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Research Proposal Prep Kit
Table of Contents
Table of Contents _____________________________________________________________ 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction to the Assignment Prep Kit ________________________________________ 3 Selecting a Topic __________________________________________________________ 4 Introduction to Research Proposal ____________________________________________ 6 Abstract _________________________________________________________________ 7 Chapter One – Introduction _________________________________________________ 8
5.1 5.2 5.3 Research Background _________________________________________________________ 8 Rationale for the Research ____________________________________________________ 10 Research Objectives, questions and hypothesis ____________________________________ 11
Chapter Two - Literature Review _____________________________________________ 14 Chapter Three - Research Methodology _______________________________________ 23
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Research Philosophies _______________________________________________________ 23 Research approach __________________________________________________________ 25 Research design ____________________________________________________________ 27 Research methods __________________________________________________________ 28 Research tools ______________________________________________________________ 29 Research Limitations _________________________________________________________ 33 Ethical Considerations________________________________________________________ 34
Timetable _______________________________________________________________ 35 References ______________________________________________________________ 37
9.1 9.2 In text citations _____________________________________________________________ 37 Complete references_________________________________________________________ 38
1. Introduction to the Assignment Prep Kit
About this Prep Kit The aim of this assignment prep kit is to provide you with a framework of guidelines in the context of the requirements in order to assist you to develop good quality research report. We hope that you will find the material of this Prep Kit useful in your learning endeavours and we wish you the very best not only in achieving a pass but passing with distinction. How to use this Prep Kit This Prep Kit has been prepared to help students in preparing a research proposal. It provides a full set of guidelines for all the required areas that should be completed when conducting a research. For each task, an outline of an answer reflecting the relevant context is presented to provide direction for successful completion. However, whilst the content gives you a comprehensive outlook into the areas that you are expected to address in your research report, it is important that you bear in mind that this is only an outline and that you are expected to elaborate your discussions using your own understanding of the requirements. Before you read this Prep Kit This Prep Kit can be considered as a guideline, which will assist you in addressing the requirements of the research in a comprehensive manner. In addition, in order to better equip yourself with the required knowledge to complete your assignment submission successfully, you are advised to gain additional knowledge and study the recommended reading materials provided by the awarding body. To conclude, once again, we wish you all the very best indeed and hope you achieve a rewarding career. LS Business Publishing Team
Accordingly. 4 . it will not be possible to change the research topic again. the validity of the research topic would become questionable. Sometimes. if the research discusses about an outdated scenario which is not relevant to the modern society. having a valid topic will invariably add a positive value to the research. The research topic should be distinct A good research topic should be distinct and specific. While selecting an entire industry would be quite tempting. The research topic should be relevant A research is ultimately expected to provide valid information with critical evaluations/judgements to intended groups of readers. candidates will not have the required time to complete such a broad research successfully. as once the research has been started. a poor research topic will deviate a reader from going through it no matter how well the research has been conducted. The validity of the entire research depends on the topic selected. when a third party is going through the research report. The research topic should be researchable (Ability to investigate) The ability to conduct a research on a selected topic is subjective to availability of information. Selecting a Topic Selecting a suitable research topic for the research is of utmost importance in conducting a research. Therefore. an effort should be made to select a researchable topic. the candidate should ensure that he/she selects a research topic which is not outdated and adds value to the current context. The topic should clearly explain the selected company. research topics are given to the candidates by the respective awarding bodies whilst most of the time. it is vital to know the criteria to develop a good research topic. candidates are recommended to use a maximum of two companies as the base for the research instead of focusing on an entire industry. when selecting a topic. On the contrary. Hence. For Masters and undergraduate level. Accordingly. In this regard. Hence. candidates should examine and see whether literature and past research findings are available on the selected topic. subject area and the geographic region. candidates are supposed to find a research topic by themselves.2. It takes a certain amount of time to select a good research topic.
4. relevant and is researchable Select a specific company and a geographic area to define the scope of the research The following factors should be considered when selecting a suitable research topic: Access to information Availability of time Availability of financial and non-financial resources Availability of literature and past research findings Relevance to the current context Relevance of the subject area to the course Examples of research topics Determine the relationship between marketing orientation and business performance in the FMCG sector (A case study of ABC Company) A study on attitude towards online education amongst undergraduate students studying with London School of Marketing A study on consumer behaviour in selecting a professional qualification in the field of marketing 5 .The following steps can be followed to select a suitable topic: 1. 2. 3. Brainstorm for ideas Engage in background reading on few topics Consider the availability of literature and past research findings on the shortlisted topics Ensure the research topic is a distinct. 5.
Introduction to Research Proposal What is expected? A research proposal can be defined as a document produced by the researcher that provides a description about the proposed research.3.Research Design and Methodology Time table References 6 .Introduction to the research Chapter Two . Structure of a research proposal Abstract Chapter One . It provides an outline of the complete process of the research.Literature Review Chapter Three . The proposal differs from the dissertation in that it does not have an analysis and a conclusion. The main purpose of a research proposal is to provide explanations and justifications on the research purpose and the research methods that will be used to conduct the research. A research proposal is handed over prior to conducting the research in order to obtain approval and feedback from the authorised awarding body or from its representatives. considering the validity and pragmatism of conducting the research.
To test the relationship of the variables in the model. The objectives of the study were 1) to examine the level of perceived job satisfaction and intention to leave. Sample Answer Research Topic: A Study on the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and management turnover rate(A Case study of shipping firms. It should be emphasised that an abstract (in the research proposal) should not extensively discuss about the work done and should not contain any information that has not been addressed within the research proposal. Abstract What is expected? Abstract is similar to an executive summary of a report. It provides a concise summary of what has been discussed in the rest of the research proposal. The abstract should be aligned in a manner to allow a logical flow of data and the most important information should be given highest propriety. What the research does. The abstract should be compiled in a way that readers can swiftly become acquainted with a considerable amount of information without having to read it completely. Based on the literature reviews a model of relationship was proposed and developed to examine the relationships between the six factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave. the gravity of the abstract creates either a positive or a negative impression about the research proposal. To test the relationship hypotheses of the study. 7 . Africa) Abstract The study investigated the relationship between the six facets of job satisfaction and the intention to leave among managers in the shipping firms in Africa. data from 08 managers from top five shipping firms in Africa. will be used. Furthermore. More importantly. correlation. and multiple regression analysis will be performed. the main purpose of an abstract is to explain: About the research topic. A brief explanation about the research should be provided at the beginning of the abstract. The methods that will be used in conducting the research. 3) to examine the effect of job satisfaction in relation to manager’s intention to leave. as this is the first section of the report that a reader will glance. 2) to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and intention to leave.4.
