choIco In nn nron In whIch wo
hnvo hoId such froodom fo bo fundnmonfnI.¨ 1J. nf 38?. Iocnuso fho
IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso socurod nn oqunI rIghf fo mnrry fo nII µorsons,
fho govornmonf couId nof µursuo Ifs IogIfImnfo Inforosf In onsurIng
µnymonf of chIId suµµorf obIIgnfIons by ¨unnocossnrIIy ImµIng|Ing] on
fho rIghf fo mnrry.¨ 1J. nf 388. See oleo M.L.B., 5l9 !.S. nf ll?
(¨ChoIcos nbouf mnrrIngo . . . nro nmong nssocInfIonnI rIghfs fhIs Courf
hns rnnkod ns 'of bnsIc Imµorfnnco In our socIofy,` rIghfs shoIforod by
fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf ngnInsf fho Sfnfo`s unwnrrnnfod
usurµnfIon, dIsrognrd, or dIsrosµocf.¨) (quofIng BoJJie t. Connec/icu/,
40l !.S. 3?l, 3?6 (l9?l)).
Iofh fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf`s foxf nnd hIsfory nnd Suµromo
Courf µrocodonf fhus osfnbIIsh fhnf fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso
commnnds fho oqunIIfy of rIghfs, IncIudIng fho rIghf fo mnrry. !nws
fhnf dony fho fundnmonfnI rIghf fo mnrry fo corfnIn cInssos of µooµIo
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25

nro subjocf fo sfrIcf scrufIny nnd musf bo nnrrowIy fnIIorod fo sorvo n
comµoIIIng sfnfo Inforosf. See ZoIloc/i, 434 !.S. nf 388; eee oleo
S/inner, 3l6 !.S. nf 54l (nµµIyIng sfrIcf scrufIny undor fho IqunI
IrofocfIon CInuso fo IogIsInfIon InvoIvIng ¨ono of fho bnsIc cIvII rIghfs of
mnn . . . Iosf unwIffIngIy or ofhorwIso InvIdIous dIscrImInnfIons nro
mndo ngnInsf grouµs or fyµos of IndIvIdunIs In vIoInfIon of fho
consfIfufIonnI gunrnnfoo of jusf nnd oqunI Inws¨). See generoll, !fnh
IInInfIffs-AµµoIIoos Ir. nf 39 n.9, 48-63 (nrguIng fhnf hoIghfonod
scrufIny nµµIIos In fhIs cnso).
6

+EB #3% &$((+$)% /$F" -. 1#$3 $'* -G/$3-&$
+'.(+')% #3% %D1$/ (+)3# #- &$((A $'* #31"
E+-/$#% #3% )1$($'#%% -. #3% %D1$/
0(-#%,#+-' ,/$1"% #3$# $// 0%("-'" "3$//
3$E% %D1$/+#A 1'*%( #3% /$F
Tho mnrrIngo Inws of !fnh nnd OkInhomn vIoInfo bnsIc, woII-
soffIod oqunI µrofocfIon µrIncIµIos. Iy forbIddIng IovIng, commIffod

6
In Turner t. Sofle,, 482 !.S. ?8 (l98?), fho Suµromo Courf dId nof nµµIy sfrIcf
scrufIny, nµµIyIng Insfond ronsonnbIonoss rovIow bocnuso fho chnIIongo nroso In fho
µrIson confoxf. Ivon undor fhIs doforonfInI sfnndnrd of rovIow, howovor, fho Courf
nonofhoIoss found fhnf fho sfnfo hnd no IogIfImnfo bnsIs for donyIng µrIsonors fho
rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of fhoIr own choosIng. CorfnInIy, If fho rIghf fo mnrry Is
so fundnmonfnI fhnf fhoro Is no ronsonnbIo bnsIs for donyIng fho rIghf fo
Incnrcornfod µrIsonors, fhoro Is no bnsIs undor nny sfnndnrd of scrufInybuf
osµocInIIy undor sfrIcf scrufInyfor donyIng fhnf rIghf fo commIffod, IovIng, snmo-
sox couµIos. See !fnh IInInfIffs-AµµoIIoos Ir. nf 63-86 (domonsfrnfIng fhnf !fnh`s
Inw cnnnof survIvo rnfIonnI bnsIs rovIow, much Ioss hoIghfonod scrufIny).
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26

