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HINDIMASTERJEE.COM
(d| |
(Hindi Vyakaran)
BASIC HINDI GRAMMAR HANDBOOK BY HINDIMATERJEE.COM
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!RE"ACE
This is a work of art dedicated to all the who are struggling to find right resources to ease
learning Hindi grammar just enough to be able to write and speak correctly without getting lost
in definitions . Surprised to see a Grammar book referred as Art , yes it is an art to present
the right content in a user friendly manner which should leave a footstep in the memory of the
reader. hope have accomplished this in this handbook.
This book would be incomplete without the mention of all the selfless individuals who have
helped me at every step towards setting up Hindi !earning "oundation and providing all the
necessary content and review. The first and foremost is #r.Suresh Seetaraman who has
dedicated $% years in learning and teaching Hindi language even to foreigners and gladly
guided me to compile this book.The ne&t person is #r.'amachandran #enon who showed
me the path to ()e the change want to bring ( rather than sit and wait for someone to do and
motivated me to take responsibilty and help in putting together the right resources .
Today here am presenting this first of its kind user focussed Hindi Grammar book .
Hindi "oundation is a Self "unded project of *herishma *onsulting, helping Hindi learners to
read ,write and communicate effectively in Hindi and partners +G,-s working in Skills
development of youths who want to impove their computer knowledge and *ommunication
skills. .e want to build an inclusive community where each member feels a sense of
achievement and contributes towards Hindi language development.
#amta Singh
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Hindi an In#rod$%#ion
Hindi the national language of ndia is an ndo/Aryan language with over 0%% million speakers. t is
one of the official languages of ndia and is the main language used in the northern states of
'ajasthan, 1elhi, Haryana, 2ttarakhand, 2ttar 3radesh, #adhya 3radesh, *hhattisgarh, Himachal
3radesh, 4harkhand and )ihar, and is spoken in much of north and central ndia alongside other
languages such as 3unjabi, Gujarati, #arathi or )engali. n other parts of ndia, as well as in +epal,
)angladesh and 3akistan, Hindi is understood. n "iji people of ndian origin speak Hindi, and in some
areas the "ijian people also speak it.
Hindi is a phonetic language. Hindi words are pronounced e&actly as they are written. 5ou don-t have
to memorise the correct spelling of a word. All consonants have an -a- sound inherent in them. To write
the 6nglish word -come- in 1evanagari script all you do is assemble the two consonants 78a9 and
7#a9 by keeping them together and joining them with the hori:ontal head stroke as shown below
(Kam)
Similarly to write the Hindi word -kamal- 7lotus9 you will simply add (La) to the end of the
above word and join all three letters together with the hori:ontal line;
(Kamal)
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1.(d| ||
(d| || (S2} (| ( ,H| ( -
1( } a 1
H ( 3 3 7 7 H H #
1 ( s&ar ) 'o&e(s
H ( 3 3 7
a <a i ee u oo e
| |
pa p<a pi pee pu p= pe

7 H H #
ai o au ag a > i
| | |
pai po pau pa pa p< pe
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2. vyanjana ( Vyan)an ) Consonan#s
H
" s
U H $ H
s
d
9 4 H

P H (
7
( || d|"| | (1 d|"| P1,||,|| ,||,| Hd
H||7 | H|| ( I

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vyanjana ( Vyan)an ) Consonan#s
" s U H $ H
ka kha ga gha a ca cha ja jha ?a
s d
!a !ha "a "ha #a ta tha da dha na
9 4 H
pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va
H P (
@a $a sa ha
Additional consonants (used in words of Persian,
Arabic and English Origin)
4 D T H 9 s
Aa %a Ba :a :ha fa a rha
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Common %on)$n%# %onsonan#s

3
7 c d s
ksa Aum j?a ttka dva dya dda tta "h"ha
V ( H
dma hma hya @ra tra rpa pra !ra

