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Pusat Penyelidikan Kejuruteraan Sungai dan Saliran Bandar
(REDAC)
Kampus Kejuruteraan, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang.
Tel: 04-5941035 Fax: 04-5941036


















































Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
1
Time
D
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e
Post Development
Uncontrolled Runoff
Pre-Development
Uncontrolled Runoff
Post-Development
Controlled Runoff by
Detention
1.0 Design Standard

Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (Manual Saliran Mesra Alam Malaysia, MSMA)

2.0 General

Urbanization results in the growth and spread of impervious areas and a diversification of urban landuse practice
with respects to the hydrologic and environmental terms. Landuse changes from rural to urban industrial areas
cause local runoff impacts on receiving water flow, quality, and ecology. Apart from erosion and sedimentation
problems associated with development, it has become increasingly apparent that stormwater runoff contributes to
receiving waters a significant part of total loads of such pollutants as nutrients (including phosphorus and nitrogen),
heavy metals, oil and grease, bacteria, etc.

New, comprehensive, and integrated SWM strategies are now needed to be in line with the governments drive to
archive a sustainable developed nation status in the early 21
st
century. Such new strategies will incorporate interalia,
runoff source control, management and delayed disposal on a catchment wide, proactive, and multi-functional basis.
This should result in flood reduction, water quality improvement, and ecological enhancement in downstream
receiving waters. To some extent, it should also contribute to improved urban amenity through the application of
wetlands, landscape for recreation, potential beneficial reuse of stormwater (especially as a non-potable supply
source), and recharge of depleted urban groundwater aquifers to enhance stream base flow during dry seasons.

Stormwater management has development to the point where there are now two fundamental different approaches
to controlling the quality, and to some extant, the quality of stormwater runoff. In addition to the traditional
conveyance-oriented approach, a potential effective and preferable approach to stormwater management is the
storage-oriented approach. The function of this approach is to provide for the temporary storage of stormwater
runoff at or near its point of origin with subsequent slow release to the downstream stormwater system or receiving
water (detention), or infiltration into the surrounding soil (retention).

Detention and retention facilities can reduce the peak and volume of runoff from a given catchment (Figure 18.1),
which can reduce the frequency and extent of downstream flooding. Detention/retention facilities have been used to
reduce the costs of large stormwater drainage system by reducing the size required for such systems in downstream
areas.

The reduced post-development runoff hydrograph is typically designed so that the peak flow is equal to or less than
the pre-development peak flow rate. Additionally, in some instances, the volume of the post-development runoff
hydrograph is required to be reduced to the same volume as the pre-development runoff hydrograph. This latter
requirement will necessitate the use of retention facilities to retain the differences in volume between the post and
pre-development hydrograph.



















Figure 18.1 Hydrograph Schematic






Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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3.0 ON-SI TE DETENTION

3.1 Principles of Quantity Control

Stormwater quantity control facilities can be classified by function as:
(i) detention, or
(ii) retention facilities.

The detention concept is most often employed in urban stormwater drainage systems to limit the peak outflow rate.
The primary function of detention facilities is to reduce peak discharge by the temporary storage and gradual release
of stormwater runoff by way of an outlet control structure or other release mechanism.

Retention facilities are commonly sized to provide only a reduction in the volume of stormwater runoff generated
from an urban area. However, peak flow reduction can also be achieved in minor storm events if the storage
volume is large enough to capture the peak flow before the storage is filled, i.e. the time to fill the basin is longer
than the time to peak of the inflow hydrograph.

Detention and retention storages may be classified on the basis of their location and size as follows (Figure 18.2):
(i) on-site storage : small storages constructed on individual residential, commercial, and industrial lots
(ii) community storage : storage facilities constructed in public open space areas, or in conjunction with public
recreation and sporting facilities
(iii) regional storage : large community storage facilities constructed at the lower end of catchments prior to
discharge to receiving waters

Facilities can also be categorised as:
(i) on-line storage : a facility that intercepts flow directly within a conveyance system.
(ii) off-line storage : the diversion of flow from a conveyance system into a separate storage facility.
(iii) conveyance storage : This is an often-neglected form of storage, because it is dynamic and requires channel
storage routing analysis to identify.

3.2 Detention Facilities

The most common type of storage facilities used for controlling peak flow are dry facilities, which release all the
runoff temporarily detained during a storm. Other facilities which are becoming more commonly used are detention
ponds, which incorporate a permanent pool of water for water quality control as well as provision for the temporary
storage and release of runoff for flood control.


3.3 On-Site Detention

On-site detention (OSD) may be provided as above-ground storages, below-ground storages, or a combination of
both. The common types of above and below-ground storages used are illustrated in Figure 18.3.

(a) Above-ground Storages
The main advantages of above-ground storages are they can generally be easily incorporated into the site
by slight regrading or modification to the design of surface features and are relatively inexpensive
compared to below-ground storages. The above-ground storages include:
(i) Landscaped areas (such as lawns and garden beds)
(ii) Impervious areas (such as ar parks, driveways, paved storage yards)
(iii) Flat Roofs
(iv) Surface Tanks
(b) Below-ground Storages
The main advantages of below-ground storages are they are out of sight, occupy less physical space, and
will not cause any inconvenience with ponding of water that could result using above-ground storage. The
examples of below-ground storage are:
(i) Underground Tanks
(ii) Pipe Packages


Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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Park Pond
Infiltration Basin
Artificial Recharge
(Todd, 1980)
Storage Reservoir
(Hall, et al., 1993)
Car Park Detention
Infiltration Trench
(CIRIA, 1996)
On-site
Regional
Community
LEVELS
























































Figure 18.2 Detention/Retention Storage Classifications
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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(c) Combined Storages
With combined storages, a proportion of the total storage is provided as below-ground storage, whilst the
remainder of the storage is provided as above-ground storage.

Underground Tank
Pipe Package
Rooftop
Car Parking and
Driveway Areas
Landscaped Area
Surface Tank


Figure 18.3 Typical OSD Storage Facilities


3.4 Retention Facilities

These facilities encourage the disposal of stormwater at its source of runoff. This is done by having a portion of the
stormwater infiltrate or percolate into the soil. The advantages often cited for the use of local disposal include:
1. recharge of groundwater
2. reduction in the settlement of the land surface in areas of groundwater depletion
3. control of saline water intrusion
4. preservation and/or enhancement of natural vegetation
5. reduction of pollution transported to the receiving waters
6. reduction of downstream flow peaks
7. reduction of basement flooding in underground drainage systems
8. smaller storm drains at a lesser cost


3.5 On-Site and Community Retention

The main types of retention/infiltration techniques are:
(i) Infiltration Trench (Figure 18.5)
(ii) Soakaway Pit (Figure 18.6)
(iii) Porous Pavement (Figure 18.7)
(iv) Infiltration Basin (Figure 18.8)


















Figure 18.5 Infiltration Trench



Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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Figure 18.6 Soakaway Pit Figure 18.7 Porous Pavement















Figure 18.8 Infiltration Basin

4.0 General Design Considerations

Detention on development sites has been seen as the solution to problems of established areas where additional
development or redevelopment is occurring. Generally, it is not possible, either physically or financially, to
progressively enlarge drainage systems as redevelopments that increase impervious areas and runoff rates and
volumes occur.

Regulations, which put the responsibility on developers to restrict flows, are therefore attractive to drainage
authorities. Flows can be limited by the use of various OSD facilities. The design procedures are based on the
Rational Method.

Simplified hydrographs are combined with an assumed outlet relationship to determine a critical volume of water to
be stored. Often several cases are considered, to allow for different storm durations. A storage is then to be
provided for this critical volume.

Permissible site discharge (PSD) and site storage requirement (SSR) are used for an OSD development. There are
two basic approaches that may be used for determining the required PSD and SSR as follows:

(a) Site-based Methods
The PSD and SSR values to be applied to a particular development site are determined by hydrologic
analysis of the development site only, without any consideration of the effect of site discharges on the
downstream catchment. The PSD is the estimated peak flow for the site prior to development for a
selected design storm. The only concern is that post-development site discharges are reduced to pre-
development levels. PSD values may be determined using either the Rational Method or a hydrograph
estimation method (refer Chapter 14, MSMA).

Site-based methods do not consider the effects of post-development discharges on the downstream
catchment since it is assumed that reducing discharges to pre-development levels is sufficient to prevent
increases in downstream flooding.
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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(b) Catchment-based Methods

The PSD and SSR values are determined from an analysis of a total catchment instead of a single site.
Catchment modelling is undertaken to determine the maximum values of PSD and SSR for a selected design
storm that will not cause flooding at any location within the catchment. These are general values that may
be applied to any site within the catchment.

OSD storages may be analysed using any hydrograph estimation technique, but the Rational Method is the most
popular. Rational Method hydrograph techniques are acceptable for OSD as development sites are relatively small
and any errors introduced will most likely be minor. The effort involved with more sophisticated computer modelling
techniques is not normally warranted. The Swinburne Method recommended in Section 7.0 or Chapter 19 (MSMA) is
based on the Rational Method.


5.0 Site Selection

For undeveloped sites, the decision of whether or not to include OSD to control site discharges should be made as
early as possible in the concept planning stage for developing the site. It is far easier to integrate OSD facilities into
a site arrangement as part of the total development concept than to attempt to retrofit them after the form and
extent of buildings, driveways, and landscaping have been designed or constructed. This approach will give the
designer the most flexibility for design and will generally allow opportunities for developing innovative and/or more
cost-effective design solutions.

For developed sites, the location and level of existing structures and services can severely restrict opportunities for
providing satisfactory OSD systems. It may not be practical, due to factors such as cost or public safety, to provide
the amount of storage necessary to limit post-development peak flows to the amounts required. In such cases,
consideration should be given to increasing the limit on post-development peak flows to match the maximum
amount of storage available.


6.0 Flow Control Requirements

6.1 Design Storm

The design storm for discharge from an OSD storage, termed the discharge design storm, shall be the minor system
design ARI of the municipal drainage system to which the storage is connected (refer Table 4.1, MSMA). The design
storm for calculating the required storage volume, termed the storage design storm, shall be 10 year ARI.

6.2 Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

The PSD is the maximum allowable post-development discharge from a site for the selected discharge design storm
and is estimated on the basis that flows within the downstream stormwater drainage system will not be increased.

6.3 Site Storage Requirement (SSR)

The SSR is the total amount of storage required to ensure that the required PSD is not exceeded and the OSD facility
does not overflow during the storage design storm ARI.

6.4 Site Coverage

Where possible, the site drainage system and grading should be designed to direct runoff from the entire site to the
OSD system. Sometimes this will not be feasible due to ground levels, the level of the receiving drainage system, or
other circumstances. In these cases, as much runoff from impervious areas as possible should be drained to the
OSD system.


6.5 Frequency Staged Storage

Generally the most challenging task in designing OSD systems is locating and distributing the storage(s) in the face
of the following competing demands:
making sure the system costs no more than necessary
creating storages that are aesthetically pleasing and complementary to the architectural design
avoiding unnecessary maintenance problems for future property owners
minimising any personal inconvenience for property owners or residents
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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These demands can be balanced by providing storage in accordance with a frequency staged storage approach.
Under this approach, a proportion of the required storage for a given ARI is provided as below-ground storage,
whilst the remainder of the required storage, up to the design storm ARI, is provided as above-ground storage.
Recommended storage proportions for designing a composite above and below-ground storage system using a
frequency staged storage approach are provided in Table 19.1. A typical composite storage system is illustrated in
Figure 19.1. Refer to Table 19.1 for recommended maximum ponding depths in the above-ground storage
component.


Table 19.1 Relative Proportions for Composite Storage Systems
Proportion of Total Storage (%)
Storage Area
Below-Ground Storage
Component
Above-Ground Storage
Component
Pedestrian areas 60 40
Private Courtyards 60 40
Parking areas and driveways
50
50
Landscaped areas 25
75
Paved outdoor recreation areas
15 85



Maximum ponding level for
storage design storm
'Beginning to pond' level
for above-ground storage
Below-ground storage
Above-ground storage
Freeboard
to building
floor level
Habitable
building
Outlet to public drainage system
(preferably free draining, but
may be pumped in some cases)


Figure 19.1 Illustration of a Composite Storage System

6.6 Bypass Flows

An OSD storage is generally designed only to deal with stormwater runoff from the site under consideration. If
runoff from outside the site enters the storage, it will fill more quickly, causing a greater nuisance to occupiers and it
will become ineffective in terms of reducing stormwater runoff leaving the site.

Unless the storage is sized to detain runoff from the entire upstream catchment, an overland flow path or a floodway
must be provided through the site to ensure that all external flows bypass the OSD storage.

The surface area of an overland flow path or a floodway is excluded from the site area for the purpose of calculating
the site storage requirements. Such areas must be protected from future development within the site by an
appropriate covenant or drainage reserve.




Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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7.0 Determination of PSD and SSR

7.1 OSD Sizing Method

The recommended method for estimating PSD and SSR is the Swinburne Method, developed at the Swinburne
University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. The method uses the Rational Method to calculate site flows, and
utilises a non-dimensional triangular site hydrograph as illustrated in Figure 19.3. The site discharges are calculated
using the total catchment time of concentration t
c
for the design storm ARI under consideration (Figure 19.2).

The PSD varies with this ratio and may be less than or greater than the peak pre-development site discharge
depending on the position of the site within the catchment. Figure 19.2 illustrates the relationship between t
c
and
t
cs
.

(i) PSD
As stated in Section 4.1 the discharge design storm for estimating the PSD is the minor system design ARI
of the municipal stormwater system to which the site is or will be connected.

The following general equation is used to calculate the PSD for the site in litres per second. The factors a
and b are different for above-ground and below-ground storages due to differences in storage geometry
and outflow characteristics.

2
4
2
b a a
PSD

= (19.1)

For above-ground storage :

+ +

=
cs c
a
p
c
c
a
t t
Q
Q
t
t
Q
a 25 . 0 75 . 0 333 . 0 4 (19.1a)

p a
Q Q b 4 = (19.1b)
For below-ground storage :

+ +

=
cs c
a
p
c
c
a
t t
Q
Q
t
t
Q
a 65 . 0 35 . 0 333 . 0 548 . 8 (19.1c)

p a
Q Q b 548 . 8 = (19.1d)
where,
t
c
= peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to a designated outlet or point of concern
(minutes)
t
cs
= peak flow time of concentration from the top of the catchment to the development site (minutes)
Q
a
= the peak post-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to t
c

(l/s)
Q
p
= the peak pre-development flow from the site for the discharge design storm with a duration equal to t
c
(l/s)

















Figure 19.2 Relationship Between t
c
and t
cs
for the Swinburne Method

Catchment in which
development site
is located
Development site
Time of concentration t
c
for
catchment
Time of concentration t
cs
from top of
catchment to point where flows from
development site join main drainage
system for catchment
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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SSR
PSD
t
c
0
Assumed inflow
hydrograph
Assumed outflow
hydrograph
t
f
Q
a












Figure 19.3 Swinburne Method Assumptions (t
f
= time for storage to fill)
(ii) SSR

The storage design storm for estimating the SSR is 10 year ARI. In sizing the volume of the storage facility,
the method assumes a triangular inflow hydrograph and an outflow hydrograph shape related to the type of
storage adopted. These simplifications are acceptable providing the site catchment is small.

Typically, the critical storm duration that produces the largest required storage volume is different from the
time of concentration used for peak flow estimation. Therefore, storage volumes must be determined for a
range of storm durations to find the maximum storage required as indicated in Figure 19.4 (MSMA, 2000).
S
t
o
r
a
g
e

V
o
l
u
m
e


(
m
3

)
Storm Duration (minutes)
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

D
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
Maximum storage
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Figure 19.4 Typical Relationship of Storage Volume to Storm Duration

The following general equation is used to calculate the SSR for the site in cubic metres. Different factors for c
and d are applied for above-ground and below-ground storages to account for differences in storage geometry
and outflow characteristics.

( ) d c Q t SSR
d d
= 06 . 0 (19.2)
For above-ground storage :

=
d
Q
PSD
PSD c 459 . 0 1 875 . 0 (19.2a)

d
Q
PSD
d
2
214 . 0 = (19.2b)
For below-ground storage :

=
d
Q
PSD
PSD c 392 . 0 1 675 . 0 (19.2c)
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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d
Q
PSD
d
2
117 . 0 = (19.2d)
where,
t
d
= selected storm duration (minutes)
Q
d
= the peak post-development flow from the site for a storm duration equal to t
d
(l/s)

7.2 OSD Sizing Procedure

A simplified design procedure for determining the required volume of detention storage is as follows:
1. Select storage type(s) to be used within the site, i.e. separate above and/or below-ground storage(s), or a
composite above and below-ground storage.
2. Determine the area of the site that will be drained to the OSD storage system. As much of the site as possible
should drain to the storage system.
3. Determine the amount of impervious and pervious areas draining to the OSD storage system.
4. Determine the times of concentration, t
c
and t
cs
.
5. Calculate the pre and post-development flows, Q
p
and Q
a
, for the area draining to the storage for the discharge
design storm with time of concentration t
c
.
6. Determine the required PSD for the site using Equation 19.1 for the discharge design storm.
7. Determine the required SSR for the site using Equation 19.2 for the storage design storm over a range of
durations to determine the maximum value. For composite storages, apportion the required SSR in accordance
with Table 19.1.

Note: For composite storages, use the PSD and SSR equation factors relating to the largest storage component. If
these are equal, use the above-ground storage factors.


8.0 General Considerations
8.1 Drainage System

The stormwater drainage system (including gutters, pipes, open drains, and overland flow paths) for the site must:
be able to convey all runoff to the OSD storage, up to and including the storage design storm, with time of
concentration t
c

ensure that the OSD storage is bypassed by all runoff from neighbouring properties and any part of the site
not being directed to the OSD storage facility

The outlet from the OSD facility must be designed to ensure that outflow discharges:
do not cause adverse effects on downstream properties by concentrating flow
can be achieved with low maintenance

The OSD outlet should be designed to be independent of downstream flow conditions under all design circumstances
wherever possible (i.e. not outlet controlled). If this is not possible, the outlet should be sized to account for
drowned or partly drowned outlet conditions (refer Section 6.1).

8.2 Multiple Storages

In terms of construction and recurrent maintenance costs, it is preferable to provide fewer larger storages than a
larger number of smaller storages. Multiple storages should be carefully treated when preparing a detailed design.
The storages need to be designed separately with the catchment draining to each storage defined.

The outlet pipe from a storage needs to be connected downstream of the primary outlet structure of any other
storage, i.e. storages should act independently of each other and not be connected in series.

8.3 Site Grading

Sites should be graded according to the following general guidelines:
grade the site for surface drainage such that no serious consequences will occur if the property drainage
system fails.
avoid filling the site with stormwater inlets that are not needed.
direct as much of the site as possible to the OSD storage.
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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8.4 Floor Levels

The site drainage system must ensure that:
all habitable floor levels for new and existing dwellings are a minimum 200 mm above the storage
maximum water surface level for the storage design storm ARI
garage floor levels are a minimum 100 mm above the storage design storm ARI maximum water surface
level

A similar freeboard should be provided for flowpaths adjacent to habitable buildings and garages.
8.5 Aesthetics

The designer should try to ensure that OSD storages and discharge control structures blend in with and enhance the
overall site design concept by applying the following general guidelines:
when OSD storage is provided in a garden area, avoid placing the discharge control structure in the centre
where it will be an eyesore. Where possible, grade the floor of the storage such that the discharge control
structure is located unobtrusively, e.g. in a corner next to shrubbery or some garden furniture
If space permits, try to retain some informality in garden areas used for storage. Rectangular steep-sided
basins unbroken by any features maximise the volume, but may detract from the appearance of the
landscaping

8.6 Construction Tolerances

OSD systems is important in protecting downstream areas from flooding. Every effort should be made to avoid, or at
least minimise, construction errors. The design should allow for the potential reduction in the storage volume due to
common post-construction activities such as landscaping, top dressing and garden furniture. It is recognised that
achieving precise levels and dimensions may not always be possible in practice. It is therefore considered that an
OSD system will meet the design intent where the:
storage volume is at least 95% of the specified volume
design outflow is within plus or minus 5% of the PSD

8.7 Signs

A permanent advisory sign for each OSD storage facility provided should be securely fixed at a pertinent and clearly
visible location stating the intent of the facility. An example of an advisory sign is shown in Figure 19.5 (MSMA,
2000).
WARNING
ON-SITE DETENTION AREA
STORMWATER LEVEL MAY
RISE IN THIS AREA
DURING HEAVY RAIN

Figure 19.5 Typical OSD Advisory Sign (UPRCT, 1999)



9.0 Above-Ground Storage

The following guidelines allow the designer maximum flexibility when integrating the storage into the site layout.


Colours:
Triangle and WARNING Red
Water Blue
Figure and other lettering Black
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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9.1 Maximum Storage Depths

Maximum storage depths in above-ground storages should not exceed the values provided in Table 19.2 (MSMA,
2000).