snmo-sox couµIos from µnrfIcIµnfIng In fho ¨fho mosf Imµorfnnf roInfIon
In IIfo,¨ nnd fho ¨foundnfIon of fho fnmIIy In our socIofy,¨ Mo,norJ t.
Hill, l25 !.S. l90, 205, 2ll (l888), quo/eJ in ZoIloc/i, 434 !.S. nf 386,
fhoso sfnfo Inws confrnvono fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso`s confrnI
gunrnnfoo of oqunIIfy undor fho Inw nnd oqunI rIghfs rofIocfod In bofh
fho foxf nnd hIsfory of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf. Thoso sfnfo Inws
osfnbIIsh n cInss-bnsod bndgo of InforIorIfy fhnf ¨dIsµnrngo nnd Injuro¨
fho µorsonnI dIgnIfy nnd IIborfy of gny mon nnd IosbInns nnd fhoIr
fnmIIIos, fronfIng fhoIr IovIng roInfIonshIµs ns ¨Ioss rosµocfod fhnn
ofhors.¨ WinJeor, l33 S. Cf. nf 2696.
ÐonyIng gny mon nnd IosbInns fho rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of
fhoIr choosIng Is InconsIsfonf wIfh fho foxf of fho IqunI IrofocfIon
CInuso, whIch socuros oqunIIfy of rIghfs fo nII µorsons, rognrdIoss of
soxunI orIonfnfIon, eee WinJeor, eupro; Ioner, eupro, nnd Ifs hIsfory,
whIch domonsfrnfos fhnf fho rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of ono`s choosIng
Is n bnsIc nnd fundnmonfnI rIghf, gunrnnfood fo nII µorsons undor fho
Iourfoonfh Amondmonf. Tho chnIIongod sfnfo Inws nro µrohIbIfod cInss
IogIsInfIon, ¨sfnfus-bnsod onncfmonf|s]¨ fhnf dony snmo-sox couµIos fho
rIghf fo mnrry In ordor fo ¨fo mnko fhom unoqunI fo ovoryono oIso.¨
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2?

Ioner, 5l? !.S. nf 635. !ndor !fnh nnd OkInhomn Inw, mon nnd
womon who Iovo nnd chooso fo mnrry somoono of fho snmo sox do nof
sfnnd oqunI boforo fho Inw nnd do nof rocoIvo Ifs oqunI µrofocfIon.
Þo consfIfufIonnIIy IogIfImnfo rnfIonnIoIof nIono nny comµoIIIng
sfnfo InforosfjusfIfIos fhoso sfnfos` rofusnIs fo nccord gny mon nnd
IosbInns fho rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of fhoIr choosIng. As In WinJeor,
l33 S. Cf. nf 2696, ¨no IogIfImnfo µurµoso ovorcomos fho µurµoso nnd
offocf fo dIsµnrngo nnd fo Injuro,¨ snmo-sox couµIos In commIffod, IovIng
roInfIonshIµs, ¨whoso mornI nnd soxunI choIcos fho ConsfIfufIon
µrofocfs.¨ 1J. nf 2694. Inr from furfhorIng nny IogIfImnfo sfnfo gonIs
connocfod fo mnrrIngo, fhoso dIscrImInnfory Inws dIssorvo fhom,
¨humIIInf|Ing] . . . fhousnnds of chIIdron now boIng rnIsod by snmo sox
couµIos¨ nnd ¨mnk|Ing] If ovon moro dIffIcuIf for fho chIIdron fo
undorsfnnd fho InfogrIfy nnd cIosonoss of fhoIr own fnmIIy . . . .¨ 1J. In
sum, ns fho courfs boIow µroµorIy hoId, fhoso sfnfo µrohIbIfIons cronfo
nn ¨nrbIfrnry oxcIusIon bnsod on fho mnjorIfy`s dIsnµµrovnI,¨ Bielop t.
Ini/eJ S/o/ee ex rel. HolJer, 20l4 W! ll60l3, nf *32 (Þ.Ð. OkIn. Jnn.
l4, 20l4), fhnf ¨µorµofunfos InoqunIIfy,¨ ¨domonns fho dIgnIfy of snmo-
sox couµIos,¨ nnd ¨don|Ios] ono of fho mosf frndIfIonnI nsµocfs of
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28

