This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
But it is a birdcage with bars. Indifferent, authoritarian, without embarrassment, the sound of the world flowed and reflowed through the bars; the prisoner, inside, was free: he could ta e part in e!erything, nothing on the outside escaped him; he could e!en abandon the cage; the bars were stretched a metre across; he was not e!en trapped. "#$%& '$"'$ $ugust (, )*+, This is not a thesis. Because a thesis should be written not only with sang-froid and all the usual literary precautions, but also re.uires an accumulation of references and general statistical data to which I am loathe to sacrifice the reaction of disgust and fury that dictates this te/t to me. 0n top of which, the former audience for theses, now deserting all prolonged reflection, wallows in the reading of the many copies of 12igests3 in circulation and the stories of intrigue, whether sentimental, diplomatic or criminal, that the press, worn-out by all sorts of ignominy, ser!es it each morning with brea fast. This is not a thesis and will not be satisfied with being simply a protest. This is ambitious. This needs to pro!o e men asleep in lies; to gi!e a sense, a target and a lasting impact to the disgust of an hour, the nausea of an instant. The !alues that presided o!er our idea of life and which loo ed after for us, here and there, those small islands of hope and inter!als of dignity, are being methodically wrec ed by e!ents at which, to ma e matters worse, we are in!ited to watch our !ictory, to salute the eternal destruction of a dragon eternally reborn. But as the scene is repeated are you not struc by the change that is ta ing place in the features of our heroes4 5!en when it6s easy for you to see that, with each new tournament, 7t. George appears unceasingly more and more to loo li e the dragon4 7oon 7t. George will be nothing more than a hideous !ariation of the dragon itself. $nd then, he will be a camouflaged dragon, an e/pert in ma ing us belie!e, that 8 with a stri e of his lance 8 he will stri e the 5!il 5mpire down9 $ugust (, )*+,, will remain for some an unbearable date. 0ne of greatest dates of infamy established by History. %ewspapers pass on with delight the effects of the atomic bomb 8 this future instrument of polemic 8 from
DDD The point to which we ha!e been carried by the latest de!elopments in politics and war means it is indispensable that the legitimacy of a cause be =udged. world opinion was trained into a state of e/citement to protest against the use of mustard gas. riddled to death. >hen ?ondon was in turn mutilated by fascist bombs. and with e/tra impudence. He is beginning to seem to us as more repugnant than the dragon. George e/aggerates. probably of une. The bombing of the !illage of Guernica. in $merica.people to people. 0ne day. it was an entire city 1cleaned3 by a terror raid.apan. 5!ening radio shows announce the entry of the 7o!iet :nion into the war against the ashes and the ruins of .apanese ci!ilians matter4 5!eryone nows that the . the ne/t day. Then when Hamburg burned with the same fire as ?ondon. essentially and before . >e were more than a few. in Great Britain. here.apanese people9 In effect. Ten years ago. These inhuman games appear suddenly derisory now that the atomic bomb has entered ser!ice and democratic bombers ha!e tested its benefits on the .apanese are yellow. we new on which side of the fires the !alues to be defended were to be found. but which both participate in the same horror. Two e!ents. ra<ed to the ground by German s. and it is =ust as much pleasure to burn them as to drown them34 These words so e/ultant and reassuring about the idea that military chiefs would li e to do to human dignity. these words were pronounced in front of a news reporterC 7t. the family of man. a few hundred thousand . was. dropped on 5thiopia by fascist a!iators. was enough to mobili<e 8 in a world still proud of its freedom 8 millions of =ust consciences. a railway station.ue called 1saturation bombing3 under co!er of which immense urban areas were destined to be ine!itably le!elled. we were taught of the beneficial effects of a new bombing techni. than s to a scientific super!isor.uadrons in 7pain. These perfected practices. 2id not a character who is far from being a 1war criminal3 but rather $dmiral >illiam Halsey declare: 1>e are drowning and burning the bestial apes all o!er the Pacific. to belie!e them as detestable as the di!erse forms of torment perfected by the %a<is. into which thousands of refugees were pac ed. e!il yellow people @the Ahinese represent the 1 ind3 yellow peopleB. what does the premeditated assassination of ten thousand.ual scale. these supreme refinements in murder possessed nothing that could enhance the cause of freedom.
