Applications Mach Number

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

251 views

Applications Mach Number

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- literature review of wind tunnels
- M8 Aerodynamics
- Uwe Brummund and Frithjof Scheel- Characterization of a supersonic flowfield using different laser based techniques
- Theory of Flight
- Paper - Basic Concepts on Automobile Aerodynamics
- Physics XI Ch-15 [ Waves ]
- 9781891121920_Hirose
- Website Linksdf
- My Markslist
- 30-20-C
- 53-2-313
- Aerodynamic Modeling & Simulation of Hgv
- What SF6 Gas Testing
- Propulsion I
- ZAERO Brochure
- Shape Optimization Euler Equation Adjoint Method
- Why Whips Crack
- 88681main_H-2392
- Velocity of Sound in Air With Cobra4
- Ultrasonic 2

You are on page 1of 3

1 Denitions

= Air density (kg/m

3

)

A = Area (m

2

)

a = Speed of sound (m/s)

p = Pressure (Pa = N/m

2

)

R = Gas constant (Value is: 287J/(kgK)) (J/(kgK))

T = The temperature of a certain amount of gas (K)

V = Velocity (m/s)

M = Mach number (dimensionless)

= Ratio of specic heats (Value for normal air is: 1.4) (dimensionless)

c

v

= Specic heat at constant volume (For air: c

v

= 717J/(kgK)) (J/(kgK))

c

p

= Specic heat at constant pressure (For air: c

p

= 1004J/(kgK)) (J/(kgK))

V

cal

= Calibrated ight velocity (m/s)

2 Speed of sound

The speed of sound is an important thing in aerodynamics. A formula to calculate it can be derived.

Therefore the continuity equation is used on a sound wave traveling through a tube with constant area:

Aa = ( +d)A(a + da) a =

da

d

Assuming an isentropic ow, it is allowed to ll in the speed of sound in the Euler equation, which gives

dp = a da. Combining this with the previous equation gives:

a =

dp

d

(2.1)

This is not a very easy formula to work with though. But by using the isentropic ow relations, it can

be derived that

dp

d

=

p

, and therefore:

a =

_

(2.2)

Using the equation of state, this can be transformed to:

a =

_

RT (2.3)

So the speed of sound only depends on the temperature. But when the speed of sound is known, also the

Mach number can be calculated:

M =

V

a

(2.4)

There are three important regions of Mach numbers:

1

1. M < 1: Subsonic ow

2. M = 1: Sonic ow

3. M > 1: Supersonic ow

These regions can be split up into more detailed, but less important regions, as can be seen in table 1.

Mach number: M < 0.3 0.3 < M < 1 M = 1 M 1 1 < M < 5 5 < M

Name: Low subsonic High subsonic Sonic Transonic Supersonic Hypersonic

Table 1: Mach regions and corresponding names.

3 Isentropic ow relations including Mach number

Let point 0 be the stagnation point, and let point 1 be a point in the undisturbed ow. The stagnation

speed V

0

is 0. So p

0

is equal to the total pressure in the ow. The energy equation implies that:

c

p

T

1

+

1

2

V

2

1

= c

p

T

0

T

0

T

1

= 1 +

V

2

1

2c

p

T

1

It is known that R = c

p

c

v

and =

cp

cv

. From that it can be derived that:

c

p

=

R

1

Combining these two equations results in:

T

0

T

1

= 1 +

1

2

V

2

1

RT

1

It is also known that a

2

1

= RT

1

and M

1

V1

a1

. Using that data, the previous formula can be transformed

to:

T

0

T

1

= 1 +

1

2

M

2

1

(3.1)

And by using the isentropic ow relations, also the following can be deduced:

p

0

p

1

=

_

1 +

1

2

M

2

1

_

1

(3.2)

1

=

_

1 +

1

2

M

2

1

_ 1

1

(3.3)

But do keep in mind that p

0

and

0

are the pressure and density, respectively, at the stagnation point

(because V

0

= 0).

2

4 Calculating ight velocity

Calculating ight velocity for low subsonic ows is not dicult, because incompressibility can be assumed.