if a specific company or situation is selected for the research. Research Topic: How ABC ltd. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. In order improve the quality of the research proposal. Digital marketing also supports the “engagement” of customers which goes beyond understanding the benefits of products and services and looks at how these products and services are affecting the lives of customers.1 Research Background What is expected? This section explains in detail the underlying reason for selecting the research topic. a clear discussion can be included as to why that particular company/situation has been selected amongst others. Digital marketing is a discipline that changes rapidly and most marketers can find it hard to keep up with the present trends much less look ahead. Furthermore. an introduction of the company or the situation can be provided under this section. Sample Answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. It is evident that the recession has accelerated developments that were already present in the publishing industry. The growth of mobile activity is pushing marketing experiences further and technology such as HTML5 is leading to better-designed web spaces and language. questions and hypothesis 5. such as the shift from print to the Internet and the move towards electronic and 8 . customers worldwide are engaging with digital marketing Background Digital marketing is now extensively used by all brands to endorse their offerings because it is more costeffective and flexible than traditional marketing (in some instances) and provides valuable metrics quickly and efficiently.5. It should include three main sections: Research background Research problem and rational Research aims. It is necessary to maintain focus on the research topic throughout the facts being discussed in this section. objectives. Chapter One – Introduction The first chapter of the research proposal is the introduction. Staying ahead of the trends will mean that companies like ABC can seize the most exciting opportunities and gain competitive advantage.
and in 2010 ABC launched its mobile app. ABC's flagship weekly multidisciplinary title Nature was first published in 1869 (see appendix A) and is the most highly cited interdisciplinary science journal. Key Note estimates that the total UK publishing market was worth £14.com. ABC is continuously thinking about its customer’s needs. Millions of readers access ABC content on nature. and is distributing content through every media channel available. apps and social networking tools. conferences. For more than 125 years. 2006 was the year of internet video and other web innovations. ABC also developed new 'Web 2.0' applications. Nature had been solely a print publication.com – one of the most popular scholarly websites on the Internet. tag and share their favourite internet pages. but the arrival of the Internet brought new media platforms and opportunities.72bn in 2009. and that its value will rise by 6% between 2009 and 2014 (keynote. By 2005 the first 30-minute Nature Podcast show was produced and highlighted news and discoveries of the week by interviewing scientists and Nature editors. optimizing search positioning and has also increased publishing and monitoring activities on its social channels. However. ABC focuses its efforts on the web as a means of getting closer to its audience. The ABC video archive and You Tube channel now feature many scientists describing their work in their own words. in hopes to create positive experiences that customers will share. this is just the beginning and ABC will continue to face challenges in utilising digital marketing to its maximum potential. 9 .mobile media. video streaming. podcasts. which scientists can use to save. Its publishing activities now extend beyond traditional journals to include databases. blogs. ABC has continued to enjoy a period of significant growth and continues to maintain its position as a pioneer in progressive publishing practices. 2010). ABC quickly gauged that science communication lends itself to networking applications and embraced the vogue for user forums and 'weblogs' and also News blogs which allows readers to comment on news stories. ABC took an early interest in video and from 2006 began producing 20-minute videos to accompany major papers.
10 . As a result. a research by (Rettab. candidates are required to address four questions: What is the research problem? Why is it a problem? Why is it a problem now? What could this research shed light on? When explaining the research problem and the rationale. Sample Answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. care should be taken to relate them to the selected organisation. Despite this anticipating growth path. London headed UK insurance market as to the general insurance gross written premiums amounting GBP 8. Candidates need to convince the reader of a problem that exists within the selected organisation and explain how the research will help to overcome the identified problem. innovative and diversified product portfolio (RNCOS. 2013) should adopt aggressive growth and retention strategies based on the principals of collective competition data. candidates should present facts with relevant references instead of presenting subjective statements.8 billion and then followed Abu Dhabi with premiums amounting more than GBP 6.2 Rationale for the Research What is expected? Within the research rationale. 2013). A case study on XYZ Insurance company-UK Researchers anticipate a double-digit growth for the health insurance industry in UK. 2011). When writing the research rationale. This goes back for existing insurance companies are not focusing on retaining their customers. Research topic: The effect of CRM on customer retention.5. 2006) shows that there are many gaps of activities by UK insurance companies which will result in opening the opportunity for business joint venture with US insurance firms taking advantage of UK law of compulsory health insurance. The UK insurance companies operating with a retention ratio of 64.3%(Insurance Authority. owing to government initiatives.5 billion (Insurance Authority. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited.
2011) despite the fact that Dubai insurance market is considered more open and competitive comparing to other emirates (Alpen Capital . servicing an average of 60. The research objectives should be in line with the selected research topic yet should not be a direct repetition. the research will shed light on opportunities for better future planning and executing of the CRM in order to acquire loyal and retained customers in all over UK. questions and hypothesis.Based on the above facts. It is extremely important to set correct research objectives based on the research title since the research objectives will be used as the basis for all remaining chapters. the researcher had further studied about XYZ Health insurance who is dominating by 85% in London only. by understanding the relationship between CRM variables and identifying the existing gaps which are essential and competitive for the health insurance business in UK. XYZ is aggressively spread and operate through 293 of customer service staff. but they are not pioneer in other emirates to gain and retain customers (Anon. a minimum of three research objectives are expected. and also to understand to what level this company had achieved of customer loyalty and retention through its application of CRM. 5. but according to the market share indicated in UK. Finally. the researcher should include research questions and not research objectives or hypothesis. 2009). However. it is a good practice to start with the word “to” and use words such as “evaluate”.3 Research Objectives. When drafting objectives. Candidates should include a minimum of three main research questions and 5 11 . This cause has shown a threat for the future growth of XYZ insurance. apparently XYZ is implementing insufficient CRM application which couldn’t retain customers from a wider geographic perspective within UK. questions and hypothesis What is expected? This section of the first chapter discusses the main research aims. despite the opportunities and the promising of prosperity this sector have in UK for the next coming years. it has to have a reason in terms of customer relationship management (CRM) conducted by XYZ management. Research objectives are set to define the research scope and to ensure that the research problem is addressed at the end of the research. “assess” and “examine” to portray the weight of the research. For qualitative studies If the research is a qualitative study. 2011). Why some customers were retained and some are not. The number of research objectives or questions to be covered would depend on the scope of the research. The conceptual framework of this report aims to provide a broader understanding of the existing CRM application conducted in XYZ insurance in UK.000 clients every month coming to the 28 branches and service points in UK (Rohte.
Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. research can include research objectives or hypothesis. A case study of ABC publishing Research questions 1. Sample Answer 1 Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. a quantitative study can also include only hypotheses. candidates can present a mix of research objectives/ questions and hypothesis. To assess ABC’s customer’s perception towards digital marketing efforts in relation to its competitors. The research questions used for a quantitative research should include words such as what and how to portray the open-ended nature of the research. Research objectives should inquire the relationship among the variables reflected in the title. Alternatively. Research topic: How ABC customers worldwide are engaging with digital marketing. For mixed studies In an event where the research includes both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Hypotheses are predictions the researcher makes about the expected relationships among variables. To evaluate customer attitudes towards ABC’s digital marketing efforts.to 7 sub questions. 12 . To assess how customers have engaged with ABC’s digital marketing efforts over the past year. 2. To evaluate existing and recommend new digital marketing strategies that ABC could adopt to increase customer engagement. 3. 4. if the research is a quantitative study. The sub questions can be converted into specific questions during interviews and focus group studies. For quantitative studies On the other hand.
the lower the (1) market intelligence dissemination and (2) responsiveness of the organization.Identifying the effect of market orientation on business performance in the Insurance sector in Sri Lanka Research objectives 1. To evaluate the effect of internal antecedents on market orientation 4. (2) intelligence dissemination. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. Greater the market orientation of a firm. the greater the organizational commitment of employees H6. greater its overall performance would be 13 . Sample Answer 2 Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. H7. Research title . The greater the top management emphasis on a market orientation. the greater is its new product success. the lower the (1) market intelligence generation. the more competitive it is in the market H8. The greater the market orientation. The greater the interdepartmental conflict. To evaluate the effect of external antecedents on market orientation 5. To determining the relationship between Market orientation and non-financial performance 3. The greater the market orientation of a firm. and (3) responsiveness of the organization H3. The greater the risk aversion of top management. the greater the (1) market intelligence generation. and (3) responsiveness of the organization H2. The greater the market orientation of the firm. the superior is its financial performance. H4. H5. Greater the market orientation of a firm. To provide recommendations on how to improve business performance through market orientation Hypothesis H1. To assess the effect of Market orientation on Financial performance 2. (2) intelligence dissemination.
the literature review should build sound arguments based on knowledge and should make a critical link with the situation to be investigated. It provides an opportunity to detect conflicting points of view conveyed by different authors. the literature review should highlight the significance and the depth of the research. Once the research problem is identified. if the research title is to understand the impact on customer relationship management on customer satisfaction. For example. Chapter Two . It helps to find gaps in the literature that the thesis as a whole is intended to fill. When developing the literature review. The literature review should cover the key areas included in the research title. Various sources can be used to ascertain worthwhile information in making judgements.Literature Review What is expected? Literature review is a critical summary of theories and models related to the selected research topic. A literature review examines the existing literature to discover its strengths and weaknesses.6. hence. The objectives of developing a literature review can be summarised as follows: It provides up to date information and a discussion about the selected research topic. The literature review is an output of a combination of steps: Searching literature (from paper base resources or electronic resources) Keeping a record of literature collected Understanding literature Analysing and writing in a critical manner Referencing 14 . a conceptual framework can be developed based on the evaluative discussions made in the literature review section. A mere discussion of theory will not meet the purpose of a literature review. It also provides the opportunity to discuss about the researches done in the past under the same topic. In conclusion. Furthermore. it is necessary to understand the research problem or the objectives clearly. the literature should cover theories and past research on both customer satisfaction and customer relationship management. the researcher can understand the relevant literature to resolve the problem.
Research topic: Impact of switching cost in retaining customers in the mobile telecommunication industry Literature review Market Orientation: An Overview Market orientation refers to a corporate state of mind which holds the belief that the key to achieving organizational goals consists in determining needs and wants of the target markets and delivering the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than the competitors (Felton. Market orientation calls for internal systems in an organization to be dictated more by a market review. The whole idea of organization-wide adoption of market orientation seems to be grounded in the belief that “marketing is too important an activity to be left with only the marketing department in the organization”. magazines. With an external and unified focus over the market. A conceptual framework refers to a model or a concept.A conceptual framework can be developed at the end of the literature review depending on the scope of the research. Kotler. an effective implementation of marketing concept calls for viewing market orientation as a pervasive concept to be embraced by all the departments and personnel in the organization both in philosophy and practice. No doubt marketing department and its personnel carry much of the responsibility of impacting market orientation for being closer to customers in their dealings. forums etc. websites. A master’s level research proposal should consider at least 12-15 authors and 4 to 5 sources within the literature review. Kohli and Jaworski (1990) rightly state in this connection that “because a market orientation is not easily engendered it may be considered an additional and distinctive form of sustainable competitive advantage”. blogs. which draws a link between facts and variables based on the literature discussion provided. instead of referring only to books.e. 1959. 1972). Sample Answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. an “outside-in” approach. competitors and other environmental factors much better than their competitors. which is diametrically opposed to “inside-out” approach where emphasis is laid on building internal strengths such as developing selling skills or attaining production efficiency (McNamara. 2002). i. This can also be a conclusion based on the theories in relation to the selected research topic. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. books.. Care should be taken to refer to an array of sources such as journals. market orientation helps business firms identifying and understanding the market opportunities and threats posed by customers. 15 .