Shru
g
Tru
e
Surp 3ray Tram
Counting Numerals
\ U c \
H 7 d| | | | U P| H | dP
unya ek do teen ch! " ch cha #t h nau das
$ % & ' ( ) * + , - %$
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Language
Script
Grammar
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2.H|| , ,|
(Language ,Script , Grammar)
H|| ( P| (,HP | P ( P| ( | || |
(1
* , H|| | || | d| | ,P | (-
4| (| } .. ie Spoken
( } . ie Written
| H|| - | H|| * || | |H|| | 4| (1
| H|| | |" H| (|| ( ,H4 || P| (|1 P | | |" 9~,|,P|d
7 H| Hd (|| (1
H|| -H|| F | || 7 |H|| | Hd|-d|
| H|| (1 F H|| | 1|| | (|| (1 1 P| | | H|| (1
2( } a H|| H 4||
H|| ,H4 |( P| 4s H-H|" 4|| H| "| ( ,| 3P| | H|| P (| "| (1 P|
| F | 4|| ( (1 |( H| 4|| P (| P|(c | H|| 4 H|| (1 H4 |( H||
8 (| P|(c H|| d HP| (|| ( ,| 3P P| (| |H|| | H|| |
31 | (|| (1 || ,(| |H|| 8 7 3 (| P|(c H|| | F
T( | (1 HH H| (d| ( 4| ( | ( ,( s| 4|| ( ,P |,H ,|
Hd 4|| H| P|(c H|| d HP| (| | (1
2( } b (d| | H||7
PP| H||7 4|| H|| (1 HP -TH|,P|,H|||,||,4|,(d| ,3d Hd1 (| H|
H| H||7 4|| H|| ( 1 HP -4"|,"H||,||,3s| ,," Hd1 (d| H| P4P
4|| H P$| H|| (1 (d| H|| | P| |HH|| | dH| d| "| (1
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2( } c
| H|d (|| ( - | | 1
| | 7 H | ||" | H|| (,(| (|| (1
c H|| | | -" (|| (1 (d| | d|"| (1 (d| || -P1
,||,||,|| Hd H||7 H| d|"| | H|| (1
2( } d (d| |
| ( | (,HP || P| H|| | H 4|| | | H|| H|| (1 | H|| |
1| | 4| | | (1 | H|| H 7 H |"| | d| (1 P
| ,( ( P ( c H|| (| ( ,3P H|| | | H|| | H |
4|| P|| (1 | | H|" (| ( -
-|-P 3| ,F ,H|,Hd,Hd P4 (|| (1
Hd - | - P Hd| Hd ,F,|"| | 3cd | | H|| (1
| -|- P | | ,3 |,3 Hd,",|",T( Hd |
| H|| (1
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| | ( } vakya vichar
SYNTAX
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. Syntax
. Hindi uses a different word order than Engish The !ain differences are that verbs are
( } ( paced at the end of the sentence ike in "er!an and that Hindi ike other Indian
} . anguages uses postpositions instead of prepositions
. #ostpositions are ike prepositions except that they are written after the noun
Exa!pe
Nor!a sentences
Engish Sub$ect %erb &b$ect I earn Hindi
Hindi Sub$ect &b$ect %erb I Hindi earn
I!perative sentences
En./0#h1 2e!3 4/ace Ad5e!3 6 Co7e he!e no8
H0nd01 4/ace Ad5e!3 2e!3 6He!e no8 co7e
'uestion s
Engish Adverb Auxiary %erb Sub$ect %erb What are you drawing
Hindi Sub$ect Adverb %erb You what draw
( } a Word &rder
The basic word order in Hindi is - - ( - - } Sub$ect &b$ect %erb S & % . , However since Hindi
, uses !ore infections and cases than Engish word order is so!ewhat ess i!portant in
. , . - - . Hindi (ets consider the sentence I a! #anka$ This Engish word order is S % & )or
- - . Hindi we wi change it to S & %
- - ( - - } Sub$ect &b$ect %erb S & % H (1 - . I #anka$ a!
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( } b Artices
, ( , , } . In Hindi artices a an the aren t used So!eti!es the word for the nu!ber one is
. , , , used for an indefinite artice )or exa!pe instead of saying "ive !e a pen you woud
, . , . say "ive !e one pen It is aso fine $ust to say "ive !e pen
%ocabuary
dog d| . ! book |4 . f peope |"
. . . Note The ! and f in the tabe above denote the gender of a noun Every noun is
. either !ascuine or fe!inine It is very i!portant to earn the gender when earning
. Hindi nouns *ore on gender in (esson
Exa!pes
( } . He far is +a$
( |H (1
( } . She near is Neetu
( | (1
. I a! A!it
(

