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# Rebecca Hodges

ENERGY BALANCE QUESTIONS [Hint: make sure you answer in complete sentences. Do not use
 Evaluation of energy (kcalorie) needs:
My 3-day Average Energy Intake from the analysis program was:___1865.61____kcal (AEI)
My Energy Expenditure Estimate from the analysis program was:___2188______kcal (EEE)
A. Calculate your estimated caloric needs and complete the table (show your work):
Method Equation Estimated Compare to Compare to your
Needs Intake Expenditure
(EEN) (EEN-AEI) (EEN-EEE)
Estimated 354-(6.91x19)+[1.12x(9.36x51.36kg) 1922 1922- 1922- 2188 =
Energy +(726x1.6)] 1865.61 = -266
Requirement -56.39
(EER) 354-131.29+[1.12x(480.7)+(116.16)]
Equation 222.71+[654.5] =

Basal (.9kcal/kg/h x 51.36 kg x 24h) x 1.12 = 1242.50 1242.50 – 1242.50- 2188
Metabolism 1865.61 = =
x (Activity -623.11 -945.5
Factor)
DRI 2403 2403- 2403 – 2188 =
1865.61 = 215
537.39
.
b. Which of the methods to estimate your energy intake was closest to your energy
expenditure? Do you think that the methods to estimate energy intake and expenditure are
accurate for you? Explain.
DRI was closest to my energy expediter. No, I do not think the methods of estimating energy
expenditure are accurate for me because 1) I am need more than 1242.5kcal to function well and 2)
because the estimates were hundreds of calories away from a normal day's intake and expenditure.

C. Provided that the forms you entered were accurate and typical and if your EEE was
different from your AEI, discuss what effects your intake and expenditure will have on your
body weight over time (be specific, how much would you gain/lose over time)?
I have an energy intake deficit of 322.29kcal; and according to the formula in the notes:
322.29kcal x 7 days/week= 2256.03kcal = 0.64 ld/ week
So, I would loose 0.64 ld each week I continued that eating pattern.
D. Has your weight been stable over the past 6 months? If not, have you been trying to gain
or lose weight?
My weight has been moderately stable with a loss of about one pound. I have not been trying to loose
weight.
E. Do you think you need to make any changes in your energy intake or expenditure? If so,
how could you change your diet to better match your energy intake to your needs? If not,
justify why you do not need to make any changes.
I would benefit from eating one more peace of fruit a day. I would get extra vitamins plus the extra
calories, simple sugars and complex carbohydrates.

 Evaluation of macronutrient distribution:
A. Complete the following table about Macronutrients:
Macronutrient Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Your Macronutrient Percentages
Range (Percentage Range)
Fat 20-35% 36%
Protein 10-35% 18%
Carbohydrate 45-65% 46%

B. Do you need to make any changes in your macronutrient percentages? If so, what foods
would you add to your diet and/or what foods would you limit in your diet? If not, justify.
[Hint: discuss foods to change macronutrient distribution, not calories, not vitamins or
minerals.]
I could make some positive adjustments to my macronutrient intake. I might reduce my overall fat
intake because it is slightly over the recommended percentage. I might also substitute carbohydrates for
those fats because my carbohydrate percentage is in the low end of the range.

 Evaluation of fat intake:
A. Complete the following table about fat and cholesterol intake:

Saturated Fat <10 % kcal 16 % kcal cheddar cheese, shrimp with
butter
Monounsaturated Fat <20 % kcal 10 % kcal Oat and honey raisin cereal, trail
mix, blue cheese
Polyunsaturated Fat <10 % kcal 4 % kcal shrimp with butter, eggs, lice
cheese dressing

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Cholesterol <300 mg 324.56 mg milk, eggs, cheddar and jack
cheese, steak

B. How might the amount and type of fats that you currently consume affect your health over
the long-term?
I seem to be consuming too much saturated fat. It could cause weight gain, cardiovascular problems,
raise my LDL, and lower my HDL. Also, my cholesterol intake is too high. This may lead to
cardiovascular problems like heart attack. High cholesterol also increases blood pressure and could

C. Do you think you need to make any changes regarding your fat intake? If so, what specific
positive changes could you make in relation to your fat intake? If not, justify.
I should lower my saturated fat intake. I should also watch foods that have a lot of cholesterol. I can
monitor more closely the portion sizes of foods I know are fatty. I can look on the labels of the food that
I buy for fat content. I can replace fatty and high cholesterol snacks like chocolate or eggs with fruit as a
general change. I can also buy a cereal that is lower in fat. I can cut down on my intake of cheese or buy
low fat cheeses.

