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PAD201 Project

8/26/2013

Corruption in Education Ministry in Bangladesh


Prepared by
Tanjil Rabbi Begh Sufian Ahmed Roktim Sadia Binte Mohoshin Shuvra deb nath Masrul Sadaf Tahmid Islam Sadat ID:1030593030 ID: 1020344030 ID: 093 0462 030 ID: 1020144030 ID: 083546542 ID: 1030316530

Prepared for
Dr. Mahbubur Rahman( Mbu) Lecturer, Department of General and Continuing Education North South University

Letter of Transmittal

Date: 25.08.2013 To: Dr. Mahbubur Rahman Lecturer, Department of General and Continuing Education North South University Bashundhara, Dhaka. Subject: Term Paper on corruption and ethics of Ministry of Education We are delighted to present the assigned report of the course Introduction to Public Administration. The report consists of a research and the findings and analysis on the assigned topic .It is to inform you that the evaluation and the research conducted are free of biasness and is prepared in context of Bangladesh. We also assure you to provide you with any further information you require for the research. The assigned research helped us to acquire practical knowledge, understand critical issues and enriched our experience to have a broader knowledge on how the public administration runs in Bangladesh and what are the critical issues and solutions to those issues in the Ministry of education. Sincerely yours,

Tanjil Rabbi Begh

Sufian Ahmed Roktim

Sadia Binte Mohoshin

Shuvra deb nath

Masrul Sadaf

Tahmid Islam Sadat

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 4 Organogram ............................................................................................................................... 5 Activities of Ministry of Education: .......................................................................................... 5 The Legal Framework on Education...................................................................................... 5 Activities according to the Rules of Business: .......................................................................... 6 Identification of the major and minor problems: ....................................................................... 8 Methodology ............................................................................................................................ 10 Quantitative research: .......................................................................................................... 10 Qualitative research: ............................................................................................................ 11 Research Design: ................................................................................................................. 11 Data collection method: ....................................................................................................... 11 Observations ............................................................................................................................ 11 Illegal admissions................................................................................................................. 11 Recruit and transfer .............................................................................................................. 12 Recommendations .................................................................................................................... 13 References ................................................................................................................................ 14 Appendix .................................................................................................................................. 15 Interview questions: ............................................................................................................. 15 Some extra questions ........................................................................................................... 15 Final Survey Questions ........................................................................................................ 16 People Knowledge of Corruption in Education Ministry .................................................... 17

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Acknowledgement
First of all, we thank to almighty Allah, to provide us with the brilliant opportunity to complete the term paper successfully. We would like to convey our feelings and great affections with our heartiest appreciation and would like to thank to our honorable faculty Dr. Mahbubr Rahman, who helped us with his valuable advices, knowledge and experiences. The term paper is based on the topic Corruption and ethics through conducting a thorough research in a ministry of Bangladesh. We want to show our gratification towards Mr. Banamali Bhowmick, joint secretary, Teaching Quality Improvement Project in secondary Education and education project director, to help us with the interview conducted in the research.

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Introduction
Education plays a very significant role in the economy because education nurtures the communicational and intellectual skills to help people in order to be knowledgeable. Education is the backbone of sustainable development. Education stimulates and empowers people to participate in their own development (Chowdhury et al, 1). In Bangladesh, expenditure for education is important but like other south Asian countries the expenditure is not sufficient to improve the overall education sector in Bangladesh. Ministry of Education is the head making policies for institution of the Government regarding administration and development of post-primary education sector. Ministry of Education generates policies and programs as well as laws, rules and regulations for the management and administration of post-primary education sector for the development of post-primary to higher education including Madrasah, Technical and Vocational education. Several attached bodies for supervision and management of formal education includes Colleges, Madrasahs, Technical Schools and Colleges, Polytechnic Institutes, Engineering Colleges and Universities. There are about 35121 post primary secondary Schools/Colleges/Madrasahs and 34 public and 60 private universities. It is a great matter of concern that Bangladesh since 1971 have gained independence as well as improved the quality of education vigorously. Although this is a great fact but on the other side it is also disappointing that Bangladesh is bearing the burden of corruption. Giant roots of corruption have grasped our system of education where, Ministry of Education is also a matter of concern. Corruption is a complex set of process involving human behavior and many other variables, some of which are difficult to recognize or measure (Almas, 2000:5). In general, corruption simply stands for what activities are practiced with the sake of ones power usually in order to be personally benefitted. Corruption tends to flourish, when institutions are weak and economic policies distort market place (World Bank: 1997).

