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equivalent bulk material surface (see figure 1a) hc height of the vertical silo shaft, measured from the hopper junction up to the equivalent bulk material surface (see figure 1a) hh height of the hopper measured from the envisaged hopper top up to the hopper junction ho distance between the equivalent bulk material surface and the lowest point at the base of the bulk material cone (at the lowermost point of the silo wall which is not in contact with the stored bulk material when the latter has been filled to the specified extent)(see fig 1, 13 and 17) htp total height of the back-filled cone at the bulk material surface (vertical distance from the lowest point of the silo wall up to the tip of filled-up cone when the bulk material, which is filled to the specified extent, is not in contact with the silo wall)(see figures 1a and 17) n p ph phae parameters in the conditional equations of the hopper loads load as force per unit area horizontal load from the stored bulk material (see figure 1c) horizontal load in the area where the bulk material is at rest next to the flow channel, during a discharge with large eccentricities phce horizontal load in the flow channel during a discharge with large eccentricities

31

u pho phse horizontal load during discharge horizontal load during discharge and use of the simplified calculating method horizontal load after the filling horizontal loads after the filling at the lower end of the vertical shaft horizontal loads after the filling using the simplified calculating material asymptomatic horizontal loads at a great depth from the stored bulk material horizontal loads in the bulk material (which is in a state of rest) at a great distance from the flow channel during a discharge with large eccentricities phT pn increase of horizontal loads as a result of temperature differences or changes loads from the stored bulk material. that are perpendicular to the hopper walls (see figure 1c) pne pnf pp loads during discharge that are perpendicular l to the hopper walls loads after the fill that are perpendicular to the hopper walls reference surface loads ppe basic value of the reference surface loads during discharge 32 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 phco asymptomatic horizontal load at a great depth in the flow channel during a discharge with large eccentricities phe phe.u phf phfb phf.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ppei complementary reference surface loads during discharge ppe.nc strip shaped reference surface load for silos with non-circular cross-sections during discharge ppf ppfi basic value of the reference surface loads after the filling complementary reference surface loads after the filling ppe.nc strip shaped reference surface load for silos with non-circular cross-sections after the filling ppes reference surface load at the cylinder ordinate θ for thin walled circular silos during discharge ppfs reference surface load at the cylinder ordinate θ for thin walled circular silos after the filling pt pte ptf pv pvb pvf friction load in the hopper (see figure 1c) friction load in the hopper during discharge friction load in the hopper after the fill vertical load in the bulk material (see figure 1c) vertical load at the bottom of a low silo vertical load in the bulk material after the filling 33 .

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 pvft pvho vertical load at the hopper junction after the filling (foot of the vertical silo shaft) vertical load at the foot of the filled cone at the bulk material surface according to equation (86) and with the bulk material depth being z = ho pvsq pvtp pw vertical load on the horizontal bottom of a low silo or a silo of medium slimness geostatic vertical load at the foot of the filled cone at the bulk material surface wall friction load along the vertical wall (shear force per unit area due to friction) (see figure 1c) pwae wall friction loads in the bulk material which is in a state of rest right next to the flow channel during the discharge with large eccentricities (at the transition from stationary to flowing bulk material) pwce pwe pwe.u pwf pwf.5dc) 34 .u pwse wall friction loads in the flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities wall friction loads during discharge wall friction loads during discharge using the simplified calculation method wall friction loads after the filling wall friction loads after the filling using the simplified calculation method wall friction loads in the bulk material which is at rest at a large distance from the flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities r equivalent silo radius (r = 0.