 Evaluation of carbohydrate intake:
A. Look at your food record. Do you think that you consume more simple sugars or
complex carbohydrates?
I consume more complex carbohydrates through bread, cereals and vegetables. My three day
carbohydrate average is 217.96 per day, while my three day sugar average is 75.31.

B. What is the RDA for carbohydrates?
130g/day

C. What is the guideline for intake of added/simple sugars (specifically, what is the
maximum recommended percentage range of total daily calories that should come from
5-10%

D. What are the major sources of added/simple sugars in your diet (excluding fresh, frozen,
My simple sugars come from bananas, Oat, Honey and Raisin Cereal, low fat yogurt, baby carrots, skim
milk, and apple sauce.

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E. Do you need to make any changes in your carbohydrate consumption? If so, how could
you change your diet so that you are consuming fewer simple/added sugars and more
complex carbohydrates?
My carbohydrate/ simple sugar ratio is 217.96/ 75.31. I consume 8.7 carbohydrate exchanges and 2.1
sugar exchanges. My simple sugars come from healthful foods, so, I do not believe that I need to reduce
the amount of simple sugars I consume.

F. Evaluation of Fiber intake: complete the tables and questions below

25g/d or 30.63g/day 24.82g/day

g. What are the main sources of fiber in your diet?
Soluble Fiber Insoluble Fiber
Mixed salad greens, apple sauce, spinach, rice apple sauce, rice, spinach, mixed salad greens,
tomatoes, yellow onion, bell peppers, yellow
peppers

h. Discuss how both soluble and insoluble fiber can reduce risks for the development of
certain diseases.
Soluble Fiber Insoluble Fiber
Soluble fiber slows glucose absorption. As a result Insoluble fiber decreases transit time in colon. As a
of better blood glucose regulation, the need for result, food waist and bacteria has less time to
insulin secretion decreases, which decreases build up and develop cancerous cells in the colon.
cholesterol synthesis in the liver. The final result Insoluble fiber decreases one's risk for colon
is a lower blood cholesterol level, reducing one's cancer.
risk for hypertension.

i. List some additional food sources of soluble and insoluble fiber that you could
Soluble Fiber Insoluble Fiber
rye barley
brown rice oranges
wheat bran oats
whole wheat pasta kidney beans

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 Evaluation of protein intake.
A. Complete the following.
0.8g protein x 51.36kg = 41.09g/day 86.13g/day

B. Categorize the significant complete protein sources in your diet as plant or animal sources.
Animal Sources Plant Sources [Hint: make sure they are
significant complete protein sources]
Shrimp, parmesan cheese, turkey, eggs, chicken, Rice, whole wheat bread
steak

C. Do you need to make any changes in the type of protein sources you consume? If so, how could
you change your diet so that you are eating more plant-based complete proteins and less animal
proteins?
Most of my complete proteins come from animal sources. I eat a lot of plant foods, but I need to eat
more complete protein plant foods like beans, lentils, and nuts. However, according to my readings, I
need to cut down on my total protein by about half.

D. What are the health risks of consuming excessive protein, especially animal protein?
Colon cancer, kidney damage, increased calcium in urine, fluid imbalance, and pH imbalance can be
caused my consuming excessive amounts of protein. Animal sources of protein also contain high levels
of cholesterol and saturated fat, which lead to hypertension.