Therefore only the formula for the ight velocity at high subsonic speeds is shown. The equations derived

in the previous paragraph can be used to nd those formulas. But to do that, the Mach number should

rst be isolated:

M

2

1

=

2

1

_

_

p

0

p

1

_

1

1

_

And using equation 2.4, the following relation is evident:

V

2

1

=

2a

2

1

1

_

_

p

0

p

1

_

1

1

_

(4.1)

However, it is not easy to measure a pressure ratio

p0

p1

. Most measuring devices measure a pressure

dierence p

0

p

1

instead. Therefore the previous equation can be transformed.

V

2

1

=

2a

2

1

1

_

_

p

0

p

1

p

1

+ 1

_

1

1

_

This formula still has a pressure value p

1

(which is not a pressure dierence), and the speed of sound

(which depends on T

1

, the static temperature in the air around the airplane). Both are rather dicult

to measure accurately. Therefore the calibrated airspeed V

cal

is introduced, and dened as follows:

V

2

cal

=

2a

2

s

1

_

_

p

0

p

1

p

s

+ 1

_

1

1

_

(4.2)

5 Supersonic wind tunnels

From the continuity equation, the following can be derived:

AV = c lnAV = ln + lnA + lnV = lnc

d

+

dA

A

+

dV

V

= 0

Where c is any constant mass ow. First lling in Eulers equation =

dp

V dV

and then lling in equation

2.1 results in the following:

0 =

d V dV

dp

+

dA

A

+

dV

V

=

V dV

a

2

+

dA

A

+

dV

V

=

M

2

dV

V

+

dA

A

+

dV

V

A nal transformation results in the so-called area-velocity relation:

dA

A

=

_

M

2

1

_

dV

V

(5.1)

This formula has interesting implications. When looking at the three previously discussed Mach number

regions, the following three phenomena can occur:

1. Subsonic ows (M < 1): For the velocity to increase, the area must decrease (and vice-versa).

2. Sonic ows (M = 1): This is a rather strange case, because it implies

dA

A

to be 0. Therefore this

only occurs in the tunnel where the cross-sectional area is minimal (this point is called the throat

of the tunnel).

3. Supersonic ows (M > 1): For the velocity to increase, the area must increase (and vice-versa).

3

- literature review of wind tunnelsUploaded byNeerajVerma
- M8 AerodynamicsUploaded byairbuk doeing
- Uwe Brummund and Frithjof Scheel- Characterization of a supersonic flowfield using different laser based techniquesUploaded byWhiteLighte
- Theory of FlightUploaded byVikrant Baliyan
- Paper - Basic Concepts on Automobile AerodynamicsUploaded byMárcio Souto
- Physics XI Ch-15 [ Waves ]Uploaded byNandita Jain
- 9781891121920_HiroseUploaded byArjun Prayoga Aji
- Website LinksdfUploaded bySebastian Cano Campuzano
- My MarkslistUploaded byNaresh Nani
- 30-20-CUploaded byalmastar office
- 53-2-313Uploaded byzaldi17
- Aerodynamic Modeling & Simulation of HgvUploaded byManjunath Pattar
- What SF6 Gas TestingUploaded byAnonymous V1oLCB
- Propulsion IUploaded byAndrew Martin
- ZAERO BrochureUploaded byMuhammad Kusni
- Shape Optimization Euler Equation Adjoint MethodUploaded bychandrasingh4564
- Why Whips CrackUploaded byDaniel Dinh
- 88681main_H-2392Uploaded bymonkey_does
- Velocity of Sound in Air With Cobra4Uploaded byDelfinManuel
- Ultrasonic 2Uploaded bybigevil
- BEM Tutorial Chp5 Speaker in a RoomUploaded bysnailbook
- INTRODUCTION Compressible Flow SendUploaded byafnanhanany
- AerodynamicsUploaded byKamal Arab
- Mass Flow RateUploaded byrugun
- 1-s2.0-S0955598607000477-mainUploaded byJoaquin Fuentes
- KSM Form 066 - 5TST(S) Tank Inspection ReportUploaded byPrinceSadhotra
- Análisis aerodinámico deflectorUploaded byGustavo Uribe
- EffectUploaded byDavide Cagnoni
- EIL MT Exam Paper for ChemicalUploaded byAakriti Verma
- Hysys PrintUploaded byHafiz Akhtar