Table 19.2 Recommended Maximum Storage Depths for Different Classes of Above-Ground Storage
Storage Classes Maximum Storage Depth
Pedestrian areas 50 mm
Parking areas and driveways 150 mm
Landscaped areas 600 mm
Private courtyards 600 mm
Flat roofs 300 mm
Paved outdoor recreation areas 100 mm
7.2 Landscaped Areas

The minimum design requirements for storage systems provided in landscaped areas which offer a wide range of
possibilities for providing above-ground storage and can enhance the aesthetics of a site are:
maximum ponding depths shall not exceed the limits recommended in Table 2 under design conditions
calculated storage volumes shall be increased by 20% to compensate for construction inaccuracies and the
inevitable loss of storage due to the build up of vegetation growth over time
the minimum ground surface slope shall be 2% to promote free surface drainage and minimise the possibility of
pools of water remaining after the area has drained
side slopes should be a maximum 1(V):4(H) where possible. If steep or vertical sides (e.g. retaining walls) are
unavoidable, due consideration should be given to safety aspects, such as the need for fencing, both when the
storage is full and empty
subsoil drainage around the outlet should be provided to prevent the ground becoming saturated during
prolonged wet weather
where the storage is to be located in an area where frequent ponding could create maintenance problems or
inconvenience to property owners, a frequency staged storage approach should be adopted as recommended in
Table 19.1. If this is not practicable, the first 10-20% of the storage should be provided in an area able to
tolerate frequent inundation, e.g. a paved outdoor entertainment area, a permanent water feature, or a rock
garden
landscaping should be designed such that loose materials such as mulch and bark etc. will not wash into and
block storage outlets
retaining walls shall be designed to be structurally adequate for the hydrostatic loads caused by a full storage
9.3 Impervious Areas

Car parks, driveways, paved storage yards, and other paved surfaces may be used for stormwater detention. The
minimum design requirements for storage systems provided in impervious areas shall be as follows:
to avoid damage to vehicles, depths of ponding on driveways and car parks shall not exceed the limits
recommended in Table 19.2 under design conditions
transverse paving slopes within storages areas shall not be less than 0.7%
if the storage is to be provided in a commonly used area where ponding will cause inconvenience (e.g. a car
park or pedestrian area), a frequency staged storage approach should be adopted as recommended in
Table 19.1. If this is not practical, the first 10-20% of the storage should be provided in a non-sensitive area on
the site
9.4 Flat Roofs

Rooftop storage may be provided on buildings with flat roofs. Stormwater can be detained up to the maximum
depth recommended in Table 19.2 by installing flow restrictors on roof drains.

Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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Flat roofs used for detention will have a substantial live load component. It is therefore essential that the structural
design of the roof is adequate to sustain increased loadings from ponded stormwater. The latest structural codes
and standards should be checked before finalising plans. Roofs must also be sealed to prevent leakage.
A typical flow restrictor on a roof drain is shown in Figure 19.6 (MSMA, 2000).


























Figure 19.6 Typical Roof Storage Flow Restrictor

9.5 Surface Tanks

Surface tanks are normally provided on residential lots for rainwater harvesting. These tanks collect rainwater from
the rooftops of buildings and store it for later domestic use. Surface tanks may also be used solely for on-site
detention, or utilised in combination with storage provided for rainwater harvesting as illustrated in Figure 19.7.

Since surface tanks will only provide detention volume for rooftops of buildings, other forms of detention storage
(such as landscaped storage or pipe packages) must also be provided if flows from the whole site are to be reduced.

Building
Roof drainage system
Secondary
outlet
Screen
OSD
storage
Storage for
re-use
Primary
outlet

Figure 19.7 Typical Multi-Purpose Surface Tank


Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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10.0 Below-Ground Storage

Providing a small proportion of the required storage volume underground can often enhance a development by
limiting the frequency of inundation of an above-ground storage area. In difficult topography, the only feasible
solution may be to provide all or most of the required storage volume below-ground. However, it should be
recognised that below-ground storages:
are more expensive to construct than above-ground storage systems
are difficult to inspect for silt and debris accumulation
can be difficult to maintain
can be dangerous to work in and may be unsafe for property owners to maintain

When preparing a design for below-ground storage, designers should be aware of any statutory requirements for
working in confined spaces. Where practicable, the design should minimise the need for personnel to enter the
storage space for routine inspection and maintenance.

8.1 Underground Tanks
(a) Basic Configuration
Typical below-ground storage tanks are either circular or rectangular in plan and/or cross-section (Figure 19.8) but,
due to their structural nature, can be configured into almost any geometrical plan shape.
STORAGE TANK
Outlet pipe
Access ladder
Access and overflow grate
Trash screen
Inlet pipes

Figure 19.8 Typical Below-ground Storage Tank
(b) Structural Adequacy
Storage tanks must be structurally sound and be constructed from durable materials that are not subject to
deterioration by corrosion or aggressive soil conditions. Tanks must be designed to withstand the expected live and
dead loads on the structure, including external and internal hydrostatic loadings. Buoyancy should also be checked,
especially for lightweight tanks, to ensure that the tank will not lift under high groundwater conditions.
(c) Horizontal Plan
Site geometry will dictate how the installation is configured in plan. A rectangular shape offers certain cost and
maintenance advantages, but space availability will sometimes dictate a variation from a standard rectangular plan.
It may be necessary on some site to design irregularly shaped tanks. In such cases, construction and maintenance
costs will normally be higher.
(d) Bottom Slope
To permit easy access to all parts of the storage for maintenance, the floor slope of the tank should not be greater
than 10%. The lower limit for this slope is 2%, which is needed for good drainage of the tank floor.
(e) Ventilation
It is very important to provide ventilation for below-ground storage systems to minimise odour problems. Ventilation
may be provided through the tank access opening(s) or by separate ventilation pipe risers. Although the inflow and
outflow pipes can provide some ventilation of the storage tank, their contribution is unreliable and should not be
considered in the design. Also, the ventilation openings should be designed to prevent air from being trapped
between the roof of the storage and the water surface.
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
15
(f) Overflow Provision
An overflow system must be provided to allow the tank to surcharge in a controlled manner if the capacity of the
tank is exceeded due to a blockage of the outlet pipe or a storm larger than the storage design ARI. As illustrated in
Figure 19.8, an overflow can be provided by installing a grated access cover on the tank.
(g) Access Openings
Below-ground storage tanks should be provided with openings to allow access by maintenance personnel and
equipment. An access opening should be located directly above the outlet for cleaning when the storage tank is full
and the outlet is clogged. A permanently installed ladder or step iron arrangement must be provided below each
access opening if the tank is deeper than 1200 mm.

10.2 Pipe Packages
(a) Basic Configuration
A pipe package is a below-ground storage consisting of one or more parallel rows of buried pipes connected by a
common inlet and outlet chamber.

The size of a pipe package is determined by the storage volume requirements and the physical availability of space
on the site. A pipe package does not need to be installed in a straight line along its entire length, it can change
direction anywhere along its length to fit any site space limitations. A typical pipe package, shown in Figure 19.9, is
equipped with a flow regulator installed in the outlet chamber and an overflow spillway located at either the inlet or
outlet chamber.
(b) Minimum Pipe Size and Longitudinal Grade
To facilitate inspection and cleaning, the minimum pipe size shall be 900 mm diameter.
Pipes should be laid at a minimum longitudinal grade of 2% to avoid standing pockets of water which can occur due
to lack of precision during construction.
(c) Low Flow Provision
Although sediment will settle out inside pipe packages, the extent of deposition can be reduced by installing one of
the pipes lower than the others as shown in Figure 19.9. To keep the other pipes from filling during low flows, the
difference in level between the low flow pipe and other pipes needs to be sufficient to keep the low flows confined
wholly within the low flow pipe. Confining low flows to one pipe will help the system to become self-cleansing.
(d) Inlet Chamber
The site drainage system is connected to the pipe package through an inlet chamber at the upstream end. The
chamber must be large enough to permit easy access to all of the pipes by maintenance personnel and equipment.



SECTION A-A
9
0
0
Low flow pipe
1
5
0

m
m
PLAN
A
A
Inlet chamber
Outlet chamber with flow
regulator and overflow grate
4 x 900 mm diameter
storage pipes
150 mm diameter
outlet pipe
225 mm diameter
inlet pipe

Figure 19.9 Basic Layout of a Pipe Package Storage (Stahre and Urbonas, 1990)


Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
16
(e) Outlet Chamber
At the downstream end, the pipe package is connected to the municipal stormwater drainage system through an
outlet chamber. The chamber must also be large enough for maintenance access. Flow through the outlet chamber
may be controlled by one of the primary outlet devices discussed in Section 11.0.

(f) Overflow Provision
To prevent water from surcharging at stormwater inlets or manholes upstream during storms larger than the storage
design storm or if the primary outlet becomes blocked, a secondary outlet overflow system must be installed at
either the inlet or outlet chamber (refer to Figure 19.10).

(g) Access Openings
Access openings are required at both chambers to facilitate normal cleaning and maintenance of a pipe package.
Such openings provide access for personnel and cleaning equipment, and ventilation and lighting.

If more than three parallel pipes are used, two openings should be installed in each chamber. The maximum
distance between access openings shall not exceed 30 m. Therefore, on long pipe packages, additional access
openings along each of the pipes may be required.


11.0 Primary Outlets
11.1 General Design Considerations
(a) Flow Regulation
Flow detention is provided by a storage volume that is released by some types of flow regulating device. It is the
flow regulator that determines how efficiently the storage volume will be utilised. Obviously, the flow regulator has
to be in balance with the available storage volume for the range of runoff events it is designed to control.


Sealed outlet
chamber
Primary
outlet
Pipe package
Secondary outlet
(overflow spillway)
(a) Secondary outlet at inlet chamber
Secondary outlet
(overflow spillway)
Primary
outlet
Pipe package
(b) Secondary outlet at outlet chamber

Figure 19.10 Pipe Package Secondary Outlet (After ATV, 1978)

(b) Location of the Flow Regulator
Flow regulating devices for above-ground storages are typically housed in an outlet structure, called a discharge
control pit (DCP), which is an important component of the storage facility. It not only controls the release rate, but
also determines the maximum depth and volume within the storage.

Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
17
Flow regulating devices for below-ground storages are typically located within the storage facility. In this type of
arrangement, the flow regulator should be located at, or near, the bottom of the storage facility. In some cases,
where the topography does not permit emptying of the storage facility by gravity, pumping will be required to
regulate the flow rate.

Figure 19.11 shows the indicative location of the primary outlet flow regulator in a typical above and below-ground
storage.
Below-ground storage
Above-ground storage
Locate flow regulator
over storage primary
outlet
DCP

Figure 19.11 Primary Outlet Flow Regulator

(c) Protection from Blockage
It is essential that all OSD storages are protected from potential blockage by installing trash screens around the
primary outlet (refer to Section 11.6).

11.2 Flow Regulating Devices
(i) Orifice
The simplest flow regulating device is an orifice. The orifice shall be cut into a plate and then securely fixed over the
outlet pipe by at least four bolts or similar (one at each corner) such that it can be readily removed for maintenance
or replacement (refer to Figure 19.12). The orifice must be tooled to the exact dimensions as calculated, with the
edges smooth and sharp (not rounded). The minimum orifice diameter shall be 25 mm to minimise the potential for
blockage.

Circular hole with
sharp edges machined
to 0.5 mm accuracy
3 mm thick corrosion
resistant steel plate
150 mm
200 mm
2
0
0

m
m
D
o


Figure 19.12 Typical Orifice Plate Details (UPRCT,1999)


Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
18
(ii) Flow Restricting Pipe
The main advantage of using a flow restricting pipe as a storage outlet is that it is difficult to modify the hydraulic
capacity of the pipe, unlike an orifice which can be easily removed. As illustrated in Figure 19.13, the net flow
restricting effect of the pipe is mostly a function of the pipe length and pipe roughness characteristics.

Another advantage is that the required flow reduction may be achieved using a larger diameter opening than an
orifice, which considerably reduces the possibility of blockage of the outlet. The pipe must be set at a slope less
than the hydraulic friction slope, but steep enough to maintain a minimum velocity of 1.0 m/s in the pipe in order to
keep any silt carried by the water from settling out within the pipe.
(iii) Discharge Control Pit (DCP)
A DCP (Figure 19.20) is typically used to house a flow regulator for an above-ground storage. The DCP provides a
link between the storage and the connection to the municipal stormwater drainage system.

To facilitate access and ease of maintenance, the minimum internal dimensions (width and breadth) of a DCP shall
be as follows. These dimensions can be increased to allow greater screen sizes or improve access.
up to 600 mm deep: 600 mm x 600 mm
greater than 600 mm deep: 900 mm x 900 mm

The following minimum dimensions will achieve predictable hydraulic characteristics:
minimum design head = 2 D
o
(from centre of orifice to top of overflow)
minimum screen clearance = 1.5 D
o
(from orifice to upstream face of screen)
minimum floor clearance = 1.5 D
o
(from centreline of orifice to bottom of pit)

Note : D
o
is the diameter of the orifice


y
e
Q
T
o
ta
l E
n
e
rg
y
L
in
e
H
y
d
ra
u
lic
G
ra
d
e
L
in
e
D
Flow restricting pipe
Trash
screen
DCP or
Storage
facility
S.L
y
s
L

Figure 19.13 Flow Regulation with an Outlet Pipe (Stahre and Urbonas, 1990)

Outlet
pipe
Compacted
granular
base
Seepage holes
Galvanised grate
Overflow weir
Top of bund wall
DETENTION
STORAGE
Meshed
screen
Orifice
plate
H
Inlet
pipe

Figure 19.20 Typical DCP (After UPRCT,1999)
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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11.3 Trash Screens

All primary outlets must be protected by an internal screen. The screen is required to:
protect the outlet from blockage
create static conditions around an outlet which helps to achieve predictable discharge coefficients
retain litter and debris which would otherwise degrade downstream waterways
11.4 Drowned Outlets

Even when care has been taken to ensure that the outlet pipe from a storage is large enough, the assumption of
free discharge may not be valid if the outlet is drowned by the downstream drainage system.

An OSD system is designed to control flows in all storms up to and including the storage design storm ARI, while the
downstream drainage system is often only able to cater for smaller storms (typically 2 year to 5 year ARI) without
surcharging. The effects of this surcharging on the storage outlet are shown in Figure 19.22.


(a) DISCHARGE INDEPENDENT OF DOWNSTREAM DRAINAGE
The storage is sufficiently above the downstream water
level to remain a free discharge outlet
(b) DISCHARGE DEPENDENT ON DOWNSTREAM DRAINAGE
The outlet to the storage is submerged for some part of the storm.
As the water level in the street open drain rises, the discharge from
the storage is reduced and the amount of water stored increased.
An assessment should be made to determine if this effect is significant
(c) DISCHARGE DEPENDENT ON DOWNSTREAM DRAINAGE AND STORAGE BELOW SURCHARGED WATER LEVEL
The oulet to the storage is affected by downstream water levels over a wide range of storm events
HGL
HGL
HGL

Figure 19.22 Effects of Downstream Drainage on a Storage Outlet (After UPRCT, 1999)


12.0 Secondary Outlets

A suitable overflow arrangement must be provided to cater for rarer storms than the OSD facilities were designed for,
or in the event of a blockage anywhere in the site drainage system.

Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
20
The most commonly used arrangement for an above-ground storage is a broad-crested weir which, with most
storages, can be designed to pass the entire overflow discharge with only a few centimetres depth of water over the
weir. This is particularly desirable for car park storages to minimise the potential for water damage to parked
vehicles.

The overflow weir must be constructed from durable, non-erodible materials to ensure the discharge capacity of the
overflow is maintained and not changed over time. The most commonly used materials are concrete, pavers or
brickwork.

For a below-ground storage, it is common for the access chamber or manhole to be designed as the overflow system.
If this is not practicable, an overflow pipe may be provided at the top of the storage to discharge to a safe point
downstream.

It is essential that the access opening or overflow pipe has sufficient capacity to pass the storage design storm flow.
An access point must be sized for the dimensions required to pass this flow or the dimensions required for ease of
access, whichever is larger. A grating is normally placed on the access chamber to allow the storage to overflow.
The grating can also serve as a ventilation point to reduce the likelihood of odours in the storage.

As far as possible, all overflows shall be directed away from buildings and adjacent properties. Overflows should be
directed to a flow path through the site and conveyed to a suitable point downstream where they can be combined
with any uncontrolled discharge from the site.

If the site drainage system becomes blocked, any resulting overflow from an OSD storage should cause flooding in a
noticeable location so that the malfunction is likely to be investigated and remedied.

Some typical examples of secondary outlets for above and below-ground storages are illustrated in Figure 19.23.
Open
drain
SECTION C-C
DCP
Overflow down driveway (shallow vee-shaped
or trapezoidal driveway cross-section)
Overflow from access chamber
grate directed down driveway
SECTION B-B
Underground
tank
Dwelling
Impervious
area storage
on driveway
Underground
tank
Landscaped
storage area
Garage
Street
B
B
C
C
Secondary
outlet
Secondary
outlet
Secondary
outlet
A A
PLAN
Overflow through
rectangular broad-crested
weir slot in retaining wall
SECTION A-A

Figure 19.23 Examples of Secondary Outlets

Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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13.0 Operation and Maintenance
13.1 General

OSD systems are intended to regulate flows over the entire life of the development. This cannot be achieved
without some regular periodical maintenance to ensure OSD facilities are kept in good working order and operate as
designed. The designers task is to minimise the frequency of maintenance and make the job as simple as possible.
The following considerations will assist in this regard, however, they will not always be feasible due to site
constraints:
locate access points to below-ground storages away from heavily trafficked areas and use light duty covers
that can be easily lifted by one person. Manholes in the entrance driveway to a large development can
discourage property owners from regularly inspecting and maintaining the system
locate the DCP for an above-ground storage in an accessible location. A slight regrading of an above-
ground storage floor will often allow a DCP to be moved from a private courtyard into a common open
space area. Common areas are more readily accessible for inspection and maintenance
all DCPs and manholes throughout the site should be fitted with a standard lifting/keying system. This
should assist future property owners to replace missing keys
use circular lids for access openings in pits and manholes wherever possible as they are often easier to
remove and will not drop into the storage when being removed or replaced
use a guide channel inside a storage or DCP to fix the screen in place and put a handle on the screen to
assist removal. The guide channel prevents debris from being forced between the wall of the pit and the
screen and allows the screen to be easily removed and replaced in the correct position

For safety, all maintenance access to storages must conform to any statutory requirements for working in confined
spaces. Step irons or access ladders shall be installed where the depth of a below-ground storage or DCP is
1200 mm or greater.

All inlet pits and manholes shall be fitted with removable covers and/or grates to permit maintenance, having regard
to the need to prevent the covers or grates being removed by children. Grates should have openings that restrict
the entry of debris likely to cause blockages.

To minimise the risk of debris blocking grates or outlets, inlet pits should be located on driveways, walkways, or
other impervious areas wherever possible.

For below-ground storages, it is advisable to make provisions for fresh water to wash down the walls of the storage
and flush out accumulated sediment and other deposits.

The optimal solution will generally be a system where the property owner, bodycorporate, or responsible authority is
able to carry out routine maintenance. Where the property owner or occupier cannot maintain the structure, this
must be clearly identified in the maintenance schedule.

13.2 Maintenance Schedule

A maintenance schedule should be prepared and included in the detailed design submission. The schedule is a set
of operating instructions for future property owners and/or occupiers. It should be clearly and simply set out and
include the following type of information.

(i) Who should do the maintenance?
(ii)What must be done?
(iii) How often should it be done?

The frequencies of both inspections and maintenance will be highly dependant on the nature of the development,
location of the storage, and the occurrence of major storms. Suggested frequencies are provided in Table 19.4.

Table 19.4 Suggested Frequencies for Inspection and Maintenance
inspect system every 3 months and after heavy rainfall
Residential lots
clean system as required, generally at least every 6 months
inspect system every 2 months and after heavy rainfall
Commercial and Industrial lots
clean system as required, generally at least every 4 months
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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14.0 Design Procedures

General procedures for both the preliminary and detailed design of OSD storage systems are given as follows:


Inspect development site to
identify drainage constraints
Undertake site survey and
prepare contour plan
Discuss site layout with
Architect/builder/developer
Prepare
Preliminary Drainage Plan
Review architectural/building,
landscape plans
Submit
Preliminary Drainage Plan
with Land Sub-division
Application
external flows entering the site
catchment area of any external flows
potential discharge points
potential storage areas
location and levels of public drainage system
sufficient surface levels to characterise site
extending into adjoining lots if necessary
any other constraints (e.g. services and drainage reserves)
estimate storage volume required
estimate external flows entering the site
establish building and site layout
select type and location of suitable storage(s)
determine areas unable to drain to storages
estimate storage levels and assess available discharge points
identify emergency spillway types and locations
identify overland flow paths for external flows and storage overflows
check other plans prepared for the development for any
anomalies or conflicts with the Preliminary Drainage Plan

Figure 19.24 Preliminary Design Procedure for OSD Storage Systems
Concept and Design Requirement of MSMA
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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Obtain copies of approved plans
and conditions
Select discharge control device
and finalise
storage volumes
Design storage systems
select discharge control device for each storage
establish level of outlet(s) and ensure free outfall if possible
finalise required storage volume(s)
distribute final storage volume(s) to minimise nuisance
ponding conditions to property owners
check underground storages for access and ease of maintenance
ensure sufficient weir capacity for storage overflows
approved Preliminary Drainage Plan
development/subdivision consent conditions
landscape and architectural/building plans
Prepare calculation sheets
and maintenance schedule
Review design
Submit
Detailed Drainage Plan
with Building Plan Application
prepare calculation sheets for each storage system
prepare maintenance schedule outlining necesary
maintenance practices
review other plans prepared for the development for any anomalies
or conflicts with the Detailed Drainage Plan
check all stormwater-related development consent
conditions have been satisfied
Design drainage
conveyance system
Prepare detailed
design drawings
ensure storage design ARI flows are conveyed to storage for all
areas designed to drain to storages
check overland flowpaths have adequate capacity to ensure
external flows bypass on-site storages
undertake structural design of system elements as necessary
prepare plans of sufficient standard and detail to allow
builders/plumbers to construct system
specify construction materials

Figure 19.25 Detailed Design Procedure for OSD Storage Systems


Runoff Estimation
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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1.0 Design Acceptance Criteria

1.1. Design Rainfall (Chapter 4, Volume 2, MSMA)

A major/minor system approach shall be adopted for the planning and design of urban stormwater systems.