1990). But later on. only a lip service has been paid to its implementation due to the reason that the term “marketing concept” has been touted for a long time. marketing concept remained enshrined only in terms of customer orientation. and Appiah. 1990. The collection of market information is to be followed by systematic use of such knowledge for the coordinated creation of sustainable superior customer value. largely in philosophical terms. The idea underlying addition of these additional constructs was that unless a firm aims at delivering customer satisfaction in a way superior to competitors and adopts it throughout the organization. Pelham and Wilson (1996). with the belief that much of the satisfaction to the customers is unlikely to materialize unless all the departments in the organizations imbibe the spirit of marketing concept and gear up themselves to work harmoniously with other departments for delivering customer satisfaction. other constructs such as competitor orientation. Later researchers like Narver and Slater (1990). No doubt societal marketing concept is relatively of a recent origin and constitutes an improvement over the marketing concept. 1972. customer orientation is unlikely to come up as a commercially viable competitive tool to withstand market challenges. Little guidance was available to the firms as to how to implement the marketing concept and put it into practice (Kohli and Jaworski. Notwithstanding being a key concept in marketing literature. Taken as a whole. production and selling concepts. 1960. it is the latter which continues to hold a sway over other concepts in both marketing literature and business speeches. For a long time. marketing concept is considered to be a far superior guiding philosophy than the product.Market orientation is one of the five philosophies or orientations (the other four being production concept. Narver and Slater. 1972. the construct “inter-functional coordination” came to be recognized as an essential ingredient for the successful implementation of marketing concept. Kohli and Jaworski. 16 . In a competitive environment. consisting of customers as well as competitors and other environmental factors. Efforts made by Kohli and Jaworski (1990) constituted a major breakthrough in providing an operational definition of the concept to facilitate its effective implementation by the business firms. Kotler. these researchers observe that market orientation is the creation of a superior customer value through systematic acquisition and analysis of information and development of knowledge about the target market. inter functional coordination and profit focus also got added to it (Houston. selling concept and societal marketing concept) that guide the planning and organization of a firm’s activities. product concept. Especially. with due regard to profitability of its operations. McNamara. Levitt.1990). 1986.Adu and Singh (1998) joined the research stream and proposed alternative frameworks to operationalize marketing concept.
a customer-focus is mandatory" .The Market Orientation Matrix Although Slater and Narver (1994a) found no main effect for customer versus competitor-focus on market performance. they do recognize that "because businesses have limited resources to generate market intelligence. many researchers consider a customer-focus to be the most fundamental aspect of corporate culture (Deshpande. when markets are fragmented and buyer power is low. p. Consequently. many competitors. Day and Wensley (1988) suggest that "in dynamic markets with shifting mobility barriers. Customer focus High Low High Competitor Focus Low Strategicaly Integrated Marketing Warriors Customer Preoccupied Strategicalli Inept Figure 1 Market Orientation Matrix Customer Preoccupied Firms emphasizing customer-focused intelligence gathering activities at the expense of competitor information may be classified as "customer preoccupied. customer needs are less well understood. trade-offs between customer and competitor monitoring must necessarily be made" (Slater and Narver 1994. however. Lawton and Parasuraman 1980). When markets are growing. Also. leading to a specific market orientation profile. a four-cell market orientation matrix emerges as shown below. By combining these two important external variables. a customer emphasis is most important when the market is growing and when markets are fragmented and buyer power is low.47). customers and competitors. it is important to focus on lead users because they may serve as reference points for later adopters (Von Hippel 1986). so a customer emphasis should have a greater impact on performance (Slater and Narver 1994a). 17 . and Webster 1993. Farley." Because the marketing concept promotes putting the interests of customers first. In addition. According to Slater and Narver (1994a). firms may frequently emphasize one external variable in their environmental monitoring at the expense of the other. and highly segmented end-user markets.
the lesser the degree of competitive hostility. the emphasis is necessarily on competitors. Kohli and Jaworski (1990) – Behavioral Perspective Kohli and Jaworski (1990) define market orientation as “organization-wide generation of market intelligence pertaining to current and future customer needs. p. Do they represent an attractive alternative from the perspective of the target customers? Using target rivals as a frame of reference. According to Kohli and Jaworski (1990. when market demand is predictable. failure to develop an external market orientation may adversely affect business performance (Deshpande. Kim. Moreover. Ruekert 1992.Marketing Warriors Borrowing from the famous warfare analogy proposed by Ries and Trout (1986). and there are few powerful customers. and Srivastava 1998). competitor-focused firms seek to identify their own strengths and weaknesses and to keep pace with or stay ahead of the rest of the field (Han. the greater the positive impact of competitor emphasis on performance (Slater and Narver 1994a). 18 . and Webster 1993. and use of both customer and competitor intelligence. Who are the competitors? 2. A focus on both customers and competitors is important because a complete Strategically Inept The external analysis is an integral part of strategic planning. What technologies do they offer? and 3. 13). Yet. the competitive structure is concentrated and stable. Farley. "a market orientation appears to provide a unifying focus for the efforts and projects of individuals and departments within the organization." As such. Slater and Narver 1994a). According to Day and Wensley (1988). dissemination of the intelligence across departments and organization-wide responsiveness to it”. However. in some cases. firms may still succeed by concentrating on internal operations. and the establishment of core competencies. Strategically Integrated Firms characterized as strategically integrated assign equal emphasis to the collection. technological advantages." According to Slater and Narver (1994b). dissemination. a competitor-focus entails gathering intelligence on three main questions: 1. firms with a predominant emphasis on competitors in their external market analyses have been labeled "marketing warriors. Jaworski and Kohli 1993. firms that fail to orient their strategic decision making to the market environment without any substantial internal strength may appropriately be labeled as "strategically inept”.
considering profitability as a part of market orientation is like saying that the goal of human life is eating”. The reason underlying this view is that “although interfunctional coordination is a factor that can contribute to implementing successfully a market orientation. market orientation of an organization can be represented/ recognized as one of the degree on a continuum rather than as being present or absent. Kohli and Jaworski (1990) maintain that it should be viewed more as a consequence of market orientation. Far from being a component of market orientation. Kohli and Jaworski (1990) offered a process-driven model that considers the stages of generating. Jaworski and Kohli (1993). Thus. and use (responsiveness). interdepartmental dynamics. disseminating. Finally. in their model. These lead to the market orientation components of intelligence generation. Later Hunt and Morgan (1995) and Pelham and Wilson (1996) also joined this stream of thinking. intelligence dissemination and response as the three core components of market orientation. nothing is accomplished.Kohli and Jaworski (1990) rightly observe in this connection that organizations differ in the extent to which they generate market intelligence. 1995). Hence. Assertions made by Levitt (1960) echo a similar opinion: “…. Sinha. yet such implementation factor should not appear in a concept’s definition” (Hunt and Morgan. Environmental scanning activities are subsumed under market intelligence generation. technology. disseminate it internally and take action based on the intelligence. competitors. and cannot be simply classified as “market oriented” or “not market oriented”. which then impact employees and business performance (with a nod to the impact of the market environment’s role in the process). 19 . Another distinguishing feature of Kohli and Jaworski’s (1990) operationalisation is that they depart from the previous approach of treating “inter-functional coordination” as one of the components of market orientation. but it also includes an analysis of how consumers might be affected by factors such as government regulation. Their view is that inter-functional coordination should rather be considered as an antecedent to an effective implementation of market orientation. dissemination. intelligence dissemination pertains to the communication and transfer of intelligence information to all departments and individuals within the organization through both formal and informal channels. Unless an organization responds to information. and responding to market intelligence as the essence of market orientation (Noble. Kohli and Jaworski (1990) proposed intelligence generation. and Kumar 2002). Instead of inter-functional coordination and profitability. responsiveness is the action that is taken in response to the intelligence that is generated and disseminated. have three antecedents to market orientation: top management factors. and other environmental forces. and organizational systems. Market intelligence not only pertains to monitoring customers' needs and preferences. “Profitability” is another construct that has come under attack for being posited as part of market orientation.
