Modeling and Simulation of DC/DC Converters Based on

Double-loop Control
Liu Jun
1
Yang Ping
2
Lin Xucheng
3
Zhou Shaoxiong
4

Abstract–The closed-loop control circuit of full-bridge
DC/DC converter for wind power generation is designed in
this article !irst of all" the small-signal model of full-bridge
DC/DC converter is established" and then with the help of
automatic control theor# and Matlab software" the control
parameters are set to derive the mathematic model of high-
power full-bridge DC/DC converters with closed-loop
control $n the end" the whole s#stem is simulated with %spice
software" and the results showed that the whole simulation
model of design according to the small-signal voltage scheme
is feasible and double closed-loop control technolog# can
obviousl# improve the d#namic characteristics and the
stabilit# of the s#stem
&e#words–Small-signal model" double closed-loop control
strateg#" compensation networ'" pspice simulation
I. INTRODUCTION
ecau!e o" #he $an%o&ne!! o" ai$ "'o() #he e'ec#$ici#*
gene$a#e% +* (in% ,o(e$ u!ua''* ha! in!#a+'e "$e-uenc*
an% 'a$ge "'uc#uan# a&,'i#u%e) #he$e"o$e) i# i! nece!!a$* #o
%e!ign an a,,$o,$ia#e .o'#age $egu'a#e% %e.ice!. The "u''/
+$i%ge DC0DC con.e$#e$ ci$cui# i! a 1in% o" ,o(e$
#$an!"o$&a#ion %e.ice! a,,'ica+'e #o high DC .o'#age an%
'a$ge ,o(e$ ou#,u#) (hich a$e (i%e'* u!e% in #he (in%
,o(e$. Thi! ,a,e$ %e!ign! a !ui#a+'e "u''/+$i%ge DC0DC
con.e$#e$ (i#h %ou+'e/c'o!e% 'oo, con#$o' "o$ (in% ,o(e$.
2i$!#) %e!ign #he %ou+'e c'o!e%/'oo, con#$o' !*!#e& o" #he
"u''/+$i%ge DC0DC con.e$#e$ +a!e% on #he !&a''/!igna'
&o%e') an% ana'*3e #he ,e$"o$&ance o" #he !*!#e& (i#h
!i&u'a#ion !o"#(a$e) an% #he 4na'*!i! ,$o.e% #ha# %ou+'e/
c'o!e% 'oo, con#$o' !*!#e& can !igni"ican#'* i&,$o.e #he
%*na&ic ,e$"o$&ance an% ou#,u# accu$ac*.
II. T56 RID76 DC0DC CON86RT6R SYST69 STRUCTUR6
4ND R6L4T6D P4R496T6RS
The "u''/+$i%ge DC0DC con.e$#e$ !*!#e& !#$uc#u$e i!
!ho(n in 2ig. 1. The in,u# !i%e i! #h$ee/,ha!e ac gene$a#e%
+* (in% ,o(e$ (hich "$e-uenc* an% a&,'i#u%e a$e
changing. The ou#,u# !i%e ge# !#a+'e %c a"#e$ #h$ough
uncon#$o''e% $ec#i"ie$) "u''/+$i%ge con.e$#e$) T$an!"o$&e$)
#he !econ% !i%e +$i%ge "u''/+$i%ge $ec#i"ica#ion) LC
"i'#e$ing. Con!i%e$ing #he !*!#e& o" #he 1:;< ,o(e$
$a#ing) !(i#ch #u+e choo!e I7T no# 9OS26T. The $ea!on
#ha# #he ou#,u# $ec#i"ie$ o" #$an!"o$&e$ !i%e choo!e! "u''/
+$i%ge $ec#i"*ing #o,o'og* a'!o +a!e% on #he con!i%e$a#ion
o" ,o(e$ $a#ing.
Ci$cui# ,a$a&e#e$!= in,u# .o'#age 2::>3?:84C) #he
(o$1ing "$e-uenc*
2: 53
s
f k ·
) #he ou#,u# .o'#age
11:8
out
V ·
) #$an!"o$&a#ion $a#ion o" #$an!"o$&e$ n@A02)
ou#,u# "i'#e$ing in%uc#ance!