The minor system is intended to collect and convey runoff from relatively frequent storm events to minimize
inconvenience and nuisance flooding. The major system is intended to safely convey runoff not collected by the
minor drainage system to waterways or rivers. The major systems must protect the community from the
consequences of large, reasonable rare events, which could cause severe flood damage, injury and even loss of life.
The definition of major/minor system does not refer to size of the drains. Event ARIs to be adopted for the planning
and design of minor and major stormwater systems shall be in accordance with Table 4.1 (MSMA, 2000)

Table 4.1 Design Storm ARIs for Urban Stormwater Systems
Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) of Design Storm (year)
Quantity Type of Development
(See Note 1)
Minor System
Major System
(See Note 2 and 3)
Quality
Open Space, Parks and
Agricultural Land in urban areas

Residential:
Low density
Medium density
High Density

Commercial, Business and
Industrial Other than CDB

Commercial, Business, Industrial
in Central Business District
(CDB) areas of Large Cities
1



2
5
10

5


10
up to 100



up to 100
up to 100
up to 100

up to 100


up to 100
3 month ARI (for all types
of development)

Notes: (1) If a development falls under two categories then the higher of the applicable storm ARIs from the
Table shall be adopted.
(2) The required size of trunk drains within the major drainage system, varies. According to current
practices the trunk drains are provided for the areas larger than 40 ha. Proceeding downstream in the
drainage system, a point may be reached where it becomes necessary to increase the size of the trunk
drain in order to limit the magnitude of gap flows as described in Section 4.6.2.
(3) Ideally, the selection of design storm ARI should also be on the basis of economic efficiency. In
practice, however, economic efficiency is typically replaced by the concept of the level of protection.
In the case where the design storm for higher ARI would be impractical, then the selection of
appropriate ARI should be adjusted to optimise the ratio cost to benefit or social factors. Consequently
lower ARI should be adopted for the major system, with consultation and approval from Local Authority.
However, the consequences of the higher ARI shall be investigated and made known. Even though the
stormwater system for the existing developed condition shall be designed for a lower ARI storm, the
land should be reserved for higher ARI, so that the system can be upgraded when the area is built up
in the future.
(4) Habitable floor levels of buildings shall be above the 100 year ARI flood level.
(5) In calculating the discharge from the design storm, allowance shall be made for any reduction in
discharge due to quantity control (detention or retention) measures installed as described in Section
4.5.

1.2 Major and Minor Systems

The design objectives of the major and minor systems are described in Table 11.1 (MSMA, 2000). Design concepts
for the major and minor systems are diagrammatically shown in Figure 11.2 (MSMA, 2000).

The minor system is designed to convey runoff from a minor storm, which occurs relatively frequently, and
would otherwise cause inconvenience and nuisance flooding.

The minor system typically comprises a network of kerbs, gutters, inlets, open drains and pipes.

The major system, on the other hand, comprises the many planned and unplanned drainage routes, which
convey runoff from a major storm to waterways and rivers.

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Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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Major Flood
Open Drain (or Pipe)
Habitable Floor Level
of Building
Local Road
Padestrian Safety (Wading)
Requirements Apply in Major Flood
Freeboard in
Major Flood
Highway is Trafficable in
Major Flood
MAJOR SYSTEM
Minor Flood
MINOR SYSTEM
Inlet
The major system is expected to protect the community from the consequences of large, reasonably rare
events, which could cause severe flood damage, injury and even loss of life.



Table 11.1 Major and Minor System Design Objectives
Major System Minor System
Reduced injury and loss of life Improved aesthetics
Reduced disruption to normal business activities Reduction in minor traffic accidents
Reduced damage to infrastructure services Reduced health hazards (mosquitoes, flies)
Reduced emergency services costs Reduced personal inconvenience
Reduced flood damage Reduced roadway maintenance
Reduced loss of production -
Reduced clean-up costs -
Increased feeling of security -
Increased land values -
Improved aesthetics and recreational opportunities -
Source: after Argue (1986)


























Figure 11.2 Major and Minor System Design Concepts


1.3 On-site and Community Systems

On-site facilities are primarily minor drainage structures provided on individual housing, industrial and infrastructure
sites. They are usually built and maintained by private parties/developers. For quantity design they are based on
peak inflow estimates using the Rational Method with design storms between 2 year and 10 year ARI.

Community facilities are major drainage structures provided to cater for larger areas, which can combine different
landuse areas. They are usually built and maintained by the regulatory authority. For quantity design they are
based on peak inflow estimates using preferably the Hydrograph Method with larger design storms, up to
100 year ARI in some instances, depending on the downstream protection requirement (Figure 11.4).







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Figure 11.4 General Design Concept for Multilevel Stormwater System





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Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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2.0 Design Storm

2.1 Polynomial Approximation of I DF Curves

Polynomial expressions in the form of Equation 1 have been fitted to the published IDF curves for the 35 main
cities/towns in Malaysia.

3 2
)) (ln( )) (ln( ) ln( ) ln( t d t c t b a I
t
R
+ + + = (13.2)
where,
R
I
t
= the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI and duration t
R = average return interval (years)
t = duration (minutes)
a to d are fitting constants dependent on ARI which are given in Appendix 13.A (MSMA,2000).


2.2 IDF Values for Short Duration Storms

It is recommended that Equation 1 be used to derive design rainfall intensities for durations down to a lower limit of
30 minutes.

For duration between 5 and 30 minutes, the design rainfall depth P
d
for a short duration d (minutes) is given by,

) (
30 60 30
P P F P P
D d
= (13.3)

where P
30
, P
60
are the 30-minute and 60-minute duration rainfall depths respectively, obtained from the published
design curves. F
D
is the adjustment factor for storm duration.

The rainfall intensity for short duration storms is given by,

d
P
I
d
= (13.4)
where P
d
(mm) is rainfall depth in mm and d is duration in hours.

The value of F
D
is obtained from Table 13.3 as a function of
2
P
24h
, the 2-year ARI 24-hour rainfall depth. Values of
2
P
24h
for Peninsular Malaysia are given in Figure 13.3 (MSMA, 2000).


Table 13.3 Values of F
D
for Equation 13.3
2
P
24h
(mm) Duration
West Coast East Coast

(minutes) 100 120 150 180 All
5 2.08 1.85 1.62 1.40 1.39
10 1.28 1.13 0.99 0.86 1.03
15 0.80 0.72 0.62 0.54 0.74
20 0.47 0.42 0.36 0.32 0.48
30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00













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2.3 I DF Values for Frequent Storms

Water quality studies, in particular, require data on IDF values for relatively small, frequent storms. The following
preliminary equations are recommended for calculating the 1, 3, 6-month and 1 year ARI rainfall intensities in the
design storm, for all durations:

D D
I I
2 083 . 0
4 . 0 = (13.5a)

D D
I I
2 25 . 0
5 . 0 = (13.5b)

D D
I I
2 5 . 0
6 . 0 = (13.5c)

D D
I I
2 1
8 . 0 = (13.5d)

where,
0.083
I
D
,
0.25
I
D
,
0.5
I
D
and
1
I
D
are the required 1, 3, 6-month and 1-year ARI rainfall intensities for any duration
D, and
2
I
D
is the 2-year ARI rainfall intensity for the same duration D, obtained from IDF curves.


2.4 Areal Reduction Factor

It is important to understand that IDF curves give the rainfall intensity at a point. Storm spatial characteristics are
important for larger catchments. In general, the larger the catchment and the shorter the rainfall duration, the less
uniformly the rainfall is distributed over the catchment.

The areal reduction is expressed as a factor less than 1.0. No areal reduction factor is to be used for catchment
areas of up to 10 km
2
. For large catchments, the design rainfall is calculated with Equation 13.1:


p A c
I F I = (13.1)
Where, F
A
is the areal reduction factor, I
c
is the average rainfall over the catchment, and I
p
is the point rainfall
intensity.

Suggested values of areal reduction factor F
A
for Peninsular Malaysia are given in HP No.1-1982. These values are
reproduced in Table 13.1 below for catchment areas of up to 200 km
2
. The values are plotted in Figure 13.1 (MSMA,
2000). Intermediate values can be interpolated from this figure.


Table 13.1 Values of Areal Reduction Factors (F
A
)
Catchment
Area
(km
2
)
0.5 1 3 6 24
0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
10 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
50 0.82 0.88 0.94 0.96 0.97
100 0.73 0.82 0.91 0.94 0.96
150 0.67 0.78 0.89 0.92 0.95
200 0.63 0.75 0.87 0.90 0.93
Storm Duration (hours)

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0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
10 100 1000
Catchment Area (km
2
)
F
a
c
t
o
r
,

F
A

24 hours
6 hours
3 hours
1 hour
0.5 hour


Figure 13.1 Graphical Areal Reduction Factors


2.5 Design Rainfall Temporal Patterns

The temporal distribution of rainfall within the design storm is an important factor that affects the runoff volume,
and the magnitude and timing of the peak discharge. Design rainfall temporal patterns are used to represent the
typical variation of rainfall intensities during a typical storm burst. Standardization of temporal patterns allows
standard design procedures to be adopted in flow calculation.

The recommended patterns in this Manual are based on those from AR&R for durations of one hour or less and from
HP No. 1 (1982) for longer durations.

The standard durations recommended in this Manual for urban stormwater studies are listed in Table 13.4. The
interim temporal patterns to be used for these standard durations are given in Appendix 13.B (MSMA, 2000).


Table 13.4 Standard Durations for Urban Stormwater Drainage
Standard Duration
(minutes)
Number of Time
Intervals
Time Interval
(minutes)
10 2 5
15 3 5
30 6 5
60 12 5
120 8 15
180 6 30
360 6 60












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3.0 Runoff Estimation

3.1 Time of Concentration (Chapter 14, Volume2, MSMA)

The time of concentration (t
c
) is often considered to be the sum of the time travel to an inlet plus the time of travel
in the stormwater conveyance system.

Although travel time from individual elements of a system may be very short, the total nominal flow travel time to be
adopted for all individual elements within any catchment to its points of entry into the stormwater drainage network
shall not be less than 5 minutes.

For small catchments up to 0.4 hectare in area, it is acceptable to use the minimum times of concentration given in
Table 14.3 (MSMA, 2000) instead of performing detailed calculation.

Table 14.3 Minimum Times of Concentration
Drainage Element Minimum t
c

(minutes)
Roof and property drainage 5
Road inlet 5
Small areas < 0.4 hectare 10
Note: The recommended minimum times are based on the minimum duration for which meaningful rain intensity data are available.

The time of concentration (t
C
) is given by

t
C
= t
o
+ t
d


Where t
o
= overland flow time and t
d
= flow time in channel, kerbed gutter or pipe.


3.1.1 Overland Flow Time

The Friends formula should be used to estimate overland sheet flow times. It is also given in the form of a
nomograph in Design Chart 14.1 (MSMA, 2000) for shallow sheet flow over a plane surface.

2 / 1
3 / 1
. . 107
S
L n
t
o
= (14.1)
Where,
t
o
= overland sheet flow travel time (minutes)
L = overland sheet flow path length (m)
n = Mannings roughness value for the surface
S = slope of overland surface (%)
Note: Values for Mannings 'n ' are given in Table 14.2 (MSMA, 2000).

Table 14.2 Values of Mannings 'n' for Overland Flow
Manning n Surface Type
Recommended Range
Concrete/Asphalt** 0.011 0.01-0.013
Bare Sand** 0.01 0.01-0.06
Bare Clay-Loam**
(eroded)
0.02 0.012-0.033
Gravelled Surface** 0.02 0.012-0.03
Packed Clay** 0.03 0.02-0.04
Short Grass** 0.15 0.10-0.20
Light Turf* 0.20 0.15-0.25
Lawns* 0.25 0.20-0.30
Dense Turf* 0.35 0.30-0.40
Pasture* 0.35 0.30-0.40
Dense Shrubbery and
Forest Litter*
0.40 0.35-0.50
* From Crawford and Linsley (1966) obtained by calibration of Stanford Watershed Model.
** From Engman (1986) by Kinematic wave and storage analysis of measured rainfall runoff data.


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3.1.2 Roof Drainage Flow Time

The time of flow travel on roofs for residential is generally very small and may be adopted as the minimum time of
5 minutes. However, for larger residential, commercial, and industrial developments the travel time may be longer
than 5 minutes in which case it should be estimated using the procedures for pipe and/or channel flow as
appropriate.


3.1.3 Kerbed Gutter Flow Time

An approximate kerbed gutter flow time can be estimated from Design Chart 14.2 (MSMA, 2000) or by the following
empirical equation:
S
L
t
g
40
= (14.3)
Where,
t
g
= kerbed gutter flow time (minutes)
L = length of kerbed gutter flow (m)
S = longitudinal grade of the kerbed gutter (%)


3.1.4 Channel Flow Time

The Manning's Equation is recommended to calculate flow along a open channel:
V =
2 / 1 3 / 2
1
S R
n
(14.4a)
From which,
2 / 1 3 / 2
60
.
S R
L n
t
ch
= (14.4b)
Where,
V = average velocity (m/s)
n = Manning's roughness coefficient
R = hydraulic radius (m)
S = friction slope (m/m)
L = length of reach (m)
t
ch
= travel time in the channel (minutes)


3.1.5 Pipe Flow Time

The time of flow through pipe, t
p
, is then given by:
V
L
t
p
= (14.5)
Where,
L = pipe length (m)
V = average pipe velocity (m/s)
The velocity V in a pipe running just full can be estimated from pipe flow charts such as those in Chapter 25,
Appendix 25.B (MSMA, 2000).












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3.2 Time of Concentration for Natural Catchment

For natural/landscaped catchments and mixed flow paths the time of concentration can be found by use of the
Bransby-Williams' Equation 14.6 (AR&R, 1987). In these cases the times for overland flow and channel or stream
flow are included in the time calculated.

Here the overland flow time including the travel time in natural channels is expressed as:
5 / 1 10 / 1
.
S A
L F
t
c
c
= (14.6)
Where,
t
c
= the time of concentration (minute)
F
c
= a conversion factor, 58.5 when area A is in km
2
,
or 92.5 when area is in ha
L = length of flow path from catchment divide to outlet (km)
A = catchment area (km
2
or ha)
S = slope of stream flow path (m/km)

3.3 Time of Concentration for Small Catchments

For small catchments up to 0.4 hectare in area, it is acceptable to use the minimum times of concentration given in
Table 14.3 instead of performing detailed calculation.

Table 14.3 Minimum Times of Concentration
Drainage Element
Minimum t
c
(minutes)
Roof and property drainage 5
Road inlet 5
Small areas < 0.4 hectare 10



3.4 Rational Method

3.4.1 Rational Formula

The Rational Formula is one of the most frequently used urban hydrology methods in Malaysia to computing
stormwater flows from rainfall. It gives satisfactory results for small catchments up to 80 hectares only. The formula
is:
360
. . A I C
Q
t
y
y
= (14.7)
where,
Q
y
= y year ARI peak flow (m
3
/s)
C = dimensionless runoff coefficient
y
I
t
= y year ARI average rainfall intensity over time of concentration, t
c
, (mm/hr)
A = drainage area (ha)

Assumptions used in the Rational Method are as follows:

1. The peak flow occurs when the entire catchment is contributing to the flow.
2. The rainfall intensity is the same over the entire catchment area.
3. The rainfall intensity is uniform over a time duration equal to the time of concentration, t
c
..
4. The ARI of the computed peak flow is the same as that of the rainfall intensity, i.e., a 5 year ARI rainfall
intensity will produce a 5 year ARI peak flow.

A general procedure for estimating peak flow using the Rational Method is shown in Figure 14.2 (MSMA, 2000).

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Select design ARI
Discretise sub-catchment
Estimate time of
concentration, t
c
divide sub-catchment into segments of homogeneous
land use or surface slope
estimate overland flow time

select design ARI for both minor and major drainage


systems
Determine average rainfall
intensity,
y
I
t
Determine average rainfall
intensity,
y
I
t
Estimate runoff coefficients
Calculate average runoff
coefficient
calculate
y
I
t
for design ARI of y years and duration t
data for area of interest

use Equation 14.8

calculate peak flow rate from


Equation 14.7
estimate flow times for all other flow components
within the sub-catchment such as kerb gutters, pipe,
and channels, etc.
estimate C values for each segment if there are
different land covers
equal to the time of concentration, from IDF
Calculate peak flow rate Q
y
for the sub-catchment


Figure 14.2 General Procedure for Estimating Peak Flow for a Single Sub-catchment Using the Rational Method


3.4.2 Runoff Coefficient

The runoff coefficient, C, is a function of the ground cover and a host of other hydrologic abstractions. The runoff
coefficient accounts for the integrated effects of rainfall interception, infiltration, depression storage, and temporary
storage in transit of the peak rate of runoff. It depends on rainfall intensity and duration as well as on the
catchment characteristics. During a rainstorm the actual runoff coefficient increases as the soil become saturated.
The greater the rainfall intensity, the lesser the relative effect of rainfall losses on the peak discharge, and therefore
the greater the runoff coefficient.

Recommended runoff coefficient (C) is given in Design Chart 14.3 (urban areas) or Design Chart 14.4 (rural areas) in
MSMA (2000), respectively.
Calculate peak flow rate from Equation 14.7
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3.5 Hydrograph Method

For larger catchments, storage and timing effects become significant, and a hydrograph method is needed.
Hydrograph methods must be used whenever rainfall spatial and temporal variations or flow routing/storage effects
need to be considered. Flow routing is important in the design of stormwater detention, water quality facilities, and
pump stations, and also in the design of large stormwater drainage systems to more precisely reflect flow peaking
conditions in each segment of complex systems.


3.5.1 Time-Area Method

Time-area methods utilise a convolution of the rainfall excess hyetograph with a time-area diagram representing the
progressive area contributions within a catchment in set time increments. Separate hydrographs are generated for
the impervious and pervious surfaces within the catchment. These are combined to estimate the total flow inputs to
individual sub-catchment entries to the urban drain network.

This method assumes that the outflow hydrograph for any storm is characterised by separable subcatchment
translation and storage effects. Pure translation of the direct runoff to the outlet via the drainage network is
described using the channel travel time, resulting in an outflow hydrograph that ignores catchment storage effects.

To apply the method, the catchment is first divided into a number of time zones separated by isochrones or lines of
equal travel time to the outlet (Figure 14.5b). The areas between isochrones are then determined and plotted
against the travel time as shown in Figure 14.5c.

The translated inflow hydrograph ordinates q
i
for any selected design hyetograph (Figure 14.5d) can now be
determined. Each block of storm in Figure 14.5a should be applied (after deducting losses) to the entire catchment;
the runoff from each sub-area reaches the outflow at lagged intervals defined by the time-area histogram. The
simultaneous arrival of the runoff from areas A
1
, A
2
,for storms I
1
, I
2
,should be determined by properly lagging
and adding contributions, or generally:

i i i i
A I A I A I q . ....... . .
1 2 1 1
+ + + =

(14.10)
Where,
q
i
= the flow hydrograph ordinates (m
3
/s)
I
i
= excess rainfall hyetograph ordinates (m/s)
A
i
= time-area histogram ordinates (m
2
)
i = number of isochrone area contributing to the outlet

For example, the runoff from storms I
1
on A
3
, I
2
on A
2
and I
3
on A
1
arrive at the outlet simultaneously, and q
3
is the
total flow. The total inflow hydrograph (Figure 14.5d) at the outlet can be obtained from Equation 14.10.


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t
(a) Rainfall Histogram (b) Catchment Isochrones
2

t
3

t
4t
Isochrones
Area A
1
A
2
A
4
A
3
(c) Time-Area Curve (d) Runoff Hydrograph
R
u
n
o
f
f

(
m
3
/
s
)
Time t
t
q
1
q
2
q
3
q
5
q
4
R
a
i
n
f
a
l
l

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

I
Time t
I
1
I
2
I
3
0
I
4
t 2t 3t 4t
t
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

A
r
e
a
Time t
0 t 2t 3t 4t



Figure 14.5 TimeArea Method



3.5.2 Other Hydrograph Methods

Kinematic Wave Method
Non-linear Reservoir Method
Rational Method Hydrograph Method











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1.5 m minimum 1.0 m
Drainage Reserve
(b) Lined Open Drain (a) Grassed Swale
0.5 m
Drainage Reserve
0.5 m Design flow width + freeboard
min min
1.0 General

1.0.1 New direction in the stormwater management has imposed the control of both runoff quantity and quality.

1.0.2 The establishment of a storage-oriented approach for controlling runoff quantity from development sites.

1.0.3 A major and minor system approach shall be adopted for the planning and design of drainage system.



1.1 Minor Drainage System

1.1.1 The minor system shall be designed to collect and convey runoff from relatively frequent storm events to
minimize inconvenience and nuisance flooding.

1.1.2 The example of minor system are includes pipe drains and open drains.


1.2 Major Drainage System

1.2.1 The major system shall be designed to safely convey runoff in excess of minor drainage system to
waterways or rivers. The major system shall protect the development area from the consequence of large,
reasonably rare events, which could cause severe flood damage.

1.2.2 The example of major drainage system is engineered waterways.


2.0 Open Drains (Chapter 26, Volume 10 MSMA)

2.1 Drainage Reserves

Open drains located within a road reserve do not require a separate reserve to allow access for maintenance. Drains
located outside of road reserves, such as in public walkways and open space areas, should be provided with a
drainage with a drainage reserve in accordance with Figure 26.1 (MSMA, 2000)













Figure 26.1 Reserve Width for Open Drains


3.0 Lined Drains

3.1 Locations and Alignments

Standardised locations for lined drains are provided to limit the negotiations needed when other services are
involved.