- DIN_76-1Uploaded bymesa142
- Airflex Floating Housing Brakes E-CLCL-BB005-E March 2016 (1)Uploaded bymesa142
- GST TrainingUploaded byPreetam Agrawal
- Heat Treatment ProcessesUploaded bymesa142
- AHRI Standard 560-2000Uploaded bymesa142
- SAP MEUploaded bymesa142
- SAP Standard Material TypesUploaded bymesa142
- Material Type _ SCNUploaded bymesa142
- Service Master vs. Material Master - Type DIEN ..Uploaded bymesa142
- MECHANICAL ENGINEER SKILLUploaded bymesa142
- Multipull polyvbeltsUploaded bymesa142
- Intro Physics 1Uploaded bydanutzpn
- Simulation of Crack Propagation in a Centrifugal Pump CasingUploaded bymesa142
- Rezoning Approach to Nonlinear Problems for Sub-Sea ApplicationsUploaded bymesa142
- GlobalisationUploaded bymesa142
- Untitled TestUploaded bymesa142
- Application of Fluid PhenomenaUploaded bymesa142
- Design Optimization of TanksUploaded bymesa142
- Proxi BypassUploaded bymesa142
- Orifice PlateUploaded bymesa142
- GEpump Performance OptimizationUploaded bymesa142
- 8DUploaded bysivakumar118
- GS-0002D,_Design_FMEAUploaded bymesa142
- Impeller BladeUploaded bymesa142
- Numerical Simulation of Pulsatile Flow in a Disc and Doughnut ColumnUploaded bymesa142
- ANSYS Based Procedure for Bolted Joints With O-RingsUploaded bymesa142
- Nozzle Local Load AnalysisUploaded bymesa142
- Mms Sp61 Pressure Testing of Steel ValuesUploaded bymesa142

- FullCVUploaded byculturalstudies7
- Microphone-Design-Consideration.pdfUploaded bySanthosh Mamidala
- To Adjudge Braced or UnbracedUploaded byAtul Wanode
- APV_FX_Tubular_UHT_Plant_6757_02_03_2012_GB.pdfUploaded byAdi Nugroho
- Soundcraft ui12Uploaded byfisionovais
- PIC16F628AUploaded bySintesoft
- O-F Running a BeadUploaded byNiroshan Manoharan
- Perrone_Total_Variation_Blind_2014_CVPR_paper (1).pdfUploaded byscorpio198123
- GSM Brussels NetworkUploaded bydaohuyhp
- Zekeringen X Type[1]Uploaded byJagRider
- CompilationUploaded byRinki Goyal
- Precious metalUploaded byNarayana Mugalur
- Variable Reluctance MotorUploaded bygbksn
- Aficio 3045_4045 B264_SM.pdfUploaded bybill3759
- Qtt24 II TimerUploaded byNORMANPSMILEY
- BE2600 Introduction to Biomedical EngineeringUploaded bydlepse
- Ancient System Hi 00 Wilk GoogUploaded byboutaris
- Csi 3131 Midterm 2015Uploaded byCarlos Moreno
- Church-Review Turing 1936Uploaded bylosolores
- kimani feaster - resumeUploaded byapi-161141412
- 3quarksdaily: Moral Tragedy?Uploaded byRakatonq
- Assignmt REMEDIALUploaded byrisli
- Teaching Synthetic BiologyUploaded byIchihara Karasu Kikuichimonji
- AIAC 2013 Directory LoResUploaded bytwj84
- TT NetworkUploaded bylcsyen
- Cyberpunk 2070 Fuzionpunk 1st EdUploaded byJohn Gibbins
- Outcomes-Based Accreditation of Business Programs_ConradoIniUploaded byNette de Guzman
- Foreigh Language Chair SpecialtyUploaded byFeghiu Aurica
- Lecture_4Uploaded byVairavel Chenniyappan
- 5.AX-PPR-3-27-36-54Uploaded byParesh Chopra