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ह(नd| व¤|करण
(Hindi Vyakaran)
BASIC HINDI GRAMMAR HANDBOOK BY HINDIMATERJEE.COM
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!RE"ACE
This is a work of art dedicated to all the who are struggling to find right resources to ease
learning Hindi grammar just enough to be able to write and speak correctly without getting lost
in definitions . Surprised to see a Grammar book referred as Art , yes it is an art to present
the right content in a user friendly manner which should leave a footstep in the memory of the
reader. hope have accomplished this in this handbook.
This book would be incomplete without the mention of all the selfless individuals who have
helped me at every step towards setting up Hindi !earning "oundation and providing all the
necessary content and review. The first and foremost is #r.Suresh Seetaraman who has
dedicated $% years in learning and teaching Hindi language even to foreigners and gladly
guided me to compile this book.The ne&t person is #r.'amachandran #enon who showed
me the path to ()e the change want to bring ( rather than sit and wait for someone to do and
motivated me to take responsibilty and help in putting together the right resources .
Today here am presenting this first of its kind user focussed Hindi Grammar book .
Hindi "oundation is a Self "unded project of *herishma *onsulting, helping Hindi learners to
read ,write and communicate effectively in Hindi and partners +G,-s working in Skills
development of youths who want to impove their computer knowledge and *ommunication
skills. .e want to build an inclusive community where each member feels a sense of
achievement and contributes towards Hindi language development.
#amta Singh
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Hindi an In#rod$%#ion
Hindi the national language of ndia is an ndo/Aryan language with over 0%% million speakers. t is
one of the official languages of ndia and is the main language used in the northern states of
'ajasthan, 1elhi, Haryana, 2ttarakhand, 2ttar 3radesh, #adhya 3radesh, *hhattisgarh, Himachal
3radesh, 4harkhand and )ihar, and is spoken in much of north and central ndia alongside other
languages such as 3unjabi, Gujarati, #arathi or )engali. n other parts of ndia, as well as in +epal,
)angladesh and 3akistan, Hindi is understood. n "iji people of ndian origin speak Hindi, and in some
areas the "ijian people also speak it.
Hindi is a phonetic language. Hindi words are pronounced e&actly as they are written. 5ou don-t have
to memorise the correct spelling of a word. All consonants have an -a- sound inherent in them. To write
the 6nglish word -come- in 1evanagari script all you do is assemble the two consonants क 78a9 and म
7#a9 by keeping them together and joining them with the hori:ontal head stroke as shown below
कम (Kam)
Similarly to write the Hindi word -kamal- 7lotus9 you will simply add ल (La) to the end of the
above word and join all three letters together with the hori:ontal line;
कमल (Kamal)
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1.ह(नd| वणम|ल|
ह(नd| वणम|ल| म ५२ (S2} अकर (|त ( , H| हक ά¹¬ ( ·-
 1( }  a 1वर 
अ H ç ( 3 3 7 7 H H अ अ #
1वर ( s&ar ) 'o&e(s
अ H ç ( 3 3 7
a <a i ee u oo e
ü ü| Íü ü| ü ü¸ ü
pa p<a pi pee pu p= pe

7 H H अ अ अ #
ai o au aṅg aḥ >ṃ i
ü ü| ü| ü ü ü| ü
pai po pau paṅ paḥ p<ṃ pe
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2. vyanjana ( Vyan)an ) Consonan#s
व¤H¬
क ¼ " Þ s
¬ U H $ H
ò ò s õ ण
त ¤ d º ¬
ü 9 4 H म
¤ र ल व