12: 5 L µ ·
) ou#,u# "i'#e$
ca,aci#ance
12:: 5 C µ ·
) 'oa% $e!i!#ance 2:: R · Ω) !e$$a#e%
,ea1 .o'#age o" P<9 co&,a$a#o$
2.B8
M
V ·
) !a&,'ing
$e!i!#ance :.:1 Rs · Ω.

2ig. 1= The !*!#e& !#$uc#u$e o" "u''/+$i%ge DC0DC con.e$#e$
III. T56 S94LL/SI7N4L 94T5694TIC4L 9OD6L O2 DC0DC
CON86RT6R 4S6D ON ST4T6 SP4C6 486R476 96T5OD
The !#a#e !,ace a.e$age &e#ho% i! +a!e% on #he e-ua#ion
o" !#a#e #$an!%uce$!. The %*na&ic !&a''/!igna'
&a#he&a#ica' &o%e' o" con.e$#e$ i! go# a"#e$ #h$ough
.a$ia+'e! a.e$ageC !e,a$a#ion %i!#u$+anceC'inea$i3a#ion.
The e!!ence o" #hi! &e#ho% i! #i&e a.e$age) an% i#!
,u$,o!e i! #o !(i#ch #he con.e$#e$ ci$cui# "$o& a #i&e/
.a$*ing ci$cui# in#o a #i&e/un.a$*ing ci$cui#. The$e"o$e)
%u$ing #he ana'*!i! o" !&a''/!igna' &o%e' ci$cui#) #he
ci$cui# can +e !een a! 'oca' 'inea$i3a#ion) !o #he &a#u$e
'inea$ ci$cui# #heo$* can +e a,,'ie% #o #he !&a''/!igna'
ana'*!i! DEF.
Ta1e in%uc#ance cu$$en# G H
L
i t an% ca,aci#ance .o'#age
G H
C
u t a! !#a#e .a$ia+'e!) (hich a$e co&,o!e% in#o #he #(o/
%i&en!iona' !#a#e .ec#o$ xG#H @D G H) G HF
T
L C
i t u t . Ta1e #he
in,u# .o'#age
G H
g
u t
a! in,u# .a$ia+'e!) (hich a$e
co&,o!e% in#o #he one/%i&en!iona' in,u# .ec#o$
G H D G HF
g
u t u t ·
. Ta1e #he ou#,u# cu$$en# an% .o'#age o" #he
con.e$#e$ a! ou#,u# .a$ia+'e!) (hich a$e co&,o!e% in#o #he
#(o/%i&en!iona' ou#,u# .ec#o$ G H D G H) G HF
T
g C
y t i t u t · .
1 1
1 1
:
G H
G H
G H G H G H G H
1 1
G H
G H
:
G H G H :
G H G H G H G H
G H : G H
L
L
g
C
C
g L
g
C C
n
i t
i t
x t A x t B u t u t L
u t
u t
C RC
i t i t
y t C x t E u t u t
u t u t



¹ 1
1 1
¹ 1 1
1 1
1 · + · · + ¹ 1 1
¸ ]
1 1
¸ ] ¹ 1
1
¸ ] ¸ ]
'
¸ ]
¹
1 1 1 1 ¹
1 · + · · +
1 1 1 1 ¹ ¸ ]
¸ ] ¸ ] ¸ ] ¸ ] ¹
- 1/ L
-
1 0
0 1
G1H
2 2
2 2
:
G H
G H :
G H G H G H G H
1 1
G H :
G H
G H G H : :
G H G H G H G H
G H : G H
L
L
g
C
C
g L
g
C C
i t
i t
x t A x t B u t u t
u t
u t
C RC
i t i t
y t C x t E u t u t
u t u t



1
1
1 1 1
1
1 · + · · +
1 1 1 ¸ ]
1
¸ ] ¸ ] 1
1
¸ ]
¸ ]
1 1 1 1
1 · + · · +
1 1 1 1 ¸ ]
¸ ] ¸
¹
¹
¹
]
¹
¸ ] ¸ ]
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
- 1/ L
-
0
0 1
G2H
2o$ #he "u''/+$i%ge DC0DC con.e$#e$) #he$e a$e #(o 1in%!