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Organogram

Activities of Ministry of Education:


The Legal Framework on Education The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh enjoins upon the Government of Bangladesh the obligation to ensure literacy of all the citizens of the country within the shortest possible time. The Constitution mandates the state to adopt effective measures for: establishing a uniform, mass-oriented and universal system of education and extending free and compulsory education to all children to such stage as may be determined by law (Article 17) relating education to the needs of society and producing properly trained and motivated citizens to serve those needs (Article 17) removing illiteracy within such time as may be determined by law (Article 17)

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Activities according to the Rules of Business:

Formulation of sectorial plan on Secondary, Higher Secondary and University education sector.

Preparation, monitoring and evaluation of educational projects of Secondary, Higher Secondary and University education sector.

University education including University Grants Commission. Technical education. Secondary and Higher Secondary (College) education. Madrasha education. Distance education including educational media and technology. Educational research and training. Bangladesh National Commission for UNESCO. National student council. Educational Policy and Reforms (Secondary, Higher Secondary and University Education).

Curriculum development (Secondary, Higher Secondary and University Education). Preparation, printing and distribution of text books (above primary education level). Introduction of population in schools. Processing of educational projects/schemes in Secondary, Higher Secondary and University sector with PEC/NEC ECNEC and implementation or the decisions of the Cabinet.

Policy directives or holding the public examination above primary education level conducted by the Boards under Ministry of Education.

Learned Bodies in the field of education, research, etc. above primary education level and financial aid to these organizations.
(a) Aid from foreign and international bodies in the field of education above primary education level.(b) International Organization and other international programs in the field of education and science above primary education level.

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Pride or performance, merit awards in the field of arts, science and education. Education and welfare of Bangladesh students overseas, education development in Bangladesh Missions abroad, financial assistance to educational institutions and Bangladeshi Students Associations abroad.

External examination, equivalence of degrees, diplomas, certificates and exchanges of degrees, diplomas and certificates with foreign countries.

Recognition of professional and technical qualification for the purpose of recruitment to posts under the Government of Bangladesh.

Educational exchange programs, exchange or teachers, professors, educationists, technologists, etc.

Overseas studies and scholarship, foreign teachers and students in Bangladesh. Rehabilitation and other problems relating to displaced teachers and students. Recruitment of teachers for appointment in foreign countries. Admission of foreign students in National Institutions. Publication of scientific and professional books. Charities and charitable institution pertaining to subjects belonging to this Division. Matters relating to the recommendations of Education Commission above primary education level.

National Research Fellows. Bangladesh Scouts and Girl Guides. First appointment and administration of the officers of B.S.S (General Education). First appointment and administration of the officers of B.C.S (Technical Education). Secretarial administration including financial matters. Administration and control of subordinate offices and organizations under this Division.

Liaison with International Organizations and matters relating to treaties and agreements with other countries and world bodies relating to subjects allotted to this Division.

All laws on subjects allotted to this Division. Inquiries and statistics on any of the subjects allocated to this Division. Fees in respect of any of the subjects allocated to this Ministry except fees taken in courts.

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Identification of the major and minor problems:


Education corruption is one of the treated problems for your education system. Many educational organizations are engaged with corruption like teacher transfer, requirement, nepotism etc. Many teachers of public or private schools, colleges and universities are engaged with corruption. Some teachers get transferred in much educational organization via corruption. For this reason our education system going to a threatening situation. Our students are deprived to get better education. Because of corruption many unqualified teachers got chance to teach in many education organizations which is curse for our students and our nation. A better teacher provides a better education system. But now the corruption is not limited to get changed in education organizations, its now flourishing in every education section and everywhere. Now government organizations teachers are providing money to the education ministry to get transferred to a better place or educational institution to teach. Our research paper has focused on these factors and the dark parts of the education sector of Bangladesh and the impact or consequences in the near future of our country.

