Computer Modelling of Electrical Power Systems

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Computer Modelling of Electrical Power Systems

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Index Terms A

ABCD parameters a.c.-d.c. converters a.c.-d.c. load flow sequential unified Achas formulation admittance matrix compound admittances formation rules geometrical nodal primitive system advanced series compensator aluminium conductor steel reinforced conductors automatic voltage regulators axes

Links

29 62 192

147 142 33 5 13 17 34 83 6 51 54

148 151

153

31

40

B

backward Euler method benchmark model Bergeron line model Bessel functions branch switching 254 359 162 34 250 167 211 212 213 255

Index Terms

bus conditions

Links

86

C

cage factor capacitance Carsons technique chatter CIGRE HVDC benchmark model commutation overlap angle commutation reactance compensation method complex penetration compound admittances computer systems graphical interface languages memory simulation engine software conduction overlap angle conductor impedance constant current control constant power control converters a.c.-d.c. model multiple quasi steady-state simulation d.c. link network representation rectifier loads 62 137 149 325 330 334 325 192 2 2 2 2 2 64 34 71 73 203 206 286 164 32 188 359 64 64 181 35 13 36 68 166

Index Terms

converters (Cont.) in transient stability program terminal voltage control three-phase model coupled three-phase lines current-source representation curve fitting effectiveness

Links

D

damping coefficient d.c. convergence tolerance d.c. link control constant current constant power extinction angle power-frequency network representation d.c. per unit system d.c. power modulation decoupled Newton load flow decoupled three-phase algorithm delta-delta transformer difference equation, exponential form direct axis distorted waveforms, data extraction from Dommels method (numerical integrator substitution) double-cage rotor model Dubantons formulae dynamic ordering 161 286 33 96 162 232 151 330 69 71 73 71 74 339 138 332 98 117 9 190 231 310 191

Index Terms E

earth impedance earth return impedance electromagnetic transients (EMTP) and d.c., see EMTDC Dommels method (numerical integrator substitution) nodal equations PSCADEMTDC program fast transient example frequency-dependent transmission line GTO test system STATCOM structure subsynchronous resonance test cases version 3: real time digital simulation root matching series impedance approximation state variables choice formulation procedure subsystems switching discontinuities chatter firing errors synchronous machines transformers

Links

31 38 1 161

161 179 202 211 211 207 215 202 218 207 204 219 190 36 221 224 221 222 183 186 188 186 195 199

162

214

216

209 217

Index Terms

electromagnetic transients (EMTP) (Cont.) transmission lines and cables Bergeron line model frequency-dependent multi-conductor PI section model electromechanical transients EMTDC TS data transfer TS/EMTDC interface equivalent circuits component interface variables derivation location method equivalent circuits converter induction motors double cage single cage Norton capacitor inductor synchronous machines rectifier load single conductor line subsystems synchronous machines Thevenin fault power flow prefault thyristor and snubber thyristor controlled series compensator

Links

166 162 173 170 166 161 202 306 300 300 304 315 313 137 203 205 167 211 211 212 213

287 285 165 163 247 326 174 185 197 247

Index Terms

equivalent circuits converter (Cont.) transformer star-delta two-winding TS/EMTDC interface two-coupled windings unified power flow control equivalent-pi extinction angle control

Links

F

FACTS devices in load flow solutions phase shifter static compensator (STATCOM) static tap changing static VAR compensator thyristor controlled series compensator unified power flow controller fast decoupled load flow fast transient analysis faults unbalanced flexible a.c. transmission systems see FACTS devices Fortescue technique frame of reference synchronous machines three-phase system analysis frequency-dependent model, transmission lines 173 211 231 11 11 3 129 58 60 56 59 54 61 100 211 249 293 131 132 123 214 345 216 130 130 53

Index Terms G

geometrical admittance geometrical impedance geometrical mean radius governor power flow Graetz bridge GTO test system

Links

H

high voltage direct current transmission (HVDC) a.c.-d.c. converter CIGRE benchmark model commutation reactance d.c. link control constant current constant power extinction angle power-frequency inversion in load flow solutions converter model converter terminal voltage control d.c. convergence tolerance multiple/multiterminal systems numerical example solution techniques test system and results rectification three-phase model 3 62 359 64 69 71 73 71 74 67 135 137 147 151 149 155 142 151 63 74 68 62