2dc) t x z thickness of the silo wall vertical coordinate in the hopper with origin in the hopper peak (see figure 16) depth beneath the equivalent bulk material surface in the filled state (see figure 1a) zo zoc characteristic depth according to the theory of Janssen characteristic depth according to the theory of Janssen for the flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities zp depth of the mid-point of the reference surface load beneath the equivalent bulk material surface in a thin-walled silo zs depth beneath the highest point of contact between the bulk material and the silo wall (see figures 13 and 14) zV unit of measurement of the depth for determining the vertical loads in low silos radius of the eccentric flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities dimensions of the area subject to the reference surface load (s = π dc /16 = 3.4 Greek letters.2.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 rc s 0. capital ∆ ∆ Horizontal displacement of the upper part of a shear bin Operator for incremental sizes (see symbols given below) 35 .

small α αw β Mean angle of inclination of the hopper walls with reference to the horizontal Coefficient of thermal elongation of the silo wall Angle of inclination of the hopper wall with ref.2.5 Greek letters.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ∆T ∆v ∆σ Temperature differences between the stored bulk material and the silo walls Incremental vertical displacements measured during the material examination Incremental stress placed upon a specimen during material examination 3. to the vertical (see figures 1a and 1b) or the angle of the steepest hopper walls in a quadratic or rectangular hopper γ Characteristic value for the specific gravity of the stored fluid or the stored bulk material γl γu Specific gravity of the bulk material in fluidized state Upper characteristic values of the specific gravity of the stored fluid or the stored bulk material δ θ θc Standard deviation of a parameter Cylindrical coordinate: angle in direction of the circumference Angle at circumference of the flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities (see figure 11) with ref to the central axis of the silo shaft 36 .

e.e.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ψ Wall contact angle of the eccentric flow channel with reference to the central axis of the flow channel µ µheff µh µm ν φc Characteristic value of the wall friction angle at the vertical silo wall Effective or mobilized wall friction coefficient in a flat hopper Wall friction coefficient in the hopper Mean value of the wall friction coefficients between bulk material and silo wall Poissons number for the bulk material Characteristic value of the angle of internal friction of a precompressed bulk material in case of relief (i. inclusive of the portion from cohesion) φi Characteristic value of the angle of internal friction of a bulk material in case of equivalent load (i. without the portion from cohesion) φim φr φw φwh σr Mean value of the angle of internal friction Angle of slope of a bulk material (conical bulk heap) (see figure 1a) Wall friction angle (arc tan µ) between bulk material and hopper wall Wall friction angle in the hopper (arc tan µh) between bulk material and hopper wall Reference stress for the tests for determination of the bulk material parameters 37 .

to quote an example. the influence of the fill and discharge eccentricities on the fill and discharge processes. the distribution of discharge pressures along the silo wall changes with time. An exact prediction of the prevailing mean pressure. this is to be done using a symmetric load component and an unsymmetric reference surface load. the influence of the silo shape and size on the type of the flow profile and those that are related to the time-dependant discharge and fill pressures are all to be taken into consideration NOTE 1 The magnitude and the distribution of the rated loads depend upon the silo structure.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 4 DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SILOS 4. In case of large eccentricities the loads are to be described using a pressure distribution curve. the properties of the stored bulk material and the flow profiles that arise during emptying of the silo.and discharge.eccentricities being marginal. (2) Ambiguities related to the flow profiles. Thus. The inherent differences in the properties of the different bulk materials that are stored and the simplifications in the load models lead to variations between the silo loads that actually appear and the design loads (calculated loads) according to sections 6 and 7. given the present level of knowledge.1 (1) Description of Actions in Silos The actions on silos are to be estimated with regard to the silo structure. the material parameters of the bulk materials and the flow profiles which build up during emptying. 38 . with fill. its divergence and its temporal variability is not possible. (3) Allowance should be made for loads on the vertical walls of the silo when it is filled and while it is emptying.

39 . c) by means of frictional loads pw and pt that act in the tangential direction of the wall. allowance has to be made for this through appropriate investigations (5) The symmetric loads on the silo walls are to be estimated as follows: a) by means of horizontal load components ph upon the inner surface of the vertical silo wall. (7) The unsymmetric loads on the vertical silo walls in case of large eccentricities during fill and discharge are to be additionally registered using a unsymmetric distribution of horizontal pressures ph and friction loads pw (8) Unplanned and unaccounted load influences are to be registered using the load augmentation factor C. b) by means of loads pn that act perpendicular to inclined walls.5) register unaccounted additional load influences alone. which arise due to the bulk material flow during emptying of the silo.5) register additional influences during emptying that are caused by the bulk material movement as well as the influences due to the deviation of the bulk material parameters. (10) The load augmentation factors C for silo bins in category 1 (see 4.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) Should the chosen form of the silo structure show a sensitive reaction to changes of the estimated load-guidelines. These reference surface loads consist of horizontal pressures ph that act upon the inner surface of the silo wall locally. and d) by means of vertical load components pv in the stored bulk material (see figure 1c) (6) The unsymmetric loads on the vertical silo walls in case of marginal eccentricities during fill and discharge have to be taken into account by using a reference surface load. (9) The load augmentation factors C for silo cells in categories 2 and 3 (see 4.