1982. In respect of competitors. Once again. 1987. referred to as “response design”. moreover.. information needs to be collected about all these constituents. Baker and Noordewier. cost structure and exit barriers. learning-oriented and participative in the intelligence dissemination (Kohli and Jaworski. 1990. In order to make the whole task of intelligence generation to be truly effective. future needs and other exogenous factors. The planning aspect. organization and culture. In the case of customers. motivators. 1994. Ruekert and Walker. Since the target market consists of customers. open-minded. Menon and Varadarajan. 1988). Baker and Noordwier.Intelligence Generation: Market intelligence generation is about collecting information and developing an understanding of the target market through formal and informal information systems. Sinkula.. is sensitive. Zeithaml. Responsiveness Designing and implementing a response constitutes the responsiveness of the firm. all the constituents of the organizations develop commitment to learn. The implementation aspect. i. Both these aspects need to be given due weightage while appraising the prevailing intelligence dissemination system in a firm. Maltz and Kohli. 1997). 1996. i. 20 . etc. etc. Menon and Varadarajan.e. Intelligence Dissemination An effective communication of the market intelligence throughout the firm is known as intelligence dissemination. take into account other parameters such as whether the organization. and Parasuraman.. Baker and Noordewier. current and past strategies. objectives and assumption. growth and profitability. offering and distributing the products along with providing after-sales services (Deshpande. these can be customers’ unsatisfied needs. direct and indirect nonbuying influences. 1992. Sinkula. 1992. Berry. their size. government policy. This includes both planning and implementation aspects. “response implementation”. “Amount” and “type” of communication constitute two major dimensions of the intelligence dissemination process. product planning. entails selecting the target market. it is imperative that the entire organization becomes learning-oriented. Sinkula. Farley and Webster Jr. Such an appraisal should. as a whole. Deshpande and Zaltman. strengths and weaknesses—all these need to be analysed. 1993.e. 1997). pertains to producing. 1997. responsiveness to market intelligence needs to be viewed as an organization-wide phenomenon in which the participation of virtually every department is present. competitors and external environmental variables. the task of developing an understanding of the target market is not complete till the non-verbalized facts of the target market are not analysed. setting up structures and systems. A firm also needs to collect information about the external environmental conditions such as technological intensity. As suggested by Aaker (1988) and Jaworski and Kohli (1994). become open-minded and share the organizations’ common vision (Day.
and (3) Inter-functional coordination. "Understanding what customers want and do not want. companies must innovate in both products and processes. Customer Orientation Customer orientation is a set of beliefs that puts the customer's interest first. Slater and Narver 1994. which is the coordinated utilisation of company's resources to create superior value for target customers. Siguaw. such as their short-term strengths and weaknesses and long term capabilities. in order to develop a long-term profitable enterprise (Deshpande et al. organisations that are market-oriented should match customer needs with company competencies. Deshpande et al (1993) foimd that customer orientation improves performance and Gronroos (1982) considered that service industries need to market this orientation to employees if they are to reinforce the quality of the flrm and its services. can result in greater efficiency. reduce waste in management in manufacturing. Brown and Widing 1994. Both require a thorough analysis of technological capabilities and competences to satisfy the same market. which (1) accentuates the creation of customer value as the overriding organisational goal. Day and Nedungadi (1994) suggest that market orientation represents superior skills in understanding and satisfying customers. which involves understanding target buyers now and over time in order to create superior value for them (customers).Cultural Perspective Narver and Slater (1990:21) provide a cultural perspective and define market orientation as "the organisation culture that most effectively and efficiently creates the necessary behaviors for the creation of superior value for buyers and. Deshpande et al. continuous superior performance for the business". whereas Lafferty and Hult (2001) consider that competitor orientation is similar to customer orientation in terms of information gathering. 1993: 27).Narver and Slater (1990). According to Narver and Slater (1990). Continuous innovation is implicit in each of these components (Narver and Slater 1999). and (2) provides norms for organisational development and consensus. and observes that market driven firms that balance these two orientations achieve better performance. Saxe and Weitz 1982). weaknesses. Numerous authors have investigated the customer orientation pillar of marketing (Baker and Sinkula 1999. "When rivalry is fierce. 1993. Zahra (1993: 324) states. while not excluding other stakeholders such as owners. customer orientation requires a sufficient understanding to create products or services of superior value. They identify three behavioural components: (1) Customer orientation. Jaworski and Kohli 1993. Slater and Narver (1995) define customer orientation as a culture. 21 . which includes acquiring information on existing and potential competitors. thus. Polsa and Chen 2003: 133). (2) Competitor orientation. capabilities and strategies of competitors. and employees. Others claim that to be successful. managers. and enhance competitive advantages" (Change. as well as understanding competitors. Competition Orientation Narver and Slater (1990) believe that competition orientation means understanding the strengths.
"thinking outside the box"). if not exceed. Baker and Sinkula (1999) argued that new product development can respond to markets (by reacting to customer needs and competitor offerings). with respect to successful performance variables. Consequently. Conceptual Framework 22 . that is. they do not expect strong synergy between orientations for this variable and as such none is proposed here. and information management policies. prioritize and make in-depth assessments of their competitors. resources. focusing on their goals. strategies. and examine how they will differentiate themselves from competitors". find novel ways to compete. products.explore new markets. To compete. they should be able to match. capabilities. competitor performance. Olsen et all (2005: 51) find that to "beat the competition". or develop a learning orientation environment (through innovative disruptions of the status quo. companies should target. From another perspective.