mnrrIngo¨: ¨fho rIghf fo form n fnmIIy fhnf Is sfrongfhonod by n
µnrfnorshIµ bnsod on Iovo, InfImncy, nnd shnrod rosµonsIbIIIfIos.¨
Ki/clen t. HerIer/, 20l3 W! 669?8?4, nf *29 (Ð. !fnh Ðoc., 20, 20l3).
Confrnry fo fho nrgumonfs suggosfod by fho sfnfos In suµµorf of
fhoIr dIscrImInnfory mnrrIngo Inws, fho foxf nnd fIrsf µrIncIµIos fho
frnmors wrofo Info fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf confroI fhIs Courf`s
consfIfufIonnI nnnIysIs, nof µurµorfod ¨frndIfIonnI¨ undorsfnndIngs of
mnrrIngo. ¨Þo frndIfIon cnn suµorsodo fho ConsfIfufIon.¨ Iu/on t.
IepuIlicon Por/, of 1llinoie, 49? !.S. 62, 95 n.l (l990) (ScnIIn, J.,
dIssonfIng). See Lourence t. Texoe, 539 !.S. 558, 5??-?8 (2003) (¨'|T]ho
fncf fhnf fho govornIng mnjorIfy In n Sfnfo hns frndIfIonnIIy vIowod n
µnrfIcuInr µrncfIco ns ImmornI Is nof n suffIcIonf ronson for uµhoIdIng n
Inw µrohIbIfIng fho µrncfIco; noIfhor hIsfory or frndIfIon couId snvo n
Inw µrohIbIfIng mIscogonnfIon from consfIfufIonnI nffnck.`¨) (quofIng
Bouere t. HorJuic/, 4?8 !.S. l86, 2l6 (l986) (Sfovons, J., dIssonfIng));
BJ. of Coun/, Conn`re, WouIuneee Coun/,, Kon. t. InIelr, 5l8 !.S.
668, 68l (l996) (rojocfIng n ¨sµocInI oxcoµfIon¨ fo fho IIrsf
Amondmonf`s µrofocfIon of µoIIfIcnI sµooch bnsod on n ¨'Iong nnd
unbrokon frndIfIon`¨ of ¨nIIocnfIon of govornmonf confrncfs on fho bnsIs
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29

of µoIIfIcnI bIns¨) (cIfnfIon omIffod); Heller t. Doe, 509 !.S. 3l2, 326
(l993) (¨AncIonf IInongo of n IognI concoµf doos nof gIvo If ImmunIfy
from nffnck . . . .¨); Iu/on, 49? !.S. nf 92 (Sfovons, J., concurrIng) (¨Tho
frndIfIon fhnf Is roIovnnf In fhoso cnsos Is fho AmorIcnn commIfmonf fo
oxnmIno nnd rooxnmIno µnsf nnd µrosonf µrncfIcos ngnInsf fho bnsIc
µrIncIµIos ombodIod In fho ConsfIfufIon.¨).
?
If n so-cnIIod frndIfIon or
hIsfory of dIscrImInnfIon woro suffIcIonf fo jusfIfy µorµofunfIng fho
dIscrImInnfory µrncfIco, our µubIIc schooIs, drInkIng founfnIns, nnd
swImmIng µooIs wouId sfIII bo sogrognfod by rnco.
Thoso µrIncIµIos nµµIy wIfh sµocInI forco fo fho IqunI IrofocfIon
CInuso, whIch chnngod fho ConsfIfufIon from ono fhnf snncfIonod
InoqunIIfy fo ono fhnf µrohIbIfod If. Tho vory µoInf of fho CInuso wns fo
sfoµ dond In Ifs frncks fho sfnfo ¨frndIfIon¨ of donyIng fo AfrIcnn
AmorIcnnsnnd ofhor dIsfnvorod grouµsoqunI rIghfs undor fho Inw.
As fnr ns fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso Is concornod, dIscrImInnfory