P H ¤ (
क ³ 7
¤( वणम|ल| dव¬|"र| ÎलÍü क| (1 dव¬|"र| ÎलÍü म P1कत,मर|ò|,क|कण| ,¬ü|ल|,मΤल| Hहd 
H|¤|7 Îल¼| H|त| ( I

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vyanjana ( Vyan)an ) Consonan#s
क ¼ " Þ s ¬ U H $ H
ka kha ga gha ṅa ca cha ja jha ?a
ò ò s õ ण त ¤ d º ¬
!a !ha "a "ha #a ta tha da dha na
ü 9 4 H म ¤ र ल व
pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va
H ¤ P (
@a $a sa ha
Additional consonants (used in words of Persian,
Arabic and English Origin)
4 D T H ç 9 s õ
Aa %a Ba :a :ha fa a rha
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Common %on)$n%# %onsonan#s

3
7 cक § ² £ d çs
ksa Aum j?a ttka dva dya dda tta "h"ha
V ( H ÷ ³ ü ü ç
dma hma hya @ra tra rpa pra !ra

Shru
g
Tru
e
Surp 3ray Tram
Counting Numerals
º \ २ ² × ५ î U c ° \º
H¸न¤ 7क d| त|¬ ¬|र ü|¬ U P|त Hò ¬| dP
śunya ek do teen ch! " ch ṅ chaḥ #t h ṭ nau das
$ % & ' ( ) * + , - %$
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Language
Script
Grammar
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2.H|¤| , ÎलÍü , व¤|करण
(Language ,Script , Grammar)
H|¤| व( P|º¬ (,  ÍHPक म|º¤म P (म P|¬त ( त¤| अü¬ Íव¬|र| क| व¤ñ करत 
(1
म¬*¤ ,अü¬ H|व| त¤| Íव¬|र| क| d| üक|र ,P üकò करत| (-
 4|लकर (म|ͼक }  .. ie Spoken
 Îल¼कर (Îलͼत } .  ie Written
 म|ͼक H|¤|  ·-  म|ͼक H|¤| म म¬*¤ अü¬ Íव¬|र| ¤| म¬|H|व| क| 4|लकर üकò करत (1 
म|ͼक H|¤| क| ü¤|" तH| (|त| ( ,H4 ÷|त| P|म¬ (|1 çP म|º¤म क| ü¤|" ह9~म,¬|òक,Pव|d 
7व H|¤ण Hहd म अκक (|त| (1
 Îलͼत H|¤| ·-H|¤| क Îलͼत Fü म Îल¼कर ¤| üõकर Íव¬|र| 7व म¬|H|व| क| Hd|¬-üd|¬ 
हक¤| H|त| (1 Îलͼत Fü H|¤| क| 1¤|¤| म|º¤म (|त| (1 ü1तक çP| म|º¤म म Îल¼| H|त| (1
2 ( }  a H|¤| Hर 4|ल|  
H|¤| ,H4 क|( हकP| 4s H¸-H|" म 4|ल| H|¬ ल"त| ( ,त| 3Pक| क³|¤ H|¤| ÍवकÎPत (|¬ ल"त| (1 çP| 
क³|¤ Fü क| 4|ल| क(त (1 क|( H| 4|ल| ÍवकÎPत (|कर P|ह(c¤ क| H|¤| 4¬ H|त| (1 H4 क|( H|¤| 
üÍरάÍ8त (|कर P|ह(Íc¤क H|¤| क üd üर HP|¬ (|त| ( ,त| 3Pक P|¤ (| ल|कH|¤| ¤| ÍवH|¤| क| 
3üÍ1¤Îत अάव|¤ (|त| (1 क|ल|तर म ,¤(| ल|कH|¤| üÍरάÍ8त 7व 3न¬त (|कर P|ह(Íc¤क H|¤| क| Fü 
T(ण कर लत| (1 HH H| ह(नd| (म 4|लत ( ¤| Îल¼त ( ,व( ¼s| 4|ल| ( , çPक ü¸व अवº|,üH ,मΤल| 
Hहd 4|Îल¤| H| P|ह(Íc¤क H|¤| क üd üर HP|¬ (| ¬क| (1
2 ( }  b ह(नd| त¤| अन¤ H|¤|7  
PP|र म अ¬क H|¤|7 4|ल| H|त| (1 HP -अTH|,•P|,H|ü|¬|,¬|¬|,अर4|,ह(नd| ,3d¸ Hहd1 (म|र H|रत म  
H| अ¬क H|¤|7 4|ल| H|त| ( 1 HP -4"ल|,"Hर|त|,मर|ò|,3हs¤| ,तÎमल,तल" Hहd1 ह(नd| H|रत म P4P  
अκक 4|ल| Hर Pम$| H|त| (1 ह(नd| H|¤| क| PÍवº|¬ म र|HH|¤| क| dH| हd¤| "¤| (1
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2 ( }  c ÎलÍü
ÎलÍü क| H|Í€dक अ¤ (|त| ( -Îलͼत ¤| άͳत कर¬| 1
ºवά¤| क| Îल¼¬ क Îल7 ÍH¬ ά•| क| ü¤|" हक¤| H|त| (,व(| ÎलÍü क(ल|त| (1 
üc¤क H|¤| क| अü¬| -अल" ÎलÍü (|त| (1 ह(नd| क| ÎलÍü dव¬|"र| (1 ह(नd| क अल|व| -P1कत 
,मर|ò|,क|कण|,¬ü|ल| Hहd H|¤|7 H| dव¬|"र| म Îल¼| H|त| (1
2( } d ह(नd| व¤|करण
व¤|करण व( Íवº| (,ÍHPक §|र| हकP| H|¤| क| H‚ 4|ल¬| ¤| Îल¼¬| H|¬| H|त| (1 व¤|करण H|¤| क| 
व¤व1¤| क| 4¬|¤ र¼¬ क| क|म करत (1 व¤|करण H|¤| क H‚ 7व अH‚ ü¤|"| üर º¤|¬ dत| (1 çP 
üक|र ,(म क( Pकत ( हक üc¤क H|¤| क अü¬ ά¤म (|त ( ,3P H|¤| क| व¤|करण H|¤| क| H‚ Îल¼¬| 
व 4|ल¬| ÎP¼|त| (1 व¤|करण क त|¬ मƒ¤ ÍवH|" (|त ( ·-
 वण - Íव¬|र     ·- çPम वण„ क 3…¬|रण ,Fü ,Hक|र,Hd,Hहd क P¹4नº म अº¤¤¬ (|त| (1
 H€d -  Íव¬|र   ·-  çPम H€d| क Hd ,Fü,ü¤|"| त¤| 3cüÍd क| अº¤¤¬ हक¤| H|त| (1
 व|†¤ - Íव¬|र·   ·- çPम व|†¤ άम|ण ,3¬क üक|र,3¬क Hd,"ò¬,ü¤|", ÍवT( Hहd üर Íव¬|र 
     हक¤| H|त| (1
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व|†¤ ‡ Íव¬|र (   } vakya vichar
SYNTAX
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ˆ.    Syntax
              .                Hindi uses a different word order than Engish The !ain differences are that verbs are
