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History 5third part lecture Personages Who Contributed to the Development of Medicine in the Philippines, 20 th Century 1910Honoria Acosta

Sison returned with an MD degree from the omen!s Medical "ollege in #hiladelphia$ As the first %ilipino woman physician& she immediately 'oined the o(stetrics department of the #)H as assistant resident and taught in the college$ *he second was +li,ia Salamanca who dedicated herself to fight against tu(erculosis (ut who herself unfortunately succum(ed to the disease$ 191-Maria #a. Mendo.a )ua.on was one of the women graduates from /# who (ecame a well01nown pathologist& especially with her studies on bangungut& said to cause the mysterious sudden deaths of solely young& apparently healthy males who die in their sleep$ Dr$ )regorio Singian was the first president of the #hilippine "ollege of Surgery& which he founded (efore his death in 1923 and was a professor of Surgery at /S*& renowned as 4el mago del bisturie5 6wi.ard of the scalpel7$ Dr$ 8ose Al(ert chaired the wee1ly clinical conferences at #)H where he was professor and head of #ediatrics& as well as director of Scientific Studies and 9esearch& and continued to author and co0author more than :0 papers& se,eral on infantile (eri(eri$ Dr$ %ernando "alderon was a recogni.ed authority on o(stetrics and gynecology who was appointed to the concurrent positions of dean of the "ollege of Medicine and director of #)H& (esides (eing head of +(stetrics$ Dr$ 9amon +ngsia1o and ;ictor Se,illa were the leading <<=* specialists in pri,ate practice of the time$ Dr$ illiam 8$ >utler >ur1e was the first to (ring from <ngland a "am(ridge electrocardiograph and the first to practice what was then a ,ery new discipline of cardiology$ ?n his honor& the #hilippine Heart Association esta(lished the >ur1e Award for (udding cardiologists in 195-$ He first came to ,isit in 1902& and& con,inced (y his uncle to practice medicine here& stayed and (ecame a well0lo,ed and respected professor of Medicine at /S*$

Dr$ Andreas *repp& a Swiss physician who pioneered in the #hilippines the Sanatorium treatment of *> so that he (ecame the head of the Santol Sanatorium& the nucleus of the @ue.on ?nstitute in 1925$

Dr$ 8ose *ee Han Aee 61BB0019:27& was a medical doctor from Amoy& "hina who came to the #hilippines in 190- and was hired (y the >oard of Health to do sanitary wor1 among "hinese residents of >inondo$ Ha,ing ser,ed for 19 years as municipal physician of the Meisic Health Station& he (ecame director of the "hinese )eneral Medical Society$ Dr$ "andido Africa and his co0wor1ers& Dr$ %rancisco 8$ Dy and Dr$ <use(io C$ )arcia of the /# ?nstitute of Hygiene 6that will e,entually (e the "ollege of #u(lic Health7 undertoo1 the seminal studies in the eDo0erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium vivax malaria& responsi(le for the relapses and the resistance to Euinine$

Dr$ <liodoro Mercado de,ise a method of in'ecting chaulmoogra oil to leprosy patients in 191:$ Dr$ 8ose =$ 9odrigue. introduced the no,el 4histamine test5 for diagnosis in 1921 in the leprosaria of "e(u and "ulion$ Dr$ "asimiro >$ Fara& wor1ing with American researcher& Dr$ H$ $ ade& pu(lished studies on ,arious chaulmoogra and hydnocarpus esters for treatment$ Dr$ "risto(al Manalang pu(lished (etween 19-0 and 192G& eighty0two papers on leprosy& malaria& and ,arious parasitic diseases while Dr$ Antonio <'ercito had twenty papers on malaria alone during the same period$ Dr$ 8oaEuin Maranon pu(lished twenty0fi,e papers and a (oo1 on the therapy for malaria using cinchona al1aloids and the propagation of cinchona culture$ Drs$ Daniel de la #a. and Antonio )$ Sison found 4alagaw5 6Premna odorata7 effecti,e in treating (ronchial asthma$ Dr$ %austino )arcia 6H17 won a )old #ri.e in 192- for his studies on Datura cigarettes for asthma$ *he 8offel cigarettes of 8ose A$ Santos& #hD$& /# professor of (otany& (ecame popular among asthmatics$ Dr$ Antonio )$ Sison wrote Historical )limpses of +pthalmology and *raining of a Surgeon and had ,arious research outputs ranging from cardiology to the ,arious aspects of internal medicine$ Dr$ Alfredo "$ Santos& professor of #harmaceutical "hemistry& later dean of the /# "ollege of #harmacy& isolated and determined the structures of the al1aloids of 4kalimatas5 6Phaeanthus ebracteolatus7 and 4ambal5 6Pycnarrhena manillensis7$