However. interpretivism. It should also provide a justification for selecting specified methods and a critical evaluation of the selected methods. observation. pragmatism Research approach – Inductive and deductive Research design – descriptive.7. 7. The following aspects should be covered under this section of the research proposal: Research philosophy – positivism. It is about observing and experimenting theories. interviews etc. realism. Sauders (2003) research process onion can also be used to structure the research methodology chapter. Positivism and interpretivism are the most appropriate for management related research. Chapter Three .1 Research Philosophies What is expected? There are four main research philosophies. qualitative and quantitative Research tools – surveys. exploratory. explanatory. predictive Research methods – primary and secondary. positivism. focus groups. Research limitations Research ethics Alternatively. 23 . Interpretivism is about inductive research where qualitative research is conducted to form theories about patterns and behaviour. realism and pragmatism. Positivism is about deductive research where theories are used to understand why things happen the way they happen.Research Methodology This is a vital section in the research proposal as it explains in detail how the research will be carried out. interpretivism.
Pragmatism establishes that truth is less important than usefulness. Positivism contains most common variables which contains standardisation. as according to this philosophy it is possible to get wrong information if people who are researched are interfered. In contract with positivism here information is obtained through strong social interaction like direct communication with the people (Blaxter. Employees’ turnover topic has been investigated by the use of both interpretivism and positivism philosophy. 2006). 24 . Pragmatism incorporates experiments to test what works and what doesn’t. Pragmatist research is mainly used in the medical field. However the application was different. Positivism and interpretivism are two main philosophies used for social phenomena evaluation. Sample answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. et al. Interpretivism on the other hand is based on the assumption that human beings have complete nature. However wherever author thought it is not possible to get standard information then issues in this study investigated through application of interpretivism philosophy. This philosophy allows the researcher to get information through indirect communication with them. The main assumptions in Positivism are that social reality is not dependent of one person but it is common wisdom of whole society. The social reality according to this philosophy cannot be generalised but each person have different unique point of view. This is standardisation of social information and inflation obtained from some units of population here is generated at larger level. Their point of views cannot be standardised but each human being has unique understanding and point of view about as a social phenomenon. The author here ensured that respondents easily understand the questions asked and give right answers. Realism instate that objects exist regardless of what anyone think of them. The properties of both of these philosophies are quite different from each other. The point of view of few people can be point of view of whole population. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited.
the greater the organizational commitment of employees. For example – Theory – Market orientation positively influences business performance Hypothesis H1. Greater the market orientation of a firm. H2. the superior is its financial performance. Greater the market orientation of the firm.7. H4. the greater is its new product success. H5. Greater the market orientation of a firm. Greater the market orientation. greater its overall performance would be. the more competitive it is in the market H6. H3.2 Research approach What is expected? There are two main research approaches: deductive and inductive. Greater the technological turbulence. Observation – conduct a questionnaire survey and test the hypothesis Confirmation – Compare the results with the theory and draw conclusions 25 . Deductive research – Deductive research involves drawing conclusions logically from the available facts (it is about testing hypothesis). the weaker is the relationship between market orientation and business performance. Greater the market orientation of a firm.
better understanding of those two approaches are an important in order to identify a suitable research approach. Deductive approach is allied with the positivism paradigm and the inductive approach is allied with interpretivism. Deductive approach allows the researcher to develop an assumption by utilising theory (Thornhll. Develop theory – Online sources play a vital role in communicating and influencing mothers. Example How does young mothers learn about the types of baby milk power available in the market? Observation – obtain a sample of 50 new mothers and ask them how they got to know about the milk power they are currently using Pattern– determine a pattern in the responses Tentative hypothesis . Deductive and inductive are two approaches discussed in order to justify which approach can be employed to collect and analysis the data. Inductive research Inductive research involves moving from specific observation to broader generalisations and theories. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. it refers to work from the more common to the more specific and allows the researcher to collect quantitative data. 2009). Hence. Sample answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance.online baby care sites and blogs are the most influential source on recommending specific milk power types. In addition. 26 .
this approach does not allow collecting quantitative data but allows collecting qualitative data. Exploratory Research. Sample answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. attitudes. 2009). Therefore. 27 . Document conditions. or characteristics of individuals or groups of individuals An analysis of why and how something happen with the perspective of providing recommendations forecasting the likelihood of a similar situation occurring elsewhere Descriptive Analytical Predictive It is unlikely that a research can be a combination of these designs. positivism paradigm is selected which support by the deductive approach.3 Research design What is expected? There are four main research design types: Exploratory Research conducted to gain an insight and comprehension of an issue or situation. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. the candidates are required to specify the design that is most applicable for the research in hand and provide justifications for the choice. 7. This study will be employed deductive approach because quantitative data is collected as the questionnaire was close-ended and structure.Inductive approach is a flexible as it has no requirement of programmed theory in order to collect information and data ( Kumar. In addition. They are. Research can be categorized into three different parts based on their purpose. In addition. Descriptive Research and Causal Research.
it is important to clearly state their use. Internal data External data Secondary research is conducted to form the basis for primary research. (Weidersheim. primary research is of two types: qualitative research and quantitative research. the author attempts to understand the behavior of customers in selecting an insurance policy. most often. such as the market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers who buy the product. 7. Descriptive research is used when the problem is relatively clear and structured. 1997). Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited.' (Kotler et al. When presenting research methods. quantitative or both will be used for the research and justify the choice based on the selected research approach and philosophy. interviews and observation studies. Candidates can present a table to illustrate the link between the research methods and the research objectives. Furthermore.4 Research methods What is expected? There are two main research methods. 28 . p. 'The objective of descriptive research is to describe things. primary research and secondary research.In this study. This study is carried out as Descriptive Research since it will describe the variables relating to consumer behavior and help in drawing a relationship with the variables and the choice of customers. Qualitative research can be conducted using research tools such as focus groups. Prmary Data Data obtained for the first time for the purpose of the research Quantitative Qualitative Secondary Data Data already available as a result of the reseraches done in the past. quantitative research can be conducted using tools such as questionnaire surveys. researchers will make use of both research methods. Candidates are required to clearly explain whether qualitative. 2006. Therefore. Sample Answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance.Paul & Eriksson. On the other hand. 122).
sampling method and sample size for each tool. 29 . The main research instrument used to gather data for the purpose of the research is questionnaires. whereas secondary data would be data that is already available. In order to gain background information of the insurance industry.5 Research tools What is expected? Based on the selected research methods. candidates are required to recommend research tools that will be used to conduct the research. 7. Primary data is data gathered for the problem in hand.Data for the purpose of this research will be collected from both primary and secondary sources of data. This questionnaire will be used to measure the significance of the factors affecting the behavior. A questionnaire will be developed identify the factors affecting customers behavior in selecting an insurance policy and stages a customer passes through in the buyer process. candidates are required to specify the population size. annual reports of the Insurance Board of Sri Lanka and other authorities will be used. When recommending research tools. The research tools and research objectives should be presented as railway tracks to show a clear link between the two. however specifically not collected for the particular research. The questionnaire will also include a section on the demographics of the respondent. to collect information of theories relevant for the research. The selected sampling method and the sample size should be justified using appropriate theory. Primary data for the research will be collected surveys based on face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. journals and websites. The main secondary data used for the research will be articles.