o" !#a#e in a !(i#ching c*c'e. The !#a#e e-ua#ion o"
con%uc#ion !#age can +e !een "$o& e-ua#ion G1H) an% #he
!#a#e e-ua#ion o" c'o!ing !#age can +e !een "$o& e-ua#ion
G2H. 6ach .a$ia+'e can +e !e,a$a#e% in#o !#ea%*/!#a#e
co&,onen# an% %i!#u$+ance co&,onen#. 4! !ho(n in
e-ua#ion G3H.
G H G H G H
G H G H
G H G H D G H) G HF
G H G H D G H) G HF
g g g
T
g g C C
T
L C C
u t u t U u t
d t D d t
y t Y y t I i t U u t
x t X x t I i t U u t
Λ
Λ
Λ Λ Λ
Λ Λ Λ
¹
· · +
¹
¹
¹
· +
¹
'
¹
· + · + +
¹
¹
· + · + +
¹
¹
G3H
The !&a''/!igna' e-ui.a'en# &o%e' o" #he i%ea' "u''/+$i%ge
DC0DC con.e$#e$ i! !ho(n in 2ig. 2.
2ig. 2= S&a''/!igna' e-ui.a'en# &o%e' o" "u''/+$i%ge DC0DC
con.e$#e$
4cco$%ing #o #he !&a''/!igna' &o%e') (e ge# #he o,en/'oo,
#$an!"e$ "unc#ion o" DC0DC con.e$#e$ ci$cui#. T$an!"e$
"unc#ion +e#(een %i!#u$+ance -uan#i#* o" ou#,u# .o'#age
an% %i!#u$+ance -uan#i#* o" %u#* c*c'e i! !ho(n in
e-ua#ion G4H.
2
G H
1
G H
G H
G H
0 1
g
C
u s
g
vd
U
u s
s L
G s
n
d t
C sL R
Λ
Λ
Λ
+
· · ×
+
G4H
T$an!"e$ "unc#ion +e#(een %i!#u$+ance -uan#i#* o" ou#,u#
.o'#age an% %i!#u$+ance -uan#i#* o" in,u# .o'#age i! !ho(n
in e-ua#ion GBH.
2
I
G H :
I G H 1
G H
I G H 1
o
vg
g
d s
v s D
G s
v s n LCs Ls R
·
· · ×
+ +
GBH
I8. CORR6CTION 4ND DOUL6/LOOP D6SI7N
A. Syst! "n"#ysis $it%out &o''&tion nt$o'k
4cco$%ing #o #he e-ui.a'en# !&a''/!igna' &o%e' o" DC0DC
con.e$#e$ ci$cui#) (e (i'' ge# #he !*!#e& o,en/'oo, #$an!"e$
"unc#ion (hich i! !ho(n in e-ua#ion GEH a"#e$ #he
,a$a&e#e$! (e$e ,u# in#o i#.
3
2
3 3
1B.4G1 H
1
J 1:
G H G H
G H 1
2.E 1: 2.E 1: E32
vd
M
s
G s G s
s s
V
+
×
· × ·
+ +
× × ×
GEH
The a&,'i#u%e/"$e-uenc* cha$ac#e$i!#ic! cu$.e o" #he
!*!#e& (i#hou# co&,en!a#ion ci$cui# can +e go# +* #he
#$an!"e$ "unc#ion. 4! i! !ho(n in 2ig. 3) (e can !ee #ha# #he
!*!#e& c$o!!ing "$e-uenc* i! :.:1B53) an% ,ha!e &a$gin i!
J.J?KDEF. O+.iou!'*) #he ,ha!e &a$gin o" #hi! !*!#e& i! no#
enough an% o.e$!hoo# i! .e$* +ig. The o,en 'oo, gain i!