             (     }       (       paced at the end of the sentence ike in "er!an and that Hindi ike other Indian
}          .  anguages uses postpositions instead of prepositions
                      . #ostpositions are ike prepositions except that they are written after the noun  
·  Exa!pe
    Nor!a sentences
·        ‰        Engish Sub$ect %erb &b$ect I earn Hindi
·        ‰        Hindi Sub$ect &b$ect %erb I Hindi earn
    I!perative sentences
En./0#h1 2e!3 4/ace Ad5e!3 6 Co7e he!e no8
H0nd01 4/ace Ad5e!3 2e!3 6He!e no8 co7e
'uestion   s
·           ‰       Š  Engish Adverb Auxiary %erb Sub$ect %erb What are you drawing
·       ‰      Š  Hindi Sub$ect Adverb %erb You what draw
ˆ ( }    a Word &rder
              The basic word order in Hindi is  -   -   ( - - }  Sub$ect &b$ect %erb S & % . ,      However since Hindi
            ,              uses !ore infections and cases than Engish word order is so!ewhat ess i!portant in 
.        ,      .            - - .    Hindi (ets consider the sentence I a! #anka$ This Engish word order is S % & )or
            - - . Hindi we wi change it to S & %
 -   -   ( - - }    Sub$ect &b$ect %erb S & % म‹ üकH (¸1 -      . I #anka$ a!
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ˆ ( }  b Artices
  ,   ( ,  ,  }  Œ   .                  In Hindi artices a an the aren t used So!eti!es the word for the nu!ber one is
        .    ,      ,        ,    used for an indefinite artice )or exa!pe instead of saying "ive !e a pen you woud 
,        .              ,      . say "ive !e one pen It is aso fine $ust to say "ive !e pen
%ocabuary
      dog कd| .                   ! book हकत|4 . f    peope ल|"
·   • .•   • .•                    .      Note The ! and f in the tabe above denote the gender of a noun Every noun is 
      .                      either !ascuine or fe!inine It is very i!portant to earn the gender when earning
  .            Hindi nouns *ore on gender in (esson
Exa!pes
 ( }    . He far is +a$
व( र|H (1
 ( }    . She near is Neetu
¤( ¬|त (1
    . I a! A!it
म‹ अÎमत (
¸
1
 ( }    . You for!a are ,eepak
Hü d|üक (‹1
 (   }    . You ess for!a are +avi
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तम रÍव (|1
 ( }    You infor!a are *ohit
त¸ म|ह(त (1
    . We are peope
(म ल|" (‹1
      . That is a dog
व( कd| (1
      . This is a book
¤( हकत|4 (1
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* (%) Ver+s (,RI-A)
            Hindi verbs are infected with respect to
 gender       ( ,  }, of the sub$ect !ascuine fe!inine
   nu!ber      ( ,  }, of the sub$ect singuar pura
 tense ( ,  ,  },  present past future
 action ( ,  ,  },  perfect i!perfect continuous
     degree of respect ( ,  ,  }.  inti!ate fa!iiar respect
                        .  %erbs are referred to in their infinitive noun for! which ends in na
·  Exa!pes
       bona to speak
      ikhna to write
      ena to take
      ana to co!e
                          .  The ste! of a verb is the infinitive for! without the - na. ending
·  Exa!pes
 ,  ,   ,    bo ikh e a
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ˆ ( }   ( } d Nouns SAN"YA
  (  } Ž   ( } "ender (ing Nu!ber %achan 
      ,  Hindi has two genders !ascuine (       }    nouns ending in a and fe!inine 
(        }        .  nouns ending in I but there are exceptions
      ,         ( }     ( } As for the nu!ber we distinguish between singuar Ekvachan and pura /ahuvachan
 0ase 
          ,  There are two cases in Hindi     direct and indirect. 