3.1.1 Roadway Reserves

The outer edge of a lined drain should be located 0.5 m from the property boundary on the high side of road
reserves to permit relatively short connections to service adjacent properties. Lined drains may also be located
within road median strips.

The Local Authority should be consulted for standard alignments of public utility services within street verges.

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(a) Uncovered Open Drain
Varies
0.5 m minimum
1.0 m maximum
5
0
0

m
a
x
i
m
u
m
(b) Covered Open Drain
0.5 m minimum
1.0 m maximum
Varies
0
.
5

m

m
i
n
i
m
u
m
1
.
0

m

m
a
x
i
m
u
m
V
a
r
i
e
s
Grate or
solid cover
Where there is significant advantage in placing a lined drain on an alignment reserved for another authority, it may
be so placed provided that both the authority responsible for maintenance of the stormwater conveyance and the
other authority concerned agree in writing to release the reservation.

Curved alignments are preferred on curved roadways. However, where there are significant advantages, e.g. culs-
de-sac or narrow street verges, straight alignments may be acceptable.

3.1.2 Privately Owned Lots

Municipal lined drains shall not be located within privately owned properties. Where lined drains are to be provided
at the side or rear of private properties, they shall be placed within a separate drainage reserve in accordance with
Figure 26.1(b) (MSMA, 2000)

3.1.3 Public Open Space

The location of lined drains within public land such as open space shall be brought to the attention of the Local
Authority for consideration. As a guide, unless directed otherwise, lined drains shall be located as close as practical
to the nearest property boundary with due consideration for public safety.

3.2 Lining Materials

Lined drains shall be constructed from materials proven to be structurally sound and durable and have satisfactory
jointing systems.

Lined open drains may be constructed with any of the following materials:
plain concrete
reinforced concrete
stone pitching
plastered brickwork
precast masonry blocks

Alternative drain materials may be acceptable. Proposals for the use of other materials shall be referred to the Local
Authority for consideration.

3.3 Geometry

The dimensions of lined open drains have been limited in the interests of public safety and to facilitate ease of
maintenance. The minimum and maximum permissible cross-sectional dimensions are illustrated in Figure 26.3
(MSMA, 2000) and described as follows.















Figure 26.3 Dimension Limits for Open Lined Drains

3.3.1 Depth

The maximum depth for lined open drains shall be in accordance with Table 26.1 (MSMA, 2000)

Table 26.1 Recommended Maximum Depths
Cover Condition Maximum Depth (m)
Without protective covering 0.5
With solid or grated cover 1.0

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3.3.2 Width

The width of lined open drains may vary between a minimum width of 0.5 m and a maximum width of 1.0 m.

3.3.3 Side slope

The recommended maximum side slopes for lined open drains is indicated in Table 26.2 (MSMA, 2000)

Table 26.2 Recommended Maximum Side Slopes
Drain Lining Maximum Side Slope
Concrete, brickwork,
and blockwork
Vertical
Stone pitching 1.5(H):1(V)
Grassed/Vegetated 2(H):1(V)


3.4 Covers

Open drains in locations open to pedestrian access shall be covered if the depth of the drain exceeds 0.6 m. The
type of drain cover used will depend on the expected live loadings and whether or not the drain is required to accept
surface flow. The following types of drain covering are acceptable:
precast reinforced concrete
metal grates and solid plates

3.4.1 Precast Reinforced Concrete Covers

Drains not subject to traffic loads or inflow of surface runoff may be covered using precast reinforced concrete
covers. Covers should be sized such that the weight is limited to what can be easily lifted by 2 workmen to gain
access for maintenance.

3.4.2 Metal Grates and Solid Plates

Drains subject to vehicular traffic loads or inflow of surface runoff shall be covered using metal grates or solid plates.
Metal covers shall be designed in accordance with the latest edition of relevant Malaysian Standard.
The type of drain cover shall be selected according to the following criteria:
subject to traffic loadings Class C
subject to traffic loadings Class D

Cast iron covers shall be 'GATIC', or equal.

Covers for lined open drains shall be set at the finished cover levels given in Table 26.3 (MSMA, 2000)

Table 26.3 Cover Levels
Location Cover Level
Paved Areas Flush with finished surface
Footpaths and street verges Flush with finished surface
Elsewhere 100 mm above surface to allow for topsoiling and grassing

3.5 Freeboard

The depth of an open lined drain shall include a minimum freeboard of 50 mm above the design storm water level in
the drain.

3.6 Velocities and Grades

To prevent sedimentation and vegetative growth, the minimum average flow velocity shall not be less than 0.6 m/s.

The maximum average flow velocity shall not exceed 4 m/s. For flow velocities in excess of 2 m/s, drains shall be
provided with a 1.2 m high handrail fence, or covered with solid or grated covers for the entire length of the drain
for public safety.

3.7 Vehicular Crossings

Driveway entrances to properties and other vehicular crossings shall be structurally designed for a 7 tonne wheel
loading.
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3.8 Concrete Works

3.8.1 Concrete Lining Section Thickness

All concrete lining shall be designed to withstand the anticipated hydrodynamic and hydrostatic forces. The
minimum thickness shall not be less than 100 mm.

3.8.2 Concrete J oints

Concrete lined channels shall be constructed of either plain or reinforced concrete (depending on loading conditions)
without transverse joints. Expansion/contraction joints shall be installed where new concrete lining is connected to a
rigid structure or to existing concrete, which is not continuously reinforced. Longitudinal joints, where required, shall
be constructed on the side walls at least 300 mm vertically above the drain invert.

Construction joints are required for all cold joints and where the lining thickness changes.

Reinforcement, if required, shall be continuous through the joint.

All joints shall be designed to prevent differential movement.

3.8.3 Concrete Finish

The surface of the concrete lining may be finished in any of the finishes listed in Design Chart 26.1, MSMA. The
designer should check with the Local Authority to determine which finishes are acceptable.

3.8.4 Reinforcement Steel

Steel reinforcement shall have a minimum tensile strength f
y
= 460 N/mm
2
. Either deformed bars or wire mesh may
be used depending on load requirements.

Reinforcing steel shall be placed at the centre of the section.
Provide additional steel as needed to meet retaining wall structural needs.

3.8.5 Earthwork

The following areas shall be compacted to at least 95% of maximum density as determined by ASTM D698
(Standard Proctor):
the top 150 mm of subgrade immediately beneath the drain bottom and side slopes
the top 150 mm of earth surface within 1 m of the top edges of the drain
all fill material

The subgrade under the drain must be of acceptable strength for the expected loadings, i.e. weight of concrete and
water at maximum flow depth. The following may be used to strengthen or compensate for deficient subgrades:
piling
concrete blinding layer
geotextiles

3.8.6 Bedding
Provide 100 mm of granular bedding, equivalent in gradation to 20 mm concrete aggregate, under the drain bottom
and side slopes.

3.9 Stone Pitching

3.9.1 Stone

The stone used for pitching shall be hard, durable and dense, and not subject to deterioration upon exposure to air
and water. Suitable stone is clean rough quarry stone, pit or river cobbles, or a mixture of any of these materials.

Individual pieces shall be approximately cubical or spherical. The maximum stone dimension shall be 250 mm with a
minimum dimension between 100 and 150 mm.

3.9.2 Cement Mortar

Cement mortar shall be 1 part ordinary Portland cement to 3 part fine aggregate by volume with sufficient water
added to produce a suitable consistency for the intended purpose.
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3.9.3 Capping

The top of stone pitching shall be capped with cement mortar to produce an even surface to match the surrounding
ground level and to provide seating for protective covers if required.

3.10 Bricks and Precast Blocks

Bricks shall be sound, hard, and shall comply with the requirements of Malaysian Standard 76. Precast blocks shall
be constructed in accordance with the Manufacturers specifications.

Cement mortar for brickwork and blockwork shall be the same as that specified for stone pitching.
All exposed brickwork surfaces shall be plastered with a 20 mm thickness of plaster consisting of 1 part masonry
cement complying with Malaysian Standard 794 to 3 parts sand is volume.

3.11 Weep Holes

Appropriate numbers of weep holes shall be provided in the walls of all open drains relieve hydrostatic pressure.

3.12 Strut Beams

Precast or cast-in-situ struts shall be provided at the top of all stone pitched, brick, and unreinforced precast block
drains that exceed 0.9 m in depth. Strut beams shall be spaced at intervals not exceeding 6 m.

Strut beams shall be 100 mm square in section and shall be reinforced with a single centrally located Y12 bar.

3.13 Maintenance

Lined open drains will require periodical maintenance to remove weed growth, sediment deposits, and debris and
litter accumulation to maintain the designed hydraulic capacity of the drain.

Damaged linings or displaced joints or strut beams should be repaired as soon as practical to prevent further
deterioration or failure of sections of the drain. Refer to Section 28.15 (MSMA) for recommendations for inspection.

4.0 Composite Drains

4.1 General

A combination of a grassed section and a lined drain may be provided in locations subject to dry-weather base flows
which would otherwise damage the invert of a grassed swale, or in areas with highly erodible soils.

The lined drain section is provided at the drain invert to carry dry-weather base flows and minor flows up to a
recommended limit of 50% of the 1 month ARI. The grassed section shall be sized to provide additional flow
capacity up to and including the design storm ARI.

The composite drain components shall comply with the relevant design requirements specified for grassed swales
and lined drains.

4.2 Geometry

The preferred shape for a composite drain is shown in Figure 26.4 (MSMA, 2000)

C
Design flow width + freeboard
1
4 min
Q
minor
50 mm freeboard
4 min
1
Grassed Section
Lined drain


Figure 26.4 Recommended Composite Drain Cross-Section

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C
Design flow width + freeboard
4 min
1 1
4 min
Q
minor
(a) ' Vee' Shaped
300mm freeboard
1
50 50
1
1
4 min
1
4 min
Batter Batter Base
Q
minor
Design flow width + freeboard
(b) Trapezoidal Shaped
C
300mm freeboard
5.0 Grassed Swale

5.1 Location

A grassed swale, depression, or minor formalized overland flow path is generally located within parkland, open space
areas, along pedestrian ways, and along roadways with limited access to adjacent properties.

Grassed swale, should not be provided in urban street verges with adjacent standard density residential and
commercial properties where on-street parking is permitted.

5.2 Alignment

Standardized alignments for grassed swales are provided to limit the negotiations needed when other services are
involved.

5.2.1 Roadway Reserves

In new development areas, the edge of a grassed swale should generally be located 0.5m from the road reserve or
property boundary. In existing areas, this alignment may be varied depending on the alignment and depth of
existing underground services within the road verge. The designer should consult the Local Authority for appropriate
alignments in existing areas.

Swales may also be located within road media strips, provided the median is of sufficient width to contain the swale
plus a 1.0 m berm on either side. The swale should be centrally located within the median

5.2.2 Privately Owned Lots

Municipal grassed swales shall not be located within privately owned properties. If swales are to be provided at the
side or rear of private properties, they shall be placed within a separate drainage reserve of minimum dimensions in
accordance with Figure 26.1(a).

5.2.3 Public Open Space

The location of swales within public land such as open space should generally conform to natural drainage paths
wherever practical. The designer should consult with the Local Authority for appropriate alignments with due
consideration for public safety.

5.3 Geometry

The preferred shapes for grassed swales are shown in Figure 26.2 (MSMA, 2000). The flow depth shall not exceed
0.9 m.

A vee shaped section will generally be sufficient for most applications; however, a trapezoidal section may be used
for additional capacity or to limit the depth of the swale.











Figure 26.2 Recommended Grassed Swale Cross-Sections

5.4 Freeboard

The depth of a grassed swale shall include a minimum freeboard of 50 mm above the design storm water level in
the swale.

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5.5 Velocities and Grades

The average flow velocity in a grassed swale shall not exceed 2 m/s. If this is not practical, an underground pipeline,
lined open drain, or grass reinforcement system should be provided.

5.6 Grassing

The grass species chosen for lining of grassed swales must be sturdy, drought resistant, easy to establish, and able
to spread and develop a strong turf layer after establishment. A thick root structure is necessary to control weed
growth and erosion.

One or more of the following permanent grasses are recommended for permanent seed mixes:
Axonophus compressus (Cow grass)
Vertiver grass
Brachiaria sp.
Cynodon dactylon ((Bermuda grass)
Panicum virgatum (Switch grass)

The quality of the grass seed used is important. Grass seed shall be fresh, recleaned grass seed of the latest crop
available. Grass seed may range from 20% to 100% purity. Compensation for purity and germination shall be by
furnishing sufficient additional seed to equal the specified pure live seed product.

5.7 Dry Weather Flow Provision

For swales that will be subjected to dry weather flows, an underground pipe or surface invert should be provided in
accordance with the requirements of Section 28.9.4. (MSMA, 2000)

5.8 Vehicular Crossings

As far as practical, the number of vehicular crossing points on swales should be kept to a minimum. Where crossing
points are deemed necessary, they may be provided by any of the following methods:
at-grade crossing
box or pipe culvert
bridge structure

At-grade crossings shall be constructed with a hard durable surface that will be stable under design flow conditions.
The cross-section should be designed in accordance Standard Drawing SD F-42 to minimise the potential for ponding
across the crossing caused by the buildup of the grassed surface over time on the low side of the crossing.

Culvert and bridge crossings should be sized with sufficient waterway area to minimise changes to the flow regime
on both sides of the crossing and to minimise the potential for blockages. Restrictions caused be these types of
crossings will cause sediment to deposit on the upstream side of the crossing, which may become a maintenance
problem.

If entrance and exit velocities, particularly for culverts, are increased above the swale average velocity limit of 2 m/s,
erosion protection measures will be required to prevent scouring of the swale (refer Chapter 29, MSMA).

The level of culvert obverts and bridge soffits should be at least 50 mm above the design storm water level in the
swale.

5.9 Maintenance

Periodical maintenance will be required to maintain the hydraulic capacity of a swale. Grass should be regularly
mown and sediment, litter, and debris deposits removed, particularly at flow restrictions such as vehicular crossing
points.

Bare patches and scoured areas must be repaired by removing dead grass, filling scour holes, and reseeding with a
recommended permanent grass seed mix.







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5.10 Design Charts


Suggested n values
Surface Cover or Finish
Minimum Maximum
Grassed Swales
Short grass cover 0.030 0.035
Tall grass cover 0.035 0.050
Lined Drains
Concrete
Trowelled finish 0.011 0.015
Off form finish 0.013 0.018
Stone Pitching
Dressed stone in mortar 0.015 0.017
Random stones in mortar or rubble masonry 0.020 0.035
Rock Riprap 0.025 0.030
Brickwork 0.012 0.018
Precast Masonry Blockwork 0.012 0.015
Design Chart 26.1 Suggested Values of Mannings Roughness Coefficient, n











































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0.1 0.9 0.5
Flow Depth, y (m)
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8
1
0.01
0.5
0.1
3
0.005
0.05
2
V
a
l
u
e

o
f
Q

n






















S
0
1
/
2
0.15
Z = 5.5
Z = 6
Z = 5
Z = 4.5
Z = 4
Swale reserve width, R (m)
( including required freeboard )
y
z
1
z
1
'Vee' shaped Section





























Design Chart 26.2 Solution to Mannings Equation for Vee Shaped Grassed Swale of Various Side Slope

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Longitudinal Grade, S
0
(%)
1
10
1 5
3
4
5
1
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
9
0
.
8
0
.
7
0
.
5
0
.
3
2 3 4
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
D
e
s
i
g
n

F
l
o
w
,

Q
D


(
m
3
/
s
)
Use 'vee' shaped section
50
1 1
50
4
1
4
1
Base width, B (m)
Swale reserve width, R (m)
( including required freeboard )
y
Base width, B (m)
Flow depth, y (m)
1.5
1.5




























Design Chart 26.3 Grassed Swale Base Width Preliminary Estimate
(Manning's n = 0.035, Average Velocity = 2 m/s)
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0.1
0.05
0.01
0.06 0.1 0.3 0.2
Value of
y
B
Z = 2
Z = 1.5
Z = 1
Z = 0.5
Z = 2.5
V
a
l
u
e

o
f
Q

n






















S
0
1
/
2

B

8
/
3
10
1
0.5
11
5
0.1 1 0.5 2
0.1
Value of
y
B
Z = 2
Z = 2.5
Z = 3
Z = 1.5
V
a
l
u
e

o
f
Q

n






















S
0
1
/
2

B

8
/
3
Z = 0
0.15 0.25
1.5
Z = 1
Z = 3
Z = 0.5
Base width, B (m)
y
Z
1
Z
1
Z = 0





























Design Chart 26.4 Solution to Mannings Equation for Lined Drains of Various Side Slopes
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5.11 Worked Example: Design of Perimeter Swale
(Case study: Application of Bio-Ecological Drainage System (BIOECODS) in Malaysia)





























5.11.1 Design Produce:
Catchment area, A = 6,500m
2
, which landscape area = 4,600m
2
and pavement =1,900m
2
.


Reference Design Criteria
26.2.2 In new development areas, the edge of a grassed swale should generally be
located 0.5 m from the road reserve or property boundary.
26.2.4 The depth of a grassed swale shall include a minimum freeboard of 50 mm above
the design storm water level in the swale.
26.2.5 The average flow velocity in a grassed swale shall not exceed 2 m/s.
Figure 26.2 Recommended Grassed Swale Cross-Sections: Side slope = 1:4 min (batter); 1:50
(base)


a) Overland flow time:

Overland sheet flow path length = 35m
Slope of overland surface = (3.60-2.40)/35 = 3.5%
Design Chart 14.1, overland flow time, t
o
= 12 minute


b) Flow time in Perimeter Swale:

Reach length of perimeter swale = 130m
The estimated average velocity = 0.25m/s
Flow time in perimeter swale, t
d
= (130/0.25)/60 = 8.7 minute


c) Time of concentration

Time of concentration, t
c
= t
o
+ t
d
= 12 + 8.7 = 20.7 minute
Assume: t
c
= 20 minute

2.40m
3.60m
3.60m
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d) Design Storm

Table 13.A1 Lacation : Pulau Pinang and equation 13.2 for t
c
= 20 minute,

Parameter Minor Storm
a 3.7277
b 1.4393
c -0.4023
d 0.0241
F
D
(Table 13.3 - West Coast: 120mm) 0.47
P
30
(Equation 13.2) 68.32
P
60
(Equation 13.2) 92.83
P
d
(Equation n 13.3) 56.80
Rainfall Intensity (mm/hr) (Equation 13.4) 170.41

Minor Storm: 10 year ARI:

Where,
10
I
30
= 3.7277 + (1.4393) [In(30)] + (-0.4023) [In(30)]
2
+ (0.0241) [In(30)]
3

10
I
30
= 136.65 mm/hr
P
30
= 136.65/2 = 68.32mm

And,
10
I
60
= 3.7277 + (1.4393) [In(60)] + (-0.4023) [In(60)]
2
+ (0.0241) [In(60)]
3

10
I
60
= 92.83 mm/hr
P
60
= 92.83/1 = 92.83mm

Thus, P
20
= 68.32 (0.42) (92.83 - 68.32) = 56.80mm


10
I
20
= 56.80 (60) / 20 = 170.41 mm/hr


e) Runoff Coefficient

Design Chart 14.3, runoff coefficient, C for minor storm = 0.58 and major storm = 0.67 (Category 7: Landscape)
and 0.91 for pavement (Category 1).


f) Average runoff coefficient

Equation 14.8, Average runoff coefficient for minor storm, C
avg
= [(0.58x4600) + (0.91x1900)] / 6500 = 0.68


g) Peak flow

Rational Formula (equation 14.7): peak flow for minor storm = 0.10m
3
/s

Q
minor
/2
*
= C.I.A/ (3600,000) (2) = 0.68 (170.41) (6500) / (3600,000) (2) = 0.10m
3
/s

* There are two perimeter swale in the catchment area to cater the peak flow.

h) Perimeter Swale Sizing

Longitudinal slope = 1:1000; Side slope 1:6 (batter) & 1:50 (base); Bottom width, B = 1.8m;
Mannings, n = 0.035,
Depth, D = 175mm; Area, A = 0.50m
2
; Wetted perimeter, P = 3.93m; Hydraulic radius, R = A/P = 0.13m;
Average velocity, V = 0.23m/s (<2.0 m/s) OK
Q = 0.11m
3
/s (> Q10) ... OK

Thus, freeboard = 50mm, total depth = 225mm.








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6.0 Pipe Drains (Chapter 25, Volume 10, MSMA)

6.1 Locations and Alignments

Standardised locations for stormwater pipelines are provided to limit the negotiations needed when other services
are involved and permit ready location by maintenance crews.

6.1.1 Roadway Reserves

Stormwater pipelines should be located on the high side of road reserves to permit relatively short service tie
connections to adjacent properties.

Where there is significant advantage in placing a stormwater conveyance on an alignment reserved for another
Authority, it may be so placed provided that both the Authority responsible for maintenance of the stormwater
conveyance and the other Authority concerned agree in writing to release the reservation.

UPVC and PE pipes shall not be placed in a reserve designated for another Authority or adjacent to an existing
drainage or sewer flexible pipeline within a road reserve.

Table 25.1 (MSMA, 2000) provides typical requirements for location of pipe drains and services within road reserves,
however these may be varied by the local Authority. The relevant Authority should be consulted concerning their
standard alignments for services.

Table 25.1 Alignments within Roadway Reserves
Pipe Diameter (mm) Alignment
375 to 675 under kerb line
750 to 1800 within median strip, or centreline of roadway

6.1.2 Privately Owned Properties

Wherever stormwater pipelines are required along shared property boundaries, they should be located along the
high side of the downhill property. Stormwater pipelines are often constructed in parallel to sewers and as the
sewerage system is usually deeper, pipes connecting to stormwater ties have less problems in crossing over the
sewer.
Alignments shall be offset sufficient distance from building lines to allow working space for excavation equipment.