 Evaluation of vitamin and mineral intake.
A. Complete the following table to think about possible deficiencies if intake is too low.
Vitamin/Mineral RDA/AI Your Average Good Food Deficiency Symptoms/Diseases if
Intake Sources intake is chronically deficient
Vitamin A 700ug/d 1261.74mcg/d Carrots, Xerophthalmia, Bitot’s Spots, night
apricots, blindness
papayas, eggs,
sweet potatoes
Thiamin 1.1mg/d 1.43mg/d Pork Wet and Dry Beriberi
Riboflavin 1.1mg/d 2.16mg/d Milk, eggs, Chilosis, inflammation of mouth
spinach, and tong, dermatitis, sensitivity to

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oysters, sun
Brewer’s yeast
Niacin 14mg/d 13.32mg/d Beef, chicken, Pellegra, diarrhea, dementia,
turkey, fish dermatitis, death
Vitamin B6 1.3mg/d 4.36mg/d Cauliflower, Decrees in neurotransmitter and
dates, meats, hemoglobin synthesis, decrease
beans, seeds homocysteine metabolism
Vitamin B-12 2.4ug/d 2.74mcg/d Animal Pernicious anemia, nerve
products: degeneration and paralysis
seafood, milk,
organ meat,
eggs
Vitamin C 75mg/d 75.84mg/d Citrus frits, Scurvy, bleeding gums, fractures,
broccoli pinpoint hemorrhages
potatoes, green
peppers,
strawberries
Vitamin D 5ug/d 2.10mcg/d Fatty fish, Rickets, Ostiomalacia
fortified dairy
and cereal
Vitamin E 15mg/d 8.18mg/d Asparagus, Hemolysis, nerve degeneration
tomatoes,
mango,
margarines,
shrimp
Folate 400ug/d 418.19mcg/d Grains, Megaloblastic cells and anemia,
legumes, neural tube defects
foliage
vegetables,
orange juice,
liver
Calcium 1000mg/d 1181.43mg/d Dairy, some Osteoporosis
vegetables
Iron 1.8mg/d 13.57mg/d Heme iron: Iron Deficient anemia, decreased
animal products hemoglobin.
Nonheme iron:
non-animal

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products
Magnesium 310mg/d 379.70mg/d Nuts, seeds, Irregular heat beat, weakness,
chocolate, seizures, nausea
whole grains,
vegetables.
Phosphorus 700mg/d 1442.35mg/d Soft drinks, Contributes to bone loss, and
dairy, eggs, decrease in tooth strength
meats, bakery
products
Potassium 4700mg/d 2770.68mg/d Frits, Muscle cramps, confusion,
vegetables, constipation, irregular heart beet,
milk, grains, heart failure
meats and
beans
Sodium 1500mg/d 2071.60mg/d Milk, dairy, Muscle cramp, nausea, vomiting,
processed foods dizziness, shock
Zinc 8mg/d 9.93mg/d Beef Decreased immunity and decreased
copper metabolism

B. Complete the following table to think about the possible food toxicity effects, if intake is too high.
Vitamin/Mineral UL Your Percent UL Food Toxicity Effects
Vitamin A 700ug/d 42% Fetal malformation, bone/muscle pain,
inflammation of liver, dry skin, hair loss
Vitamin C 75mg/d 3% Diarrhea
Vitamin D 5ug/d 4% Hypocalcaemia, calcium deposits in organ and
blood vessels, growth retardation
Vitamin E 15mg/d 0.8% Hemorrhages, muscle weakness, headaches,
nausea
Niacin 14mg/d 38% Flush and tingling
Vitamin B6 1.3ug/d 4% Nerve damage
Folate 400ug/d 42% Masks vitamin B-12 deficiency
Calcium 1000mg/d 54% none
Iron 1.8mg/d 30% Hemochromatosis, iron deposits in organs, shock
Magnesium 310mg/d 1.08% none
Phosphorus 700mg/d 36% Bone loss
Zinc 8mg/d 24% none
Sodium 1500mg/d 2300 hypertension

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C. Do you think you should take a supplement? Justify why or why not.
I am meeting the RDAs for almost all vitamins and minerals accessed except for vitamin E and
potassium. I believe that both can be raised through diet. I would be more inclined to take a vitamin E
supplement because the foods that I would have to eat more of to increase my vitamin E intake also
contain a lot of fat. Also, I would be less likely to seek out a potassium supplement or take a
multivitamin just for the potassium due to the risk of ingesting too much of other vitamins and minerals.