                        - ,      The indirect case is used when the noun is foowed by a post position otherwise the
      .  direct case is used
·  Exa!pes
     - ·   ‰      *ascuine nouns on a arka boy
   ( }   ( } Singuar arka direct arke indirect
 
  ( }   ( }  #ura arke direct arkon indirect
     - ·   ‰    )e!inine nouns on i arki gir
   ( }   ( }  Singuar arki direct arki indirect
   ( }   ( }  #ura arkiyan direct arkiyon indirect
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(,arak)
!os#.osi#ion
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4 (e) क|रक (Karak) /Postposition
क|रक     -   व|†¤ म ü¤ñ P7| ¤| Pव¬|म H€d| क P|¤ ह•¤| क| P¹4नº क|रक क(ल|त| (1  
HP ·-
\.P|त| 9ल ¼|त| (1
२.र|म ¬ ss P Þ|s क| ü|ò| 1
².र|म ¬|र हd¬ म H7"|1
×.र|म कलम P Îल¼त| (1
क|रक क Hd 
ह(नd| म क|रक| क| Pƒ¤| Hò ( -\.कत| क|रक २.कम क|रक ².करण क|रक
×.P¹üd|¬ क|रक ५.अü|d|¬ क|रक î.P¹4नº क|रक U.अκकरण क|रक c.P4|º¬
क|रक
* क|रक क ÍवHÍñ άन( *
क|रक  άन(  अ¤
कत| ¬ क|म कर¬ व|ल|
कम क|रक क| ÍHP üर क|म क| üH|व üs
करण क|रक P ÍHPक §|र| कत| क|म कर
P¹üd|¬ क|रक क|,क Îल7 ÍHPक Îल7 ह•¤| क| H|7
अü|d|¬ क|रक P (अल" (|¬| } ÍHPP अल"|व (|
P¹4नº क|रक क|,क|,क ,र|,र|,र अन¤ üd| P P¹4नº
अκकरण क|रक म ,üर ह•¤| क| Hº|र
P4|º¬ क|रक ( •,अर •  हकP| क| üक|र¬| ,4ल|¬|
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1.कत| क|रक ·- व|†¤ म क|¤ कर¬ व|ल क| कत| क(त (1
HP - \.र|म ¬ ü³ Îल¼| 1 २.4(¬ ¬ ¼|¬| üक|¤| 1 ².(म क(| H| र( ( Š 1 ç¬ व|†¤| म र|म 
,4(¬ त¤| (म क|म कर¬ व|ल (1 अत कत| क|रक (1
2.कम क|रक ·-  P7| ¤| Pव¬|म अ¤व| ÍHP व1त ¤| व¤Íñ üर ह•¤| क| üH|व üs 3P कम  
क|रक क(त (1
HP -अº¤|üक ,U|³ क| ü|òत| (1 çPक| άन( क| (|त| (1 क(| - क(| कम क| άन( U|ü| र(त| 
(1 HP - P|त| 9ल ¼|त| (1
2.करण क|रक ·- ÍHP P|º¬ P ह•¤| (|त| (,3P करण क|रक क(त (1
HP -4…¬| 4|तल P d¸ º ü|त| (1 २.4…¬ "d P ¼ल र( (1 "d ,4|तल क| P(|¤त| P क|म (| 
र(| (1
ˆ.P¹üd|¬ क|रक ·- ÍHPक Îल7 कत| कU क|¤ कर ,3P P¹üd|¬ क|रक क(त (1
HP - \."र|4| क| ¼|¬| d|1 २.मर Îल7 d¸ º लकर HH 1 ¤(| üर "र|4 ,मर ,क Îल7 क|म हक¤| H| र(| 
(1 अत P¹üd|¬ क|रक (1