#oo 'o() !o #he !*!#e& can no# &ee# #he $e-ui$e&en#! o"
!#ea%*/!#a#e accu$ac*.
-100
-50
0
50
100
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
-180
-90
0
90
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/sec)
2ig. 3= o%e %iag$a& (i#hou# co&,en!a#ion ne#(o$1!
B. Dsign of &o''&tion nt$o'k $it% dou(#)#oo* &ont'o#
Dou+'e/'oo, con#$o' #a1e #he .o'#age "ee%+ac1 'oo, a! #he
ou#e$ 'oo,) an% #a1e #he cu$$en# "ee%+ac1 'oo, a! #he inne$
'oo,. Sa&,'e #he ou#,u# cu$$en#) #u$n i# in#o a .o'#age
!igna' an% #hen !en% #he .o'#age !igna' #o nega#i.e ,ha!e
in,u# o" #he "i$!# o,e$a#iona' a&,'i"ie$ (hich (i'' +e
co&,a$e% (i#h no$&a' $e"e$ence .o'#age o" #he ,o!i#i.e
,ha!e. The ou#,u# e$$o$ (i'' +e !en# #o ,o!i#i.e ,ha!e o"
#he !econ%/c'a!! o,e$a#iona' a&,'i"ie$! a! a $e"e$ence
.o'#age) (hich (i'' +e co&,a$e% (i#h #he ou#,u# !a&,'ing
.o'#age !igna' o" nega#i.e ,ha!e in,u#. The "ina' ou#,u#
(i'' +e !en# #o P<9 co&,a$a#o$ "o$ co&,a$i!on (i#h #he
#$iangu'a$ (a.e (he$e #he ,u'!e (i#h changing %u#* c*c'e
(i'' +e go#. Dou+'e/'oo, con#$o' !*!#e& +'oc1 %iag$a& i!
!ho(n in 2ig. 4.
2ig. 4= The !*!#e& !#$uc#u$e %iag$a& (i#h %ou+'e/'oo, con#$o'
In #he %iag$a&) H Gs G
u&
i! #he #$an!"e$ "unc#ion o"
.o'#age co&,en!a#ion ne#(o$1L H Gs G
i&
i! #he #$an!"e$
"unc#ion o" cu$$en# co&,en!a#ion ne#(o$1L
s
R i! #he
!a&,'ing $e!i!#o$ o" cu$$en# 'oo,L H Gs + i! #he #$an!"e$
"unc#ion o" .o'#age 'oo, !a&,'ing ne#(o$1L H Gs , i! #he
'oa% i&,e%ance o" cu$$en# 'oo,L
M
G i! #he #$an!"e$
"unc#ion o" P<9 ,u'!e (i%#h &o%u'a#o$.
C. Dsign of &u''nt inn' #oo* &o''&tion
In o$%e$ #o o+#ain #he e-ui.a'en# ci$cui# o" cu$$en# 'oo,) i#
i! a!!u&e% #ha# #he %i!#u$+ance o" #he .o'u&e o" ou#,u#
.o'#age i! 3e$o) an% #he ou#,u# .o'#age %i!#u$+ance o"
.o'#age con#$o''e$ i! a'!o 3e$o) an%
s
R i! .e$* !&a'') !o
un%e$ #he con%i#ion! o" a+o.e/&en#ione% a!!u&,#ion) #he
e-ui.a'en# ci$cui# o" cu$$en# con#$o' 'oo, can +e o+#aine%)
a! !ho(n in 2ig. B.
2ig.B= 6-ui.a'en# ci$cui# o" cu$$en# con#$o' 'oo,
Thu! #he #$an!"e$ "unc#ion o" inne$ cu$$en# con#$o' o+Mec# i!
!ho(n in e-ua#ion GAH.