Dr$ %austino )arcia 6H-7 su('ected to initial pharmacological in,estigation 4 kalimata5 fluid eDtract while in 1952& Drs$ "onrado Dayrit& Horacio <strada and )erardo de Feon reported on phaeantharine& its purified al1aloid and discussing that the strong antihypertensi,e action of phaeantharine was due to compleD& direct and ganglionic (loc1ing actions$ Dr$ #ilar Fim did her M$S$ thesis in #harmocology on Dr$ Santos! pure al1aloid pycnamine& the tertiary amine al1aloid of P. manillensis$ Dr$ %austino )arcia 6H27 also studied the (lood sugar0lowering action of 4banaba5 6Lagerstroemia speciosa7 on dia(etic patients and named its plant insulin0li1e principle& plantisul$ Dr$ 9omulo )ue,ara!s in ,itro set up to study the direct effects of ,arious her(s on the Ascaris lumbricoides parasite that came to (e 1nown& aptly& as 4Ascarigram5$ Dr$ #edro *$ Fantin won an award in 1922 for the treatment of typhoid fe,er (y partial eDanguination and (lood transfusion& at a time when the only other positi,e approach to the treatment of typhoid was in'ection of con,alescent serum or purposeful induction of fe,er (y protein in'ections 6mil17 or hydrosalysates& 64+mnadin57$

Dr$ 9egino =a,arro& clinical pathologist& was at this time& de,eloping serum tests for >iliru(in ? and ?? 6uncon'ugated or 4indirect5& and con'ugated or 4direct57& which later were to displace the ,an den >ergh test and (ecome the critical tests for differentiating o(structi,e from non0o(structi,e or parenchyma$ Dr$ 8aco(o %a'ardopioneer in #u(lic Health wor1 in the #hilippines& director of the >ureau of Health$ Dr$ 8oaEuin @uintosthe first pediatrician in the /S* %aculty of Medicine and Surgery and disco,erer of tiki-tiki& for curing infantile (eri(eri$ Dr$ )regorio Singianfounder of the Singian ?nstitute& the first clinic for the treatment of cancer in the #hilippines$ Dr$ >en'amin >elmontethe first in the /S* %aculty of Medicine and Surgery to perform an open heart operation$ Dr$ Arturo >$ 9otorsenior disco,erer of the 9otor0Manahan0%lorentin Syndrome 6co0 disco,erers are Drs$ Fourdes A$ Manahan and Angel A$ %lorentin7$ 9otor syndrome is a type of li,er disease$

#harmacists Manuel Iamora and #rimiti,o Aram(ulo!s tiki-tiki preparations (ecame household names$ Tiki-tiki eDtracts& as cure for (eri(eri (ecame popular due to Drs$ 8oaEuin @uintos and Manuel S$ )uerrero of /S* and as the result in the effort of the "ham(erlain of the Army >oard for the Study of *ropical Diseases$ 4>eri(eri& 1nown as taon& was a leading cause of infant mortality in Asia and the #hilippines$ *he Dutch scientists& <i'1man and )ri'no& had shown that (eri(eri is a food0deficiency disease afflicting people whose staple food is o,er0milled or polished rice$ Much later& in 1911& %un1 isolated the acti,e principle from rice polishing& and in 192G& 9o(ert illiams identified the thiamine chemical structure$ hen the #hilippine ?slands Medical Association heard a(out these reports made at a tropical medicine congress and learned that (eri(eri was caused (y the use of polished rice& legislation for a return to unpolished rice was recommended$ /pon the initiati,e of Dr$ 8ose Al(ert& then head of the #ediatrics of the /# "ollege of Medicine& the first autopsy of infantile (eri(eri was performed$ Doctors from ;ienna %i,e Austrian 8ews who wanted to escape Hitler in 192B were con,inced (y Dr$ 8ose Al(ert to come to the #hilippines instead to teach in the "ollege of Medicine$ Hans Aaunit.& a pupil of li,er0 specialist <ppinger& 'oined the Department of MedicineJ <ugene Strans1y& a hematologist& the Department of #ediatricsJ 9o(ert illheim& a cancer (iochemist& the "ancer ?nstituteJ Dr$ %riedman& a clinical neurologist& the Department of Medicine& and Dr$ %raen1el& an educator& taught a ,ery interesting History of Medicine& illustrated (y slides of all the historical places and personages of medicine in <urope and the /S$ *his team of <uropean physicians contri(uted immeasura(ly to teaching and research$ +ther Achie,ers in Medicine Dr$ <lena >$ ?nes0"uyeg1engtrained pharmacologist from the /ni,ersity of MichiganJ professor of #harmacology& dean& and later ,ice president for