In aid of causes that still ris calling on the best of man. %e!ertheless he would be wrong to turn in his gra!e while dreaming of his copyright fees. the frenetic organi<ation of lies by the 7tate at all times of day. That a type of socialism that owes its ad!ent to the mar!els of intrigue. this . In one section of the population. then we will stand up. The recourse to denunciation when faced with a passing need is . $ugust (. before double-loc ing the door and e/pressing oursel!es only in measured terms and according to a suddenly academic type of thin ing. Indeed. This is how the cult of the leader6s infallibility. 2irect the debate towards the ultimate aims for which people are calling. ha!e become the generally accepted forms of political and social progress9 $nd it is precisely against such a powerful show of aberrations that we must repeat. in two. >hile the gaping wound of Hiroshima still smo es 8 that martyr city chosen for the test of the first atomic bomb 8 7talin6s #ussia stri es a blow to .. chec the pillars and appearance of the staircase. the ecstatic reinforcement of false hierarchies. we wanted to add to his historical contribution. but which we disco!er 8 at the moment of !ictory 8 ha!e been promoted to the ran of national deformities. without respite. the te/t of the 7o!iet declaration of war informs us that the :77#6s entry into the war has no other aim than 1to shorten the war3 and 1sa!e human li!es39 $ ceasefire of small means 8 there it . on the means that it puts into action. the following ob!ious truth: That the proletariat would not consider rising up by recourse to the means by which its enemies debase themsel!es.apan with the famous stab-in-the-bac trademar ed by Eussolini. it is indispensable to establish an in!entory of means that are unli ely to obfuscate the stated aim. in another section. the life of each man.anything else. $nd the same is true of other means that were stolen from the enemy to better dominate and destroy it. )*+. The middle-of-the-road has become an institution 8 and it cuts the life of a nation. denunciation. a shame of denunciation. political blac mail and ideological fraud would be contaminated at its source by the !ery instruments of its !ictory and that man and peoples would sin through an e/cess of candour if they e/pected anything else from it but a change of the shadows. growing police terror towards citi<ens who still wish to remain relati!ely lucid. intellectual defects carefully protected against possible re!olts of reason.uic ly forms into a habit of denunciation. the sei<ure of all sources of information and all the instruments of distribution. Because we were not =ust happy to plagiari<e his beau/ gestes.uic ly translated into a bureaucracy of denunciation.
in and of itself. $ugust (. to pitiless e/ceptional laws.is. the theoreticians of total pacifism.ual in nobility. >ar alone. in the 1mo!ement3 of today. the troubadours of 0uter Eongolia will ha!e the time to pro!ide the epilogue on the pacifist and humanist character of the Easter6s decision. )*+. 0n the other hand 8 and with the absence of any Bonapartes on the hori<on 8 a 1=ust3 war differs from ordinary e/peditions of theft in what it imposes on those who lead it. To eep ali!e an underta ing based on popular fer!our. none will contest. the rationing of enthusiasm. constituted a tyranny that yielded nothing to the one you propose to defeat 8 or so said. is difficult to e. and politicians in!ested with the most arbitrary powers of which they were more or less freed of ha!ing to =ustify. an end in itself. a rhythm and a set of demands that are difficult for them to tolerate. But the persistent rule with the leaders of peoples 8 often e!en those who appear to ha!e returned directly from the firing line or the factory-floor meeting 8 is to erode their hierarchical weight by dri!ing the moti!ating forces entrusted to them into the traditional framewor s of a country at war. $nd during the centuries to come. total pacifists set about pro!ing that no =ust wars e/isted. without con!incing us. on the order of those who fear. 0ne of the themes that returned again and again in this long e/change of ideas and arguments was that of 1=ust wars. But the peculiar of =ust wars is not ma ing them last long. is one of the lowest dates in the career of humanity. They were wrong. . OF JUST WARS AND THE DANGER OF WINNING THEM Eany years before the world hurried into a war against fascism. also produce a Bonaparte. that to pretend to fight tyranny through war was to deli!er oneself to the tyranny of a military machine without bra es. those responsible for running the war must ha!e the clear-minded boldness to let the mo!ing forces on which they draw their strength retain their character of masses on fire 8 the mass in full progress and conscious of the direction of its Flan..ust wars do e/ist. the 1uphea!al3 of tomorrow. which is a particularly diabolical way for them to cease being =ust. I mean the arbitrary tightening of the mo!ing forces of a nation.3 >ith a still imperfect s ill. an end that. 2o not forget that 1=ust3 wars. $nd when I say 1traditional framewor s3 I mean the rationing of truth. if they produce a Hoche or a Earceau. bitter discussions were rife in the mo!ements of the left between total pacifists and militants of the fight to the death against tyranny. These traditional framewor s 8 simple mas s placed on the face . the rationing of the ideal.