?
ThIs Is fruo ovon of frndIfIons oxIsfIng nf fho fImo of fho rnfIfIcnfIon of fho
Iourfoonfh Amondmonf. See PlonneJ Poren/looJ t. Coee,, 505 !.S. 833, 848
(l992) (rojocfIng fho Idon fhnf ¨fho sµocIfIc µrncfIcos of Sfnfos nf fho fImo of fho
ndoµfIon of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf mnrks fho oufor IImIfs of fho subsfnnfIvo
sµhoro of IIborfy whIch fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf µrofocfs¨); Iu/on, 49? !.S. nf
82 n.2 (Sfovons, J., concurrIng) (rojocfIng fho nrgumonf fhnf ¨moro IongovIfy cnn
ImmunIzo from consfIfufIonnI rovIow sfnfo conducf fhnf wouId ofhorwIso vIoInfo fho
IIrsf Amondmonf¨).
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30

frndIfIons nro no µnrf of our nnfIon`s consfIfufIonnI frndIfIons. Cf.
InIelr, 5l8 !.S. nf 68l (oxµInInIng fhnf n frndIfIon of µoIIfIcnI bIns In
confrncfIng Is ¨nof . . . fho sfuff ouf of whIch fho Courf`s µrIncIµIos nro fo
bo formod¨) (cIfnfIon nnd quofnfIon mnrks omIffod).
InfonfIonnIIy drnffIng fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso In brond,
unIvorsnI forms, fho frnmors of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf doIIbornfoIy
fnrgofod fho onfIro rnngo of unoqunI Inws, IncIudIng n hosf of
IongsfnndIng, dIscrImInnfory sfnfo µrncfIcos. Af fho fImo of Ifs
rnfIfIcnfIon, dIscrImInnfIon ngnInsf fho nowIy frood sInvos, ns woII ns
ofhor µorsons, ¨hnd boon hnbIfunI. If wns woII known fhnf In somo
Sfnfos Inws mnkIng such dIscrImInnfIons fhon oxIsfod, nnd ofhors
mIghf woII bo oxµocfod.¨ S/rouJer, l00 !.S. nf 306. CnrvIng ouf of fho
foxf of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf nn oxcoµfIon for frndIfIonnI forms of
dIscrImInnfIon wouId hnvo sfrnngIod fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso In Ifs
crIb, subvorfIng Ifs confrnI monnIng. See 1llinoie S/o/e 1nplo,eee
Council 34 t. Leuie, 4?3 I.2d 56l, 568 n.l4 (?fh CIr. l9?2) (Sfovons, J.)
(¨|I]f fho ngo of n µornIcIous µrncfIco woro n suffIcIonf ronson for Ifs
confInuod nccoµfnnco, fho consfIfufIonnI nffnck on rncInI dIscrImInnfIon
wouId . . . hnvo boon doomod fo fnIIuro.¨). Thus, ¨frndIfIon¨ cnnnof snvo
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3l

n sfnfo Inw or µoIIcy fhnf confrnvonos fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso`s
commnnd of oqunIIfy undor fho Inw nnd oqunIIfy of rIghfs for nII
µorsons.
Tho Suµromo Courf`s cnsos vIndIcnfIng fho oqunI rIghf of nII
µorsons fo mnrry hnvo Iong rocognIzod fhIs bnsIc µoInf. Ior mnny yonrs
In fhIs counfry, sfnfos µrohIbIfod mnrrIngos bofwoon µorsons of
dIfforonf rncos, buf Loting hoId fhnf such n ¨frndIfIonnI¨ concoµf of
mnrrIngo vIoInfod fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf bocnuso ¨rosfrIcfIng fho
froodom fo mnrry soIoIy bocnuso of rncInI cInssIfIcnfIons vIoInfos fho
confrnI monnIng of fho IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso.¨ Loting, 388 !.S. nf
l2. See oleo Coee,, 505 !.S. nf 980 n.l (ScnIIn, J., dIssonfIng) (donyIng
fhnf ¨ndhoronco fo frndIfIon wouId roquIro us fo uµhoId Inws ngnInsf
InforrncInI mnrrIngo¨ bocnuso such n ¨frndIfIon¨ Is ¨confrndIcfod I, o
/ex/nn IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso fhnf oxµIIcIfIy osfnbIIshos rncInI
oqunIIfy ns n consfIfufIonnI vnIuo.¨) (omµhnsIs In orIgInnI). ¨|T]rndIfIon
nIono cnnnof jusfIfy donyIng snmo-sox couµIos fho rIghf fo mnrry nny
moro fhnn If couId jusfIfy VIrgInIn`s bnn on InforrncInI mnrrIngo.¨
Boe/ic t. Ioine,, CIvII Þo. l3-395, sIIµ oµ. nf 26 (I.Ð. Vn. Iob., l4,
20l4).
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32