Index Terms

hybrid program structure test system hydro turbines

Links

298 317 322 241

I

impedance conductor earth earth return geometrical sea return series inductance induction machines contactors electrical equations large slip equivalent circuits double cage single cage mechanical equations network representation in transient stability program injected nodal current integration accuracy backward Euler predictor-corrector methods Runge-Kutta Runge-Kutta-Gill 287 285 284 288 288 345 1 351 254 354 252 252 356 254 255 252 351 34 31 38 33 38 18 163 284 291 285 286 31 36

Index Terms

integration (Cont.) stability stiffness trapezoidal problems programming saturating AVR exciter synchronous machine synchronous machine controller limits inversion

Links

352 230 1 255 256 261 258 259 67 141 353 253

J

Jacobian approximations Jacobian matrix 119 89 98 90 99 92 117 93 142 95 143

L

lead-lag circuits linear transformation load network representation load flow a.c.-d.c. sequential unified algorithm analytical definition convergence criteria and tests decoupled Newton FACTS device incorporation 147 142 87 86 104 98 129 148 151 88 153 242 5 243 249 1 81

Index Terms

load flow (Cont.) phase shifting static tap changing thyristor controlled series capacitance unified power flow controller fast decoupled HVDC transmission incorporation converter model converter terminal voltage control d.c. convergence tolerance multiple/multiterminal systems numerical example and results solution techniques test system and results ideal solution properties Newton-Raphson method characteristics convergence aids nodal method numerical example one voltage known problems faced by stability assessment three-phase computer program decoupled three-phase algorithm equation derivation fast decoupled algorithm generator model notation variables specified

Links

130 130 131 132 100 135 137 147 151 149 155 142 151 81 1 97 96 82 105 85 81 105 110 123 117 115 123 123 111 115 110 106 82 87 123

Index Terms

load flow (Cont.) voltage regulator Y matrix methods Z matrix methods long-distance lines lumped resistance lumped series impedance

Links

113 82 82 3 169 31 22 84

M

machine switching mesh matrix method metal oxide surge arresters method of companion circuits modal analysis multi-conductor lines 251 245 211 162 23 170 214 216

N

negative sequence system Newton-Raphson method characteristics convergence aids nodal analysis advantages load flow stability nodal conductance approach nodal equations modification for switching non-linearities compensation method 5 82 246 162 179 180 181 181 184 293 1 97 96 82 87

Index Terms

non-linearities (Cont.) current-source representation piecewise linear representation non-voltage controlled bus Norton equivalent capacitor inductor synchronous machines numerical integrator substitution

Links

O

on-load tap changing ordering, optimal overhead lines 56 95 31

P

Pade approximation Parks transformation phase-shifting in load flow solutions phase-vector type phase-locked oscillator PI section model piecewise linear representation Pollaczeks equations polynomial fitting post-disturbance power flows Potier reactance power-frequency control power systems computed aided design (PSCAD) see also PSCAD/EMTDC program This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. 203 356 196 10 130 194 166 183 166 175 105 276 74 110 184 58

Index Terms

predictor -corrector methods pre-ordering primitive admittance matrix propagation constant propagation function PSCAD/EMTDC program fast transient example frequency-dependent transmission line GTO test system STATCOM structure subsynchronous resonance test cases version 3

Links

354 95 6 176 176 202 211 211 207 215 202 218 207 204 209 206 208 209 217 214 216 31 177 40

Q

quadrature axis quasi steady-state converter simulation d.c. link network representation rectifier loads in transient stability program 231 325 330 334 325 339

R

rational polynomial fitting real time digital simulation rectification in HVDC transmission rectifier loads dynamic equivalent circuit network representation 175 219 63 325 327 326 334

Index Terms

rectifier loads (Cont.) operating mode identification static relays distance overcurrent directional instantaneous inverse definite minimum time lag in transient stability program undervoltage resistance RLC branch, Norton equivalent r.m.s. power root matching Runge-Kutta-Gill method Runge-Kutta method

Links

291 289 289 292 291 163 165 306 190 252 252 254 356

S

salient machine saturation saturating AVR exciter saturation classical model curve representation effects network representation salient machine simple representation in transient stability program sea return impedance sensitivity analysis 273 261 199 271 275 276 277 273 275 278 38 110 201 268 271