all offer us too many e/amples. abo!e the roar of battle. for the latter. the 7o!iet propaganda ser!ices .3 The drabness of the li!ing !alues of the present that we always seem ready to en!elop in old sacramental formulae li e a shroud. from which emerged some of the most sinister figures in #ussian history. That . The simple sentence of this communi. . Prince $le/ander %e!s y once again new all the pomposity of glory because in )G+G he had the good luc to rout the 0rder of Teutonic 'nights. had much hold o!er soldiers6 morale. the transfer of the enemy6s methods and mental routines into the camp of =ustice.uF ga!e off. 1inspired by the courageous figures of your ancestors: $le/ander %e!s y. in the face of history. the way this war against fascism has gone. a sound more stri ing than the motori<ed e/ploits that preceded and succeeded it. there was not a single one who had anything but a reactionary and detestable role in relation to the struggles of the #ussian people to rouse itself from its terrible bed of misery. $le/ander 7u!oro!. $nd among those ancestors sculpted into icons by 7talin and presented to the pious iss of the masses. It bore witness. once again.of whiche!er war so as to erase the e/pression of its originality and render it similar to all the others 8 can sometimes be borrowed from the archi!es of the >ar Euseum.uF that finished by mentioning a German soldier. the wor ers were dri!en towards these traditional framewor s. Het the memory of a Pugache! or a 7ten a #a<in 8 legendary champions of the peasant cause 8 was put on the bac burner because they were =udged to ha!e been too badly mistreated by the authorities at the time. who went towards a #ussian post declaring that he did not wish to ta e up arms against a proletarian 7tate. I clearly remember the first 7o!iet war communi. 7talin offered up to their courage some strange precursors: 1Aould you be.3 he told them. 2imitri Po<hars y. )*+). and led astray. 1profiting from what your enemy teaches you. 'u<ma Einin.uoted by name. sometimes from the enemy6s practice.uic ly indulged in a dreadful pathos. 2imitri 2ons o!. Instead of glorifying the #ussian or German popular heroes of the past who had reached out in the cause of similar struggles for freedom. in any army. addressing fighters of the #ed $rmy. "or the former. $nd yet. Ei hail 'utu<o!43 J)K $ncestral heroism has ne!er. this is called 1being inspired by the lessons of the past3. The good to be ept between us all was there 8 the !irtue li ely to crac open the worm-eaten framewor of war between nations. to the fact that the brotherhood of wor ers ta es 8 and must continue to ta e 8 precedence o!er the di!ision of men into ethnic and national groups. 0n %o!ember I.