Academic Affairs of /<9MM"J eDecuti,e director& Association of #hilippine Medical "olleges 6A#M"7$ Dr$ 8ulita 9amoso08al(uenaprofessor and chair& Department of +(stetrics and )ynecology& /#0#)HJ speciali.ed in eDtraperitoneal caesarean and introduced the #fannenstiel incision in caesarian sectionJ esta(lished (lood (an1 for #)H +(stetricsJ the only o(stetrician so far to ha,e recei,ed the top three awards of the #hilippine +>0)yn Society& namelyK the 9amon Fope. Memorial Award in 19B0& >aldomero 9oDas Memorial Fecture Award in 19B: and Honoria Acosta0Sison 9esearch Award in 199-$

193BDr$ 8uan S$ Salcedo& 8r$awarded for his contri(utions in nutrition& pu(lic health and science policy$ His rice0enrichment program is credited to ha,e wiped out (eri(eri in the #hilippines$ 1939Dr$ )loria *$ Aragonfirst woman to (e appointed dean of the /# "ollege of Medicine on that year and director of #hilippine )eneral Hospital in 1939J magna cum laude graduate of /# who rose to (e professor and chair of the Department of +(stetrics and )ynecology of /#0#)H$ 19B0Dr$ %e del Mundopediatrician and medical stateswomanJ founder of the "hildren!s Memorial Hospital in 1953 which (ecame the "hildren!s Medical "enter #hilippines in 19G2J 1933 9amon Magsaysay Award for #u(lic Ser,ice (y a #ri,ate "iti.enJ 199G <li.a(eth >lac1well Award for +utstanding Ser,ice to Man1ind& and the ?nternational "ongress of #ediatrics Award as the Most +utstanding #ediatrician and Humanitarian$ 19B1Dr& )eminiano *$ de +campoophthalmologist& pioneer in corneal transplantation$ 19B5Dr$ Hilario D$ )$ Fara#u(lic Health& founder and first director of the ?nstitute of Hygiene 6now "ollege of #u(lic Health7$ 19B9Dr$ #aulo "$ "amposinternist& endocrinologist 6=uclear Medicine7& =ational Academy of Science and *echnology president 6193B019B97J founder and chairman& Medical "enter ManilaJ professor and head& Department of Medicine& /#0"M$ 19B9Dr$ <rnesto +$ Domingo& academician& Science and *echnology Award recipientJ "hancellor of /# Manila 619910199:7J former chair of Medicine& /#0#)HJ mem(er& >oard of 9egents& /#J team leader of the Fi,er Study )roup that characteri.ed the eDtent and pathology in %ilipinos of the hepatitides& particularly Hepatitis A& >& and "$ *he clinical and epidemiological studies of his team ha,e contri(uted to the de,elopment of a policy and control of Hepatitis >& and diagnostic 1it$ 1991Dr$ #erla Di.on Santos0+campo& academician& Science and *echnology Award recipientJ "hancellor& /#0Manila 199:01999J internationally renowned pediatricianJ awarded for her studies on diarrhea and its management with +ral 9ehydration *herapyJ president& #hilippine #ediatric SocietyJ president& 13th ?nternational "ongress of #ediatrics of the ?nternational Society of #ediatricsJ elected president of =AS* in 1999&

succeeding Dr$ "onrado S$ Dayrit$

1993Dr$ Alfredo 9$ >eng.on& 9amon Magsaysay Award recipientJ neurologistJ secretary of Health& 19BG0199-J author of the )enerics Faw and the =ational Drug #olicyJ president& Medical "ity$ #atriotic Doctors Dr$ 9em(erto 6>o((y7 de la #a.a 193G graduate of the /#"M& had (een wor1ing in Samar for four years after graduation with his wife& Dr$ Syl,ia Siocon0de la #a. and was gunned down on April 19B- while in his clinic in "at(alogan (y an un1nown assailant who& many local residents (elie,e& had acted under orders of the pro,incial military authorities$ His murder was ne,er sol,edJ one among the many during the Marcos administration$ He (ecame a sym(ol of the selfless idealism of a young doctor in the ser,ice of his country$ Dr$ 8ohnny <scandoranother /#"M graduate was also ser,ing in the po,erty0 ridden areas of the #hilippines when& a lot of peoples (elie,e& was 1illed (y mem(ers of the military and had his (ody desecrated 6his soc1s and (rief was stuffed on his cranium7J another ,ictim of the Marcos reign of terror$ Surgical Ad,ances August :& 19BB%irst successful li,er transplant performed Septem(er 1B& 1990A dou(le li,er and 1idney transplant was performed March 2& 199B%irst simultaneous 1idney and pancreas transplant was performed$ *he pancreas recipient li,ed for four years and died of a coronary heart disease$ *hese were performed at the =ational Aidney and *ransplant ?nstitute (y a transplanting team headed (y Dr$ <nriEue +na 6who (ecame Secretary of Health0-0107 May -B& 199:Dr$ 8orge )arcia performed the first heart transplantation at the Ma1ati Heart ?nstitute& Ma1ati Medical "enter$ /nfortunately& the patient did not sur,i,e long after due to infection$ April 1-& 199G#rofessor "hao *ony "han from "hang )ung Medical "enter in Aaohsiung& *aiwan& together with the team of Dr$ <nriEue +na at the =ational Aidney and *ransplant ?nstitute& performed the first partial li,er transplant from a mother to her 150month0old child with (iliary atresia$ /nfortunately& the (a(y succum(ed to pulmonary infection 35 days postoperati,ely$