Acceptable centreline offset alignments from property boundaries in residential, commercial, and industrial areas
shall be in accordance with Table 25.2 (MSMA, 2000)

Table 25.2 Alignments within Privately Owned Properties
Pipe Diameter (mm) Rear Boundary Side Boundary
375 to 450 1.8 m 1.2 m (see Note)
525 to 675 1.8 m 1.5 m (see Note)

Note: Where other hydraulic services or power poles are located on the same side of a property boundary, the centreline of the
stormwater pipeline shall be located 1.8 m from the property boundary.

6.1.3 Public Open Space

The location of stormwater pipelines within public land such as open space shall be brought to the attention of the
operating Authority for consideration. As a guide, unless directed otherwise, stormwater pipelines shall be located
not less than 3 m from the nearest property boundary.


6.1.4 Drainage Reserves

A drainage reserve shall be wide enough to contain the service and provide working space on each side of the
service for future maintenance activities. Minimum drainage reserve widths shall be in accordance with Table 25.3
(MSMA, 2000)






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Table 25.3 Minimum Drainage Reserve Widths
Pipe Diameter, D
(mm)
Minimum Reserve
Width (m)
Invert < 3.0 m deep
375 to 450 2.5
525 to 675 3.0
750 to 900 3.5
1050 to 1200 3.5
1350 to 1800 not less than 3 x D
Invert 3.0 - 6.0 m deep
375 to 450 3.5
525 to 675 4.0
750 to 900 4.5
1050 to 1800 not less than 4 x D
Note: Where other hydraulic services or electricity services are laid on the same side of the property boundary, the required
reserve width shall be increased by 500 mm to provide horizontal clearance between services.

Pipelines up to and including 675 mm diameter may be located within privately owned properties if satisfactory
arrangements are made for permanent access and maintenance. Larger diameter pipelines shall be located within
public open space or outside privately owned properties in separate drainage reserves. Consideration should be
given to the multi-purpose use of drainage reserves such as open space or pedestrian corridors.


6.1.5 Clearance from Other Services

Where conflicts exist in the alignment and level of services, it will be necessary to ensure that adequate clearance is
provided between the outer faces of each service. Minimum clearances have been established to reduce the
likelihood of damage to stormwater pipelines or other services, and to protect personnel during construction or
maintenance work.

Under no circumstances shall stormwater pipelines be:
cranked to avoid other services or obstacles
located longitudinally directly above or below other underground services in the same trench

Minimum clearances between stormwater pipelines and other services shall be in accordance with Table 25.4 (MSMA,
2000). The nominated clearance should make due allowance for pipe collars and fittings. Special protection may be
provided to protect service crossings by concrete encasing the stormwater pipe for sufficient length to bridge the
trench of the other service.

Table 25.4 Minimum Clearances
Service Clearance (mm)
Horizontal
All services 600
Vertical
Sewers 150
Water mains 75
Telephone 75
High Pressure Gas 300
Low Pressure Gas 75
High Voltage Electricity 300
Low Voltage Electricity 75

Penetration by services through stormwater pipes should be avoided. Where it is necessary for a service to
penetrate a stormwater pipe or manhole, allowance should be made for the hydraulic losses in the system resulting
from the penetration. In addition, the service should be contained in a pipe or conduit of sufficient strength to resist
the forces imposed on it by the flow, including debris, in the stormwater system. Unless agreed to the contrary by
the relevant Authority, penetrations should be constructed using ductile iron pipe. To assist in the removal of debris
collected on service pipes or conduits passing through a drainage system, it is recommended that a manhole be
located at the pipe or conduit penetration.

Where a stormwater pipeline crosses or is constructed adjacent to an existing service, the design shall be based on
the work-as-executed location and level of that service. The design documents shall direct the contractor to verify
the location and level of the existing service prior to constructing the stormwater pipeline in question.


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6.2 Design Criteria

6.2.1 Minimum Design Service Life

Stormwater pipelines shall be designed for a minimum effective service life of 50 years.

In composite PE pipe where steel ribs are used to structurally strengthen and stiffen the pipe, the ribs shall be
ignored in determining the long-term vertical deflection, long-term external loading carrying capacity, and long-term
buckling resistance of the installation.

6.2.2 Diameter

Minimum diameters for stormwater pipelines shall be in accordance with Table 25.5 (MSMA, 2000).

Table 25.5 Minimum Pipe Diameters
Application Diameter (mm)
Pipe draining a stormwater inlet and
crossing a footpath alignment *
300
Any other pipe 375
For a non-self draining underpass, the
pipe shall be sized for 10 year ARI
and shall not be less than
450
Note: * 300 mm diameter pipes are permitted in this situation only, in order to provide more space in the footpath alignment for
other utility services.

The maximum pipe diameter to be used depends on the availability of pipes from manufacturers. The use of large
diameter pipes creates problems with clearance for other services. Box culverts or multiple pipes should be used if
additional capacity is required.

6.2.3 Pipe Grades

The longitudinal grade of a pipeline between drainage structures shall be calculated from centreline to centreline of
such structures.

6.2.3.1 Maximum Grade

Pipeline grades shall be chosen to limit the pipe full flow velocity to a value less than or equal to 6.0 m/s. In steep
terrain it may be necessary to construct manholes with drops to dissipate some of the kinetic energy.

6.2.3.2 Minimum Grades

Stormwater pipelines shall be designed and constructed to be self cleansing, e.g. free from accumulation of silt.
The desirable minimum grade for pipelines shall be 1.0%.

An absolute minimum grade of 0.5% may be acceptable where steeper grades are not practical. Such instances
shall be brought to the attention of the relevant Authority for consideration before finalising designs.

6.2.4 Scour Stop Collars

Pipelines laid on steep slopes shall be protected from failure due to wash-out of the pipe bedding. Where pipeline
grades are greater than 7%, reinforced concrete scour stop collars shall be provided.

6.2.5 Vertical Angles

Stormwater pipelines shall be constructed so that the bore of the pipe has no point where debris can lodge and
cause reduction in capacity. The use of vertical angles is not permitted.

6.2.6 Curved Pipelines

Curved stormwater pipelines are only permitted for diameters 1200 mm and above. Curves may be utilised
wherever there are significant advantages in their use. Ad hoc curving of pipelines to avoid obstacles such as trees,
power poles, gas mains etc. is not permitted. Curved pipelines should be positioned to follow easily identifiable
surface features, e.g. parallel to a kerbline.


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6.2.7 Multiple Pipelines

Where multiple pipelines are used, they should be spaced sufficiently to allow adequate compaction of the backfill
between the pipes. The clearance between the outer face of the walls of multiple pipes should generally be in
accordance with Table 25.6 (MSMA, 2000) although the relevant Authority may permit a lesser spacing in special
circumstances to reduce structure costs, where reserve width is limited, or for relief drainage works.

Table 25.6 Recommended Minimum Spacing of Multiple Pipelines
Diameter of Pipes (mm) Minimum Clear Spacing (mm)
Up to 600 300
675 to 1800 600
Notes:
1. The above minimum spacing may need to be modified to satisfy structural considerations, especially when laid at depth or
under traffic loads
2. Where lean mix concrete vibrated in place or cement stabilised sand is used for backfill, the clear spacing may be reduced to
300 mm for all diameters, subject to structural considerations


6.2.8 Dead-end Pipelines

Dead-end pipelines are those with no surface inlet or manhole on the upstream end. They are only used to provide
a connection point for piped property drainage. Dead-end pipelines shall drain directly to a stormwater manhole or
inlet. Connection of a dead-end pipeline to another stormwater pipeline by a branch connection or slope junction
will not be permitted.

A dead-end pipeline shall be constructed on a straight alignment and shall have a maximum length of 50 m.

6.3 Pipe I nstallation

Pipe class shall be selected to provide adequate strength to meet construction, overburden, and traffic loads. Pipe
loadings shall be determined in accordance with the relevant Malaysian or British Standard or manufacturers
recommendations for the selected pipe material.

Designers must be aware of the effect of pipe installation conditions on pipe strength. This applies for
all pipe materials, and particularly for flexible materials including PE and UPVC. In assessing pipe loadings,
consideration shall be given to bedding support type (or embedment and site soil moduli), specified trench widths,
method of installation, and live loads including construction loading.

Where load limits apply, the location and load limitation shall be clearly shown on the drawings.

6.3.1 Depth

In general, stormwater pipelines shall be deep enough to serve the whole of the adjacent block(s) that are to drain
to the pipeline (refer Section 25.7.1).

6.3.1.1 Minimum Depth

Minimum cover over pipelines should normally be 0.6 m as measured from top of pipe to finished surface level.
For pipelines under road pavements, the required cover shall be measured from top of pipe to pavement subgrade
level.

Minimum cover over FRC and SRC pipes may be less than 0.6 m. The pipe load class for any such design cover
shall be in accordance with the relevant Malaysian or British Standard, or manufacturers recommendations.
Minimum cover shall be increased to account for construction loading during pipe installation and traversing over
the pipeline particularly when applied at subgrade level. The absolute minimum cover shall be 300 mm, unless
the pipeline is protected from superimposed loads by a concrete slab.

Minimum cover over UPVC and PE pipes shall be the greater of 0.6 m or as defined in the relevant Malaysian or
British Standard, or manufacturers recommendations. For pipelines under road pavements, the required cover
shall be at least 0.6 m from the top of the pipe to pavement subgrade level.

6.3.1.2 Maximum Depth

The maximum depth of stormwater pipelines to invert level shall generally be 6 m. In special cases (e.g. for a
short length of pipeline through a ridge), approval must be obtained from the Local Authority to exceed this limit.
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In this case, design checks shall be required to ensure that the pipeline has sufficient strength for the imposed
load.

6.3.2 Pipe Trenching

Trench excavation shall comply with the principles specified in the relevant standard or Manufacturers specifications
for the pipe material used.

The maximum trench width shall be the external pipe diameter plus 300 mm measured at the level of the crown of
the pipe. The minimum trench width shall be 600 mm.
In trenches where timbering is necessary, the trench width shall be increased sufficiently to maintain the minimum
specified clearance between the pipes and the face of the timbering. The width of curved trenches shall be
adequate to allow correct jointing of pipes.

6.3.3 Pipe Materials

Stormwater pipelines shall be constructed from materials proven to be structurally sound and durable and have
satisfactory jointing systems. The use of two or more types of pipe material on a single length of pipeline is not
acceptable.

Stormwater pipelines may be constructed with any of the following:
Fibre Reinforced Cement Pipes (FRC)
Steel Reinforced Concrete Pipes (SRC)
Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes (UPVC)
Composite Polyethylene Pipes (PE)

All pipes shall comply with the relevant Malaysian Standards, where applicable, or British Standard.
Alternative pipe materials may be acceptable. Proposals for the use of other materials shall be referred to the
relevant Authority for consideration.

6.3.4 Pipe Bedding

Adequate, properly placed and compacted pipe bedding material is essential to allow the pipe to develop its design
strength to resist loads.

Bedding material for pipes in trenches shall be a minimum 75 mm thick under the pipe barrel and a minimum of
25 mm under pipe sockets. The bedding shall be shaped and compacted to provide continuous support for pipes
and precautions shall be taken to prevent disturbance or instability of the bedding due to groundwater.

Bedding material shall consist of granular material of low plasticity such as quarry fines, or coarse river sand free
from organic matter with a minimum 85% passing the 2.36 mm sieve and not more than 15% passing the
0.075 mm sieve.

6.3.5 J ointing

Pipes need to be capable of resisting root intrusion, hydraulic pressure loadings, and preferably have some flexibility
at joints.

Unless otherwise approved by the local Authority, pipe jointing shall be as follows:
375 mm diameter pipes shall be rubber ring jointed
450 mm diameter and larger pipes shall be either rubber ring jointed or flush jointed. However, pipes
designed to operate under hydraulic conditions that exceed 2.0 m head shall have rubber ring joints
450 mm to 675 mm diameter pipes located under roadways shall have rubber ring joints

For pipe diameters greater than 1000 mm, adhesive shall not be used to join flexible pipes within the road reserve.

Locations of various joint types shall be shown on the design drawings.

The maximum allowable head for all pipes shall be in accordance with the appropriate Malaysian or British standard.

Where pipes are connected to rigid structures or are embedded in concrete, adequate flexibility shall be provided to
minimise damage caused by differential settlement. Pipe connections to structures shall be constructed in
accordance with Standard Drawing SD F-12.


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6.3.6 Branch Connections

Pipeline junctions except for property ties shall generally occur within a stormwater inlet, manhole, or special
structure. Stormwater inlets are described in Chapter 24, and manholes in Section 25.6. Pipe branches are
acceptable for property ties.

Branch connections may also be permitted in locations where a surface manhole is undesirable, provided that
adequate structural strength can be achieved at the junction. Allowable sizes of branch connections into pipelines of
450 mm to 1800 mm diameter shall be in accordance with Standard Drawing SD F-11.

Entry angles for branches shall be between 45
0
and 90
0
to the main pipeline. A manhole shall be constructed on the
branch pipeline within 20 m of the branch connection.
6.4 Worked Example
(Proposed Tuanku Heights Mixed Development of Daerah Seremban, Negeri Sembilan)

6.4.1 Main conveyance vehicle for stormwater runoff within every housing lot shall be in underground reinforced
concrete pipes in place of the usual concrete line channels.

6.4.2 Pipe diameters were determined using the design Chart 25.B3 (k=0.30mm), given the runoff quantity and
pipe gradient. A minimal of 1% gradient was chosen to encourage self-cleansing within the pipes.

6.4.3 Minimum 600mm bedding shall be provided as bedding from top of platform level to top of pipe.

Reference Output
Calculation for Underground Drain Pipes Sizing
Location : Node 3
Subcatchment : 1
Area : 6770 m
2
t
c
= 40 min
Q
10
= 144.3931 l/s
Design Criteria
Table 25.5 i)
min
= 375 mm
Sec. 25.3.3 (a) ii) Maximum Grade : Velocity < 6 m/s
Sec. 25.3.3 (b) iii) Minimum grade = 1.0%
Table 25.7 iv) k = 0.3 mm
From Design Chart 25.B3 (k = 0.3 mm),
With D = 375 mm
Hydraulic gradient 1 %
Q = 230 l/s > Q
10
OK!
V = 2 m/s < 6 m/s OK!
Therefore, Pipe Size for node 3 is 375 mm with 1 % gradient.
Calculation





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6.5 Design Chart
Table 25.7 Pipe Roughness Values (average condition)
Pipe Material n k (mm)
Spun Precast Concrete 0.013 0.3
Fibre Reinforced Cement 0.013 0.15
UPVC 0.011 0.06












































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Design Chart 25.B1 Hydraulic Design of Pipes Colebrook-White Formula k = 0.06 mm
































































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Design Chart 25.B2 Hydraulic Design of Pipes Colebrook-White Formula k = 0.15 mm































































Design Chart 25.B3 Hydraulic Design of Pipes Colebrook-White Formula k = 0.30 mm
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Design Chart 25.B4 Hydraulic Design of Pipes Colebrook-White Formula k = 0.60 mm
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7.0 Engineered Waterways (Chapter 28, Volume 11, MSMA)

7.1 Design Storm

Engineered waterways shall be designed to cater for flows up to and including the major system design ARI (refer
Table 14.3, MSMA).

Adjoining low-lying land may need to be acquired and/or reclaimed to ensure effective surface drainage and
containment of the design ARI flow within an engineered waterway.

7.2 Location

Continuous designated overland flow paths shall be provided from the top of the catchment through the entire urban
area.

Engineered waterways may be located within designated drainage reserves, roadways, parkland and open space
areas, and pedestrian ways. All engineered waterways shall be located wholly outside of privately owned lots. If
circumstances arise where this arrangement cannot be provided, prior agreement to locate engineered waterways
within privately owned areas must be obtained from the Local Authority and the private landowners affected.

Piping of major system design flows may be considered as an alternative to an engineered waterway, but acceptable
provision against the pipe being blocked or its capacity being exceeded will be required.

Engineered waterways shall be provided along the alignment of existing watercourses and drainage depressions.
Diversion of engineered waterways away from their natural paths will only be permitted in exceptional circumstances
and only with the approval of the Local Authority.

Wherever possible, landuse within engineered waterway corridors should be designated as public open space. Other
types of landuse may be considered, but they must be fully compatible with the primary role of the waterway to
convey flood flows up to and including the design storm.

7.3 Reserves

Reserves are required for all engineered waterways. These must be clearly defined on all development plans to
ensure that future development does not encroach upon land inundated by flows up to and including the design
storm.

The prime function of reserves is to give ready access to personnel, plant and materials, which may, from time to
time, be required for waterway and berm maintenance. No encroachment, especially earth fill that may inhibit such
access or make such maintenance unduly difficult, shall be allowed on reserves.

The minimum drainage reserve width shall be the top waterway width for the major storm ARI flow plus a 300 mm
freeboard requirement. Maintenance width requirements may be incorporated within this reserve width by benching.
If this cannot be achieved, the reserve width must be increased to include maintenance width requirements.
Minimum widths to be provided for maintenance access shall be in accordance with Table 28.1 (MSMA, 2000)

Table 28.1 Minimum Requirements for Maintenance Access
Top Width of Waterway Minimum Requirements for
Maintenance Access
W 6m One side 3.7 m,
other side 1.0 m
W > 6m Both sides 3.7 m

When planning development along a waterway for which a master plan is not yet available, a drainage reserve width
shall be estimated based on the premise that the design storm flow will be catered for by a grassed floodway. This
premise ensures that sufficient land will be available for the design of the waterway when carried out in conjunction
with detailed landuse planning at a later date.

7.4 Freeboard

The freeboard above the design storm water level for all engineered waterways shall be a minimum of 300 mm. A
higher freeboard should be considered at locations where superelevation or hydraulic jumps are anticipated.



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7.5 Grades

7.5.1 Minimum Grades

Engineered waterways shall be constructed with sufficient longitudinal grade to ensure that ponding and/or the
accumulation of silt does not occur, particularly in locations where silt removal would be difficult.

The minimum longitudinal grade for engineered waterways shall be as follows:

0.5% Grassed floodways and natural channels
0.2% Lined channels

Longitudinal grades shall not produce velocities less than 0.8 m/s if low flow inverts flowing full.

7.5.2 Maximum Grades

Engineered waterways shall be designed with longitudinal grades that minimise the incidence of hydraulic jumps,
dangerous conditions for the public, and erosion of surface linings and/or topsoil.
Longitudinal grades shall be chosen such that the design storm average flow velocity will not exceed:
4 m/s in lined channels and low flow inverts
2 m/s in grassed floodways and natural waterways

7.5.3 Drop Structures

Drop structures should be provided to reduce waterway longitudinal grades such that the design storm average flow
velocities do not exceed the limits specified in the previous section.

Drop structures shall be designed to ensure that the structures do not get 'drown out' due to high tailwater levels
under the major system design flow plus freeboard. Design requirements for drop structures are provided in
Chapter 29, Section 29.3 (MSMA).


7.6 Worked Example: Design of Ecological Swale
(Case study: Application of Bio-Ecological Drainage System (BIOECODS) in Malaysia)
































ECOLOGICAL
SWALE
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Reference Design Criteria
Table 28.1 Minimum requirements for maintenance access = 3.7m (One side) and 1.0m
(Other Side) for top width of waterway 6m or Both sides = 3.7m for top width
of waterway > 6m
28.6 The freeboard above the design storm water level for all engineered waterways
shall be a minimum of 300 mm. A higher freeboard should be considered at
locations where superelevation or hydraulic jumps are anticipated.
28.7.1 The minimum longitudinal grade for engineered waterways = 0.5% for grassed
floodways and natural channels;
Longitudinal grades shall not produce velocities less than 0.8 m/s if low flow
inverts flowing full
28.7.2 Longitudinal grades shall be chosen such that the design storm average flow
velocity will not exceed 2 m/s in grassed floodways and natural waterways
28.10.2 Side slopes = 1:6 min (batter); 1:50 (base)
Side slopes = 1:4 may be provided in special circumstance
28.10.4 Low flow inverts and pipes shall be sized for a minimum capacity of 50% of the 1
month ARI flow

7.6.1 Design Produce:
A = 256,000m
2

S
o
= 0.1%.

a) Overland flow time:
Overland sheet flow path length = 35m
Slope of overland surface = (3.60-2.40)/35 = 3.5%
Design Chart 14.1, overland flow time, t
o
= 12 minute

b) Flow time in channel:

Reach length of ecological swale = 920m
The estimated average velocity = 0.35m/s
Flow time in ecological swale, t
d
= (920/0.35)/60 = 43.8 minutes

c) Time of concentration

Time of concentration, t
c
= t
o
+ t
d
= 12 + 43.8 = 55.8 minutes
Assume: t
c
= 56 minit

d) Design Storm

Major Storm: 100 year ARI

Table 13.A1 Lacation : Pulau Pinang and equation 13.2 for t
c
= 56 minute,

Parameter Major Storm
a 2.7512
b 2.2417
c -0.5610
d 0.0341
Rainfall Intensity (mm/hr) (Equation 13.4) 135.48


Major Storm: 100 year ARI:

Where,
100
I
56
= 2.7512 + (2.2417) [In(56)] + (-0.5610) [In(56)]
2
+ (0.0341) [In(56)]
3

Thus,
100
I
56
= 135.48 mm/hr


e) Runoff Coefficient

Design Chart 14.3 (category 5), runoff coefficient, C for major storm = 0.70.


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f) Peak flow

By using Rational formula (equation 14.7), peak flow for minor storm = 4.21 m
3
/s and major storm = 6.75 m
3
/s.