S.अü|d|¬ क|रक ·- P7| ¤| Pव¬|म क ÍHP Fü P हकP| व1त क अल" (|¬ क| 4|º (|,व(| अü|d|¬ 
क|रक (|त| (1
HP - \.üs P Hम Î"र|1 २.(|¤ P Us| Î"र "(1 ç¬ व|†¤| म Hम ,Us| P अल" (|¬ क| 7|¬ कर| र(  
(1
‘.P¹4नº क|रक ·-  P7| ¤| Pव¬|म क ÍHP Fü P 7क व1त क| d¸ Pर| व1त P P¹4नº 7|त (|,3P 
P¹4नº क|रक क(त (1
HP - \.P|त|üर ,म|(¬ क| "|व (1 २.P¬| क Hव|¬ H र( (1
ç¬ व|†¤| म म|(¬ क| "HP ,P¬| क Hव|¬ Hहd H€d| क| HüP म P¹4नº (|¬ क| üत| ¬लत| (1
’.अκकरण क|रक ·- P7| क ÍHP Fü P ह•¤| क Hº|र क| 4|º (|,3P अκकरण क|रक क(त (1
HP - (र| Þर म (1 ü1तक मH üर (1 र|म कल H7"|1
 “ P4|º¬ क|रक ·- P7| ¤| Pव¬|म क ÍHP Fü P 4ल|¬ ¤| üक|र¬ क| 4|º (|,3P P4|º¬ क|रक क(त 
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(1
HP - \.( (”र • रक| कर| २.अर• 4…¬| H|र मत कर| 1
अर,( (”र ,H€d| P üत| ¬लत| ( हक 3न( P4|º¬ हक¤| H| र(| (1
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क|रक क ÍवÎHन¬ ά•
क|रक ά• अ¤
कत| ¬ क|म कर¬ व|ल|
कम क| ÍHP üर क|म क| üH|व üs
करण P, §|र| ÍHPक §|र| कत| क|म कर
P¹üd|¬ क|,क Îल7 ÍHPक Îल7 ह•¤| क| H|7
अü|d|¬ P (अल" (|¬|) ÍHPP अल"|व (|
P¹4नº क|, क|, क; ¬|, ¬|, ¬; र|, र|, र अन¤ üd| P P¹4नº
अκकरण म,üर ह•¤| क| Hº|र
P4|º¬ (! अर! अH|! हकP| क| üक|र¬|, 4ल|¬|

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कत| क|रक
ह•¤| कर¬ व|ल क| कत| क(त (‹1 ¤( 1वत³ (|त| (1 çPम '¬' ÍवHÍñ क| ü¤|" (|त| (1 HP -
 र|Hन• ¬ ü³ HH| (1
 म‹¬ H|H¬ हक¤| (1
क(|-क(| व|†¤ म कत| क|रक क '¬ ' ά• क| ल|ü H| र(त| (1 HP-
 र|म र|ò| ¼|त| (1
 म‹ H|त| (
¸
1
कम क|रक
ÍHP üर ह•¤| क व¤|ü|र क| üH|व üsत| (1 3P कम क|रक क(त (‹1 çPम 'क|' ÍवHÍñ ά• क| ü¤|" (|त| 
(1 HP-
 "|ü|ल ¬ र|º| क| 4ल|¤| (1
 3P¬ ü|¬| क| U|¬| (1
कU व|†¤| म कम क|रक क ά• 'क|' क| ल|ü H| र(त| (1 HP-
 –¤|म ü1तक üõत| (1
 मर §|र| ¤( क|¤ (

H (1
करण क|रक
ÍHPक §|र| ह•¤| (|त| (, 3P करण क|रक क(त (‹1 करण क|रक क ÍवHÍñ ά• 'P, §|र|' (‹1 HP-
 कलम P ü³ Îल¼| (1
 मर §|र| क|¤ (

H (1
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P¹üd|¬ क|रक
ÍHPक Îल7 ह•¤| क| H|त| ( अ¤व| ÍHP क|( व1त d| H|त| ( , व(| P¹üd|¬ क|रक (|त| (1 çPक ÍवHÍñ 
ά• 'क Îल7' Hर 'क|' (‹1 HP-
 H¸¼ क Îल7 र|ò| ल|H1
 र|H 7|¬¸ क| ü1तक dत| (1