Landmarks in World Medical

istory

! 1:15015G:K "ndreas #esaliusanatomistpu(lished in 152: his pioneering anatomical teDt 4*he %a(ric of Human >ody5 6De Humani orporis !abrica7$ History of Anatomy is di,ided into #re0 ;esalian& ;esalian and #ost0;esalian #eriods$

! 1590K $ohannes $anssen % son &achariasin,ented microscope$ ! 1G-BK William arveypu(lished his treatise descri(ing the circulation of the (lood$ 6"xcercutatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus7J ran1s with the !abrica of ;esalius as a milestone in the progress of medicine$ ! 1G29K "ugustinian monk Calancharecorded the #eru,ian use of cinchona (ar1 6whose chief al1aloid is Euinine7 as effecti,e for fe,ers and tertian 6malaria7 6popular ,ersion(ar1 usedis "ountess Anna de "hinichon7introduction of "hinchona (ar1 in Spainplant named after her$ ! 1GG1KMarcelo Malpighi6>ologna7descri(ed the capillary anastomosis (etween small arteries and ,einsJ that the lungs are composed of numerous ,esicles in which the (ronchioles end$ ! 1GG:K 'homas Willispu(lished 4Anatomy of the >rain5J 1nown for 4"ircle of arteries$ illis of cere(ral

! 1GG5K 'homas (ydenham 61GG:01GB97pu(lished his first wor1 on fe,ersJ this was followed (y many eDcellent descriptions of diseases$ At his death in 1GB9& uni,ersities recogni.ed him as the outstanding clinician of the 13th "entury$ ! 1G3:K 'homas Willisnoted that the urine of dia(etics is wonderfully sweet$ ! 1G32013-2K "nton #en Leeu)enhoek4%ather of #roto.oology L>acteriology5J using his microscope& demonstrated& made drawings of motile (acillus& micrococci& spirocheteJ 9>" erroneously thought (y Malpighi to (e fat glo(ulesJ descri(ed spermato.oaJ the striped characteristics of s1eletal musclesJ structure of crystalline lens$ ! 1352K $ames Lind 6131G0139:7recommended lemon 'uice for scur,yJ >ritish followed for :1 years and later& scur,y disappeared from the na,y$ ! *iovanni Morgagni 61GB-0133074%ather of #athology5J 4*he Seats and "auses of Diseases ?n,estigated (y Anatomy5important medical literature in,estigated diseases from symptoms to the organ& demonstrated the diseases in the organs4start of modern medicine5according to Dr$ 9udolf ;irchow$ ! 133-K William after his death7$ eberden 6131001B017first clear description of any gi,en angina pectoris 6pu(lished

! 1B:GK 'homas Morton 61B1901BGB7demonstrated the use of ether on general anesthesia at the Massachusetts )eneral Hospital+cto(er 1G& 1B:G$ ! 1B51K erman von elmhot+ 61B-101B9:7in,ented opthalmoscope and opthalmometerJ identified the three color sensationsK red& green and (lueJ mathematically pro,ed the conser,ation of energy$ ! 1B:901B55K 'homas "ddison 6139201BG07descri(ed Addison!s Diseaseof adrenal glands and Addisonian or pernicious anemia$ ! 1G9301B52K ,obert *raves 6Du(lin7perfect clinician& teacher& descri(ed hyperthyroidism in women 6)ra,es! Disease7$ ! 1B0:01B3BK William (tokes 6Du(lin7earliest account for paroDysmal tachycardiaJ "heyne0Sto1es 9espiration and Sto1es0Adams Disease 6heart (loc17$