7o.such names of the heroic imagination could be twisted into defenders of the :77# pro!ides enough to render senile a war that some e/pected to impro!e the world. The most recent Pan7la! Aongress @7ofia. part of Hitler6s imperialistic fren<y.ual to its beginning. I will allow ?ouis Alair. Borrowing not only from the past but the enemy. with the only =ustification being national usefulness. a return 8 pure and simple 8 to the most narrow-minded form of pan-7la!ism. JGK I say that we are currently witnessing a penetration of Hitlerian political beha!iour into the ran s of democracy. Thus we end up fighting bloc against bloc. This penetration sprawls across all the newspapers. loo how things are presented in a completely different way. 7talin placed the Hitlerian theory of 5urope6s mobilisation in opposition to an $sian assault. too many people find in it material con!enience and moral comfort. The debates in the different Pan-7la! Aongresses that ha!e been organi<ed on Eoscow6s initiati!e during this war ha!e put bac the intellect in the same way as #adio Berlin. The long de!elopment of 5urope is no longer seen as anything but a prete/t for racial di!isions. a de!elopment prone to an endlessly reborn conflict between 7la!s and Germans. This port is perfectly useful to me and I would li e it accorded to me. race against race. but !ast sets of territories that ha!e become perfectly mobile and able to change owner in the space of a night4 The transfer of populations also used to pass as a cruel process to which only the regimes of force allowed themsel!es recourse. The e/humation of $le/ander %e!s y brought about a re!ision of eight centuries of 5uropean history. "ebruary )*+. the anne/ation of territories without the prior consent of their populations was generally considered as an outrage against the law. the power replies that while that may well be possible it really needs it and anyway !ictory gi!es it the right to petty theft. one of the . "or e/ample. This penetration scandali<es ne/t to nobody. will it get not simply a port or an isolated city. insanity against insanity9 $nd so it is that 1=ust3 wars do not resist for long the slanderous contagion of ideas that they were as ed to crush. These transfers are ne!ertheless today en!isaged on a scale not smaller than that of %a<ism6s dar est round-ups. the inheritor of a union forged through centuries of battles that date bac to the !ictory of united 7la! armies against the Germanic peoples at GrLnewald @)+)MB. from now on.B was de!oted to the e/istence of a 7la! bloc. >hat followed was e. in all the news that reaches us about the fate being prepared for the world. declares one power 8 and if it is pointed out that it has always been part of another national unit. today. Het. Here.
and almost pity for the person who ris ed gi!ing it his bac ing. indeed. you need a year of e/tremely delicate manoeu!res through a ma<e of secretariats and committees that can only remind you of the mysteries of the inaccessible Tribunal where 'af a lea!es J. these modern state go!ernments are protected against the wor ings of critical reason @as well as. e!ery go!ernment . clair!oyant and energetic citi<ens. or e!en better. so!ereign inertia. These parties.uasi-totalitarian organisms that carry out their role by gi!ing way to their own specific weight and not at all by referring to the indi!idual cells of which they are composed. e!ery union. JNK FOR WANT OF ANYTHING BETTER >hen you as yourself about the reasons that tend to change a 1=ust3 war into an ordinary war. into a basic war. once again. a humanity of initiates.principal contributors to $merican maga<ine Politics. has started up a mechanism that is beginning to ta e on worrying proportionsC The speed with which the !ictorious powers are haggling o!er the only merchandise that. then its ob=ect will probably be sufficiently faded as to e/cite only a retrospecti!e interest.osef '. who would be tempted to inter!ene so as to rectify the direction of a party.uic ly find yourself shut inside a mind-blowing circuit.K sha ing in The Trial 8 the endlessly reflected image of our own anguish. you .MMM 7udeten-Germans. these unions. I will wor something out to hand o!er a certain number of Tyroliens. if no fau/ pas has arisen to thwart the ad!ance of your motion. now too well that these different organi<ations ha!e the means to wea!e around them a deathly cloth 8 a . against affecti!e =olts and the heart6s rebellionB by their own. if you gi!e me . $nd if the original trials are fa!ourably o!ercome. whose capacity for indignation continues to help us breathe. to spea : The people are displaced li e cattle. 0n the other hand. in spite of technical impro!ements. indi!iduals who dispose of a certain intellectual prestige. remains more in demand than e!er 8 sla!e labour 8 is something truly obscene.MM. a union or a go!ernment. by the way. To be allowed to present a motion at the end of the congress of a left-wing party tolerant of the occasional e/change of opinions. These disconcerting edifices function through the grace of a special part of humanity. the scale and concentration of modern economic life has made of e!ery party. 0n the one hand. perhaps we could e/change a few Germans against some machine tools4 Hitler. and more generally when you as yourself about the reasons that remo!e from the masses the control of the higher causes to which they are dedicated.