5) the load augmentation factor also takes into account the deviation of the material properties of the bulk material.5) allowance for the unsymmetric reference surface loads can be made alternatively by a substitute augmentation of the symmetric loads. In silos of categories 2 and 3.3 Classification of actions on silo bins (1) Loads due to bulk materials stored in the silo bins are to be classified as variable actions in accordance with DIN 1055-100.2 Description of Action on Tanks (1) Allowance for loads on tanks as a consequence of filling them up is made by hydrostatic load formulations 4. (2) Symmetric loads on silos are to be classified as variable stationary actions in accordance with DIN 1055-100. (11) In silos of category 1 (see 4. 40 . the influences of eccentricities during filling and emptying. For category 1 silos (see 4. µ. (12) In silos of categories 2 and 3 (see 4.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 NOTE 2 The load augmentation factors C are intended to cover the ambiguities related to the flow profile. K and φi.5) the allowance for unsymmetric loads is made by means of an increase of the symmetric loads by applying a load augmentation factor for the discharge loads C. allowance for the deviation of the material parameters influenced by the loads is not made by a load augmentation factor C but by the formulation of the appropriate characteristic calculation values for the bulk material parameters γ. 4. the influence of the shape of the silo on the manner of the flow profile and proximity influences which arise when allowance is not made for the presence of fill and discharge pressures that are time dependant.

(4) Eccentric loads for making allowances for the eccentric filling and discharge processes in silo bins are to be classified as variable stationary actions.5 STANDARDISED CATEGORIES (1) Based upon the design of the silo structure and its susceptibility to different types of malfunctions. to DIN 1055-100. various accuracy standards are used in the process of determining the influences on silo structures. 4.4 CLASSIFICATION OF THE INFLUENCES ON TANKS Loads on tanks that arise due to the filling up of the tanks can be classified as variable stationary influences acc. 4. (5) Loads arising from air or gas pressures in connection with pneumatic conveyor systems are to be regarded as variable stationary actions. (6) Loads due to dust explosions are to be classified as extraordinary actions as defined by DIN 1055-100.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (3) Reference surface loads for making allowances for the filling and discharge processes in silo bins are to be classified as variable free actions in accordance with DIN 1055-100. 41 . (2) The silo influences should be determined in accordance with one of the following standardized categories specified in this standard (see Table 1).

(3) A higher category for a silo than that which is required as per Table 1 can always be chosen. The rules for small silos are simple and conservative on the safer side. a higher category than that in Table 1 can be taken as a basis. are not justified. (4) In case several silos are connected to one another.25 b) low silos with an eccentric filling of more than standardized category 2 standardized category 1 dt all silos which are covered by this load standard and do not fall in the other two categories silos with a capacity of less than 100 tonnes NOTE The differences amongst the categories listed in Table 1 have been determined taking into account the shortfalls of an exact estimation of the influences. For any part of the procedures (computation of loads) described in this standard.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 TABLE 1 – CLASSIFICATION OF THE DIMENSIONING CONDITIONS STANDARDISED CATEGORIES standardized category 3 DESCRIPTION Silos with a capacity of more than 10 000 tonnes Silos with a capacity of more than 10 000 tonnes. as they have a robustness of their own and high costs of an estimation of bulk material parameters for example. if required. the suitable category for each bin should be individually determined. in which one of the foll.25 (see fig 1b) eo > 0. 42 . and not for the set of silos as a whole. calculating conditions is present a) eccentric discharge with eo dc > 0.