! 1BG-K "ustin -lint 61B1-01BBG74American Faenace5J descri(ed 4Austin %lint Murmur5the characteristic diastolic murmur at the apeD in aortic regurgitation without presystolic accentuation or snapping first sound$ ! 1B-10190-K ,udolf #ircho)the cell is the center of all pathologiesJ physician creator of modern science of pathologyJ author of cellular pathologygreat (oo1s in MedicineJ his (oo1 on tumors (ecame model for all later wor1s on the su('ect$ ! 1B1201B3BK Claude .ernardgreat physiologistdemonstrated the role of pancreatic 'uice in digestionJ glycogenetic function of the li,erJ ,asomotor mechanism of sympathetic and parasympatheticsJ mechanism of "ar(on monoDide poisoning and of the use of curare for malaria$ ! 1B--01B95K Louis Pasteur a7 #ro,ed that (acteria caused fermentation and that they came from air and not spontaneously generated 6which suggested antiseptics to Fister7$ (7 #ro,ed that heating to 500G0 degrees "elsius for a short time can pre,ent spoilage of wine and (eer4pasteuri.ation5$ c7 "onfirmed 8enner!s 4,accination5 findings that pretreatment which an attenuated organism can protect from su(seEuent infection with the acti,e form of that organismin chic1en cholera& in sheep anthraD& and in ra(ies$ Fate in 1BB5& a (oy (itten (y a ra(id dog was cured (y daily in'ection of increasingly less attenuated ra(id spinal cord$ ?n the process& he pro,ed that the ra(ies ,irus infected the "=S 6central ner,ous system7 of dogs and ra((its& which when attenuated (y desiccation& could (e used for ,accination$ %irst to isolate #taphilococci and #treptococci$

! 1BG5K $oseph Lister 61B-3019-17introduced the practice of the use of antiseptics in surgery "ar(olic Acid spray in compound fracture$ ! 1B:-01910K ,obert /och a7 ?naugurated the era of (acteriological research (y de,eloping culture media to grow pure cultures of organism and methods of fiDing and drying (acterial films on co,er slips and then staining and photographing them for study$ *hus& he demonstrated the Anthrax ,acilli acid sporesJ the change from (acilli to spores and (ac1 to (acilli and the infectiousness of (lood0containing spores 61B3G7J 17 Disco,ered tu(ercle (acilli from tu(erculous sputum 61BB-7J -7 Disco,ered the cholera ,i(rio and pro,ed the transformation of cholera (y water and foodJ 27 Disco,ered tu(erculin 61B907which unfortunately failed as *> cure$ (7 %ormulated the 4Aoch postulates5 to pro,e that a microorganism is the cause of a diseaseK 17 *he microorganism can (e demonstra(le in e,ery case of the diseaseJ -7 *hat it must (e culti,ated on pure culture! 27 ?noculation of the culture must produce the disease in suscepti(le animalsJ :7 ?t must (e reco,ered from the animals and grown in pure culture 6=o(el #ri.e 19057$ ! 1B::019--K (ir Patrick Mansondisco,ered the malarial parasite in the (lood of malarial patient 6=o(el #ri.e 19037$ ! 1B530192-K (ir ,onald ,ossdisco,ered malaria in the stomach of Anopheles mosEuito$ ! 1BB1K Carlos -indlayshowed that the mosEuito #tegomya $asciata 6now Aedes egypti7 was the transmitter of the yellow fe,er$ 8ames "arral had himself

(itten (y an infected #tegomya& de,eloped yellow fe,er and reco,eredJ 8esse Fa.car accidentally (itten& de,eloped yellow fe,er and died$ ! 1900K Ma0or Walter ,eed 61B510190-7 and Colonel William *orgas 61B5:019-07 conEuered yellow fe,er in Ha,ana (y mosEuito eDtermination$ ! 1BB3K "ugustus D! Waller& physiologist& recorded the first human electrocardiogram using capillary electrometer$ ! 1B95K William /onrad ,oentgen 61B:5019-27disco,erer of M0ray$

! 1B95K Pierre and Marie Curie 61BG30192:7disco,erers of radioacti,ity which they reported to the Academe des #ciences on 8uly 1B& 1B9B 6=o(el #ri.e in #hysics with Henri >ecEuerel$ #ierre "urie died from a tragic accident soon after Marie "urie won the =o(el #ri.e in 1911 for isolating radium$ ! 1B5G01929K (igmund -reuddisco,erer of the su(conscious and its influence on the conscious& the splitting of the mind (y intrapsychic conflicts and the +edipus compleD or infantile seDuality$ ! 1BB20190-K $ames Macken+ieesta(lished the fundamental differences in ,enous types of cardiac irregularitiesa milestone in the history of heart disease with the in,ention of polygraph to record arterial and ,enous pulses$ ! 1901K /arl Landsteinershowed that there are at least three types of human (lood A& >& and +$ ! 190-K William 1inthoven2(uilt a string )al,anometer to (ecome the first practical electrocardiograph 6=o(el #ri.e 19-:7$ ! 190GK Celois "l+heimeridentified a (rain degeneration causing progressi,e loss of intellectual function 6Al.heimer!s Disease7$ ! 190G01910K arvey Cushing 61BG9019297neurosurgeon of the centuryJ descri(ed the relationship (etween the pituitary tumor and seDual infantilism 6"ushing Disease7$