 म‹ 4|H|र क| H| र(| (
¸
1
अü|d|¬ क|रक
H(| 7क P7| क| d¸ Pर| P7| P अल" (|¬| P¸Î¬त (|त| ( , व(| अü|d|¬ क|रक (|त| (1 çPक| ÍवHÍñ ά•
'P' (1 HP-
 üs P üd Î"र1
 लsक| Uत P Î"र| (1
 म 4‹क P •ü¤| ल|¤| (
¸
1
P¹4नº क|रक
H(| 7क P7| ¤| Pव¬|म क| P¹4नº d¸ Pर| P7| ¤| Pव¬|म P P¸Î¬त (|त| ( , व(| P¹4नº क|रक (|त| (1 
çPक ÍवHÍñ ά• क|, क|, क ; र|, र|, र; ¬|, ¬|, ¬ (‹1 HP-
 र|म क| लsक|, –¤|म क| लsक|, "|त| क 4…¬1
 मर| लsक|, मर| लsक|, (म|र 4…¬1
 अü¬| लsक|, अü¬| लsक|, अü¬ लsक1
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अκकरण क|रक
H(| क|( P7| ¤| Pव¬|म हकP| अन¤ P7| ¤| Pव¬|म क| Hº|र (|, व(| अκकरण क|रक (|त| (1 çPक
ÍवHÍñ ά• 'म, üर' (‹1 HP-
 म(ल म d|üक Hल र(| (1
 Uü üर कüs P¸¼ र( (‹1
 म$म HÍñ 4(

त कम (1
P¹4|º¬ क|रक
H(| üक|र¬ , ¬त|व¬| d¬ ¤| º¤|¬ Hकͤत कर¬ क Îल7 हकP| क| P¹4|κत हक¤| H|त| ( , व(| P¹4|º¬
क|रक (|त| (1 çPक ÍवHÍñ ά• '(, अर, अH|' (‹1 HP-
 ( (”र! कü| कर|1
 अर म|(¬! çºर HH1
 अH|! तम 3P †¤| म|र|" ?
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           Expanation &f 1arak with exa!pe
                ,  The 0ases are indicated by the addition of suffixes ÍवHÍñ ( - }    vibhakti separation or post 
,   —  .         ,               positions prefixes &ny for vocative case the case endings are used as 3üP" 
( }  .        ,            upsarg prefix )or a other cases the case endings are üc¤¤ ( } - pratyaya suffix
 
1.कत| ( ¬ }   ( } ‰   ( } ‰ (       } kartaa ne No!inative sub$ect who is a doer
 (Íर H|त| ( ˜(      . } Hari $aataa hai
     . Hari goes  
2.कम (क|}   ( } ‰   ( }  . .  Ž       . kar!a ko Accusative ob$ect i e action deed which is done
(Íर Þर क| H|त| (˜
(         . }          . Hari ghar ko $aataa hai Hari goes to the house
2.करण (P, क §|र| }   ( ,    }   ( ,  } -      karan se ke dwaara instru!enta by with producing or causing
(Íर क|र P Þर क| H|त| (˜
(             .}              . Hari car se ghar ko $aata hai Hari goes to the house by car
 ˆ.P¹üd|¬ (क|,  क Îल¤}   ( ,    } ‰   ( }  .     Ž   sa!pradaan ko ke iye ,ative for ie to who! for who! 