 General evaluation:
A. Use the table to compare your food intake to your personalized MyPyramid serving
suggestions for each food group. [Hint: Use the Food Guide Pyramid Printout and compare
to MyPyramid printout]]
Food Group Recommended Your Foods you might try to incorporate (or avoid)
Intake Intake to meet recommendation
Grains 7oz 8.2oz I eat whole grain bread, rice and cereals
Vegetables 3 cups 5cups I need to incorporate more variety
Fruit 2 cups 0.8cups I am add grapes, peaches, papayas, and
mangos.
Dairy 3 cups 2.5cups I can add a cup of milk in the evening for a
snack.
Meat and Beans 6oz 1.9oz I can incorporate shrimp, ground turkey, or
Fats 6 tsp 11.1 tsp I can avoid high fat cereals, and whole fat
cheeses.

B. Describe your current daily exercise activity level. Do you consider it healthful? Discuss
Most mornings I do push-ups and sit-ups. During the day I walk to and from classes, approximately two
miles. Also during the day I spend most of my time sitting, either in class or in my apartment studying,
approximately 3-4 hours in class and the rest at home. I currently expend slightly more calories than I
consume; so I would not extend my physical activity to other activities for my weight. However, it
would be advisable for me to extend my physical activity to lifting, climbing, and cardio, like I once did,
in order to maintain muscle tone, flexibility, and cardio respiratory fitness.

C. In the table below, outline a realistic physical activity plan that would be consistent with
current physical activity recommendations to maintain health or reach a healthy weight.
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
30 min. of 30 min. of 30 min. of 30 min. of 15 min. of 10 min. of
elliptical light brisk light light stretching.

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machine. walking. walking. walking. walking.
12 min. of 10 min. of 1 hour of 1 hour of 12 min. of
free weight stretching. light rock free weight
lifting. dancing. climbing. lifting.
10 min. of 10 min. of 10 min. of 10 min. of
stretching. stretching. stretching. stretching.

Calculate your BMI Obese Risk factors associated with BMI category (if
Underweight
Normal weight
wt = 113lb/ 2.2 = 51.36kg Normal weight none
ht = 63.5in/ 39.3 = 1.6m
BMI = 51.36kg/ 1.6m = 20.06

e. Discuss your hunger rating from the food record. Do you eat emotionally? Do you eat
more or less when you are alone? Do you eat more or less in social situations? Discuss how
these psychosocial aspects of your dietary pattern might influence your overall health.
I do not eat emotionally. I eat slightly more when I am accompanied and in social situations because I
am spending more time, portion sizes are larger, and I am not usually paying. If I ate out more than three
times a week I think that I would take in more calories than I currently expend and would gain weight.
However, as can be noted by my dietary intake log, eating out is more of a treat and not a normal
occurrence.

current dietary intake, and current physical activity level. List 3 realistic goals to make
positive changes if necessary or 3 realistic goals to maintain your current health status if your
report does not suggest that any changes should be made.
According to my anthropometric measurements I am healthy. My BMI is 20.06, within the healthy
range. My waist to hip ratio is .75, in the medium range. My BI is 115 and my weight is 113. So, my
BI percent is 98.3%, which is low but healthy. My body fat percent is 19.4, within the lean range.
Finally, my skin fold measurement is 15mm, also healthy. Therefore, I have minimal health risk. My
diet and current physical activity also prove that I am healthy. I am taking in slightly fewer calories than

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I am expending. I am within or am one point away from the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges
according to my macronutrient percentages. My simple or added sugars are less than 5% of my total
carbohydrates. I am receiving 99% of my fiber needs. I am receiving all needed vitamins and minerals
except for vitamin E and potassium, which can be increased in my diet or vitamin E supplement. Also, I
eat a balanced diet. Although I desire in increase my physical activity in order to increase muscle
strength, flexibility, cardiovascular fitness, I currently participate in an amount of physical activity
adequate to maintain my physical health.

Three realistic goals to make positive changes:

1) Substitute some animal proteins with whole plant proteins like lentils, and kidney beans.
2) Lower saturated fat by eliminating high fat breakfast cereals and whole fat cheeses.
3) Increase fruit intake by two servings and increase milk intake by one serving.

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