close in thought. are ne!ertheless capable of destroying each other because they ha!e the same idea of 1better3 and this 1better3 fails them. the art of begging for alms. a witticism. a weapon. as in peacetime 8 by the standard attitude of gifted and culti!ated people who are inclined to act 8 yet are ne!ertheless pic led in their own defeat.3 The woman one isses fe!erishly while mumbling eternal !ows 8 1for want of anything better. a master. an $ugust (. a whore. a prayer. 7o. it is the resignation to this loss.3 The sublime head of a cult to which one rallies while sighing.3 If one is a member of the Aommunist Party @or any otherB without being the least bit reassured about its present or future policies.3 If one !otes for a candidate whose moral character disgusts you and whose political steadfastness promises to be dubious. on two systems of beliefs and actions tangential to their common 1better. an alibi. acti!ists. immersed as one is in the repertoire of its grandeur 8 1for want of anything better. so they fall bac on two competing modes of compensatory e/istence. )*+. . a ci!il status. =ournalists. it6s 1for want of anything better. a philosophy.C Two men. a sob. thin ers. a pirouette.3 but non-tangential on the same side.3 If one subscribes to a newspaper that willingly and blithely sacrifices the truth to ad!ertising and commercial considerations. an epitaph.3 The boo with which we stay up late because it has recei!ed a pri<e.3 If one ends up putting up with a redistribution of land that one nows will gi!e people neither happiness nor a smile nor wealth. e!en though e!erything about it in!ites you to !omit up its contents 8 1for want of anything better. it is increasingly tightening in 5urope and $merica. substitutions to substitutions. e/aggeratedly in lo!e with freedomC There is something worse for the ci!ili<ed being than the loss of power o!er the organi<ations that represent him and act in his name.3 1"or want of anything better3 becomes an in!estment. a waiting room. This cloth of silence has shut in fore!er a number of the most brilliant minds of 7o!iet society 8 writers. This resignation can be summed up in fi!e words: 1"or want of anything better. it6s 1for want of anything better. a compass for trudging along without mo!ing. to a!oid an hour of presence on 5arth 8 1for want of anything better. o!er other minds that are resistant and pure. from appro/imations to appro/imations. head down. It is a resignation we are informed about through innumerable and flagrant signs.cloth of silence that in a short time will manage to cut them off from all public life. a resignation we recogni<e 8 in wartime.3 The cinema into which one di!es. it6s 1for want of anything better. it6s 1for want of anything better.
this pathetic minimum of human stances that can only be transgressed at the wrongdoer6s ris and e/pense. imperceptibly. it6s a home. each uprising mar ed by its name. the same triumphant cancer where the forces of boredom and panic ed horror come to terms with freedom. 0ne is alarmed. with deliberate rigour. to create a second life in the Aongo. you will be allowed to flee. It is a bad idea to mo!e somewhere as a political refugee in these deadly times9 7ince )*NM. 5!erything is ta ing place as if man were loo ing into this long series of unhappy ambitions for a certain form of security in the terror. a new generation of 5ncyclopFdists who proceeded with the same impertinence as the earlier one. politely. which. to bring out the imaginary guardsC Tomorrow morning. would be made illegal or .uic ly reduced to begging. 5rich "romm6s bitter and se!ere wor 8 The "ear of "reedom 8 teaches us =ust how much man fears a tOte-P-tOte with freedom. now that the atomic bomb protects themC The growing signs of terror cannot be mista en. from Tur ey to %orway !ia Paris. Breitscheid to Germany and Aompanys to 7pain. large collecti!e organi<ations ha!e arri!ed with their decisi!e contribution. Good citi<ens can now afford to gi!e themsel!es a deep sleep. opa. with a remorseless hand. To this indi!idual tendency to be panic ed by the comple/ity of the world that assails us. The most important is the progressi!e obliteration of the right to asylum. ?eon Trots y has been hunted li e a wild boar across the whole 5uropean continent. =ust how much 8 in the current conditions of chaos 8 greyness. had to be translated 8 through a political and statist machine risen up at full strength through these =umps 8 by an increase in oppressi!e rules to which man is beholden though a gradual shrin ing of life. e!erything has ta en place as if each in!ocation to freedom. Today. where will one be with oneself4 >ill you alone be allowed to pass4 Hes. They ha!e established. It night and nothing moreC In the distance the trains are whistling as if to lea!eC 0ne would li e to scream. into whiche!er ab=ect corner where woodlice grow. $ life in a house on stilts with. =ust how much he shir s the responsibilities that it assigns to him. in the shadows. deli!ered up Pietro %enni to Italy.one finds oneself pushed bac . Then came Qichy. but wrongly: it isn6t a dungeon. probably. THE RIGHT TO TERROR "or the past two centuries.ueness and anonymity are desirable refuges for him from the !ertigo of freedom. Qichy has disappeared but not this ineradicable a!ersion of the authorities 8 whether .