It’s designed to reflect the relative response of departments stores in the retail market. However. Judgment or purposive sampling . independent of any subjective selection by the researcher.The researcher consciously selects a sample considered appropriate for the study.Here each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the survey. non-probability sampling involves a subjective selection of the respondents. A computerized random number generator or tables randomly select members until the required sample size is filled. a researcher in the cutlery market might include all major departments stores in the sample as well as a random selection of other outlets. every member of the population of interest has a known chance of being selected.Population The population of interest (sometimes referred to as the target population or universe) is the total group of people that the researcher wishes to examine.for example. researchers are required to select a sample.’ This is based on the idea that if known characteristics of the population are reproduced in the same proportion in 30 . There are four commonly used methods of probability sampling. in the office or from a database as long as the sample fits with the population as a whole. Convenience Sampling . Thereafter. For example. Cluster Sampling . On the other hand.This is based on the convenience of the researcher. it is not possible to state results with any degree of statistical certainty. Quota Sampling . Therefore. in reality. This may be based on certain companies representing a sector. Stratified random sampling . study or obtain information from. There are four types of non-probability sampling. Sampling methods Sampling methods can be grouped as probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Simple random sampling . Systematic sampling . Irrespective of the selection made in the street.This is a procedure in which clusters of population units are selected at random and then all or some of the units in the chosen clusters are studied.This method divides population into two or more mutually exclusive groups. Since the sample is not chosen objectively. it is legitimate. Hence the probability of selecting respondents is unknown. it is almost impossible to include the entire audience in the research. the researcher can take random samples from within the group using either of the methods above.This method involves selecting every nth member of a population. every 9th member of a given list will be selected for the research.This is defined by ESOMAR (2007) as ‘ A type of non-probability sample where the required number of units with particular characteristics are specified. In probability sampling.
Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. Sample size There is not necessarily a relationship between the size of the population and the sample. The likely response rates. This is very useful in the markets where there is low incidence of the population. sex and social class can be used to select quotas. or where unusual behavior is under consideration. and therefore cost of managing the collection and processing of large amounts of data. the higher the level of accuracy required Sample Answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. it is a representative of that population. Snowball Sampling . The number of subgroups within the data-the smaller groups will have larger sampling errors and a large sample might be needed to ensure that sub groups can be effectively analyzed.if this is common. Research tools The main research tool used for this research will be face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. the sample may be smaller. the longer it takes to gather data and complete analysis The risk attached to any decision . like in B2B markets. greater the cost of conducting the research. 31 . the sample will need to be larger to have an effect on the incident rate of the characteristic being researched. Sample size is often determined by past experience. Although a larger sample brings more accurate results . These include: Budget – Bigger the sample size. for example. Other factors which play a key role in determining sample size. Previous studies will indicate: The degree of variability in the population.The greater the risk. Timings .probability sampling where initial respondents are selected at random and subsequent respondents are then selected by the referrals or information for the earlier respondents.if these are believed to be low. the larger the sample size will need to be. it has to be traded off against the cost of producing this effect and the complexity.ESOMAR (2007) defines: A type of non.the more the variability.the sample.The larger the sample size. where the buyers are of competitive intelligence. Sample size is determined by the amount of money that is available for the project. age.
Colombo 5 Colombo 7 Colombo 13 Colombo 14 40 40 40 40 160 Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR) consists of 14 Divisional Secretarial Units from Colombo 1 to Colombo 14.Population Population refers to the group of people. Sampling Procedure A sample is a subset of the population and sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population so that the study undertaken is representative of the whole population. The sampling method undertaken for the purpose of this study was random where 160 respondents from the population were chosen for the research from the list of registered vehicles under the Registration of Motor Vehicles Dept. Here every member in the population will have a known and equal chance of being selected as a subject where there will be a least amount of bias. This study will look in to the behavior patterns of customers in selecting insurance policies. Therefore the population for the research will be current domestic vehicle owners in Sri Lanka registered under the Narahenpita Divisional Secretariat. 40 respondents from each of these regions constitute the total number of 160 respondents giving an equal representation to both high and low income segments of the region. 32 . events or things of interest the researcher wishes to investigate. Due to the time and cost constraints of this study. The sample of 160 was selected in the following manner. Sample Size The size of the sample for the research will be 160 respondents selected randomly form the list of registered domestic vehicles in the year 2006 under the Narahenpita Divisional Secretariat. in the Colombo District in the period 2006/07. Colombo 5 and Colombo 7 have been selected to represent the high-income segment whereas Colombo 13 and Colombo 14 have been selected to represent the low-income segment in the region.
the results might not even be representative of all marketing managers at “Simplicity”.6 Research Limitations What is expected? The next step is to discuss the limitations that can be encountered when conducting the research. Another possible limitation would be misleading responses and inaccurate data. In addition. time limitations. One limitation of this study comes from the sampling method chosen. the results cannot be generalised for all marketing managers across the retail industry. resources limitations. Candidates can discuss about finance limitations. The convenience sampling method introduces sampling bias in the study and as a result. the response rate will not be as high as expected. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. Sample Answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. the outcomes might be skewed in a particular direction. skill limitations etc. 33 . Furthermore. marketing managers might not be willing to share sensitive issues or other information due to company laws. Many people would not likely to accept they have low or weak ethical standards to the results to self-reflective questions are likely to be skewed. The reason will be the unavailability of marketing managers in certain locations. A few also refused to give an interview. It is always useful to understand the shortcomings of own research and the expected effects of the methodology adopted.7. Due to this bias. Listing out the limitations and discussing their impact will help the reader understand the context in which the research was carried out. In fact.
