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RPS22
Date
February 2007
Issue
10
CHROMATING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
Approval
J E Marks
O. E. & T. MATERIALS
Referenced specifications
RPS128 RPS367 RPS386 RPS461 RPS576 RPS639 RPS900 CSS123
RQSP025 AMS2475
This specification replaces Rolls-Royce Derby Engine Group Works Process Specification No. 22
and Rolls-Royce Bristol Engine Group Technical Instruction TN.1067
Process Effect Testing - See Appendix 6
CHANGES: For information only, changes since the last issue are recorded on the last page. You
are advised not to consider these changes in isolation as other requirements of the specification
may be affected by them.
1. SCOPE
1.1 This specification covers the procedure for chromating of magnesium alloy
components.
1.2 Alternatively, components may be chromated in accordance with AMS2475 with the
written approval of the Rolls-Royce Laboratories.
Note
If necessary, complex parts shall be oven dried prior to protecting to RPS367.
2. HANDLING PROTECTION
Magnesium components shall be handled only in clean dry conditions (lint free or
surgical gloves should be used). A temporary protective coating to RPS367 shall
always be applied between machining operations. Corrosion will occur as the result of
degreasing components prior to inspection and omitting the re-protection after
inspection.
3. PREPARATION OF UNMACHINED CASTINGS
Components shall be suitably wired or mounted on jigs.




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4. PROCESS PLANNING
There should be negligible dimensional change by this process.
5. PROCESS CONTROL
5.1 In compliance with RPS900, parts will be processed to work instructions which identify
the technical parameters and sequential requirements of this specification. Work
instructions shall be approved by the Rolls-Royce Laboratories.
5.2 Substantiation
5.2.1 New sources/facilities operating this process may be requested to substantiate this
process by the Rolls-Royce Laboratories.
5.2.2 Any change in method/equipment/materials shall be cause for re-substantiation on
classified parts.
5.2.3 Any change to this substantiated method for classified parts shall require formal
source and method change approval.
5.3 Rework of Components
Chromating may be applied at inter operational stages for corrosion protection. A
total of three chromating operations shall not be exceeded on any finally machined
surface.
5.4 Control of Solutions
Unless otherwise stated in the relevant appendix, solutions shall be analysed and
maintained by suitable additions.
Note
Strip solution must be monitored - see Appendix 6.
6. PREPARATION OF UNMACHINED CASTINGS
6.1 Components for chromating shall be in the condition specified on the relevant drawing
and material specification.
6.2 In addition to mechanical dressing, castings may be wet or dry abrasive blasted using
aluminium oxide grit to RPS386. The grit size shall be such that the surface finish
meets the requirements of any existing Quality Specifications.




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7. CHROMATING OF UNMACHINED CASTINGS PRODUCED FROM
SYNTHETICALLY-BONDED SAND MOULDS
Note
The following procedure shall be carried out unless the drawing or order specifies
fluoride anodising to SBAC Standard Route R2T, the details of which are set out in
Clause 8.
7.1 All parts shall be degreased to RPS128, RPS461 or RPS576 and allowed to cool.
7.2 Castings shall then be immersed for two minutes in a 10% v/v solution of nitric acid
(SG 1.42) in water maintained at room temperature.
7.3 On removal from the acid, parts shall be drained and thoroughly washed in water to
remove all traces of treatment solution.
7.4 Without drying, parts shall be immersed for five minutes in an aqueous solution of
3% w/v Sodium Metasilicate (Na
2
SiO
3
5H
2
O) at >80C. Care shall be taken to avoid
air locks and, if necessary, the parts shall be turned after 2 minutes to a new position
to move any trapped air.
7.5 Parts shall be removed from the solution, drained and thoroughly washed in water to
remove all traces of treatment solution.
7.6 Parts shall then be chromated in an approved chromating solution as indicated in
Appendix 1.
7.7 On removal from the chromating bath, the parts shall be thoroughly washed in water
to remove all traces of treatment solution, then dried off after immersion in clean hot
water 80C minimum using clean dry compressed air to ensure all entrapment areas
are thoroughly dry. Parts shall then be protected to RPS367.
Note
If necessary, complex parts shall be oven dried prior to protecting to RPS367.
7.8 Castings supplied by Rolls-Royce plc Foundry to other units within the Company and
castings supplied by Sub-Contractors shall be treated to RPS367 before despatch.
Note
If PX1 is used on a finished machined chromated component, the chromate film shall
be stripped and the component re-chromated prior to painting.




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8. CHROMATING OF UNMACHINED CASTINGS PRODUCED FROM
NATURALLY-BONDED SAND MOULDS
8.1 Parts shall be degreased to RPS128, RPS461 or RPS576. Any of these processes
may be used as an alternative provided they do not affect the end product.
8.2 Parts shall then be cleaned by Fluoride Anodising as detailed in Appendix 4.
8.3 Components shall then be removed from the solution, drained and thoroughly water
washed to remove all traces of treatment solution.
8.4 The parts shall then be dried off after immersion in clean hot water minimum 80C
using clean dry compressed air to ensure that all entrapment areas are thoroughly
dry.
8.5 Inspection of Fluoride Film
The parts shall have a uniform clean white or pearly grey appearance and be free of
foundry sand. Dark areas in hollows may indicate entrapment of gas during
treatment. Very thin, semi-transparent film indicates treatment at too low a voltage.
Only on machined surfaces or on wrought surfaces in good condition is such a film
acceptable.
8.6 Fluoride film removal. The fluoride film shall be removed in accordance with
Appendix 5.
8.7 Parts shall then be removed from the stripping bath, allowed to drain and thoroughly
water washed to remove all traces of treatment solution.
8.8 Chromate treatment. Parts shall be chromated in an approved chromating solution as
detailed in Appendix 1.
8.9 On removal from the chromating bath, components shall be thoroughly water washed
to remove all traces of treatment solution, then dried off after immersion in clean hot
water, 80C minimum, using clean dry compressed air to ensure all entrapment areas
are thoroughly dry.
8.10 Parts shall then be protected to the requirements of RPS367.
Note
If necessary complex parts shall be oven dried prior to protecting to RPS367.