>e find oursel!es in the presence of a maga<ine that seems to ha!e no other mission than to warn us that Ear/ist thin ing is stuc in neutral.uestion continue with the defeat of %a<ism. when it is not wor ing in the open. the first call of one of its loyal sub=ects. the big names who run ?a PensFe co!er nothing more than a chorus of static formulae and debilitating reasoning. of the actual and the out-of-date.uisiti!e breath. which. this time in the domain that has always nown how to escape from the pressures of the arbitrary regimes of the past. $s for e/traordinary indi!iduals 8 particularly certain categories of intellectuals and writers who .. instead of dominating the contemporary nightmare and plotting its guiding a!enues of light. ready to welcome the first wish. one after the other they lea!e it up to the less than recommendable arbitration of the police. The international conferences need rising figures9 $nother sign of terror: thousands of beings simply disappearing into the night. $nother sign of terror is the organi<ed deportation of wor ers. brought bac to life the essential problems already won by the general aging of a society that does not tolerate if we do not age with it. of the li!ely and the oppressi!e. places itself in a secure test-tube where no e/plosi!e separation of the !iable and non-!iable. showed an agitating curiosity towards all the forms of our scientific and social future and. the domain of attac ing thin ing and political thought 8 which was yesterday still a beacon of hope 8 where we are witnessing a strange adaptation to the cruel and !ain order ta ing shape beneath our eyes. Hou6!e been warned9 The final note of sadness. demand the remo!al of the wor s of E. with an in. the last and most beautiful relic of human sedition. Thus. need be feared for the present moment. which will without . do we not see $ragon. $lso. and that ha!ing renounced the idea of deciding between the two using reason. It can be seen in the embarrassed timidity of a maga<ine li e ?a PensFe. the author of such a demand does not reali<e that by doing this he admits the defeat of his own political message6s power of attraction. Gone without lea!ing a forwarding address because there is wood to be cut on the ban s of the >hite 7ea. before the war.democratic or not 8 towards the political refugee. terror remains always latent. Today. He would ha!e us belie!e that Eaurras and himself occupied positions diametrically opposed from one another. 5conomists are on hand to eep watch o!er the growing efficiency of the cattle that ha!e been outsourced to them as raw material for their e/periments. that thin ing beha!es li e a force that. In )*+. Aharles Eaurras from the boo shops of "rance4 $pparently. in a sensational article. ho!ering =ust abo!e the debate.