Q
major
= C.I.A/3600,000 = 0.70 (135.48) (256,000) / (3600,000) = 6.75m
3
/s


g) Ecological Swale Sizing

Longitudinal slope = 1:1000; Side slope 1:6 (batter), 1:50 (base); Bottom width, B = 2.5m;
Mannings, n = 0.035,


Depth, D = 1200mm; Area, A = 11.64m
2
; Wetted Perimeter, P = 17.10m; Hydraulic radius, R = 0.68m;
Average velocity, V = 0.70m/s (<2.0 m/s) OK
Q = 8.14m
3
/s (> Q100) ... OK

Thus, Freeboard = 300mm, Total Depth = 1500mm

7.6.2 Low flow Design

i) Design Rainfall Intensity for 1 month ARI

Table 13.A1 Lacation: Pulau Pinang and equation 13.2 for t
c
= 56 minute,

Parameter Minor Storm
a 4.5140
b 0.6729
c -0.2311
d 0.0118
Rainfall Intensity for 2 Year ARI (mm/hr) 69.94

Where,
2
I
54
= 4.5140 + (0.6729) [In(54)] + (-0.2311) [In(54)]
2
+ (0.0118) [In(54)]
3

Thus,
2
I
54
= 69.94 mm/hr
Equation 13.5a, 1 month ARI rainfall intensity = 0.4x69.94 = 27.98 mm/hr

ii) Runoff Coefficient

Design Chart 14.3 (Category 5), runoff coefficient, C for 1 month ARI rainfall intensity = 0.30.

iii) Peak Flow

By using Rational formula (equation 14.7), peak flow for 1 month ARI rainfall intensity = 0.60 m
3
/s.
Q
low flow
= C.I.A/3600,000 = 0.30 (69.94) (256,000) / (3600,000) = 0.60m
3
/s

Drainage capacity for low flow = 0.30 m
3
/s.

Thus, no. of module needed = (0.60 - 0.30) / 0.038 = 8

Table: Details for Module
Size 410 x 467 x 607 mm
Flow 2280 L/min @ 0.038 m
3
/s










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7.7 Design Chart

Suggested n values
Surface Cover
Minimum Maximum
Grassed Floodways
Grass cover only
Short grass 0.030 0.035
Tall grass 0.035 0.050
Shrub cover
Scattered 0.050 0.070
Medium to dense 0.100 0.160
Tree cover
Scattered 0.040 0.050
Medium to dense 0.100 0.120
Natural Channels
Small streams
Straight, uniform and clean 0.025 0.033
Clean, winding with some pools and shoals 0.035 0.045
Sluggish weedy reaches with deep pools 0.050 0.080
Steep mountain streams with gravel, cobbles, and boulders 0.030 0.070
Large streams
Regular cross-section with no boulders or brush 0.025 0.060
Irregular and rough cross-section 0.035 0.100
Overbank flow areas
Short pasture grass, no brush 0.025 0.035
Long pasture grass, no brush 0.030 0.050
Light brush and trees 0.040 0.080
Medium to dense brush 0.070 0.160
Dense growth of trees 0.110 0.200
Lined Channels and Low Flow Inverts
Concrete
Trowelled finish 0.011 0.015
Off form finish 0.013 0.018
Shotcrete
Trowelled, not wavy 0.016 0.023
Trowelled, wavy 0.018 0.025
Unfinished 0.020 0.025
Stone Pitching
Dressed stone in mortar 0.015 0.017
Random stones in mortar or rubble masonry 0.020 0.035
Rock Riprap 0.025 0.030
Roadways
Kerb & Gutter 0.011 0.015
Hotmix Pavement
Smooth 0.012 0.014
Rough 0.015 0.017
Flush Seal Pavement
7 mm stone 0.017 0.019
14 mm stone 0.020 0.024

Design Chart 28.1 Suggested Values of Mannings Roughness Coefficient, n







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D
e
s
i
g
n

F
l
o
w
,

(
m
3
/
s
)
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
4
0
4
5
0.4
0.6
1
.
2
1
.
3
1
.
4
1
.
5
1
.
6
1
.
1
1
.
0
0
.
9
0
.
8
0
.
7
Longitudinal Grade, (%)
0.6 0.8 1.0 2.0 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
10
20
40
60
80
100
30
120
140
50
70
90
15
1
0
5
50
1 1
50
6
1
6
1
Base width, (m)
Floodway reserve width, (m)
( including required freeboard )
0.5
Base width, (m)
Flow depth, (m)



Design Chart 28.2 Floodway Base Width Preliminary Estimate
(Manning's n = 0.050, Average Velocity = 2 m/s)




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D
e
s
i
g
n

F
l
o
w
,

(
m
3
/
s
)
150
200
270
10
20
40
60
80
100
30
50
70
90
15
2
.
0
1
.
5
1
.
7
1
.
9
1
.
2
1
.
1
1
.
0
0
.
9
0
.
8
0
.
7
0
.
6
0
.
5
1
.
3
1
.
4
1
.
8
1
.
6
2
.
1
250
5
1
5
2
0
2
5
4
5
6
0
5
5
5
0
4
0
3
5
3
0
1
0
Longitudinal Grade, (%)
0.6 0.8 1.0 2.0 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
Base width, (m)
Flow depth,
(m)
2
.
2
2
.
3
2
.
4
2
.
5
2
.
6
2
.
7
50
1 1
50
6
1
6
1
Base width, (m)
Floodway reserve width, (m)
( including required freeboard )




Design Chart 28.3 Floodway Base Width Preliminary Estimate
(Manning's n = 0.050, Average Velocity = 2 m/s)




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0.01
D
e
s
i
g
n

F
l
o
w
,

(
m
3
/
s
)
Longitudinal Grade, (%)
0.1
1.0
10
5
0.5
0.05
0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Type 1 Invert
varies
max 600 mm
= 1000 mm
1
1
1
1
10
1
10
1
Use Type 2 Invert
=
6
0
0
m
m
=
4
5
0
m
m
=
3
0
0
m
m
=
1
5
0
m
m
= 0 (Vee shaped invert)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

f
l
o
w

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

>

4

m
/
s
-
r
e
d
u
c
e

lo
n
g
it
u
d
in
a
l
g
r
a
d
e


Design Chart 28.4 Low Flow Invert Size (Type 1 - Variable Depth, Mannings n = 0.013)





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=
1
6
0
0
m
m
0.5 1.0
D
e
s
i
g
n

F
l
o
w
,

(
m
3
/
s
)
Longitudinal Grade, (%)
Use Type 1 Invert
=
2
4
0
0
m
m
=
2
6
0
0
m
m
=
2
8
0
0
m
m
=
3
0
0
0
m
m
=
2
2
0
0
m
m
=
2
0
0
0
m
m
=
1
8
0
0
m
m
=
1
4
0
0
m
m
=
1
2
0
0
m
m
2
3
4
5
10
6
7
8
9
1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6
Type 2 Invert
600 mm
varies
1000 to 3000 mm
1
1
1
1
10
1
10
1
Use pipeline
instead of invert



Design Chart 28.5 Low Flow Invert Size (Type 2 - Variable Width, Mannings n = 0.013)


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0.1
0.05
0.01
0.06 0.1 0.3 0.2
Value of
y
B
Z = 2
Z = 1.5
Z = 1
Z = 0.5
Z = 2.5
V
a
l
u
e

o
f
Q

n
S
0
1
/
2

B

8
/
3
10
1
0.5
11
5
0.1 1 0.5 2
0.1
Value of
y
B
Z = 2
Z = 2.5
Z = 3
Z = 1.5 V
a
l
u
e

o
f
Q

n
S
0
1
/
2

B

8
/
3
Z = 0
0.15 0.25
1.5
Z = 1
Z = 3
Z = 0.5
Base width, B (m)
y
Z
1
Z
1
Z = 0

Design Chart 28.6 Solution to Mannings Equation for Lined Channels of Various Side Slopes


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8.0 Culvert (Chapter 27, Volume 11, MSMA)

8.1 Freeboard

All culverts with a waterway area of 1.0 m
2
or more should be designed with a minimum of 300 mm freeboard above
the design water level. For large culverts the designer should consider increasing this freeboard to allow for the size
of debris anticipated, up to a maximum of 1000 mm.

8.2 Design Precautions

Where debris accumulation is considered to be a problem, other design precautions should be taken, such as
providing a smooth well designed inlet, avoiding multiple cells and increasing the size of culvert. If multiple cells are
unavoidable, provision of a sloping cutwater on the upstream pier (wall) ends may help to align floating debris with
the culvert entrance.

8.3 Relief Culvert

A relief culvert passing through the embankment at a higher level than the main culvert permits water to by-pass
the latter, if it becomes blocked. The relief culvert could also be placed at a low level some distance away from the
main culvert where it is not likely to be blocked. As this relief culvert is an additional requirement, the cost of both
culverts should be compared with that of a larger culvert that will be less subject to blockage.

8.4 Debris Control Structures

These can be costly both to construct and maintain. Details of the various types of debris control structures may be
found in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No 9, Debris Control Structures (US Federal Highway Administration, 1971).
The choice of structure type depends upon size, quantity and type of debris, the cost involved and the maintenance
proposed. However, for existing culverts, which are prone to debris clogging, it may be worthwhile to construct a
debris control structure rather than replace or enlarge the culvert.

8.5 Flow Velocity

Culverts usually increase the flow velocity over that in the natural water course. Except when the culverts flow full,
the highest velocity occurs near the outlet and this is the point where most erosion damage is likely to occurs.

A check on outlet velocity, therefore, must be carried out as part of the culvert design if the outlet discharges to an
unlined waterway.

8.6 Erosion of Conduit

Flow of the water subjects the conduit material to abrasion, and too fast a velocity for a given wall material will
cause erosion to the conduit. Very fast flows can cause cavitation unless the conduit surface is very smooth, and
this results in erosion taking place at a rapid rate. However, cavitation damage does not occur in full flowing pipes
with velocity less than about 7.5 8 m/s and about 12 m/s in open conduits.

The maximum velocity beyond which erosion will take place depends on factors like smoothness of conduit, quantity
and nature of debris discharged and frequency of peak velocity. Commonly adopted maximum values based on
experience are listed in Table 27.1 (MSMA, 2000)

Table 27.1 Maximum Recommended Flow Velocities, (m/s) for various conduit materials

Material Maximum V (m/s)
Precast concrete pipes 8.0
Precast box culverts 8.0
In situ concrete and hard packed rock (300mm min) 6.0
Beaching or boulders
(250mm min)
5.0
Stones (150 100mm) 3.0 2.5
Grass covered surfaces 1.8
Stiff, sandy clay 1.3 1.5
Coarse gravel 1.3 1.8
Coarse sand 0.5 0.7
Fine sand 0.2 0.5


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8.7 Scour at Inlets

A culvert normally constricts the natural channel, forcing the flow through a reducing opening. As the flow contracts,
vortices and areas of high velocity flow impinge against the upstream slopes of the embankment adjacent to the
culvert. Scour can also occur upstream of the culvert, as a result of the acceleration of the flow, as it leaves the
natural channel and enters the culvert.

Upstream wing walls, aprons, cut-off walls and embankment paving assist protecting the embankment and stream
bed at the upstream end of a culvert.

8.8 Scour at Outlets

If the flow emerging from a culvert has a sufficiently high velocity and the channel is erodible, the jet will scour a
hole in the bed immediately downstream and back eddies will erode the stream banks to form a circular elongated
scour hole. Coarse material scoured from the hole will be deposited immediately downstream, often forming a low
bar across the stream, while finer material will be carried further downstream. Depending on the supply of sediment,
the scour hole may gradually refill until after the next major flood occurs.

The provision of wing walls, headwall, cut-off wall and apron is generally all the protection that is required at culvert
outlets. The judgement of design engineers, working in a particular area is required to determine the need for any
further protection. Investigation of scour and outlet protection at similar culverts in the vicinity of the culvert being
designed may provide guidance on whether further protection is required. Periodic site visits and inspection after
major flood events will also confirm whether the protection is adequate or further protection is required.

In urban areas, the risk of outlet scour is generally unacceptable and therefore a choice must be made as to which
type of scour protection is suitable for the site. The options available include the following:
Local protection of the stream bed material, in the case of unlined drains and waterways.
Flow expansion structure.
An energy dissipating structure

Stream bed protection can be achieved with a concrete apron, rock riprap, or rock mattresses, or concrete filled
mattresses. It is important that mattresses are anchored to the cut-off wall or apron at the culvert outlet, to stop
them moving downstream. A geotextile filter is usually provided under the mattresses and may also be required
under the rock riprap. Scour protection is discussed in detail in Chapter 29 (MSMA).

An important parameter in the selection of an appropriate energy dissipater is the Froude Number, F
r
of the outlet
flow. Where an outlet has F
r
< 1.7, a simple apron structure, riprap, or a flow expansion structure will suffice.
Where 1.7 < F
r
< 3 a riprap basin or horizontal roughness elements basin is appropriate. Where F
r
> 3 a hydraulic
jump basin will be required. Energy dissipaters are discussed in detail in Chapter 29 (MSMA).

8.9 Siltation

If the flow velocity becomes too low siltation occurs. Flow velocity below about 0.5 m/s will cause settlement of fine
to medium sand particles.

To be self-cleansing culverts must be graded to the average grade of the water course upstream and downstream of
the culvert, and levels must represent the average stream levels before the culvert was built.
Culvert location in both plan and profile is of particular importance to the maintenance of sediment-free culvert cells.
Deposition can occur in culverts when the sediment transport capacity of flow within the culvert is less than in the
stream. The following factors may cause deposition in culverts:
Culverts often provide a wider flow width at low flows than natural streams. This results in the flow depth
and sediment transport capacity being reduced.
Point bars (deposition) form on the inside of stream bends and culvert inlet placed at bends in the stream
will be subjected to deposition in the same manner. This effect is most pronounced in multiple-cell culverts
with the cell on the inside of the curve often becoming almost totally plugged with sediment deposits.
Abrupt changes to a flatter grade in the culvert or in the channel upstream of the culvert will induce
deposition. Gravel and sand deposits are common downstream from the break in grade because of the
reduced transport capacity in the flatter section.

Deposition usually occurs at flow rates smaller than the design flow rate. The deposits may be removed during
larger floods, depending upon the relative transport capacity of flow in the stream and in the culvert, compaction
and composition of the deposits, flow duration, ponding depth above the culvert and other factors.

Siltation can also occur upstream of culverts if they are installed at incorrect levels, creating ponding areas. Such
grading should generally be avoided.
Case Study I
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
1
Forensic Block
Administration &
Clinical Unit
Wad
Sewerage
Treatment
Plant
Walkway
Car Park
Perimeter Swale
Ecological Swale
Dry Pond
Detention Storage
Type B
Detention
Storage Type A
Ip
1.0 I ntroduction

Design criteria and design calculation for the Membina dan Menyiapkan Wad Forensik Di Hospital Bahagia Ulu Kinta,
Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan is presented for case study.

2.0 Proposed Drainage System

The Government of Malaysia via the Works Department is planning to construct a new building for the forensic wad
of Tanjung Rambutan Hospital on the area of approximately 1.5 hectares in Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Figure 1). In
this project, the Government is planning to construct a drainage system that shall comply with the new guidelines
which is published by Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) in the year 2000 and gazetted by the
government in the following year, namely Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia or MSMA.

This project consists of the construction of a single building, which includes administration unit, clinical unit, forensic
block and wad. The project covers a catchment area of 1.51 hectares on medium soil type. More than 60 % of the
total area has been developed into impervious area such as paved road and car park, sheltered walkway, and
utilities other than the building. The origin of this area was cultivated field. The pre-development runoff was catered
by roadside drain and other existing secondary drains before discharging to the nearest receiving water which is
located at 200 meters at the downstream.

Generally, the duration of this construction project is about 76 weeks where it started on 24 J une 2002. For the
drainage system, the construction started in early of J anuary 2004 and ended on J une 2004. The proposed drainage
system which is known as Bio-ecological Drainage System (BIOECODS) for this project is consistent with objectives
of new stormwater management approach which focus on the control of both the quantity and quality of urban
runoff. This has been embodied in the concept of ecologically sustainable development which is aimed at ensuring
that development can occur without long-term degradation of natural resources and the environment. The
component of BIOECODS consists of grassed swale, i.e. perimeter swale and ecological swale, subsurface detention
storage, i.e. Type A and Type B and also Dry Pond as the detention basin.




































Figure 1 Project Layout
Case Study I
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
2
3.0 On-site Detention

3.1 Design Storm

The design storm for discharge from an OSD storage, termed the discharge design storm, shall be the minor system
design ARI of the municipal drainage system to which the storage is connected (refer Table 4.1). The design storm
for calculating the required storage volume, termed the storage design storm, shall be 10 year ARI.

3.2 Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

The PSD is the maximum allowable post-development discharge from a site for the selected discharge design storm
and is estimated on the basis that flows within the downstream stormwater drainage system will not be increased.

3.3 Site Storage Requirement (SSR)

The SSR is the total amount of storage required to ensure that the required PSD is not exceeded and the OSD
facility does not overflow during the storage design storm ARI.

3.4 Site Coverage

Where possible, the site drainage system and grading should be designed to direct runoff from the entire site to the
OSD system. Sometimes this will not be feasible due to ground levels, the level of the receiving drainage system, or
other circumstances. In these cases, as much runoff from impervious areas as possible should be drained to the
OSD system.

3.5 Frequency Staged Storage

Generally the most challenging task in designing OSD systems is locating and distributing the storage(s) in the face
of the following competing demands:

making sure the system costs no more than necessary
creating storages that are aesthetically pleasing and complementary to the architectural design
avoiding unnecessary maintenance problems for future property owners
minimising any personal inconvenience for property owners or residents

These demands can be balanced by providing storage in accordance with a frequency staged storage approach.
Under this approach, a proportion of the required storage for a given ARI is provided as below-ground storage,
whilst the remainder of the required storage, up to the design storm ARI, is provided as above-ground storage. The
depth of inundation and extent of area inundated in the above-ground storage is thus limited such that the greatest
inconvenience to property owners or occupiers occurs very infrequently. The approach recognises that people are
generally prepared to accept flooding which causes inconvenience, provided it does not cause any damage and does
not happen too often. Conversely, the lesser the degree of personal inconvenience, the more frequently the
inundation can be tolerated.

Recommended storage proportions for designing a composite above and below-ground storage system using a
frequency staged storage approach are provided in Table 19.1 (MSMA, 2000). A typical composite storage system is
illustrated in Figure 19.1 (MSMA, 2000) Refer to Table 19.2 (MSMA, 2000) for recommended maximum ponding
depths in the above-ground storage component.

Table 19.1 Relative Proportions for Composite Storage Systems
Proportion of Total Storage (%) Storage Area
Below-Ground
Storage
Component
Above-Ground
Storage
Component
Pedestrian areas 60 40
Private Courtyards 60 40
Parking areas and driveways 50 50
Landscaped areas 25 75
Paved outdoor recreation areas 15 85






Case Study I
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
3
WARNING
ON-SITE DETENTION AREA
STORMWATER LEVEL MAY
RISE IN THIS AREA
DURING HEAVY RAIN
3.6 Floor Levels

The site drainage system must ensure that:

all habitable floor levels for new and existing dwellings are a minimum 200 mm above the storage
maximum water surface level for the storage design storm ARI
garage floor levels are a minimum 100 mm above the storage design storm ARI

A similar freeboard should be provided for flowpaths adjacent to habitable buildings and garage.

Maximum ponding level for
storage design storm
'Beginning to pond' level
for above-ground storage
Below-ground storage
Above-ground storage
Freeboard
to building
floor level
Habitable
building
Outlet to public drainage system
(preferably free draining, but
may be pumped in some cases)


Figure 19.1 Illustration of a Composite Storage System

3.7 Signs

It is essential that current and future property owners are aware of the purpose of the OSD facilities provided. A
permanent advisory sign for each OSD storage facility provided should be securely fixed at a pertinent and clearly
visible location stating the intent of the facility. An example of an advisory sign is shown in Figure 19.5 (MSMA,
2000).




Colours:
Triangle and WARNING Red
Water Blue
Figure and other lettering Black








Figure 19.5 Typical OSD Advisory Sign (UPRCT, 1999)

3.8 Above-Ground Storage

There are few absolute requirements when designing an above-ground storage. The following guidelines allow the
designer maximum flexibility when integrating the storage into the site layout.

3.8.1 Maximum Storage Depths
Maximum storage depths in above-ground storages should not exceed the values provided in Table 19.2 (MSMA,
2000).


Case Study I
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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Table 19.2 Recommended Maximum Storage Depths for Different Classes of Above-Ground Storage
Storage Classes Maximum
Storage Depth
Pedestrian areas 50 mm
Parking areas and driveways 150 mm
Landscaped areas 600 mm
Private courtyards 600 mm
Flat roofs 300 mm
Paved outdoor recreation areas 100 mm


3.8.2 Landscaped Areas
Landscaped areas offer a wide range of possibilities for providing above-ground storage and can enhance the
aesthetics of a site. The minimum design requirements for storage systems provided in landscaped areas are:

maximum ponding depths shall not exceed the limits recommended in Table 15 under design conditions
calculated storage volumes shall be increased by 20% to compensate for construction inaccuracies and the
inevitable loss of storage due to the build up of vegetation growth over time
the minimum ground surface slope shall be 2% to promote free surface drainage and minimise the possibility of
pools of water remaining after the area has drained
side slopes should be a maximum 1(V):4(H) where possible. If steep or vertical sides (e.g. retaining walls) are
unavoidable, due consideration should be given to safety aspects, such as the need for fencing, both when the
storage is full and empty
subsoil drainage around the outlet should be provided to prevent the ground becoming saturated during
prolonged wet weather
where the storage is to be located in an area where frequent ponding could create maintenance problems or
inconvenience to property owners, a frequency staged storage approach should be adopted as recommended in
Table 19.1. If this is not practicable, the first 10-20% of the storage should be provided in an area able to
tolerate frequent inundation, e.g. a paved outdoor entertainment area, a permanent water feature, or a rock
garden
landscaping should be designed such that loose materials such as mulch and bark etc. will not wash into and
block storage outlets
retaining walls shall be designed to be structurally adequate for the hydrostatic loads caused by a full storage

3.8.3 Impervious Areas
Car parks, driveways, paved storage yards, and other paved surfaces may be used for stormwater detention.