1
( } . You for!a are ,eepak
H d| (1
( } . You ess for!a are +avi
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(|1
( } You infor!a are *ohit
|( (1
. We are peope
( |" (1
. That is a dog
( d| (1
. This is a book
( |4 (1
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* (%) Ver+s (,RI-A)
Hindi verbs are infected with respect to
gender ( , }, of the sub$ect !ascuine fe!inine
nu!ber ( , }, of the sub$ect singuar pura
tense( , , }, present past future
action( , , }, perfect i!perfect continuous
degree of respect( , , }. inti!ate fa!iiar respect
. %erbs are referred to in their infinitive noun for! which ends in na
Exa!pes
bona to speak
ikhna to write
ena to take
ana to co!e
. The ste! of a verb is the infinitive for! without the - na. ending
Exa!pes
, , , bo ikh e a
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( } ( } d Nouns SAN"YA
( } ( } "ender (ing Nu!ber %achan
, Hindi has two genders !ascuine( } nouns ending in a and fe!inine
( } . nouns ending in I but there are exceptions
, ( } ( } As for the nu!ber we distinguish between singuar Ekvachan and pura /ahuvachan
0ase
, There are two cases in Hindi direct and indirect.
- , The indirect case is used when the noun is foowed by a post position otherwise the
. direct case is used
Exa!pes
- *ascuine nouns on a arka boy
( } ( } Singuar arka direct arke indirect

( } ( } #ura arke direct arkon indirect


- )e!inine nouns on i arki gir
( } ( } Singuar arki direct arki indirect
( } ( } #ura arkiyan direct arkiyon indirect
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(,arak)
!os#.osi#ion
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4 (e) | (Karak) /Postposition
| - | P7| | P| Hd| P| | | P4 | (|| (1
HP -
\.P|| 9 || (1
.| ss P |s | || 1
.| | d H7"|1
.| P | (1
| Hd
(d| || | P| H ( -\.| | . | . |
.Pd| | .|d| | .P4 | U. | c.P4|
|
* | H ( *
| (
| | ||
| | HP | | H| s
| P HP || | |
Pd| | |, 7 HP 7 | | H|7
|d| | P (" (|| } HPP "| (|
P4 | |,|, ,|,|, d| P P4
| , | | H|
P4| | ( , P| | || ,4||
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1.| |-| | | | | ( (1
HP -\.| | 1 .4( || || 1 .( (| H| ( ( 1 || |
,4( | ( | | (1 | | (1
2. |- P7| | P| | HP 1 | | | H| s 3P
| ( (1
HP -| ,U| | || (1 P| ( | (|| (1 (| -(| | ( U|| (|
(1 HP -P|| 9 || (1
2. |-HP P| P | (|| (,3P | ( (1
HP -4| 4| P d || (1 .4 "d P ( (1 "d ,4| | P(|| P | (|
(| (1
.Pd| |-HP 7 | U | ,3P Pd| | ( (1
HP -\."|4| | || d|1 . 7 d HH 1 (| "|4 , , 7 | | H| (|
(1 Pd| | (1
S.|d| |-P7| | P| HP F P P| 1 " (| | 4| (|,(| |d|
| (|| (1
HP -\.s P H "|1 .(| P Us| " "(1 || H ,Us| P " (| | 7| | (
(1
.P4 |- P7| | P| HP F P 7 1 | d P| 1 P P4 7| (|,3P
P4 | ( (1
HP -\.P|| ,|( | "| (1 .P| H| H ( (1
|| |( | "HP ,P| H| Hd Hd| | HP P4 (| | | | (1
. |-P7| HP F P | H| | 4| (|,3P | ( (1
HP -(| (1 1 H (1 | H7"|1
P4| |-P7| | P| HP F P 4| | | | 4| (|,3P P4| | (
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(1
HP -\.( ( | | .4| H| | 1
,( ( ,Hd| P | | ( 3( P4| | H| (| (1
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| H
|
| | ||
| HP | | H| s
P, || HP || | |
Pd| |, 7 HP 7 | | H|7
|d| P (" (||) HPP "| (|
P4 |, |, ; |, |, ; |, |, d| P P4
, | | H|
P4| (! ! H|! P| | ||, 4||

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| |
| | | | ( (1 ( 1 (|| (1 P '' H | |" (|| (1 HP -
|H HH| (1
H|H | (1
(|-(| | | | ' ' | | H| (| (1 HP-
| || || (1
H|| (

1
|
HP | || | H| s| (1 3P | ( (1 P '|' H | |" (||
(1 HP-
"|| || | 4|| (1
3P || | U|| (1
U || | '|' | | H| (| (1 HP-
| 1 | (1
|| ( | (

H (1
|
HP || | (|| (, 3P | ( (1 | H 'P, ||' (1 HP-
P | (1
|| | (

H (1
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Pd| |
HP 7 | | H|| ( | HP |( 1 d| H|| ( , (| Pd| | (|| (1 P H
' 7' H '|' (1 HP-
H 7 || |H1
|H 7| | 1 d| (1
4|H| | H| (| (