Our paper discusses reasons that national education systems are particularly vulnerable to pervasive corruption, forms that corruption takes within the education sector and interventions that have been suggested for reducing corruption. The central argument of our paper is that, while there are examples of large-scale corruption within central education ministries, the most serious consequences arise from the pervasive, petty corruption that permeates the day-to-day transactions at the classroom, school, and district levels. The real damage to a society occurs when entire generations of youth are wrongly educated by example to believe that personal success comes not through merit and hard work, but through favoritism, bribery, and fraud. Such lessons have the potential to harm civil society well into the future. National education systems across our country are also particularly vulnerable to pervasive corruption, largely for more of these reasons, which are: (1) As one of the few Governmental agencies with high visibility representation all the way down to the community level, education is an attractive structure for patronage and manipulation of local sentiment.

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(2) Decisions perceived to have significant consequences for peoples lives are made by gatekeepers who control decisions at each of those levels (e.g., district education officers, headmasters, and teachers). (3) A considerable amount of education funds are spent in small amounts, across many scattered sites, most of which have weak accounting and monitoring systems. While there are ample examples of large-scale corruption within central education ministries, this paper argues that the most serious consequences arise from the pervasive, petty corruption that permeates the day-to-day transactions at the classroom, school, and district levels. The real damage to a society occurs when entire generations of youth are mis-educated by example -- to believe that personal success comes not through merit and hard work, but through favoritism, bribery, and fraud. Widespread petty corruption breaks the link between personal effort and anticipation of reward. This, in turn, limits the economic and social development well beyond the immediate corruption. Such lessons have the potential to undermine civil society well into the future. There are examples of blatant fraud and bribery, in which education officials at all levels demand some form of payoff for themselves, family, or friends in return for their help in shaping the outcome of 4 contracts, implementation efforts, distribution systems, etc. While mechanisms may vary, there is wide agreement that these practices are corrupt. When teachers sell grades or require students to pay for private tutoring in order to pass a course, most observers recognize it as corruption. Often, however, such behavior is judged less harshly in settings in which teachers salaries are extremel y low or salary payments are delayed for months. It tends to be tolerated because virtually all observers recognize that teachers have little choice if they are to live. In some countries, such as Cambodia, these practices are tacitly condoned by government, which recognizes that it could not maintain a teaching force if teachers were unable to subsidize their salaries, even if they use practices that compromise the quality of education. At times, what appear as corruption may be better understood as ministry and project personnel cutting corners, ignoring rules, and by-passing procedures in order to move activities forward in ways important to the success of a project or ministry initiative. What appears as corruption to some people may be viewed as pragmatic project management by others. For instance, when project implementation requires government staff to work harder Page | 9

or longer hours than is their custom, a project manager may pay an unauthorized bonus as an incentive. Similarly, a project manager may pay government personnel to provide data that should be free. An unfortunate outgrowth of these practices is that it often teaches local staff that they can extort money by withholding services, and a pattern develops. Nonetheless, failure of the project manager to take these actions could undercut project success. In some cultures it is customary and expected that gifts are given even in return for small favors. While token gifts of little monetary value often satisfy the cultural expectation, the practice has sometimes mushroomed into widespread, petty extortion. The practice of gift giving has often been exploited to mask a corrupt practice in the disguise of a cultural expectation. This is illustrated by the Chinese student who, needing the signature of a local official in order to secure a passport to study abroad, took a new television set to the official to thank him for his signature. It is commonplace to provide small gifts -- a box of candy, flowers to authorities as a token of respect, if not a request for special assistance. The most direct, and in some ways the most inconsequential, cost of corruption is the waste of the financial resources that get misdirected. The more serious costs are incurred when (a) Children unable to afford bribes are denied access to schooling, (b) Talent is misallocated due to promotion being awarded on the basis of bribery rather than merit. (c) A generation of children comes to believe that personal effort and merit do not count and that success comes through manipulation, favoritism and bribery. When corruption is so pervasive that it comes to be viewed as a basic mechanism of social and economic interaction, it instills a value that is highly destructive to social and economic development of a country.