! 190G0192-K Charles (cott (herrington 61B530195-7neurophysiologistJ elucidated the functions of the (rain and spinal cordafferent ener,ations of striated musclesJ disco,erer of the propriocepti,e systemJ decelerate rigidityJ significance of symptoms in refleD acti,ity 6=o(el #ri.e 192- with Henry Dale7$ ! 190BK Paul 1hrlichdisco,erer of the anti0pathogenic Arsphenamine 6Sal,arsan or G0G7 against the pathogen Trephonema pallida$ ! 191-K $ames errickpu(lished his classical description of acute myocardial infarction$

! 19-1K 3tto Loe)i 61B3207pro,ed the chemical transmission of ner,e impulsesthat the su(stance released (y sympathetic ner,es in the frog heart was adrenaline& which was rapidly destroyed (y cholinesterase 6=o(el #ri.e 192G7$

! 19-9K "le4ander -leming 6=o(el #ri.e with Howard %lorey7disco,ered Penicillium notatum mold which restricted a su(stance 6he and <rnest "hain called it 4penicillin57 which 1illed #taphylococci% #treptococci% Pneumococci in culture (ut not in 4)ram0negati,e5 (acteria$ ! 190:01923K 3tto Warbury 61BB207founder of the science of modern (iochemistry and physiologyJ disco,ered the iron0containing respiratory en.yme 6of ar(ury7J disco,ered the yellow en.ymesJ disco,ered nicotinamide as the acti,e group of hydrogen transferring en.ymesJ in,ented (iochemical manometry 6 ar(ury apparatus7 6=o(el #ri.e 19317$ ! 1923K "dolf /rebsdisco,erer of the 'ricarbo4ylic Cycle 6Are(!s cycle7a ma'or pathway for the oDidation of "ar(on compounds 6=o(el #ri.e 19527$ ! 192BK ,obert *roscredited with the ligation of patent ductus arteriosus$ ! 19::K "lfred .lalock and elen 'aussigde,eloped the surgical connection for tetralogy of %allot 4(lue (a(y$5 ! 19500195:K ans (elyede,eloped the concept of stress and the role of A"*H and adrenal steroids in the 4stress0response$5

! 1952K $ames Watson and -rancis Crickdescri(ed the 4dou(le heliD5 form of D=Atwo strands composed of sugar deoDyri(ose alternating with phosphate& round a(out each other in the shape of two0fold spiralJ (etween the nucleo(ases&& Adenine 6A7& *hymine 6*7& "ytosine 6"7& and )uanine 6)7 pro'ecting towards the middle li1e the rungs of a ladder& when A is always paired with *& and " with )& the transmission of genetic information was accomplished (y an unra,eling of strands of the dou(le heliD and their separation from each other& so that each one could ser,e as a stencil to eDact duplication 6replication7 of hereditary information$ Discoverers of Pathogens and "nti5Pathogens *imeline 1B31Armauer Hansen#athogenK &acillus leprae 1B39Al(ert =eisser'onococcus 6)onorrhea pathogen7 1BB0Aarl 8oseph <(erth#almonella typhosa 1BB0"harles Fa,eran Malarial parasite in (lood 1BB29o(ert AochAoch0 ee1s (acillus 1BB2%reidrich %ahleisen#treptococcus of erysipelas 1BB:Al(ert %raen1elPneumococcus as the cause of pneumonia 1BB:Arthur =i1olaier lostridium tetani 1BB:*heodore <scherich"scherichia coli 6causes loose0(owel mo,ement7 1B909o(ert Aoch00H*u(erculin 6Anti0#athogenic treatment7 1B9-<rnest ,on >ehring00HDiptheria and *etanus anti0toDins 6=o(el #ri.e 19017 190GAugust ,on asserman00H asserman test for syphilis 190B#aul <hrlich00HArspheramine 6Sal,arson or G0G7 19B5Fuc Montagnier L 9o(ert )alloHuman ?mmunodeficiency ;irus