1
|d| |
H(| 7 P7| | d P| P7| P " (|| P (|| ( , (| |d| | (|| (1 P| H
'P' (1 HP-
s P d "1
s| U P "| (1
4 P | || (

1
P4 |
H(| 7 P7| | P| | P4 d P| P7| | P| P P (|| ( , (| P4 | (|| (1
P H |, |, ; |, |, ; |, |, (1 HP-
| | s|, | | s|, "|| 41
| s|, | s|, (| 41
| s|, | s|, s1
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|
H(| |( P7| | P| P| P7| | P| | H| (|, (| | (|| (1 P
H ', ' (1 HP-
( d| H (| (1
U s P ( (1
$ H 4(

(1
P4| |
H(| | , || d | | H 7 P| | P4| | H|| ( , (| P4|
| (|| (1 P H '(, , H|' (1 HP-
( (! | |1
|(! HH1
H|! 3P | ||" ?
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Expanation &f 1arak with exa!pe
, The 0ases are indicated by the addition of suffixes H ( - } vibhakti separation or post
, . , positions prefixes &ny for vocative case the case endings are used as 3P"
( } . , upsarg prefix )or a other cases the case endings are c ( }- pratyaya suffix

1.| ( } ( } ( }( } kartaa ne No!inative sub$ect who is a doer


( H|| ( ( .} Hari $aataa hai
. Hari goes
2. (|} ( } ( } . . . kar!a ko Accusative ob$ect i e action deed which is done
( | H|| (
( .} . Hari ghar ko $aataa hai Hari goes to the house
2. (P, || } ( , } ( , }- karan se ke dwaara instru!enta by with producing or causing
( | P | H|| (
( .} . Hari car se ghar ko $aata hai Hari goes to the house by car
.Pd| (|, } ( , } ( } . sa!pradaan ko ke iye ,ative for ie to who! for who!
given
( | P | | H|| (
( .} . Hari car se ghar ko khaaney ke iye $aata hai Hari goes to the house by car for food
S.|d| (P} ( } ( } ( } apaadaan se Abative fro! taking fro! separation detach!ent
( || P | P | | H|| (
( .} Hari kaaryaaay sey car se ghar ko khaaney ke iye $aata hai
. Hari goes to the house by car for food fro! the office
.P4 (|, ,|} ( , , } ( }- . sa!bandh kaa kay kee "enitive of bound up with reated
The "enitive 0ase signifies any reation or connection which !ay exist between two or
. !ore persons or things
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, , , . His pen his car his cothes his cars
3P| ,3P| |,3P s,3P| |
( || P 3P| | P | | H|| (
( .} Hari kaaryaaay sey uskee car se ghar ko khaaney ke iye $aata hai
. Hari goes to the house by his car for food fro! the office
. (,,} ( , , } ( , }- adhikaran !ein par pe (ocative in on
, , . It has reference to pace ti!e and ogica se2uence
P 4| (
( || P 3P| | P | | H|| ( H P 4| ( ( Hari
kaaryaaay sey uskee car se ghar ko khaaney keiye $aata hai aur kursee par baithata
.} hai
. Hari goes to the house by his car for food fro! the office and sits on the chair
.P4| ( }- sa!bodhan %ocative &h
. The %ocative is the 0ase used when a person or persons are directy addressed
( || P 3P| | P | | H|| ( H P 4| ( 7 P4| |
(|| }(,H H" HH
( Hari kaaryaaay sey uskee car se ghar ko khaaney keiye $aata hai aur kursee par
( .} , ..} baithata hai eva! sa!bondhit karta pukaarta hai oh $agan idhar aao
Hari go to the house by his car for food fro! the office and sits on the chair and
( }, , . addresses cas out oh 3agan co!e here
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Simple Practice:
Some examples for you to work on above lines.
Example.
|( | (| P | 4 P | (H | || H d|
(Mainey Mohan ko haath se khaaney key liye bartan se nikaalkar Mahesh kee rotee mez par
ee.!
"n takin# out from the utensil$ % #ave Mahesh& brea on the table to Mohan to eat with han.
d | 4| P || (