&ax 1
G H
g s
RS
i
M
CA
V R
v
G s
n sLV
v
Λ
Λ
· · × GAH
4"#e$ #he $e'e.an# %a#a a$e !u+!#i#u#e% in#o e-ua#ion GAH)
e-ua#ion G?H (i'' +e o+#aine%. Cu$$en# "ee%+ac1 #a1e! u!e
o" co&,en!a#ion ci$cui# (i#h !ing'e/3e$o ,oin# an% !igna'/
,o'e ,oin#. <i#h #he ai% o" 9a#'a+) #$an!"e$ "unc#ion o"
co&,en!a#ion ci$cui# can +e o+#aine%) a! i! !ho(n in
e-ua#ion GJH.
s
s G
i
E
1: E:
1
H G

×
· G?H
14
G H AE3BE
G1 H
12B
i&
s
k
G s
s
s
k
· ×
+
GJH
D. Dsign of vo#t"g out' #oo* &o''&tion
<e #a1e #he cu$$en# 'oo, a! #he con#$o' o+Mec# o" .o'#age
con#$o' 'oo,. 4cco$%ing #o #he !#$uc#u$e %iag$a& o"
%ou+'e/'oo, con#$o' !*!#e&) #he #$an!"e$ "unc#ion o" #he
cu$$en# 'oo, (i'' +e o+#aine%) a! i! !ho(n in e-ua#ion G1:H.
G H s φ @
G HD1 G HF
1 G H G H
L
M id i&
M id i& s
&*
G G s G s i
G G s G s R
v


+
·
+
G1:H
ecau!e o" #he exi!#ence o" ou#,u# "i'#e$ ca,aci#o$
e-ui.a'en# $e!i!#ance) (e #a1e cu$$en# 'oo, an% e-ui.a'en#
'oa% i&,e%ance o" cu$$en# 'oo, a! #he .o'#age con#$o' 'oo,
o+Mec#) an% #hu! #he e-ui.a'en# #$an!"e$ "unc#ion i! !ho(n
in e-ua#ion G11H.
2
1
G H G H
G1 HD1 G H F
-
s
* *i *i
s
$ R
G s , s
s s s
R
$ $ $
φ
+
· × · ×
+ + +
G11H
In #he e-ua#ion G11H) Rc i! 1.Boh&L
*
$
i! 4.1Ra%0!L
-
$ i!
BBBRa%0!L
*i
$
i! E2B::Ra%0!. 8o'#age "ee%+ac1 #a1e! u!e
o" co&,en!a#ion ci$cui# (i#h %ou+'e/3e$o ,oin# an%
%ou+'e/,o'e ,oin#) an% (i#h #he ai% o" 9a#'a+ #$an!"e$
"unc#ion o" co&,en!a#ion ci$cui# i! o+#aine% in e-ua#ion
G12H.
G1 HG1 H
4.1 E2.?
G H 1EB.2A
G1 HG1 H
BB: 12E
u&
s s
k
G s
s s
s
k
+ +
· ×
+ +
G12H
The o,en/'oo, +o%e %iag$a& (hich ha.e +een
co&,en!a#e% (i#h %ou+'e/'oo, con#$o' ci$cui# i! !ho(n in
2ig. E. 2$o& #he %iag$a& (e can !ee #ha# c$o!!ing
"$e-uenc* o" #he !*!#e& i! 4 153) an% #he ,ha!e &a$gin i!
ABK. 4# 'o(/"$e-uenc* +an%) #he %e!cen%ing !'o,e o" #he
a&,'i#u%e/"$e-uenc* cha$ac#e$i!#ic cu$.e i! /2:%0%ec)
an% #he !#a#ic e$$o$ o" !*!#e& i! 3e$o. 4# &i%%'e/"$e-uenc*
+an%) #he %e!cen%ing !'o,e o" #he a&,'i#u%e/"$e-uenc*
cha$ac#e$i!#ic cu$.e i! /2:%0%ec) an% #he !*!#e& ha!
enough ,ha!e &a$gin) !o .o'#age con#$o' 'oo, &u!# +e
!#a+'e. 4# high/"$e-uenc* +an%) #he %e!cen%ing !'o,e o"
#he a&,'i#u%e/"$e-uenc* cha$ac#e$i!#ic cu$.e i! /4:%0%ec)
#he !*!#e& ha! a !#$ong an#i/in#e$"e$ence a+i'i#*. The$e"o$e)
#he !*!#e& (i#h %ou+'e/'oo, co$$ec#ion can no# on'*
en!u$e #he !#a+i'i#* o" #he (o$1) +u# a'!o #o achie.e goo%
%*na&ic $e!,on!e.