given
(Íर क|र P Þर क| ¼|¬ क Îल¤ H|त| (˜
(                    .}                 . Hari car se ghar ko khaaney ke iye $aata hai Hari goes to the house by car for food
S.अü|d|¬ (P}    ( } ‰   ( }‰     ( Ž } apaadaan se Abative fro! taking fro! separation detach!ent
 (Íर क|¤|ल¤ P क|र P Þर क| ¼|¬ क Îल¤ H|त| ( ˜
(                         .} Hari kaaryaaay sey car se ghar ko khaaney ke iye $aata hai
                      . Hari goes to the house by car for food fro! the office
‘.P¹4नº ( क|,क ,क|}   ( , , }‰   ( }-      Ž .  sa!bandh kaa kay kee "enitive of bound up with reated
                          The "enitive 0ase signifies any reation or connection which !ay exist between two or 
      .    !ore persons or things
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  ,    ,    ,    .  His pen his car his cothes his cars
3Pक| ü¬, 3Pक| क|र, 3Pक कüs, 3Pक| क|र
(Íर क|¤|ल¤ P 3Pक| क|र P Þर क| ¼|¬ क Îल¤ H|त| ( ˜
(                          .} Hari kaaryaaay sey uskee car se ghar ko khaaney ke iye $aata hai
                        . Hari goes to the house by his car for food fro! the office
’.अκकरण (म, üर, ü}   ( ,  ,  } ‰  ( ,  }- adhikaran !ein par pe (ocative in on
        ,  ,      .‰  It has reference to pace ti!e and ogica se2uence
कP™ üर 4òत| (˜
(Íर क|¤|ल¤ P 3Pक| क|र P Þर क| ¼|¬ क Îल¤ H|त| ( Hर कP™ üर 4òत| ( ˜(   Hari 
                            kaaryaaay sey uskee car se ghar ko khaaney keiye $aata hai aur kursee par baithata 
 .} hai
                                  . Hari goes to the house by his car for food fro! the office and sits on the chair
“.P¹4|º¬  ‰   ( }- sa!bodhan %ocative &h
                          . The %ocative is the 0ase used when a person or persons are directy addressed
(Íर क|¤|ल¤ P 3Pक| क|र P Þर क| ¼|¬ क Îल¤ H|त| ( Hर कP™ üर 4òत| ( 7व P4|κत करत|  
(üक|रत| } (,H H"¬ çºर HH˜
(                              Hari kaaryaaay sey uskee car se ghar ko khaaney keiye $aata hai aur kursee par 
        (   .}  ,      . .} baithata hai eva! sa!bondhit karta pukaarta hai oh $agan idhar aao
                                    Hari go to the house by his car for food fro! the office and sits on the chair and 
 (   },    ,    .  addresses cas out oh 3agan co!e here
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Simple Practice:
Some examples for you to work on above lines.
Example.
म‹¬ म|(¬ क| (|¤ P ¼|¬ क Îल¤ 4त¬ P άक|ल कर म(H क| र|ò| मH üर d|˜
(Mainey Mohan ko haath se khaaney key liye bartan se nikaalkar Mahesh kee rotee mez par
ee.!
"n takin# out from the utensil$ % #ave Mahesh& brea on the table to Mohan to eat with han.
म‹ d¸ º क| 4|तल P ü|त| (
¸
˜म‹ ü|òH|ल| P ¬लत| (
¸
˜
म‹ üÎमल| क| Þर P H|त d¼त| (
¸
˜ व "|त| क कüs| क| Þर P लत (‹˜
म‹ र|¬| क| हकत|4 üõत| (
¸
˜म‹ म| क| ¬|¤ क| ü|त| (
¸
˜
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क|ल ( } 1aa
  Tenses
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S क|ल ( }Ž   1aa Tenses
07a9 वतम|¬ क|ल P4º| ¼¸4P¸रत व|†¤
( Vartmaan kaal sambandhee khoobsoorat aak!a)
!resen# #ense re(a#ed sen#en%es
1.(म (  }  we P4( (   }  !orning P (  Ž  }  since fro! çतH|र (  }  waiting कर र( ( ˜          We have been waiting
    . since the !orning
(             .}  Ha! subah se in$te$aar kar rahey hain
2.¤( रल"|s| (   }  train तH (  }  fast ¬लत| ( ˜           Ž   . This train runs !oves fast
(          .}  Yah raigaadee ta$ chatee hain
2.तम üरH|¬ (  }  upset ¬Hर (   }  see! Hत (| ˜          . You see! to be upset
(         .}  Tu! pareshaan na4ar aatey ho
ˆ व अ…U ल|" (  }  peope (˜        . They are nice peope
(       .}  %ey acchhey oag hain
S.Hάव|र मर| šत (   }  fast क| हd¬ (|त| ( ˜              . Saturday is the day of !y fast
              .}   Shaniwaar !era vera vrat ka din hota hai
‘.म$ लs|( (   }  fight P क|( Pर|क|र(       }  nothing to do ¬(| ( ˜                  . I have nothing to do with the fight
(             . *u$hey adaayee se koyee sarokaar nahin hai
’.çP P|ü(  }  snake क| क|ò| (   }  bite ü|¬| (   }  water H| ¬(| म|" (   }  ask ü|त| (   }  abe (     IThe person
                      . bitten by this snake is not even abe to ask for water
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(                 .   .}  Is saanp kaa kaataa paanee bhee nahin !aang paataa hai
C †¤| तम 7 you 9 मर 7 me 9 P|¤ 7 with 9 H 7 coming 9 र( (|D Are you coming with meD
78ya tum merey saath aa rahey hoD9
E म$ तम¬ 7 pistol9 P sर 7 afraid 9 ल"त| ( F
7#ujhey tamanchey se dar lagataa hai.9
am afraid of pistol.