for sure. a Aalas. The era of guerrilla politics began and it is in this that we should entrust our reser!es of confidence and enthusiasm. so the political forces did not ta e long to follow suit 8 mi/ing flattery with intrigue 8 to win bac the mousetrap of the Big Parties. They are fascinated not by a Gide or a Breton. In the same way that the military forces of the resistance were . for no other gratuity from a world he no longer has the honesty to challenge than the chance to embody.uic ly integrated into the permanent framewor of the army. were people getting ready to get rid of the parties6 ser!ices4 >as the popular will now claiming it could do without an intermediary4 The scare did not last long. It6s probably easy to announce the attraction that this guerrilla and the e/ploits that will ine!itably mar him out. THE SWITCHBLADE In the collecti!e slide towards a condition of security. Eany ha!e hoped that resistance mo!ements in 0ccupied 5urope would finally carefully handle a breach in the political and social impasse of our time. The episode 8 I nearly said 1incident3 8 was o!er. if only for the space of a chapter. a #ougemont 8 as an indication of the future. "or the most part. But something else became possible. deep down. The machinery of terror is still far from free of hesitations or crac s. for other things. Their only hope is to turn the wind around. Thus it is at the point where this machinery ma es itself the most . it became the only possible thing. to practise terror. before returning to their apartment. The mass parties ha!e been the first to sniff out this danger. they also. but by a ?awrence of $rabia or a Ealrau/ in his Ahinese period. but perhaps supporters of a new type who will abandon classic forms of unrest for highly e/emplary gestures of uphea!al. nor any of the totalitarian organi<ations destined to guard men. The modern intellectual as s. %ot a party. using this artifice of a !ocation to sal!age some of the Flan that e!eryday life has amputated. to their dull mistresses and to their faithful daily routine of stri ing stories. caught up in the wind of terror. >e could ne!ertheless consider the !aliantly independent attitude of Aamus 8 and. of a Breton. in fact. #eally now. the role of the outsider ad!enturer. who will release the switchblade4 >ho will do =ustice to what men are going to get used to ta ing as their right to terror and almost as a normal culmination of their old aspirations for freedom4 %ot a party. demolishing a !iaduct.do not yet accept li!ing according to a common tra=ectory 8 they are. they lo!e this war because it has allowed them to come to terms with themsel!es by blowing up a train. that is to say.
at any gi!en moment. But abo!e all. and the !ery idea 8 and the function 8 of a party of opposition is mortally affected by this change. it is about forcing the parties to recogni<e the ideological poc ets that are born outside of themsel!es and to drain towards practical action all that is !alid and that comes out of the turmoil thus fomented. e/cept for the most ulterior and de!ious uses. when it is not the enemy. their right to act onto which they hold all the more now that they ha!e clearly decided to do nothing with it. by contagious furrows of grandeur9 $t this point. the :nited 7tates. of beings in a state of refusal. to compromise their action. in the ideological arena.threatening 8 and as it ad!ances in its renewed threats 8 that all our spirit of refusal should be placed. all that there is in the world. seen in the light of the e!olution of the parties. appendices of the 7tates. this guerrilla will only ha!e a lasting effect . The first of these obligations is the transfer of ideological acti!ities to groups that remain e/terior to the !icissitudes of the parties and their gradual collapse within the framewor of 7tates. so you are following the insidious wor of the fascists before and after fascism. I am pursuing nothing. it is to rip away from the parties the monopoly of social thought that is rusting away in their wor ing groups. In 5ngland.3 in which the !oices of the mass are lost almost as easily as those of indi!iduals. it is to remo!e. who threw doubt on all the instruments of relief and progress93 In reality. and purely administrati!e as to their e/ecution. I hear ringing out murderously sarcastic remar s: 17o9 Hou aim to discredit political parties. I do not want to pursue anything other than a certain logic of freedom. ser!ed only to speed up decisi!ely the de!elopment of the moral and material elephantiasis that affects the powerful institutions of the 1left. The fascist phenomenon. to destroy their prestige. in "rance and Belgium. the opposition is more often than not in solidarity with the powers-that-be. It is about 8 to grasp the problem as tightly as possible 8 to reduce the parties to a condition of being purely recepti!e towards the ripening and general mo!ement of ideas. The ultimate aim of the guerrilla who signs up now is not to eliminate the parties in aid of some new system of e/ercising political life. The parties ha!e to fit their e!er-clearer obligations to independent thin ers to this role. $nd that it be done with brilliance9 That it be written as a troubling e/ample in the consciousness of the masses9 $nd that it be transmitted and amplified across the !ast human prairie. They are all tending towards becoming para-statist organi<ations. >e should be on our guard: the ob=ecti!e situation of the parties has considerably changed o!er the past GM years. In brief.