Methodology
Quantitative research: A descriptive research design taking a survey approach was used. The target population of this study consisted of different respondents including working peoples and students of both gender in Bangladesh who has a Bengali medium background. There were peoples from different institutes. The total numbers of such respondents were 50

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Stratified Random Sampling was used to divide the population into two homogenous subgroups; one is the respondents were sampled into different age and profession and secondly, respondents were sampled according to their educational background therefore, stratified random sampling was conducted in the research. Online quantitative research was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire provided to the respondents .The data analysis tools used to present the results was in the form of percentages, in charts and tables. Qualitative research: A thorough out interview was conducted with one of the joint secretary of the ministry of education to have a more accurate result for the research where some specific relevant questions were asked. Research Design: Both the survey questionnaires and the interview questions were designed as open ended and close ended questions which included some opinions about the topic. Data collection method: Primary source questions were set for surveying based on the secondary sources (books, journals), which were asked to the respondents them regarding the topic. Secondary source - For secondary research, books, journals and articles were used relevant to the topic. Companys annual prospectus also worked as the papers secondary source.

Observations
We have done two types of surveys. One quantitative and other qualitative. We got many information. They are given below: Illegal admissions The illegal admissions are done in three sectors In the primary education program in the Upazila Level is highly influenced by UPEO (Upazila Primary Education Officer). They take handsome amount of bribe from the students for admission. Headmaster of Govt. schools are bound to listen the UPEO, as the UPEO is in charge of educational activities in the Upazila level. In the District level DPO (District Primary Education Officer) is involved in the corruption process. His lobbying effects the most in the district level top schools like Zila schools, example: RangpurZilla School, KustiazZlla School, MymensinghZilla School. Page | 11

In the high schools, District Education Officer are involved in illegal admission process. Even if a student fails, then he is promoted to another class. The school govt. body members also get a share from the corruption to promote students. School (cities) for the non-govt. schools such as VNS, Ideal, Monipur High School, etc. have their own management committee and un-natural power. They dont follow the rules and regulations of the govt. education program officials, rather they think themselves as kings. In non-govt. colleges selection is done on the basis of GPA in the SSC examination, where govt. sets the admission criteria such as no admission under GPA 5.00, but there are many students admitted under GPA 5.00 illegally. In private school and colleges there are high jack people in the govt. body makes quota of 10% allocated for them. But it is not directed by the rules and regulation of the education system. In, private schools and colleges such things happening. In the early age only govt. school, colleges where seen in the admission corruption process but now private seen in this corruption also. Recruit and transfer In the low mid assistant director of education in related to the transfers of primary and secondary schools in the village and upazilas. In the district level, and division, Deputy Director (Teaching cadre, professor) is involved in the transfer process of the secondary schools. In the college level Directorial of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) level of corruption in education sector 20-30%. This corruption takes place because of low morale, low class mentality, high price of things and facility. All teachers wants to come in the big cities to get facilities like providing private tuition for the students. In Dhaka there is more teachers than demand. In the rural areas there is not enough teachers. Like Chemistry teachers teaches Biology. There is a shortage of teachers there. The illegal works have no records. Files come to one secretary and doesnt let the files go to upper level. It stays with him. To stop corruption there is monetary unit, Professor, Deputy Secretary level Officer to monitor the crimes but has no records.

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Politics is another reason, MPs and ministers misuse their power. Nepotism and favoritism of them of their relatives and friends. Awami League and BNP teachers often get into conflicts.

Recommendations
The rate of literacy in Bangladesh is gradually rising. It has already reached 58 percent. There is also progress towards 100 percent enrolment rate and ge nder equity at primary level. But overall, the quality of education has not improved. The country also lacks an effective education policy. As a result, corruption, in-discipline, terrorism, copying and use of fake certificates have assumed epidemic proportion. Quality education has little scope in the prevailing circumstances. So, to develop education sector Bangladesh government needs to control these corruption strictly. For these some necessary steps should be taken.