-100
-50
0
50
100
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
-270
-225
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
Bode Diagram
Frequency (Hz)
2ig.E= o%e %iag$a& (i#h %ou+'e/'oo, co&,en!a#ion ne#(o$1
8. SI9UL4TION O2 SYST69 <IT5 DOUL6/LOOP
CO9P6NS4TION N6T<OR;
Un%e$ #he he', o" P!,ice !i&u'a#ion !o"#(a$e) (e +ui'% #he
!*!#e& !i&u'a#ion ci$cui# (i#h a+o.e/&en#ione% %ou+'e/
'oo, con#$o' ci$cui#) an% in o$%e$ #o ana'*3e #he #$an!ien#
an% 4C !&a''/!igna' cha$ac#e$i!#ic! o" !*!#e& (e a%% a
!(i#ch #o !(i#ch #he !i&u'a#ion ci$cui#. <hen #he in,u#
.o'#age change! "$o& 42B8 #o 4B:8) #he ou#,u# .o'#age
can en#e$ #he !#ea%* !#a#e in :.B&! again) (hich .e$i"* #he
!*!#e& ha! a goo% a+i'i#* o" an#i/in,u# .o'#age %i!#u$+ance.
The !i&u'a#ion (a.e"o$& i! !ho(n in 2ig. A. <hen #he
'oa% i&,e%ance change! !u%%en'*) #han1! #o #he $o'e o"
%ou+'e/'oo, ci$cui#) #he ou#,u# .o'#age ha! on'* a
$e'a#i.e'* !&a'' o.e$!hoo#) (hich !ho( #ha# #he !*!#e& ha!
a goo% a+i'i#* o" an#i/'oa% %i!#u$+ance. The !i&u'a#ion
(a.e"o$& i! !ho(n in 2ig. ?.
2$o& #he co&,u#e$ !i&u'a#ion $e!u'#!) (e can !ee #ha# #he
!*!#e& con#$o''e$ in acco$%ance (i#h #he %e!ign o" !&a''/
!igna' &a#he&a#ica' &o%e' ha! goo% %*na&ic
,e$"o$&ance) an#i/in,u# .o'#age an% an#i/'oa% %i!#u$+ance
,e$"o$&ance) (hich ,$o.e! #he $ea!ona+'ene!! o" #he
!&a''/!igna' &a#he&a#ica' &o%e'.
2ig.A= 4n#i/in,u# .o'#age %i!#u$+ance
2ig.?= 4n#i/'oa% %i!#u$+ance
8I. CONCLUSION
In #he ,a,e$) (e #oo1 u!e o" !#a#e/!,ace a.e$aging &e#ho%
#o e!#a+'i!h #he !&a''/!igna' &a#he&a#ica' &o%e' o" "u''/
+$i%ge DC0DC !(i#ching con.e$#e$) an% %e$i.e% #he
!*!#e& #$an!"e$ "unc#ion (i#h #he ai% o" !&a''/!igna'
&a#he&a#ica' &o%e'. On #hi! +a!i!) (e %e!igne% #he
%ou+'e/'oo, con#$o' !*!#e&!) an% ga.e "u'' con!i%e$a#ion
#o a .a$ie#* o" "ac#o$! #ha# gi.e i&,ac# on !*!#e& %*na&ic
,e$"o$&ance +o#h inne$ 'oo, an% ou#e$ 'oo, (hen (e
!e'ec#e% #he co&,en!a#ion ne#(o$1. 4# #he !a&e #i&e) (e
no#ice% #he high/"$e-uenc* in#e$"e$ence o" !(i#ch
#$an!"o$&a#ion !*!#e&.