G%.d क|¬ 7 shops 9 र|त क dP 4H 4d 7 closed 9(|त| (‹ F
71ukaaney raat key das bajey band hotee hain.9
The shops are closed at ten oHclock at night.
Vo%a+$(ary   H€d|वल| (S/a+da&a(ee)
šत 7Irat9 fast
Pर|क|र 7sarokaar9 nothing to do.
तम¬ 7 tamanchey 9 pistol
d क|¬ 7 shops 9
0$i12
 "ill in the blank. म$ JJJ P JJ ल"त| ( F
 .hat do you mean by H in HindiD
 *orrect this sentence. P|ü çP क| ü|¬|क|ò| ü|त| H| ¬(| म|" ( F
 Iarious meaning of म|र in Hindi F
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S( } b H¸त क|ल P4º| व|†¤
( 3/oo# kaa( sam+and/ee 'aakya)
!as# #ense re(a#ed sen#en%es
1.म$ üत| ¬ल| (       }  ca!e to know हक व( ¤(| र(त| ( }  ives ¤|˜                    I ca!e to know that she used to ive
. here
(                .} *u$hey pata chaa ki vah yahan rahtee thee
2.म|¬¸ ü|¬| ü| "¤|(  } ˜        . drank *eenu drank up water
(       .}  *eenu paanee pee gayee
2.म$ त¹(|र| 3ü(|र (  }  gift üPनd H¤|˜        . I iked your gift
(         .} *u$hey tu!haaraa uphaar pasand aaya
ˆ.म‹¬ 3PP ü(ल (   }  before P 4|त क| ¤| ˜            . I had spoken to her before
(             .}  *ainey usasey pahey se baat kee thee
S.अ¬|Îमक| ¬ ü¸H| P 4|त (   }  tak क|˜        . Ana!ika spoke to #oo$a
(           .}  Ana!ika ney #oo$a se baat kee
‘."d 9क| (   }  thrown "¤|˜        . The ba was thrown
(      .}  "end fenka gaya
 ’.3Pक| P|म|¬ "|¤4 ¤| 1   Ž     His stuff artice was !issing
(       .}  5ska saa!aan gayab tha
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“.3P¬ H¸त Hर P|हs¤| Dर|d ˜               . He bought the sarees and the shoes
(          .}  5sney $ootey aur sadiyaan kharedey
E.र|म¸ ¬ ü|¬| Íü¤|F 7 drank9 'amu drank the water.
7'aamu ney paanee piya9
G%.हd¬H ¬ म$क| s|ò| ¤| F1inesh had scolded me.
71inesh ney mujhko daantaa tha9
GG †¤| Hü¬ H¸त 7 shoes 9 ¤| म|H 7 socks 9 ¼र|d D 1id you buy shoes or socksD
78ya aapney jootey ya mo:ey khareedeyD9
GK.3P¬ "d 7 ball 9 9क| F He threw the ball.
72sney gend fenkaa.9
G$.म‹ 3Pक| d¸ क|¬ 7 store9 म Îमल| 7 met 9 F met him in the store.
7#ain usko dookan mein mila.9
H€d|वल| (S/a+da&a(ee) 4Vo%a+$(ary
üत| ¬ल|7 pata chala9 /came to know
ü| "¤| 7 pee gayee9 / drank
3ü(|र 7uphaar9 /gift
ü(ल 7pahley 9 / before
4|त 7 baat9 / talk
"d 7 gend9 /ball
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9क| 7fenkaa9/ threw
d¸ क|¬ 7 dookaan9/ store
0$i12
G. #ake this into two separate sentences. म$ üत|7 came to know 9 ¬ल| हक व( ¤(| र(त| 7lives9 ¤|F
K. Synonym for 3ü(|र L P|म|¬in HindiD
$. Singular for H¸त L म|H in HindiD
M. 3lease answer to this AuestionD
3P¬ †¤| 9क| D
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