1) Digitalized system to keep records of all the works. Every records need to be computerized to keep tracks record so that nobody gets illegal priority. A teacher transfer records will be in the software database, even the students records. 2) Strictly follow Education Policy 3) Strong monitoring of monetary units 4) Anti-corruption commissions strong role is needed 5) Strong role of TV and newspaper medias 6) Decreasing the power of Mgt. committee in private educational institutions

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References
Questions, S., 2013. Google Doc. [Online] Available at: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1OxthyLmyLKTIyxeXQr7xdEUNtdi0D71UgW1NEOwhA M4/viewform UNB, Dhaka (2007-01-16). ", tanvir ahammed abroad: 3 more Advisers take oath". The New Nation. Retrieved 2007-12-31. "Bangladesh adviser quits over artifact theft". REUTERS. 2007-12-26. USDHA30728920071226. Retrieved 2007-12-31. "Roll Call: Teacher Absence in Bangladesh". 2004. UNESCO Institute for Statistics Data 2007

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Appendix

Interview questions: Education plays a vital role for the country, yet certain problems are not supporting the nation to grow up. As an assistant secretariat what do you think are the main problems regarding poor performance in the educational sector? How much bottomless are the problems you think from your experience and knowledge? According to you, what percentage you think might be the rate of unethical tasks involved in this sector? Which level of the people is most likely to be engaged in such immoral cultures? What kind of changes do you think would help to reduce such harmful issues for Bangladesh? Some extra questions What is the relative emphasis to be placed on support activities? What is the relative importance that should be provided for the educational sector of Bangladesh? What should be the role of the people working with the educational sector? What standards should be maintained in order to recruit people, admit students and promotions for the employees?

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Final Survey Questions 1) What is your age? 18-25,25-30,31-35,36-40 2) Corruption in education Ministry is a serious issue do you agree with this statement? Answer: Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree 3) How much impact do you think corruption has in the education sector? No impact, little impact, Average Impact, High Impact 4) Have you ever seen or encountered any corruption related to admission, recruitment and transfer of teacher, in educational institutions? Answer: Yes, No 5) Which part of corruption is more important? Answer: Recruitment of teachers, transfer of teachers, admission of students illegally 6) Who do you think is mostly responsible for corruption in educational institutions? Ans: Officials, minister/MP, Middleman/Secretaries 7) Political influence is the cause of this problem Answer: Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree 8) Corruption in field of recruitment of teachers and their transfers(primary, secondary, higher secondary) and admissions of students illegally by taking bribes, is degrading the quality of education in our country Answer: Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree 9) Nepotism and favoritism is a one of the major factor of this problem? Answer: Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree 10) Do you think we need a change in the system to reduce corruption? Answer: Yes, No 11) Do you think that the Anti Corruption Commission (ACC) should b strict and monitor well to solve this problem? Answer: Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree 12) Should the media (newspaper, TV channels) work more on this to make the public more aware of corruption of education ministry? Strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. 13) Any suggestions to can add..

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People Knowledge of Corruption in Education Ministry (Sample size 50 people)


1. What is your age?

18-25 25-30 31-35 36-49

44 04 01 01

88% 08% 02% 02%

2. Corruption in Education Ministry is a serious issue do you agree with this statement?

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

25 25 00 00

50% 50% 0% 0%

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3. How much impact do you think corruption has in the education sector?

No Impact Little Impact Average impact High Impact

01 00 13 36

02% 0% 26% 72%

4. Have you ever seen or encountered any corruption related to admission,

recruitment and transfer of teacher, in educational institutions?

Yes No

35 15

70% 30%

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5. Which part of corruption is more harmful?

(1)Transfer of Teachers (2)Recruitment of Teachers (3)Admission of Students illegally

25 01 24

50% 2% 48%

6. Who do you think is mostly responsible for corruption in educational

institutions?

Officials Minister/MP Middlemen/Secretaries

18 14 18

36% 18% 36%

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7. Political influence is the cause of this problem.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

26 23 00 01

52% 46% 0% 2%

8. Corruption in field of recruitment of teachers and their transfers (primary, secondary, higher secondary) and admissions of students illegally by taking bribes, is degrading the quality of education in our country.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

34 15 01 00

68% 30% 2% 0%

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9.

Nepotism and favoritism is a one of the major factor of this problem.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

19 26 03 00

40% 54% 6% 0%

10. Do you think we need a change in the system to reduce corruption?

Yes No

46 04

92% 8%

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11. The Anti Corruption Commission (ACC) should be strict and monitor well to solve this problem.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

35 12 03 01

70% 24% 6% 2%

12. The media (newspaper, TV channels) should work more on this to make the public more aware of corruption in education ministry.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

12 25 10 03

24% 50% 20% 6% Page | 22