The study will be an attempt to define how marketing behaviours and attitudes were expected to be influenced in cross-cultural settings. The names of the marketing managers were not disclosed to preserve anonymity on request of the managers. which she did. The sole intent of this research will be to analyse ethical attitudes and relate them to the marketing strategies pursued by “Simplicity” in different regions. this study had several ethical conditions to follow.7 Ethical Considerations What is expected? The final section of the methodology should discuss how the research will be conducted in an ethical manner. Nor will any damage to the brand name expected. Since the topic is of little sensitivity for companies as large as “Simplicity”. This section should discuss how: Data will be processed fairly and lawfully Data will be obtained only for specific and lawful purposes Data will be stored securely Personal data will not be distributed or used without the permission from the respondents Personal data wouldn’t be kept longer than necessary Sample Answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. 34 . The researcher had to gain official permission at “Simplicity” for allowing access to its marketing managers in different regions.7. The study in no way intended to use information gained for personal or other gains.
Gantt chart A Gantt chart is a tool used for planning and scheduling projects. It provides an opportunity to assess the time taken for the individual activities in the project. It is important to note that the Gantt chart should only indicate future activities and not the activities that were already conducted. hence. This can be used to represent the percentage of work completed. Gantt charts are useful for monitoring progress. the project owner will be able to take any remedial actions to bring the project back on course. when a project is underway. Furthermore. Gantt charts provide a status update about the project at any given time. Timetable What is expected? The main objective of the timetable is to provide a plan of how the available time will be allocated to complete the proposed research. dependencies between individual tasks and resource allocation requirements. Each task is represented in the respective corresponding bar that shows the time span required for that task.8. Furthermore. A time plan will act as a control mechanism to monitor the progress of the research against the set targets. and the project time span is represented on the horizontal axis. Copying or extracting from any of the sample answers is strictly prohibited. Sample Answer Please note that these are sample student answers and have only been provided as guidance. tasks are shown on the vertical axis. a justification can be provided for foreseeable changes in the time plan. A time plan can be represented using a Gantt chart. This will give an indication of the viability of this research proposal. 35 . In a Gantt chart.
36 . Coding and transcribing interviews Issues: Coding and transcribing of all interviews may require time which could delay the analysis stage of the paper. Solution: The expected number of respondents may be reduced to reflect the situation.Time Table and Contingency Plan September October November December Wk 3 Expand the literature review Prepare the questionnaire and select the sample Prepare field force guidelines for the focus group Test the questionnaire on a pilot survey Conduct the 4 focus groups Conduct the interviews Collect and analyses data Draw conclusions and recommendations Proof read and Editing Submit research paper Contingency Plan Wk 4 Wk 1 Wk 2 Wk 3 Wk 4 Wk 1 Wk 2 Wk 3 Wk 4 Wk 1 Wk 2 As with every project. The number per groups may be reduced to six respondents per group or two mini groups of four respondents per segment may be conducted if all eight respondents’ timings do not match. Solution: The researcher will also take shorthand notes during the interview to ensure that there are preliminary data sufficient enough for the analysis process to continue as soon as the interview is completed and transcribed data will be used to confirm the analysis. Some problems that could occur are summarised as follows: Recruitment of research participants Issues: The recruitment of participants may not be completed by the expected timeline. The author anticipated that the main process that could cause delay to the project falls in the focus groups discussion period of the research. unforeseen situations may occur which could cause a delay to the project.
a page reference should be included: Cormack (1994.. Where you are mentioning a particular part of the work. and they are referred to directly. 1999) ……………………. ………………. their name is followed by the year of publication of their work: This view has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994).. ……………………….. and making direct reference to this. writers invariably make reference to already published works'. …………………….32-33) states that 'when writing for a professional readership. Some of the useful Harvard Referencing guidelines are as follows: 9. References The final section of the research proposal is references. Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence. 37 . Marketing strategy (Anon. in-text citations and complete references. and the title of the work and date of publication. pp.1 In text citations When making reference to an author’s work in your text. they are both cited: Smith (1946) and Jones (1948) have both shown. Candidates are required to provide a comprehensive list of all sources and authors referred when preparing the proposal.. References include two parts. If the author cannot be identified use Anonymous or Anon.9. Harvard Referencing guidelines should be adhered when presenting references.
initial.uk> [Accessed 5 June 2005]. Guide to project management. Annual report Corporate author. D. unpublished. Fishman. J. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb. Annual report 2003-2004.com/popsci37b144110vgn/html> [Accessed 22 June 2009]. Available through: name of database [Accessed date]. Available through: include e-book source/database. The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look. Popular Science and Technology. Kipper. 2002.ac. Full Title of Journal.9. . Williams. Year . [type of medium] Place of publication: Publisher. Course material / lecture notes – print version Lecturer/Author. 38 . London: Marks & Spencer. Initials..M. Full Title of Magazine. R. [online] Available at:<http://www. [ejournal] 42 (6).anglia. Available through: Blackwell Science Synergy database [Accessed 12 June 2005].popsci. web address or URL [Accessed date]. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. B.. unpublished. Title of article. 2008.. [online] Available at: web address (quote the exact URL for the article) [Accessed date]. 2005. Initials. Year. Year. Political Science Quarterly. Title of item. 2004. Year. Journal articles available from a database Author. Japan’s new dawn. Magazine or journal articles available on the internet Authors. Marks & Spencer. BD45001S Management. The rise and fall of suburbia. Title of article. Year.2 Complete references E-books and pdfs Author. Page numbers if available. Full title of annual report. Boughton... [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number). [e-book] Chester: Castle Press. Module Code Module title. The way forward. HE Institution. 2008. Anglia Ruskin University.
. [medium] Blog posting date. 39 . [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date]. otherwise indicate if available through WebCT.co. 2008. 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard.uk/guidelinesFinder [Accessed 10 October 2009]. B. 2003. Felix. Title of item’ Module Code Module Title [online via internal VLE]. Available at: web address if available over the internet. Title of individual blog entry.uk Science blog. HE Institution. NHS Evidence. [blog] 18 June. Websites Authorship or Source.guardian. Title of web document or web page. Williams. Whitton. Blog title. SharePoint or other virtual learning environment address.uk/science/blog/2009/jun/18/conservationextinction. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date]. Available at: <http://www.library.nhs. initial.co. Available at:< J:\AIBS\AIBS Admin\ASSESSMENT MATERIAL\ASSESSMENT MATERIAL 2009-10\IBS & MARKETING & MA ARTS\IBS Sem 2 2009-10 Approved Material\Sem 2> [Accessed Date 13 June 2008].open-ground> [Accessed 23 June 2009].Course material – electronic Lecturer/Author name. Guardian. [online] Available at: http://www. [Accessed date]. BD45001S Management. Year. Year. Blogs Author/User name. [online via internal VLE] Anglia Ruskin University.. Year. Guide to project management. National Library of Guidelines.
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