|H|| P | (


| | P H| d| (

"|| s| | P (
|| | |4 | (

| | | | || (


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| ( } 1aa
Tenses
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S | ( } 1aa Tenses
07a9| | P4| 4P |
( Vartmaan kaal sambandhee khoobsoorat aak!a)
!resen# #ense re(a#ed sen#en%es
1.( ( } we P4( ( } !orning P ( } since fro! H| ( } waiting ( ( We have been waiting
. since the !orning
( .} Ha! subah se in$te$aar kar rahey hain
2.( "|s| ( } train H ( } fast | ( . This train runs !oves fast
( .} Yah raigaadee ta$ chatee hain
2. H| ( } upset H ( } see! H (| . You see! to be upset
( .} Tu! pareshaan na4ar aatey ho
U |" ( } peope ( . They are nice peope
( .} %ey acchhey oag hain
S.H| | ( } fast | d (|| ( . Saturday is the day of !y fast
.} Shaniwaar !era vera vrat ka din hota hai
.$ s|( ( } fight P |( P||( } nothing to do (| ( . I have nothing to do with the fight
( . *u$hey adaayee se koyee sarokaar nahin hai
.P P|( } snake | || ( } bite || ( } water H| (| |" ( } ask || ( } abe ( IThe person
. bitten by this snake is not even abe to ask for water
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( . .} Is saanp kaa kaataa paanee bhee nahin !aang paataa hai
C | 7 you 9 7 me 9 P| 7 with 9 H 7 coming 9 ( (|D Are you coming with meD
78ya tum merey saath aa rahey hoD9
E $ 7 pistol9 P s 7 afraid 9 "| ( F
7#ujhey tamanchey se dar lagataa hai.9
am afraid of pistol.
G%.d | 7 shops 9 | dP 4H 4d 7 closed 9(|| ( F
71ukaaney raat key das bajey band hotee hain.9
The shops are closed at ten oHclock at night.
Vo%a+$(ary Hd|| (S/a+da&a(ee)
7Irat9 fast
P|| 7sarokaar9 nothing to do.
7 tamanchey 9 pistol
d | 7 shops 9
0$i12
"ill in the blank. $ JJJ P JJ "| ( F
.hat do you mean by H in HindiD
*orrect this sentence. P| P | |||| || H| (| |" ( F
Iarious meaning of | in Hindi F
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S( } b H | P4| |
( 3/oo# kaa( sam+and/ee 'aakya)
!as# #ense re(a#ed sen#en%es
1.$ | | ( } ca!e to know ( (| (| ( } ives | I ca!e to know that she used to ive
. here
( .} *u$hey pata chaa ki vah yahan rahtee thee
2.| || | "|( } . drank *eenu drank up water
( .} *eenu paanee pee gayee
2.$ (|| 3(| ( } gift Pd H| . I iked your gift
( .} *u$hey tu!haaraa uphaar pasand aaya
. 3PP ( ( } before P 4| | | . I had spoken to her before
( .} *ainey usasey pahey se baat kee thee
S.|| H| P 4| ( } tak | . Ana!ika spoke to #oo$a
( .} Ana!ika ney #oo$a se baat kee
."d 9| ( } thrown "| . The ba was thrown
( .} "end fenka gaya
.3P| P|| "|4 | 1 His stuff artice was !issing
( .} 5ska saa!aan gayab tha
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.3P H H P|s| D|d . He bought the sarees and the shoes
( .} 5sney $ootey aur sadiyaan kharedey
E.| || |F 7 drank9 'amu drank the water.
7'aamu ney paanee piya9
G%.dH $| s|| | F1inesh had scolded me.
71inesh ney mujhko daantaa tha9
GG | H H 7 shoes 9 | |H 7 socks 9 |d D 1id you buy shoes or socksD
78ya aapney jootey ya mo:ey khareedeyD9
GK.3P "d 7 ball 9 9| F He threw the ball.
72sney gend fenkaa.9
G$. 3P| d | 7 store9 | 7 met 9 F met him in the store.
7#ain usko dookan mein mila.9
Hd|| (S/a+da&a(ee) 4Vo%a+$(ary
| |7 pata chala9 /came to know
| "| 7 pee gayee9 / drank
3(| 7uphaar9 /gift
( 7pahley 9 / before
4| 7 baat9 / talk
"d 7 gend9 /ball
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9| 7fenkaa9/ threw
d | 7 dookaan9/ store
0$i12
G. #ake this into two separate sentences. $ |7 came to know 9 | ( (| (| 7lives9 |F
K. Synonym for 3(| L P||in HindiD
$. Singular for H L |H in HindiD
M. 3lease answer to this AuestionD
3P | 9| D
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