If Is fhus of no consfIfufIonnI roIovnnco fhnf fho mnrrIngos Info
whIch IInInfIffs wIsh fo onfor hnvo Iong boon donIod IognI rocognIfIon.
As fho Suµromo Courf confIrmod In Loting, hIsfory Is n vnIId sourco of
InquIry for IdonfIfyIng bnsIc nnd fundnmonfnI consfIfufIonnI rIghfs nnd
µrofocfIons, buf hIsforIcnI ¨frndIfIon¨ cnnnof bo usod In nn IqunI
IrofocfIon CInuso nnnIysIs fo jusfIfy n Inw or µrncfIco fhnf donIos nny
grouµ fho oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inws. ÐonInI of fho oqunI rIghf fo
mnrryIIko ofhor fundnmonfnI consfIfufIonnI µrofocfIons¨'cnnnof bo
jusfIfIod on fho bnsIs of 'hIsfory.` . . . SImµIy µuf, n hIsfory or frndIfIon of
dIscrImInnfIonno mnffor how onfronchoddoos nof mnko fho
dIscrImInnfIon consfIfufIonnI.`¨ Kerrigon t. Conn`r of PuIlic Heol/l,
95? A.2d 40?, 4?8 (Conn. 2008) (quofIng HernonJec t. IoIlee, 855
Þ.I.2d l, 33 (Þ.Y. 2006) (Knyo, C.J., dIssonfIng)). See oleo Vornun t.
Brien, ?63 Þ.W.2d 862, 898-899 (Iown 2009) (concIudIng fhnf ¨somo
undorIyIng ronson ofhor fhnn fho µrosorvnfIon of frndIfIon musf bo
IdonfIfIod¨ bocnuso ¨|w]hon n corfnIn frndIfIon Is usod ns bofh fho
govornmonfnI objocfIvo nnd fho cInssIfIcnfIon fo furfhor fhnf objocfIvo,
fho oqunI µrofocfIon nnnIysIs Is frnnsformod Info fho cIrcuInr quosfIon
of whofhor fho cInssIfIcnfIon nccomµIIshos fho govornmonfnI objocfIvo,
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33

whIch objocfIvo Is fo mnInfnIn fho cInssIfIcnfIon.¨); GooJriJge t. Dep`/ of
PuIlic Heol/l, ?98 Þ.I.2d 94l, 9?3 (Mnss. 2003) (Cronnoy, J.,
concurrIng) (¨|T]ho mnnfrn of frndIfIon . . . cnn|nof] jusfIfy fho
µorµofunfIon of n hIornrchy In whIch couµIos of fho snmo sox nnd fhoIr
fnmIIIos nro doomod Ioss worfhy of socInI nnd IognI rocognIfIon fhnn
couµIos of fho oµµosIfo sox nnd fhoIr fnmIIIos.¨).
As fho foxf nnd hIsfory of fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf show, fho
IqunI IrofocfIon CInuso gunrnnfoos fo nII µorsonsrognrdIoss of rnco,
soxunI orIonfnfIon, or ofhor grouµ chnrncforIsfIcsoqunIIfy of rIghfs,
IncIudIng fho fundnmonfnI rIghf fo mnrry fho µorson of fhoIr choosIng.
Tho chnIIongod !fnh nnd OkInhomn Inws confIIcf wIfh fhIs
fundnmonfnI consfIfufIonnI µrIncIµIo, nnd fho Iowor courfs woro corrocf
fo hnvo InvnIIdnfod fhom.
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34

,-',/1"+-'
Tho judgmonf of fho dIsfrIcf courfs shouId bo nffIrmod.