6H?;7$ HAnti0Malarials 1G29=ati,e use@uininefrom (ush of hinchona o$$icinalis growing wild in South America$ 192:)erman patents@uinacrine 6Ata(rine7& also used in giardiasis& talmiasis& entero(iasis$ 1929)erman patents"hloroEuine& also used in eDtra0intestinal amoe(iasis HAnti0*> 19-:Al(ert "almette and "amille )uerin>") ,accine from li,ing a,irulent (o,ine tu(ercle (acilli 19::Selman a1sman#treptomycin from culture of #treptococcus griseus acti,e against *> 6=o(el #ri.e 195-7 19::<$ Merc1 6192G7& Merc1 619297 195:American "yanamid#yra.inamide 195BDistillers "o$& Ftd$?sonia.ide 19G0Sensi 619G3 Fepelit79ifamycins 19G1 il1imson<tham(utol HSulfonamides 192-)erhard Domag1 6=o(el #ri.e 19:57disco,ered anti(acterial action of red dye& #rontosil 1925*refouel& =itti& >o,etSulfanilamidethe acti,e portion of #rontosil H#enicillins& "ephalosporins 19-9AleDander %leming 6=o(el #ri.e 19:57 with Howard %loreydisco,ered Penicillium notatum mold which secreted a su(stance 6which he and <rnst "hain named 4penicillin57 which 1illed #taphilococci% #treptococci% Pneumococci in culture (ut not the gram negati,e (acteria

19:0Howard %lorey L <rnest "hain 6=o(el #ri.e 19:5 with AleDander %leming78uice of P. notatum 6o(tained from %leming7& grown on (rewer!s yeast and demonstrated effecti,e in infections in animalsJ cured patients with Staphylococcal and Streptococcal infections$ H#enicillin )$;$narrow spectrumJ Ampicillin& Amocycillin(road spectrum H*hey helped de,elop larger amounts for treating seriously ill patients e,en reco,ering the drug at first from the urine of patients gi,en the drug$ H19:B >rot.uAnti0#seudomonal #enicillins& "ephalosporins first eDtracted from . acremonium& isolated from sea water near sewer outlet off Sardinian coast$ HDeri,ati,es and "ongeners %irst generation Second generationmost potent against gram negati,e microorganism *hird generationanti0pseudomonal

H>road0Spectrum Anti(iotics 19:3>ur1holder& >ant. 619:B7"hlorampenicol " from #treptomyceae (ene)uelae 1950+Dytetracyclenes from #. aureo$aciens 195-*etracyclenesemi0synthetic 19G0DoDycyclenesemi0synthetic HAminoglycosides 19:2Selman 19:9Selman HMacrolide Anti(iotics 195-Mac)uire<rythromycin " from #. erythrous from #hilippine soil HAntifungal 192G+Dford& et$ al$)riseoful,in from #enicillin HAnti0;iral Agent 19G:Amantadinesynthetic drug inhi(its influen.a A ,irus Acyclo,ir for Herpes simpleD *ype ?? 9etro,iral drugs H#oliomyelitis ;accines 195:8onas <dward Sal1,accine against paralytic polio 1955Al(ert >ruce Sa(inoral polio ,accine a1smanStreptomycin from #. griseus a1sman=eomycin from #. $radial

Promulgations on

ealth Care and 3ther 6ssues and Developments

1950under <Decuti,e +rder 6<+7 =o$ 9:& #resident Manuel A$ 9oDas esta(lished the ?nstitute of =utrition 6?=7$ ?n 1951& #resident <lpidio @uirino transferred it to the Department of Health$ ?n 195B& with the organi.ation of the =ational Science De,elopment >oard& #resident "arlos #$ )arcia transferred the ?= to =SD>!s =ational ?nstitute of Science and *echnology 6=?S*7 and renamed %ood and =utrition 9esearch "enter 6%=9"7$ %inally in 1935& with the eDpansion of =SD> into the =ational Science and *echnology Authority 6=S*A7& %=9" (ecame the full0pledged ?nstitute& the %=9?$ 8une 19G2*hrough 9A 23-0& >ureau of %ood and Drugs Administration 6>%AD7 was esta(lished$ 9epu(lic Act 69A7 =o$ G111Medical "are #rogram of the #hilippines was implemented intending to pro,ide medical care (enefits to all residents of the country and pro,ide the people with the means to pay for their own medical care$ As implemented in the program& it included only the employed sector and their dependents and pro,ided only -0 to 20N of the hospitali.ation eDpenses of its mem(ers$ +ne of its principal defects that led to o,er utili.ation was the lac1 of outpatient co,erage$ *his 9A& passed during the early years of Marcos