<i#h #he he', o" 9a#'a+ !o"#(a$e (e %$e( #he a&,'i#u%e/
"$e-uenc* cha$ac#e$i!#ic cu$.e o" !*!#e& an% ana'*3e% #he
e""ec# o" #he co&,en!a#ion ne#(o$1 #o i&,$o.e !*!#e&
,e$"o$&ance) an% "ina''* ex,e$i&en#a' $e!u'#! !ho( #ha#
!*!#e& %e!ign (i#h %ou+'e/'oo, con#$o' +a!e% on #he
!&a''/!igna' &a#he&a#ica' &o%e' i! $ea!ona+'e.
4C;NO<L6D796NT
No( I (i'' gi.e &* #han1! #o &* "$ien%!) 5u Chen'ong)
Liu Sheng$ong) Xiao Ying) Zheng 9ugui) Zhang Zhen)
Zhang Dong&ei) an% Zhou 7uo3hong. <hen I ($o#e #he
a$#ic'e) #he* a'' ga.e #hei$ he', #o &e) I $ea''* a,,$ecia#e
#he&. Than1 *ou.
R626R6NC6S
D1F Lei <eiMun) Shi JiaoMian an% Li YanMun. De!ign an%
i&,'e&en#a#ion o" #he &o%e' !i&u'a#ion o" #he !econ%
,o(e$ !u,,'* in !a#e''i#e. DCF4I44) BA#h In#e$na#iona'
a!#$onau#ica' cong$e!!) 8a'encia) S,ain2::E.US4) 4I44=
B?3E/B?42.
D2F 9ichae' J Schu#en) Da.i% 4 To$$e*. I&,$o.e% !&a''/!igna'
ana'*!i! "o$ #he ,ha!e/!hi"#e% P<9 ,o(e$ con.e$#e$
DJF.I666 #$an!ac#ion! on Po(e$ 6'ec#$onic!) 2::3)
1?G2H=EBJ/EEJ.
D3F Zhang <ei,ing. The &o%e'ing an% con#$o' o" !(i#ch
con.e$#e$ D9F. eiMing) China e'ec#$ic ,o(e$ ,$e!!) 2::B
D4F 6%(in .an DiM1) 5e$&an J N S,$uiM#. P<9/!(i#ch
&o%e'ing o" %c%c con.e$#e$ DJF.I666 T$an!. On Po(e$
6'ec#$onic! GS:??B/?JJ3H) 1JJB) 1:GEH=EBJ/EEB.
DBF Tang <) Lee 2C) Ri%'e*) R . S&a''/!igna' 9o%e'ing o"
4.e$age Cu$$en#/&o%e Con#$o' DJF.I666 T$an!. on Po(e$
6'ec#$onic!) 1JJ3) ?G2H=112/11J.
DEF <u Xiao*an) Zhang Shuangxuan. 4,,'ica#ion o" 94TL4
in au#o&a#ic con#$o' D9F Xian) Xian uni.e$!i#* o" e'ec#$onic
!cience N#echno'og* ,$e!!) 2::E
DAF 9ichae' J Schu##en) Da.i% 4 To$$e*. I&,$o.e% !&a''/!igna'
ana'*!i! "o$ #he ,ha!e/!hi"#e% P<9 ,o(e$ con.e$#e$
DJF.I666 T$an!. on Po(e$ 6'ec#$onic!) 2::3) 1?G2H=EBJ/EEJ.
IO7R4P5I6S
Liu Jun i! !#u%*ing in !choo' o" e'ec#$ic
,o(e$) !ou#h China uni.e$!i#* o"
#echno'og*)an% he i! a'!o a &e&+e$ o"
7uang%ong 1e* 'a+o$a#o$* o" c'ean ene$g*
#echno'og*.
5e i! no( $e!ea$ching #he high/,o(e$ (in%
,o(e$ con#$o''e$ an% g$een ene$g* i! #he
"ocu! o" hi! $e!ea$ch
5i! $e!ea$ch in#e$e!#! a$e a'' a!,ec#! o" ,o(e$
e'ec#$onic!.

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