!osµocffuIIy submIffod,
/s/ IIIznbofh I. Wydrn

IIIznbofh I. Wydrn* IIyn ShnµIro
COÞSTIT!TIOÞA! CATO IÞSTIT!TI
ACCO!ÞTAII!ITY CIÞTI! l000 Mnssnchusoffs Avo, ÞW
l200 l8
fh
Sf., ÞW, Sfo 50l WnshIngfon, ÐC 2000l
WnshIngfon, Ð.C. 20036 (202) 842-0200
(202) 296-6889
oIIznbofh¸fhousconsfIfufIon.org
*Couneel of IecorJ
Couneel for Anici Curioe
Ðnfod: Mnrch 4, 20l4
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 44 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 44
35

,%(#+.+,$#% -. ,-&0/+$',%
I horoby corfIfy fhnf fhIs brIof comµIIos wIfh fho fyµo-voIumo
IImIfnfIon of Iod. !. Aµµ. I. 32(n)(?)(I) nnd Iod. !. Aµµ. I. 29(d)
bocnuso If confnIns ?,000 words, oxcIudIng fho µnrfs of fho brIof
oxomµfod by Iod. !. Aµµ. I. 32(n)(?)(I)(III).
I furfhor corfIfy fhnf fho nffnchod brIof onici curioe comµIIos wIfh
fho fyµofnco roquIromonfs of Iod. !. Aµµ. I. 32(n)(5)nnd fho fyµo-sfyIo
roquIromonfs of Iod. !. Aµµ. I. 32(n)(6), bocnuso If hns boon µroµnrod
In n µroµorfIonnIIy sµncod fyµofnco usIng MIcrosoff Word l4-µoInf
Confury SchooIbook fonf.
Ixocufod fhIs 4
fh
dny of Mnrch, 20l4.
/s/ IIIznbofh I. Wydrn___
IIIznbofh I. Wydrn
Couneel for Anici Curioe
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 45 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 45
36

,%(#+.+,$#% -. "%(E+,%
I horoby corfIfy fhnf I oIocfronIcnIIy fIIod fho forogoIng wIfh fho
CIork of fho Courf for fho !nIfod Sfnfos Courf of AµµonIs for fho Tonfh
CIrcuIf by usIng fho nµµoIInfo CM/ICI sysfom on Mnrch 4, 20l4.
I corfIfy fhnf nII µnrfIos In fho cnso nro rogIsforod CM/ICI usors
nnd fhnf sorvIco wIII bo nccomµIIshod by fho nµµoIInfo CM/ICI sysfom.
Ixocufod fhIs 4
fh
dny of Mnrch, 20l4.
/s/ IIIznbofh I. Wydrn___
IIIznbofh I. Wydrn
Couneel for Anici Curioe
Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll730 Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 46 Appellate Case: l3-4l78 Document: 0l0l92ll80l Date Filed: 03/04/20l4 Page: 46
3?

%,. ,%(#+.+,$#+-'
Iursunnf fo SocfIon II(I) of fho Courf`s CM/ICI !sor`s MnnunI,
fho undorsIgnod corfIfIos:
l. AII roquIrod µrIvncy rodncfIons hnvo boon mndo;
2. Hnrd coµIos of fho forogoIng brIof roquIrod fo bo submIffod fo
fho cIork`s offIco nro oxncf coµIos of fho brIof ns fIIod vIn ICI; nnd
3. Tho brIof fIIod vIn ICI wns scnnnod for vIrusos usIng WIndows
Ðofondor nnd I-Socuro ISI WorksfnfIon SocurIfy l0.00 nnd nccordIng
fo fhnf soffwnro Is froo of vIrusos.
Ixocufod fhIs 4
fh
dny of Mnrch, 20l4.
/s/ IIIznbofh I. Wydrn___
IIIznbofh I. Wydrn
Couneel for Anici Curioe



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