Martial Faw period would later (e replaced (y the #hilippine Health ?nsurance of 1995 6=ational Health ?nsurance Act of 1995 replacing the =ational Health ?nsurance Act of 19G97$ #MA +fficial #rofessional %ee )uideline of 193Gthe response to the clamor for transparency and a rationali.ation of doctor!s feesJ the result of the report of the committee on professional fee guidelines for doctors 6committee headed (y Dr$ Artemio "a(rera of 8ose 9eyes Memorial Hospital7$ =o,em(er 9& 1931*he 9eha(ilitation "enter for Drug Addiction was set up in *aguig&& Metro Manila$ =o,em(er 1:& 193-*he Dangerous Drugs >oard was created to deal with cases of drug addiction and a(use$ #hilippine Drug <nforcement Administration 6#D<A7 is presently gi,en the police power to arrest& impound& seEuester any prohi(ited drug acti,ities in the country$ 1932?n the area of alternati,e medicine& acupuncture (ecame widely pu(lici.ed and practiced$ Dr$ Helen A(undo& a cardiologist& Dr$ ilhelmina A$ +choa& an internist and Dr$ Filia #alanca were among the leading eDponents$ *his led to the organi.ation of the an association of acupuncturists and official recognition (y the Department of Health$ %e(ruary 1:& 1935esta(lishment of the #hilippine Heart "enter of the #hilippines with Dr$ A,elino A,entura& Army cardiac surgeon& as director$ 1939Lungsod ng *abataan 6now the #hilippine "hildren!s Medical "enter7 was put up in @ue.on "ity$ 19B2*he =ational Aidney "enter and *ransplant ?nstitute was (uilt to (e followed (y the Fung "enter of the #hilippines& also in @ue.on "ity$ April 12& 19B3through <Decuti,e +rder 6<$+$7 =o$ 119J the Ministry of Health (ecame the Department of Health with Dr$ Alfredo 9$ A$ >eng.on as the first secretary$ 19BB9A GG35otherwise 1nown as the )enerics ActOFaw of 19BB was passed (ut a rapidly increasing generics drug sector has de,eloped with o,er -00 drug manufacturers and importers& mostly small& allowed (y the >%AD to enter this (urgeoning mar1et$ ith an undermined regulatory agency& the situation is difficult to control and police and is now posing a great threat to the assurance of Euality in the pharmaceutical and medical sector of the country& to the eDtent that& despite go,ernment!s strong policy to 4go generics5 to lower cost& many physicians refuse& under threat of arrest & to prescri(e generics$ ?t is a 1nown fact that giant multinational drug companies finance the o,erseas tra,els of doctors 6some are connected to /#0#)H7 as long as these doctors continue to prescri(e eDpensi,e and (randed drugs e,en if cheaper& alternati,e drugs are a,aila(le$ ?t was only in 1999 that )eneric #harmacies (egan to offer cheaper drugs especially to the poor sectors of #hilippine society$ +cto(er 10& 19919A 31G0& also 1nown as the Focal )o,ernment "ode& the Department of Health de,ol,ed some of its powersamong which was the super,ision of health ser,ices in the pro,incial& city and municipal le,elsto the local go,ernment units$ 1995*hrough 9epu(lic Act 69$A$7 =o$ 3B35& the Medicare was superseded (y the

=ational Health ?nsurance Act while the #hilippine Medical "are "ommission was replaced (y the #hilippine Health ?nsurance "orporation 6#hil Health7$ 9A 3205Magna "arta for #u(lic Health or1ers

#olicies that deal with %amily #lanning 8uly --& 193:=ational 9esearch Act resulting in a 1939 >elmont 9eport dealing withK 17 9espect for autonomy of a person -7 >eneficiaries 27 8ustice 9A G2G5"reated #opulation "ommission #D =o$ 39also 1nown as the 9eproducti,e Health Act of -00: Senate >ills =o$ 1-B1& 1B1G1nown as %amily Fife <ducation Act House >ill =o$ 15:Gon 9eproducti,e Health& sponsored (y "ongressman <dcel Fagman dealing withK 9eproducti,e 9ight& 9eproducti,e Health& 9eproducti,e Health "are& Male ?n,ol,ement and "i,il Society$ >ecame law (y Decem(er -01"ong$ Fagman claims thatK 17 ?t is not anti0life -7 Does not interfere with family life 27 Does not legali.e a(ortion :7 "ontracepti,es do not ha,e life0threatening side effects 57 *he (ill will not promote contracepti,e mentality G7 *he (ill does not impose a two0child policy 37 SeD education will not spawn a generation of seD maniacsO(reed a culture of promiscuity B7 Does not claim that family planning is the panacea of po,erty 97 %amily planning will not lead to demographic winter 107 Humanae vitae is not an infalli(le doctrine *hose who oppose claim thatK 17 ?t is a flawed premise -7 ?t is unnecessary 27 /nconstitutional :7 +ppressi,e of religious (elief 57 Destructi,e of pu(lic morals hat is left out in the deli(eration is the opinionO,oice of those directly affected (y the 9eproducti,e Health >ill& the child0(earing women$