Aan we spea of this form of superior social form in general4 2oes this not lead us towards sub=ecti!ism4 Aan we spea of ordinary ob=ecti!e criticisms in this area4 >e thin so. has only ta en us further away from these Bu harinian !iews. the ad!enturous tests of utopian socialists. the penultimate great theoretician of socialism: $n analysis of the real state of things lets us glimpse not only the death of society. since we were thrown these words of hope.uidation3 made in the socialist camp and among the intelligentsia. we could ta e as a rallying cry words such as those of %i olai Bu harin. we cannot do less than as oursel!es where is it this 1ma/imum of interior impro!ement of the ma/imum number of men34 $las. it has only been sealed up.uidation3 of Bu harin himself and the lac of noise that this 1li. the most elo. In the material domain.in the measure that he nows how to encourage 8 in his struggle against the bureaucratic pragmatism of the parties 8 a di!e into the cold currents of utopia. but also the death of its concrete historical form and the ine!itable passage towards a socialist society 8 a passage that has already begun. $nd it is not about only mo!ing to a superior way of li!ing. a renaissance of utopian con=ecture with all that that entails of the edifying and =oyful. a passage towards a superior social structure. There is no doubt that to this criterion of 1interior impro!ement3 has been substituted the re!erse criterion. by the ad!ent of an infle/ible conformity that reduces 1interior life3 to its most humble and fearful e/pression. there is no doubt that the road ta en since $pril )*NR. because this determines the sum of superfluous wor on which depends spiritual culture. $ do<en or so years ago. but as a li!ing whole. that is to say. and wishing only one proof among thousands. the wild spirit of anticipation of ?eonardo. ta en not as an arithmetical sum. but one precisely superior to the one it has today. It is precisely when the output of wor is e/tremely high and the field of selection e/tremely large that we see the ma/imum amount of interior impro!ement of life for the ma/imum number of men. the generous and . stage by stage. J+K Today.uent is none other than the 1li. In the domain of immediate inter-human relationships. such a criterion is represented by the power of the output of sociali<ed wor and the e!olution of this output. li e a social collecti!e. To this conformism so rife in all domains 8 e/cepting certain terrorist refinements that these gentlemen always ta e great pleasure in inno!ating 8 it is only possible to oppose successfully those forces that Bu harin most critici<ed: the dream of Icarus. such a criterion is gi!en by the si<e of the field of selection of talents-creators.
perhaps not win. ).(IB. )*NRB. a series of acts in all ways similar to those of the enemy. 1Be careful: from the !ery fact that we are forced to adopt his methods.. 7talin and 5ternal #ussia... I. 5uropean %ewsreel. ?ouis Alair.3 no. +. Politics. cf. The atmosphere and social ideas need to be aired out if we want to create a future for man that does not wither before it is born and which does not brea with. how do we a!oid e/tending the shared limit43 worries $ndrF Breton. we run the ris of being contaminated by that which we belie!e we are defeating. N. 1The "undamental Problems of Aontemporary Aulture.3 %i olai Bu harin @?es documents de la #ussie neu!e.softened humour of a Paul ?afargue9 "or its disciples scientific socialism has deteriorated to the point of being nothing more than a pompous e/ercise in recitation. through un=ustifiable disciplines. $ndrF Breton. .3 In ?umiSre %oire. against our better wishes. Paris. G. against the dictatorship of 1means3 obli!ious to the ends it itself recommends. but release her smile fly and return to men the Promethean spar in which they will recogni<e their hidden freedom. cf. the Eona ?isa of utopia can. 12ragged by necessity. its faculty to always begin again. >alter 'olar< @?indsay and 2rummond. IT I7 %0T TH5 TIE5 T0 #57T0#5 TH5 IE$G5 0" TH5 I??:7I0%7. . to accomplish day after day. 1?6$rche. ?ondon. $gainst this hideous union of conformism and terror. p.une )*+..
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