Car park detention shares the same surface area with parked vehicles. If the detention is designed without regard
for the primary use of the car park in mind, considerable inconvenience and damage to parked vehicles can occur
when it rains. First and foremost, for the car park detention to be acceptable to its owners, it is necessary to ensure
that the lot does not pond water frequently. Also, when the lot detains stormwater, it should be inundated for only
a short period of time. Thus, it is important to recognise the limitations in ponding depths and the frequency of
ponding. Failure to do so can lead to owners taking action to eliminate this nuisance after experiencing flooding on
their property.

The minimum design requirements for storage systems provided in impervious areas shall be as follows:
to avoid damage to vehicles, depths of ponding on driveways and car parks shall not exceed the limits
recommended in Table 19.2 under design conditions
transverse paving slopes within storages areas shall not be less than 0.7%
if the storage is to be provided in a commonly used area where ponding will cause inconvenience (e.g. a car
park or pedestrian area), a frequency staged storage approach should be adopted as recommended in
Table 19.1. If this is not practical, the first 10-20% of the storage should be provided in a non-sensitive area on
the site



Case Study I
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
5
4.0 Worked Example
4.1 Design Rainfall
Design ARI = 10 YRS
Table 13.A1: Location = Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan
A = 5.0707, B = 0.6515, C = -0.2522, D = 0.0138

4.2 Runoff estimation for storm durations less than 30 mins

For a short duration, d, the rainfall depth

) (
30 60 30
P P F P P
D d
= (Eqn. 13.3)
P
30
, P
60
= 30-minute and 60-minute duration rainfall depths from published design curves
F
D
= Adjustment factor for storm duration, a function of
2
P
24hr
(Table 13.3)

3 2
)) (ln( )) (ln( ) ln( ) ln( t d t c t b a I
t
R
+ + + = (Eqn. 13.2)

10
I
30
= 135.92 mm/hr
10
I
60
= 86.28 mm/hr

(Eqn. 13.3) P
30
= 135.92 x (30/60) = 67.96 mm

(Eqn. 13.4) P
60
= 86.28 x (60/60) = 86.28 mm

Say tc = 10 min,
P
10
= 67.96 1.28 (86.28-67.96) = 44.52 mm
10
I
10
= 44.51 / (10/60) = 267.09 mm/hr

4.3 Summary of runoff estimation for storm durations less than 30 mins

Time
(min)
F
D

(Table 13.3)
Pd
(mm)
10
I
d

(mm/hr)
5.00 2.08 29.86 358.35
10.00 1.28 44.52 267.09
15.00 0.80 53.31 213.23
20.00 0.47 59.35 178.05


4.4 Calculation for Grassed Swale

Design Criteria:
26.2.2 The edge of a grassed swale should generally be located 0.5m from road reserve or property
boundary
26.2.4 Freeboard = 50mm
26.2.5 Average flow velocity shall not exceed 2 m/s
Figure 26.2 Side Slope = 1:4 min (batter); 1:50 (base)

with
Longitudinal slope, S = 1:500
and n = 0.035
Eqn. 14.4a Mannings Equation, V =
2 / 1 3 / 2
1
S R
n

Q = VA
1
Z
TW
BW
D
Case Study I
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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Summary of Perimeter Swale Capacity
SLOPE BW Side Slope, Z Depth, D TW A P R V Q
(m) (m) (m) (m) (sq.m) (m) (m) (m/s) (cumec)
0.002 0.6 4 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.00 0.000
0.002 0.6 4 0.05 1.00 0.04 1.01 0.04 0.15 0.006
0.002 0.6 4 0.10 1.40 0.10 1.42 0.07 0.22 0.022
0.002 0.6 4 0.15 1.80 0.18 1.84 0.10 0.27 0.049
0.002 0.6 4 0.20 2.20 0.28 2.25 0.12 0.32 0.089
0.002 0.6 4 0.25 2.60 0.40 2.66 0.15 0.36 0.144
0.002 0.6 4 0.30 3.00 0.54 3.07 0.18 0.40 0.215
0.002 0.6 4 0.35 3.40 0.70 3.49 0.20 0.44 0.305
0.002 0.6 4 0.40 3.80 0.88 3.90 0.23 0.47 0.415
0.002 0.6 4 0.45 4.20 1.08 4.31 0.25 0.51 0.546
0.002 0.6 4 0.50 4.60 1.30 4.72 0.28 0.54 0.700

Summary of Ecological Swale Capacity
SLOPE BW Side Slope, Z Depth, D TW A P R V Q
(m) (m) (m) (m) (sq.m) (m) (m) (m/s) (cumec)
0.002 1 3 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.000
0.002 1 3 0.05 1.30 0.06 1.32 0.04 0.16 0.009
0.002 1 3 0.10 1.60 0.13 1.63 0.08 0.23 0.030
0.002 1 3 0.15 1.90 0.22 1.95 0.11 0.29 0.064
0.002 1 3 0.20 2.20 0.32 2.26 0.14 0.34 0.110
0.002 1 3 0.25 2.50 0.44 2.58 0.17 0.39 0.170
0.002 1 3 0.30 2.80 0.57 2.90 0.20 0.43 0.245
0.002 1 3 0.35 3.10 0.72 3.21 0.22 0.47 0.336
0.002 1 3 0.40 3.40 0.88 3.53 0.25 0.50 0.443
0.002 1 3 0.45 3.70 1.06 3.85 0.27 0.54 0.569
0.002 1 3 0.50 4.00 1.25 4.16 0.30 0.57 0.713


4.5 Calculation for Open Concrete Drain

Design Criteria:
26.3.3 Maximum depth = 0.5m (Without protective covering) ; 1.0 (With solid or grated cover)
Maximum width = 1.0m, minimum width = 0.5m
Freeboard = 50mm
26.2.5 Maximum average flow velocity shall not exceed 4m/s

with
Longitudinal slope, S = 1:375 and n = 0.013

Eqn. 14.4a Mannings Equation, V =
2 / 1 3 / 2
1
S R
n

Q = VA

Summary of 300mm Concrete Drain
SLOPE Width, W Depth, D A P R V Q
(m) (m) (sq.m) (m) (m) (m/s) (cumec)
0.00267 0.30 0.00 0.000 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.000
0.00267 0.30 0.05 0.015 0.40 0.04 0.45 0.007
0.00267 0.30 0.10 0.030 0.50 0.06 0.61 0.018
0.00267 0.30 0.15 0.045 0.60 0.08 0.71 0.032
0.00267 0.30 0.20 0.060 0.70 0.09 0.77 0.046
0.00267 0.30 0.25 0.075 0.80 0.09 0.82 0.062
0.00267 0.30 0.30 0.090 0.90 0.10 0.86 0.077

Case Study I
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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Summary of 450mm Concrete Drain
SLOPE Width, W Depth, D A P R V Q
(m) (m) (sq.m) (m) (m) (m/s) (cumec)
0.00267 0.30 0.00 0.000 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.000
0.00267 0.30 0.05 0.023 0.55 0.04 0.47 0.011
0.00267 0.30 0.10 0.045 0.65 0.07 0.67 0.030
0.00267 0.30 0.15 0.068 0.75 0.09 0.80 0.054
0.00267 0.30 0.20 0.090 0.85 0.11 0.89 0.080
0.00267 0.30 0.25 0.113 0.95 0.12 0.96 0.108
0.00267 0.30 0.30 0.135 1.05 0.13 1.01 0.137










4.6 On-Site Detention Design
Catchment Area = 15100 m
2

% Pervious Area = 20%, % Impervious Area = 80%
t
cs
= 20 minutes, t
c
= 20 minutes

Impervious Area Pervious Area Development
Status C A (m
2
)
C
A (m
2
)
CA
I (mm/hr)
Q (l/s)
Pre-development
0 0 0.71 15100 10721 122.55 364.96 (Q
p
)
Post-development
0.89 12080 0.56 3020 12442.4 160.24 553.83 (Q
a
)

Using Equation 19.1 with Equations 19.1a and 19.1b for above-ground storage (MSMA):

+ +

=
cs c
a
p
c
c
a
t t
Q
Q
t
t
Q
a 25 . 0 75 . 0 333 . 0 4 = 2701.43
p a
Q Q b 4 = = 808497.53
2
4
2
b a a
PSD

= = 342.78 l/s

Using Equation 19.2 with Equations 19.2a and 19.2b for above-ground storage (MSMA):

=
d
Q
PSD
PSD c 459 . 0 1 875 . 0 ;
d
Q
PSD
d
2
214 . 0 =

SSR = 0.06 t
d
(Q
d
c d)







W
D
Case Study I
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
8
Impervious Area Pervious Area
t
d
(mins)
I (mm/hr)
C A (m
2
)
C
A (m
2
)
CA Q
d
(l/s)
5 358.35 0.89 12080 0.84 3020 13288 1322.69
10 267.09 0.89 12080 0.74 3020 12986 963.45
15 213.23 0.89 12080 0.65 3020 12714.2 753.06
20 178.05 0.89 12080 0.6 3020 12563.2 621.37
30 135.92 0.89 12080 0.51 3020 12291.4 464.07
35 123.87 0.89 12080 0.48 3020 12200.8 419.81
40 113.84 0.89 12080 0.46 3020 12140.4 383.91

t
d
(mins) Q
d
(l/s)
PSD (l/s) c
d SSR (m
3
)
5 1322.69 342.78 264.26 19.01 311.83
10 963.45 342.78 250.95 26.10 411.84
15 753.06 342.78 237.27 33.39 434.16
20 621.37 342.78 223.99 40.47 428.30
30 464.07 342.78 198.24 54.18 380.95
35 419.81 342.78 187.52 59.90 362.02
40 383.91 342.78 177.01 65.50 339.36

Above-ground storage (drypond) provided = 160 m
3
/ 1.2 = 133 m
3

Below-ground storage (module) required = 435 133 = 302 m
3



Storage in Module:

Length of Perimeter Swale = 780 m
Volume of storage = 780*0.96*0.41*0.467 = 143.4 m
3


Length of Ecological Swale = 320 m
Volume of storage = 320*0.96*0.41*0.467*2 = 117.5 m
3


Volume of Detention Storage A = 15*16*0.96*0.410*0.467*0.607 = 26 m
3


Volume of Detention Storage B = 39*4*0.96*0.410*0.467*0.607 = 17 m
3


Total volume of storage = 304 m
3



Primary Outlet Sizing:
The primary outlet orifice is sized to discharge the PSD assuming free outlet conditions when the storage is full.

Equation 19.3 (MSMA):
o d
o
H g C
PSD
A
2
= =
60 . 0 x 81 . 9 x 2 62 . 0
10 78 . 342
3
x
= 0.1611 m
2

o
o
A
D
4
= =

1611 . 0 x 4
= 0.453 m = 453 mm

Proposed orifice 450mm dia.


Secondary Outlet Sizing:

Broad-crested weir is sized for the estimated major system ARI flow from the site for time t
cs
(20 minutes) for
50 year ARI.

20
50
I = 211.86 mm/hr




Case Study I
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
9
Using the Rational Method, the major system flow is calculated as follows:

Impervious Area Pervious Area
C A (m
2
) C A (m
2
)
CA I (mm/hr) Q (l/s)
0.90 12080 0.64 3020 12804.8 211.86 754

Provide 1.2m x 1.2m brickwall sump with 1 no. of 600mm (or 2 nos. of 475mm) diameter concrete pipe at slope
1:100 as secondary outlet structure.

600mm diameter concrete pipe capacity = 0.75 m
3
/s






























Layout Plan












Outlet Structure
Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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1.0 I ntroduction

Design criteria and design calculation for the Cadangan Merekabentuk, Membina Dan Menyiapkan Sekolah
Kebangsaan Sri Bandi 2 Di Atas Tanah Kerajaan, Daerah Kemaman, Terengganu Darul Iman is presented for case
study.

2.0 Proposed Drainage System

The drainage plan proposed for the development area has been designed with the control at source concept and to
satisfy the Stormwater Management Manual (MSMA). The engineered waterway which also functions as drypond
facility to be blended with the landscape function as the stormwater quantity control.
The internal drainage system consists of covered lined drain is used to cater for the post-development discharge
generated from the development area. Swale is designed to cater for runoff from car park and road pavement for
minor event. The engineered waterway which acts as drypond is then used to route the post-development discharge
prior to the disposal of stormwater into the receiving waterbody.
Three numbers of drypond (EW1, EW2 and EW3) have been used to manage the stormwater generated from sub-
catchment A, B, C and D. This has resulted in the attenuation of post-development discharge to the level of pre-
development rate (Table 1). This satisfies the requirement of zero peak flow contribution outlined in MSMA.
Table 1
Pre-Development
Discharge (m
3
/s)
Post-Development
Discharge (m
3
/s)
Control Outflow from
Drypond (m
3
/s)
Drypond Sub-
Catchment
5 yr 10 yr 5 yr 10 yr 5 yr 10 yr
EW1 A 0.08 0.09 0.046 0.051
EW2 B 0.06 0.07 0.028 0.031
EW3 C and D

1.05*

1.19*
0.89 1.27 0.60 0.76
* Note: Pre-development discharge generated from sub-catchment A, B, C, D and E.


3.0 Reservoir Routing

3.1 Level Pool Method

Level-pool routing is a procedure for calculating the outflow hydrograph from a pond reservoir, assuming a
horizontal water surface, given its inflow hydrograph and storage-discharge characteristics. When a reservoir has a
horizontal water surface, its storage is a function of its water-surface elevation, or depth in the pool.

For hydrologic routing the inflow I (t), outflow O(t), and storage S(t) are related by the continuity equation:
( ) ( ) t O t I
dt
dS
= (14.14)

If an inflow I (t) is known Equation 1 cannot be solved directly to obtain the outflow O(t), because both O and S are
unknown. A second relationship, the storage function, is required to relate I , S, and O. Coupling the continuity
equation with the storage function provides a solvable combination of two equations and two unknowns.

Integration of the continuity equation (Equation 14.14) over the discrete time intervals provides an expression for
the change in storage over the j
th
time interval j

t

, S
j+1
- S
j
, which can be rewritten as:

t
O O
t
I I
S S
j j j j
j j

+
=
+ +
+
2 2
1 1
1
(14.15)

The inflow values at the beginning and end of the j
th
time interval are I
j
and I
j +1
, respectively, and corresponding
outflow values are O
j
and O
j+1
. The values of I
j
and I
j +1
, are known because they are pre-specified (i.e. the inflow
hydrograph ordinates). The values O
j
and S
j
are known at the j
th
time interval. Hence Equation 14.15 contains two
unknowns, O
j +1
and S
j +1
, which are isolated by multiplying Equation 14.15 by 2/ t and rearranging the result to
produce:

Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
2
( )

+ + =

+ +
+
j
j
j j j
j
O
t
S
I I O
t
S 2 2
1 1
1
(14.16)

In order to calculate the outflow O
j +1
from Equation 14.16, a storage-discharge function relating 2S/ t +O and O is
needed. The method of developing this function using stage-storage and stage-discharge relationship is shown in
Figure 14.10.


































Figure 14.10 Development of the Storage-Discharge Function for Hydrologic Pond Routing

The relationship between water-surface elevation and reservoir storage can be obtained using topographic maps or
from field surveys. The stage-discharge relationship is derived from hydraulic equations relating head and discharge
for various types of spillway and outlet works. The value of t is the same as the time interval of the inflow
hydrograph.

For a given water-surface elevation, the values of storage S and discharge O are determined. Then, the value of
2S/ t+O is calculated and plotted against O. In routing the flow through the j
th
time interval, all terms in the right-
hand-side of Equation 14.16 are known, and so the value of 2S
j +1
/ t+O can be computed. The corresponding
value of O
j +1
can be determined from the storage-discharge function 2S/ t+O versus O. To set up the data for the
next time interval, the value 2S
j+1
/ t- O
j +1
is calculated by:
1 1
1
1
1
2
2 2
+ +
+
+
+

j j
j
j
j
O O
t
S
O
t
S
(14.17)

The computation is repeated for subsequent routing periods. Input requirements for this routing method are:

the storage-discharge relationship
the storage-indication relationship
the inflow hydrograph
initial values of the outflow rate (O
1
) and storage (S
1
)
the routing interval (t)
Inflow
t
Ij+1
Ij
Outflow
Storage S
t
SECTION A-A
S = S (tj+1) - S (tj )
H

(
t
j

)
Inflow (I)
Outflow (O)
H

(
t
j
+
1
)
Outflow (O )
t
Oj+1
Oj
t
Volume = (Oj+Oj+1)t /2
Inflow (I )
t
Ij+1
Ij
t
Volume = (Ij+Ij+1)t /2
A
A
Pond
Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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Select design ARI
Choose time step
Calculate stage-discharge
curve
Calculate stage-storage
curve
Calculate next time
step
Calculate next value of
outflow hydrograph

t should be the same as the time step of


the inflow hydrograph
select design ARI for both minor
and major drainage systems from Table 4.1
Select hydrograph model
or method

select model or method appropriate for
the purpose of the design e.g. storage
routing, facility design, flood routing etc.
End of input
hydrograph
Yes
No
Select hydrograph that
produces the maximum peak
flow rate or storage volume
a range of hydrographs with different
durations will need to be developed to
determine the hydrograph that produces
the maximum storage
Equation 14.18
t
An analysis procedure for hydrologic routing is shown in Figure 14.11 (MSMA, 2000).








































Figure 14.11 General Analysis Procedure for Hydrologic Routing










Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
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4.0 Worked Example (Cadangan Merekabentuk, Membina Dan Menyiapkan Sekolah Kebangsaan Sri Bandi 2 Di
Atas Tanah Kerajaan, Daerah Kemaman, Terengganu Darul Iman)

Reference Calculation Output

Design Rainfall

ARI = 10 yrs (Major System)

Location = Kuala Dungun, Terengganu
Table
13.A1
a = 5.5077, b = -0.0310, c = -0.0899, d = 0.0050

Runoff estimation for storm durations less than 30 mins

For a short duration, d, the rainfall depth
Eqn. 13.3 ) (
30 60 30
P P F P P
D d
=


P
30
, P
60
= 30-minute and 60-minute duration rainfall depths from
published design

curves.
F
D
= Adjustment factor for storm duration, a function of
2
P
24hr
(Table 13.3)

Eqn. 13.2
3 2
)) (ln( )) (ln( ) ln( ) ln( t d t c t b a I
t
R
+ + + =



10
I
30
= 106.10 mm/hr
10
I
60
= 75.35 mm/hr
P
30
= 106.10 x (30/60) = 53.05 mm
P
60
= 75.35 x (60/60) = 75.35 mm

Say tc = 15 min,
Eqn. 13.3 P
10
= 53.05 0.74(75.35-53.05) = 36.55 mm

Eqn. 13.4
10
I
10
= 36.55 / (15/60) = 146.18 mm/hr


Summary of runoff estimation for storm durations less than 30
mins (major system)


Time
(min)
F
D

(Table 13.3)
Pd
(mm)
10
I
d

(mm/hr)
5 1.39 22.05 264.61
10 1.03 30.08 180.47
15 0.74 36.55 146.18
20 0.48 42.34 127.03














Case Study II
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Case Study II
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Reference Calculation Output

Runoff Estimation for Subcatchment A

Area = 1900 m
2

Table 14.3 tc = 15 mins
Chart 14.3
5
I
15
= 131.55 mm/hr; c = 0.79 (Group 4)

10
I
15
= 146.18 mm/hr; c = 0.81 (Group 4) Q
5
= 0.05 m
3
/s

50
I
15
= 171.45 mm/hr; c = 0.84 (Group 4) Q
10
= 0.06 m
3
/s
Eqn. 14.7 Q
5
= ciA = 0.05 m
3
/s ; Q
10
= ciA = 0.06 m
3
/s ; Q
50
= ciA = 0.08 m
3
/s Q
50
= 0.08 m
3
/s



For Water Quality Treatment:

Area = 1900 m
2

Table 14.3 tc = 15 mins
Chart 14.3
2
I
15
= 116.96 mm/hr; c = 0.76 (Group 4)
Eqn. 14.7 Q
2
= ciA = 0.047 m
3
/s Q
2
= 0.047 m
3
/s
Q
0.25
= 0.5*Q
2
= 0.023 m
3
/s Q
0.25
= 0.023 m
3
/s
V
0.25
= 0.5*2tc*Q
0.25
= 21.11 m
3
V
0.25
= 21.11 m
3

Provide 0.45m x 0.45m subsurface storage along 110m length EW1
(22 m
3
)



Calculation for Grassed Swale:

Design Criteria:
Contributing area = Subcatchment A1
26.1.1 Design Storm = minor (5 yr ARI), Q = 0.017 m
3
/s
26.2.4 Freeboard = 50 mm
26.2.5 Average flow velocity 2 m/s
26.2.3 Side slopes not steeper than 4(H):1(V)
Base side slopes shall be less than 50(H):1(V)
Maximum depth = 0.9m