Index Terms

sequential a.c.-d.c. load flow series capacitor bank series impedance short circuit analysis fault calculations system equations shunt admittance shunt capacitance shunt capacitor bank single-phase modelling skin effect correction factors slack bus software development sparsity programming speed governors stability advanced component models equations frames of reference hybrid program structure test system induction machines integration load flow for loads long-term power electronic control program structure relays

Links

147 28 18 345 348 346 20 121 27 7 34 39 87 2 94 237 229 268 230 231 298 317 322 284 252 105 243 229 297 262 289 263 110 239 261 40 31 31 36 148 153

Index Terms

single-phase modelling (Cont.) system representation faults load mesh matrix nodal matrix switching synchronous machines test system transient transmission network turbines unbalanced faults star-delta transformer star-star transformer STATCOM (static compensator) state variables choice formulation procedure static phase shifter static tap changing in load flow static VAR compensator stiffness submarine cables subsynchronous resonance subsystems surge arresters swing bus switch representations

Links

245 249 249 245 246 250 246 359 229 245 279 293 9 42 60 221 224 221 222 58 56 130 59 230 36 218 18 211 87 186 183 214 216 339 353 215 217 45 202

Index Terms

single-phase modelling (Cont.) switching branch discontinuities chatter firing errors machine synchronous machines controllers automatic voltage regulators lead-lag circuits limits speed governors turbines electrical equations electromagnetic transients equivalent circuits frame of reference machine models mechanical equations network representation saturation classical model curve representation effects network representation salient machine simple representation in transient stability program steady state equations subtransient equations

Links

237 237 242 259 237 241 232 195 197 231 236 231 246 199 271 275 276 277 273 275 278 233 235 268 271 247 239 261

Index Terms

synchronous machines controllers (Cont.) three-phase load flow time constants transient equations trapezoidal integration

Links

T

tap changing Taylors theorem thermal turbines Thevenin equivalent circuit fault power flow prefault Thevenin resistance three-phase converter model three-phase load flow computer program decoupled three-phase algorithm equation derivation fast decoupled algorithm generator model notation variables specified voltage regulator three-phase system analysis compound admittances frame of reference 303 303 348 182 74 110 123 117 115 123 123 111 115 113 11 13 11 56 88 241 130

Index Terms

three-phase transformer models connections independent phase tap control primitive admittance sequence components three-phase transmission lines equivalent-pi mutually coupled series elements series impedance shunt admittance shunt elements terminal connections thyristor controlled phase angle thyristor controlled series capacitor in load flow solutions time constants transformers delta-delta equivalent-pi model off-nominal tap setting single-phase models star-delta Star-Star three-phase models connections independent phase tap control primitive admittance sequence components Wye Delta connection models sequence components models

Links

39 42 47 40 48 18 22 24 28 18 20 27 26 58 54 131 230 199 9 8 8 8 9 42 39 42 47 40 48 45 202

43 48

Index Terms

transient stability hybrid program structure test system program structure transmission lines Bergeron model frequency-dependent long-distance multi-conductor overhead PI section model sectionalization single-phase three-phase equivalent-pi mutually coupled series elements series impedance shunt admittance shunt elements terminal connections underground/submarine transmission systems admittance matrix nodal analysis, advantages overhead lines single-phase models subsystems three-phase system analysis

Links

229 298 317 322 262 166 162 173 3 170 31 166 28 7 18 22 24 28 18 20 27 26 36 5 51 5 31 7 18 11 166 167 211 22 211 212 213 263

Index Terms

transmission systems (Cont.) compound admittances frame of reference underground/sumarine cables trapezoidal integration problems programming saturating AVR exciter synchronous machine controller limits trapezoidal rule triangular factorization TSE hybrid structure test system TS/EMTDC interface equivalent circuits component interface variables derivation location method turbines

Links

13 11 36 1 255 256 261 258 259 162 95 298 317 322 300 300 304 315 313 241 279 253

U

underground cables unified a.c.-d.c. load flow unified power flow controller in load flow solutions 36 142 61 132 166 151

Index Terms V

valve group model firing control VAR voltage controlled bus converter terminal low value regulators, automatic compensator, static

Links

192 194 59

193

339

W

waveform distortion, data extraction from Wye Delta transformers connection models sequence components models 43 48 310

Y

Y matrix methods 82 84

Z

Z matrix methods zero sequence system 82 294

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