5.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 5. the following extraordinary influences and situations are to be taken into account: Influences caused by explosions Influences caused by vehicular impact Influences caused by earthquakes Influences caused by fire-load 43 . for each of the relevant calculating conditions. (2) It is important that the relevant calculating conditions be observed and the critical load types are determined. They can transmit loads to the silo structure across the stored bulk materials. (4) Influences on account of the adjacent building structures are to be taken into account. (6) Depending on the circumstances. (5) Influences of transporting equipment and pouring equipment are to be taken into account. Special care is requested in case of permanently installed transporting equipment.1 (1) CALCULATING CONDITIONS GENERAL The influences on silos and tanks. are to be determined in compliance with the general specifications contained in DIN 1055-100. NOTE The relevant combination rules are given in Annex A. (3) The combination rules depend on each of the verifications and are to be chosen in accordance with DIN 1055-100.

(3) The dimensioning for filling and for discharge of bulk materials has to comply with the principal load-types which can lead to differing boundary states for the structure: (4) Max loads perpendicular to the vertical silo wall (horizontal loads) Max vertical wall friction loads on the vertical silo wall Max vertical loads on the silo bottom Max loads on the silo hoppers For determination of loads. (2) The loads estimates for filling and for discharge can be used as evidence for supporting safety as well as performance capability. Table 2 gives the extreme values of the bulk material parameters which are to be used for each load types that are to be examined. (6) For each of these load types its extreme value is attained when each of the bulk material characteristic values µ . the upper characteristic values of the bulk material specific gravity γ are to be used always. differing combinations of the extreme values of these parameters have to be examined. K and ϕ i acquires differing extreme values within the variance range of their characteristic bulk material parameters. In order to ensure adequate safety for all boundary states during dimensioning.2 (1) CALCULATING CONDITIONS CAUSED BY “BULK MATERIAL” STORED IN Loads on silos caused by stored bulk materials are to be ascertained for the SILOS maximum possible state of fullness. 44 . K and ϕ i . so that every boundary state is assigned a specific defined condition of the bulk material.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 5. (5) The determination of the loads of a load type should always be made for a specific combination of matching parameters µ .

vertical loads on the hopper or the silo bottom Type of load examined Upper limit value Upper limit value Lower limit value Load ratio in the hopper Lower limit value Lower limit value Upper limit value Angle of internal friction µ HOPPER WALLS Maximum hopper loads in the filled state Maximum hopper loads during discharge NOTE 1 Lower limit value for the hopper Lower limit value for the hopper F Lower limit value upper limit value ϕi Lower limit value upper limit value It is to be noted that the wall friction angle is always smaller or same as the angle of internal friction of the stored bulk material (i. when transverse stresses recorded at the wall contact surface are larger than those due to the internal friction of the bulk material itself.VITAL PARAMETERS FOR THE DIFFERENT LOAD CALCULATIONS CHARACTERISITC VALUE TO BE CALCULATED COEFFICIENT OF TYPE OF LOAD EXAMINED WALL FRICTION HORIZONTAL RATIO LOAD ANGLE FRICTION OF INTERNAL µ SECTION OF VERTICAL WALL Max.e.ϕ wh ≤ ϕ i ) . horizontal load ratio Lower limit value Upper limit value Lower limit value Coefficient of wall friction K ϕi perpendicular to the vertical wall Max.e. because thereby a smaller portion of the loads in the hopper are take away are removed through friction. wall friction loads on the vertical walls Max. a slide surface develops within the bulk material. This means that in all cases the coefficient of wall friction should not be taken as larger than tan ϕ i (µ = tan ϕ w ≤ tan ϕ i ) NOTE 2 The loads that are perpendicular to the hopper walls p n are as a rule largest when the wall friction in the hopper is small. it is the malfunctioning that is being examined.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 TABLE 2 . Otherwise. which determines whether the wall friction loads or loads that are perpendicular to the hopper wall are to be calculated as maximum) 45 . It is to be observed which maximum parameters become decisive for the individual dimensioning exercises (i.

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