Slope: 1 in 500
n = 0.035
Bottom Width (BW) = 0.6m
Depth, D = 0.10 m
Flow area, A = 0.10 m
2


Flow velocity, V =
2 / 1 3 / 2
1
S R
n
= 0.22 m/s

Drain capacity, Q = VA = 0.02 m
3
/s ( > Q
5
)
Freeboard = 50 mm
Depth, D = 0.15 m
Flow area, A = 0.18m
2


Flow velocity, V =
2 / 1 3 / 2
1
S R
n
= 0.27 m/s

Drain capacity, Q = VA = 0.05 m
3
/s ( > Q
10
= 0.019 m
3
/s)

26.1.2 Minimum requirement for maintenance access = 0.5 m both sides





Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
7
Reference Calculation Output

Calculation for Engineered Waterway:

Design Criteria:
Type: Grassed Floodway
28.3 Design Storm = 10 yr ARI
28.6 Freeboard = 300 mm
28.7 Minimum Longitudinal Grade = 0.2 %
Maximum flow velocity 2 m/s
28.10.2 Side slopes not steeper than 6(H):1(V) or 4(H):1(V) in special
circumstances

Floodway base side slopes shall be less than 50(H):1(V)
28.10.6 Landscaping:
- no trees than those with clean boles, strong crown structure, and no
propensity for root suckering may be planted in the floodplain

- minimum spacing of trees shall be 3 m
- maintenance free thicket zones used for hydraulic reasons shall
have a minimum of 3m clearance from lot boundaries to provide
access for mowing

- no vegetation other than grass shall be planted within 3 m of a
concrete invert in a floodway

28.10.7 Advisory signs should be located at points of congregation and
generally at about 500 m intervals along floodways within the 2 year
ARI floodplain



EW1:
Contributing area = Subcatchment A
Slope: 1 in 500
n = 0.035
Bottom Width (BW) = 0.60m
Depth, D = 0.20 m
Flow area, A = 0.28 m
2


Flow velocity, V =
2 / 1 3 / 2
1
S R
n
= 0.32 m/s

Drain capacity, Q = VA = 0.09 m
3
/s ( > Q
10
)
Freeboard = 300 mm
Depth, D = 0.50 m
Flow area, A = 1.30 m
2


Flow velocity, V =
2 / 1 3 / 2
1
S R
n
= 0.54 m/s

Drain capacity, Q = VA = 0.70 m
3
/s ( > Q
50
)

Table 28.1 Top Width of Waterway = 4.60m < 6m
Minimum requirement for maintenance access = 3.7 m and 1.0 at one
side and other side respectively











Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
8



















































Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
9
COMPUTATION OF HYETOGRAPH (PRE-DEVELOPMENT-ARI 10)
Rainfall Duration ARI 5 ARI 10 ARI 50
td Ln5It 5It Ln10It I10t Ln50It I50t
(min) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr)
30 4.56 95.49 4.66 106.10 4.85 127.72
60 4.22 67.82 4.32 75.35 4.52 92.25
120 3.85 46.87 3.95 52.19 4.18 65.14
180 3.62 37.43 3.73 41.86 3.97 52.93
360 3.23 25.28 3.36 28.73 3.62 37.27
TEMPORAL PATTERN (ARI 10)
td 10It Total Rainfall Loss Excess Rainfall
(min) (mm/hr) (mm) (mm) (mm)
30 106.10 53.05 21 32.44
60 75.35 75.35 25 50.28
120 52.19 104.38 31 73.51
180 41.86 125.59 35 90.47
360 28.73 172.37 44 127.90 INITIAL LOSS
Percentage of pervious area is 0%
Time td =30 min td=60 min td =120min td =180min td =360min
Interval 10Ddt 10Ddt 10Ddt 10Ddt 10Ddt Area Type Percentage Initial loss Proportional loss
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (%) (mm) (mm)
1 5.19 1.96 2.21 5.43 40.93 Pervious 100 10 20% of rainfall
2 8.11 3.52 8.75 19.90 52.44
3 10.70 8.45 22.79 30.76 14.07 Impervious 0 1.5 0
4 2.92 6.03 15.29 19.90 10.23
5 3.57 11.66 6.62 10.86 6.39
6 1.95 5.08 8.75 3.62 3.84 TOTAL LOSS FOR INITIAL LOSS OF IMPERVIOUS AREA
7 4.47 6.91 0.00 mm
8 2.87 2.21
9 2.41
10 1.56
11 1.41
12 0.85
32.44 50.28 73.51 90.47 127.90
5min Interval 5min Interval 15min Interval 30min Interval 60min Interval
INFLOW HYDROGRAPH FOR ARI 10 (RAINFALL DURATION 60min)
Time
(min) D A1(5min) A2(10min) A3(15min) A4(20min) A5(25min) A6(30min) A7(35min) A8(40min) A9(45min) TOTAL Qinflow
(m) 11950 11965 9789 9500 4860 836 0 0 0 DEPTH (cumec)
(sq.m) (cu.m)
0 0 0.000 0.00
5 1 0.002 23.43 23.43 0.08
10 2 0.004 42.06 23.46 65.52 0.22
15 3 0.008 100.94 42.11 19.19 162.25 0.54
20 4 0.006 72.10 101.07 34.45 18.63 226.25 0.75
25 5 0.012 139.39 72.19 82.69 33.44 9.53 337.23 1.12
30 6 0.005 60.68 139.57 59.06 80.24 17.10 1.64 358.30 1.19
35 7 0.004 53.47 60.76 114.19 57.32 41.05 2.94 0.00 329.73 1.10
40 8 0.003 34.25 53.54 49.71 110.81 29.32 7.06 0.00 0.00 284.70 0.95
45 9 0.002 28.84 34.29 43.80 48.24 56.69 5.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 216.91 0.72
50 10 0.002 18.63 28.88 28.05 42.51 24.68 9.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 152.50 0.51
55 11 0.001 16.82 18.65 23.62 27.23 21.75 4.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 112.32 0.37
60 12 0.001 10.21 16.84 15.26 22.93 13.93 3.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 82.91 0.28
65 13 10.23 13.78 14.81 11.73 2.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 52.94 0.18
70 14 8.37 13.37 7.57 2.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 31.33 0.10
75 15 8.12 6.84 1.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 16.26 0.05
80 16 4.15 1.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.33 0.02
85 17 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.71 0.00
90 18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
95 19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
100 20 0.00 0.00 0.00
105 21 0.00 0.00 0.00
ARI 10 (D=60min)
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Time (min)
F
l
o
w

(
c
u
m
e
c
)



















































Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
10
Reference Calculation Output

Calculation for Drypond Sizing


Table 4.1
Determine design storm criteria for the basin
Design storm for primary outlet: 5 year ARI, 10 year ARI
Design storm for secondary outlet spillway: 50 year ARI

Determine the basin outlet limits
The estimated pre-development flow hydrograph is tabulated in the following
table. The basin outflow limits for 5 and 10 year ARI are 1.05 m
3
/s and 1.19
m
3
/s respectively.

Pre-Development Flow Hydrographs
ARI (years)
5 10 50
Storm Duration (minutes)
30 60 120 30 60 120 30 60 120
T
i
m
e

I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l

Flow (m
3
/s)
0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
1 0.18 0.07 0.07 0.21 0.08 0.08 0.26 0.10 0.11
2 0.46 0.19 0.32 0.52 0.22 0.36 0.67 0.28 0.47
3 0.80 0.48 0.89 0.92 0.54 1.00 1.16 0.69 1.28
4 0.85 0.66 0.85 0.97 0.75 0.96 1.23 0.96 1.23
5 0.82 0.99 0.45 0.95 1.12 0.51 1.20 1.43 0.65
6 0.70 1.05 0.39 0.80 1.19 0.44 1.01 1.52 0.56
7 0.42 0.97 0.36 0.48 1.10 0.41 0.61 1.39 0.52
8 0.22 0.84 0.18 0.25 0.95 0.20 0.32 1.20 0.26
9 0.11 0.64 0.03 0.13 0.72 0.04 0.16 0.92 0.05
10 0.04 0.45 0.00 0.04 0.51 0.00 0.05 0.65 0.00
11 0.00 0.33 0.01 0.37 0.01 0.48
12 0.24 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.35
13 0.16 0.18 0.22
14 0.09 0.10 0.13
15 0.05 0.05 0.07
16 0.02 0.02 0.02
17 0.00 0.00 0.00

Note: For storm duration 30 and 60 minutes, time interval = 5 minutes
For storm duration 120 minutes, time interval = 15 minutes
















Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
11



















































Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
12
COMPUTATION OF HYETOGRAPH - POST-DEVELOPMENT (SCA)
Rainfall Duration ARI 5 ARI 10 ARI 50
td Ln5It 5It Ln10It I10t Ln50It I50t
(min) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr)
15 4.88 131.30 5.01 150.10 5.25 190.65
30 4.64 103.73 4.74 114.51 4.96 141.94
60 4.33 75.65 4.42 83.49 4.64 103.99
120 3.96 52.41 4.08 59.21 4.32 75.28
180 3.73 41.76 3.87 48.16 4.13 62.08
360 3.34 28.27 3.52 33.91 3.79 44.48
TEMPORAL PATTERN (ARI 10)
td 10It Total Rainfall Loss Excess Rainfall
(min) (mm/hr) (mm) (mm) (mm)
15 150.10 37.53 5 32.83
30 114.51 57.26 5 51.77
60 83.49 83.49 7 76.95
120 59.21 118.42 8 110.49
180 48.16 144.47 9 135.49
360 33.91 203.45 11 192.11 INITIAL LOSS
Percentage of pervious area is 20%
Time td = 15 min td =30 min td=60 min td =120min td =180min td =360min
Interval 10Ddt 10Ddt 10Ddt 10Ddt 10Ddt 10Ddt Area Type Percentage Initial loss Proportional loss
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (%) (mm) (mm)
1 10.50 8.28 3.00 3.31 8.13 61.48 Pervious 20 10 20% of rainfall
2 16.41 12.94 5.39 13.15 29.81 78.77
3 5.91 17.08 12.93 34.25 46.07 21.13 Impervious 80 1.5 0
4 4.66 9.23 22.98 29.81 15.37
5 5.69 17.85 9.94 16.26 9.61
6 3.11 7.77 13.15 5.42 5.76 TOTAL LOSS FOR INITIAL LOSS OF IMPERVIOUS AREA
7 6.85 10.39 1.20 mm
8 4.39 3.31
9 3.69
10 2.39
11 2.15
12 1.31
32.83 51.77 76.95 110.49 135.49 192.11
5min Interval 5min Interval 5min Interval 15min Interval 30min Interval 60min Interval
POST-DEVELOPMENT
INFLOW HYDROGRAPH FOR ARI 10 - SCA (RAINFALL DURATION 60min)
Time
(min) D A1(5min) A2(10min) A3(15min) A4(20min) TOTAL Qinflow
(m) 272 181 1277 0 DEPTH (cumec)
(sq.m) (cu.m)
0 0 0 0.000
5 1 0.003 0.82 0.82 0.003
10 2 0.005 1.47 0.54 2.01 0.007
15 3 0.013 3.52 0.97 3.83 8.32 0.028
20 4 0.009 2.51 2.34 6.88 0.00 11.73 0.039
25 5 0.018 4.86 1.67 16.51 0.00 23.03 0.077
30 6 0.008 2.11 3.23 11.79 0.00 17.14 0.057
35 7 0.007 1.86 1.41 22.80 0.00 26.07 0.087
40 8 0.004 1.19 1.24 9.92 0.00 12.36 0.041
45 9 0.004 1.00 0.79 8.75 0.00 10.54 0.035
50 10 0.002 0.65 0.67 5.60 0.00 6.92 0.023
55 11 0.002 0.59 0.43 4.72 0.00 5.73 0.019
60 12 0.001 0.36 0.39 3.05 0.00 3.79 0.013
65 13 0.24 2.75 0.00 2.99 0.010
70 14 1.67 0.00 1.67 0.006
75 15 0.00 0.00 0.000
80 16 0.00 0.000
85 17 0.00 0.000
90 18 0.00 0.000
95 19 0.00 0.000
100 20 0.00 0.000
ARI 10 (D=60min)
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.070
0.080
0.090
0.100
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Time (min)
F
l
o
w

(
c
u
m
e
c
)



















































Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
13
Reference Calculation Output

Calculation for Drypond Sizing- Drypond A (EW1)

Compute the basin inflow hydrographs



The critical storm duration for maximum basin storage has to be determined
by routing post-development inflow hydrographs of different durations (longer
than t
c
) through the basin as given in the following table.

Post-Development Flow Hydrographs From Sub-catchment A

ARI (years)
5 10 50
Storm Duration (minutes)
30 60 120 30 60 120 30 60 120
T
i
m
e

I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l

Flow (m
3
/s)
0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
1 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01
2 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.03
3 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.07 0.07 0.04 0.08
4 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.09 0.05 0.06
5 0.07 0.07 0.02 0.08 0.08 0.02 0.10 0.10 0.02
6 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.03
7 0.02 0.08 0.02 0.03 0.09 0.02 0.03 0.11 0.03
8 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.01
9 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00
10 0.02 0.02 0.03
11 0.02 0.02 0.02
12 0.01 0.01 0.02
13 0.01 0.01 0.01
14 0.01 0.01 0.01
15 0.00 0.00 0.00

Note: For storm duration 15, 30 and 60 minutes, time interval = 5 minutes
For storm duration 120 minutes, time interval = 15 minutes





















Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
14
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200
Q (cumec)
S
t
a
g
e

(
m
)
Reference Calculation Output

Calculation for Drypond Sizing- Drypond A (EW1)

Compute the stage-storage relationship

Basin Stage-Storage Relationship
Elevation Stage Area Storage
Total
Storage
(m) (m) (sq.m) (m
3
) (m
3
)
17.500 0.000 66 0.00 0.00
17.600 0.100 110 11.00 11.00
17.700 0.200 198 19.80 30.80
17.800 0.300 286 28.60 59.40
17.900 0.400 374 37.40 96.80
18.000 0.500 462 46.20 143.00


5 Year ARI Stage-Discharge Relationship

Size the major primary outlet
Minor primary outlet: 450 mm dia. concrete pipe

Stage
(m)
Discharge, Q
(cumec)
Total
Storage,S
(cu.m)
(2S/ delt)+Q
(cumec)
0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00
0.100 0.007 11.00 0.08
0.200 0.027 30.80 0.23
0.300 0.059 59.40 0.45
0.400 0.102 96.80 0.75























Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
15
Routing Results for 5 year ARI, 60 minute Basin Inflow Hydrograph
Time
(min)
Inflow
(cumec)
I
j
+ I
j
+1
(cumec)
2S
J
/ T-Q
J

2S
j
+1/ t+
Q
j+1

Outflow
(cumec)
Stage
(m)
Stage
(m)
Discharge,
Q (cumec)
Total
Storage,S
(cu.m)
(2S/ t)+Q
(cumec)
0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00
5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.100 0.01 11.00 0.08
10 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.200 0.03 30.80 0.23
15 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.003 0.300 0.06 59.40 0.45
20 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.008 0.400 0.10 96.80 0.75
25 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.18 0.020 0.500 0.15 143.00 1.11
30 0.05 0.12 0.20 0.26 0.031
35 0.08 0.13 0.25 0.33 0.041
40 0.04 0.12 0.27 0.36 0.046 0.26
45 0.03 0.07 0.26 0.34 0.042
50 0.02 0.05 0.23 0.31 0.038
55 0.02 0.04 0.21 0.27 0.032
60 0.01 0.03 0.18 0.23 0.027
65 0.01 0.02 0.15 0.20 0.023
70 0.01 0.01 0.13 0.17 0.019
75 0.00 0.01 0.11 0.14 0.014
80 0.00 0.09 0.11 0.010
85 0.00 0.07 0.09 0.008
90 0.00 0.06 0.07 0.006
95 0.00 0.05 0.06 0.005
100 0.00 0.04 0.05 0.004
105 0.00 0.03 0.04 0.003
110 0.03 0.03 0.003
115 0.02 0.03 0.002
120 0.02 0.02 0.002
125 0.02 0.02 0.002
130 0.01 0.02 0.001
135 0.01 0.01 0.001
140 0.01 0.01 0.001
145 0.01 0.01 0.001
150 0.01 0.01 0.001
155 0.01 0.01 0.001
160 0.00 0.01 0.000
















Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
16
Reference Calculation Output

Calculation for Drypond Sizing Drypond A (EW1)






























































Size the major primary outlet
450 mm dia.concrete pipe

10 Year ARI StageDischarge Relationship
Stage
(m)
Discharge, Q
(cumec)
Total Storage,
S (cu.m)
(2S/ delt)+Q
(cumec)
0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00
0.100 0.007 11.00 0.08
0.200 0.027 30.80 0.23
0.300 0.059 59.40 0.45
0.400 0.102 96.80 0.75
























5 YEAR ARI (D=60min)
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0 50 100 150 200
Time (min)
Q

(
c
u
m
e
c
)
Inflow Outflow
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200
Q (cumec)
S
t
a
g
e

(
m
)
Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
17

Routing Results for 10 year ARI, 60 minute Basin Inflow Hydrograph
Time
(min)
Inflow
(cumec)
I
j
+ I
j
+1
(cumec)
2S
J
/ T-Q
J

2S
j
+1/ t+
Q
j+1

Outflow
(cumec)
Stage
(m)
Stage
(m)
Discharge,
Q (cumec)
Total
Storage,S
(cu.m)
(2S/ t)+Q
(cumec)
0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.100 0.007 11.000 0.080
10 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.200 0.027 30.800 0.232
15 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.004 0.300 0.059 59.400 0.455
20 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.010 0.400 0.102 96.800 0.747
25 0.08 0.12 0.15 0.20 0.023 0.500 0.155 143.000 1.108
30 0.06 0.13 0.22 0.29 0.035
35 0.09 0.14 0.27 0.36 0.046
40 0.04 0.13 0.30 0.40 0.051 0.27
45 0.04 0.08 0.28 0.37 0.047
50 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.34 0.042
55 0.02 0.04 0.22 0.30 0.036
60 0.01 0.17 0.22 0.026
65 0.01 0.13 0.17 0.019
70 0.01 0.11 0.13 0.014
75 0.00 0.09 0.11 0.010
80 0.07 0.09 0.007
85 0.06 0.07 0.006
90 0.05 0.06 0.005
95 0.04 0.05 0.004
100 0.03 0.04 0.003
105 0.03 0.03 0.003
110 0.02 0.03 0.002
115 0.02 0.02 0.002
120 0.02 0.02 0.002
125 0.01 0.02 0.001
130 0.01 0.01 0.001
135 0.01 0.01 0.001
140 0.01 0.01 0.001
145 0.01 0.01 0.001
150 0.01 0.01 0.001
155 0.00 0.01 0.000














Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
18

Reference Calculation Output

Calculation for Drypond Sizing- Drypond A (EW1)











































Size the secondary outlet
450 mm dia. Concrete pipe

50 Year ARI StageDischarge Relationship
Stage
(m)
Discharge, Q
(cumec)
Total Storage,
S (cu.m)
(2S/ delt)+Q
(cumec)
0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00
0.100 0.007 11.00 0.08
0.200 0.027 30.80 0.23
0.300 0.059 59.40 0.45
0.400 0.102 96.80 0.75






















10 YEAR ARI (D=60 min)
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0 50 100 150 200
Time (min)
Q

(
c
u
m
e
c
)
Inflow Outflow
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200
Q (cumec)
S
t
a
g
e

(
m
)
Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
19

Time
(min)
Inflow
(cumec)
I
j
+ I
j
+1
(cumec)
2S
J
/ T-Q
J

2S
j
+1/ t+
Q
j+1

Outflow
(cumec)
Stage
(m)
Stage
(m)
Discharge,
Q (cumec)
Total
Storage,S
(cu.m)
(2S/ t)+Q
(cumec)
0 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.100 0.007 11.000 0.080
10 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.001 0.200 0.027 30.800 0.232
15 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.06 0.005 0.300 0.059 59.400 0.455
20 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.13 0.013 0.400 0.102 96.800 0.747
25 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.25 0.029 0.500 0.155 143.000 1.108
30 0.07 0.17 0.19 0.36 0.045
35 0.11 0.18 0.27 0.45 0.058
40 0.05 0.16 0.33 0.49 0.065 0.32
45 0.04 0.10 0.36 0.46 0.060
50 0.03 0.07 0.34 0.41 0.053
55 0.02 0.05 0.31 0.36 0.045
60 0.02 0.04 0.27 0.31 0.038
65 0.01 0.03 0.23 0.26 0.031
70 0.01 0.02 0.20 0.22 0.025
75 0.00 0.01 0.17 0.18 0.019
80 0.00 0.14 0.14 0.014
85 0.00 0.11 0.11 0.010
90 0.00 0.09 0.09 0.008
95 0.00 0.07 0.07 0.006
100 0.00 0.06 0.06 0.005
105 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.004
110 0.04 0.04 0.003
115 0.03 0.03 0.003
120 0.03 0.03 0.002
125 0.02 0.02 0.002
130 0.02 0.02 0.002
135 0.02 0.02 0.001
140 0.01 0.01 0.001
145 0.01 0.01 0.001
150 0.01 0.01 0.001
155 0.01 0.01 0.001
160 0.01 0.01 0.001
165 0.01 0.01 0.000













Case Study II
Urban Stormwater Management Short Course
20
Reference Calculation Output

Calculation for Drypond Sizing- Drypond A (EW1)





























Outlet Structure:


























50 YEAR ARI (D=60 mi n)
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0 50 100 150 200
Ti me (mi n)
Q

(
c
u
m
e
c
)
Infl ow Outfl ow
0.6 m
50 mm
450 mm dia.
Concrete Pipe
450 mm
4.6 m
1
4