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9. INTER-OPERATIONAL PROTECTION
9.1 Unless inter-operational protection to RPS367 is applied at all stages of, and on
completion of machining, as well as at shut-down periods, the likelihood of corrosion
is increased.
This inter-operational protection may include repeated chromating operations in
accordance with Appendix 1, without the need to strip existing chromate film.
Note
A total of three chromating operations shall not be exceeded on any finally machined
surface.
9.2 If, for any reason, components are required to be stored in the machined or part
machined state for long periods, long term storage protection to RPS367 shall be
applied.
9.3 All holes which are to receive studs or inserts shall be visually inspected for corrosion.
If corrosion is present, advice shall be sought from the Rolls-Royce Laboratories in
order to determine methods for removal of the corrosion.
9.4 Magnesium parts which come into contact with water, either in the course of a
planned operation such as pressure testing, or accidentally, shall be treated by either
of the following methods without delay:
(a) Thoroughly oven dry at a temperature of 120C - 150C for one hour. Allow to
cool to room temperature and protect with DEF2331 temporary protective.
(b) Totally immerse in a bath of approved de-watering oil then allow to drain.
9.5 It shall be the responsibility of the Inspection Department to see that all magnesium
parts are always protected in the manner prescribed.
9.6 For the purposes of inter-operational protection only, alternative solutions may be
used with the agreement of the Rolls-Royce Laboratories.
10. PREPARATION FOR FINAL CHROMATING
10.1 When all machining and inspection operations are completed, the parts shall be
passed for chromate treatment immediately prior to painting.
10.2 All temporary marking applied during manufacture shall be carried out using materials
conforming to CSS123 and all such marking shall be removed before components are
passed to final chromating.
10.3 Parts shall then be degreased in accordance with RPS128, RPS461 or RPS576 singly
or in combination at the discretion of the Rolls-Royce Laboratories.




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10.4 Parts shall be immersed in the chromic acid solution in order to strip residual chromate
film, as described in Appendix 2. The strip process shall be checked in accordance
with Appendix 6.
Note
With difficult films, it is sometimes advantageous to chromate briefly, eg for 5 minutes,
prior to stripping.
10.5 On removal from the stripping solution, parts shall be water washed to remove all
traces of treatment solution.
11. FINAL CHROMATE TREATMENT
11.1 Chromating of the parts may be carried out in accordance with any of the approved
methods detailed in Appendix 1.
11.2 Chromating of parts manufactured from magnesium alloys NOT containing Yttrium
may be carried out in accordance with any of the approved methods detailed in
Appendix 1. Chromating of parts manufactured from magnesium alloys containing
Yttrium (typically MSRR8102 and MSRR8103) shall be carried out to Appendix 1
Solution D.
11.3 On removal from the hot water, parts shall be dried by means of a clean dry air blast
and shall then be oven dried at 120C - 150C for one hour prior to painting.
12. INSPECTION
The chromate film shall be inspected to ensure conformity to the Component
Definition and to the requirements of RQSP025 and/or Component Specific QAS or
RQSC.
13. TOUCH-UP
Faulty chromate films shall be stripped as described in Clause 10 followed by
re-chromating as described in Clause 11. However, if the damage is small in area,
one of the methods of touch-up in Appendix 3, may be used.
14. APPLICATION OF PROTECTIVE SYSTEM
Where painting is specified after chromating, components shall be clean and dry
before the painting operation and this operation should follow as soon as possible
within 16 hours. Where there is an inevitable delay (ie fitting of inserts) beyond 16
hours, components shall be cleaned and/or reactivated prior to painting as detailed in
the appropriate painting specification. Advice shall be sought from the Rolls-Royce
Laboratories if the 16 hours is exceeded.




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15. FITTING
15.1 All holes which are to receive studs or inserts shall be visually inspected for corrosion.
If corrosion is present, advice shall be sought from the Rolls-Royce Laboratories in
order to determine methods for removal of the corrosion before fitting continues.
15.2 Dissimilar metals in contact with magnesium alloys shall be wet assembled with PL32
(MSRR9055) to RPS639 or an alternative approved by the Rolls-Royce Laboratories.
16. CORROSION PROTECTION
It should be noted that most metallic surfaces are susceptible to corrosion, particularly
after operations which leave the metal dry and exposed to atmospheric conditions. It
is, therefore, of the most utmost importance that the protection requirements of
RPS367 shall be considered in relation to the planning and/or manufacture of metallic
parts of all stages. The foregoing instruction is not necessarily satisfied by the
provisions of any specific clause which may appear elsewhere in this specification.
17. HEALTH, SAFETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
There is statutory obligations to provide and maintain safe working environments and
process operations. Further information on he requirements and responsibilities is
provided in RPS900.
18. REFERENCED SPECIFICATIONS
RPS128 CLEANING AND DEGREASING USING TRICHLOROETHYLENE
SOLVENT - HOT LIQUID AND VAPOUR
RPS367 CORROSION PROTECTION OF COMPONENTS DURING
MANUFACTURE AND STORAGE
RPS386 ABRASIVE BLASTING
RPS461 CLEANING AND DEGREASING USING AQUEOUS MEDIA
RPS576 CLEANING AND DEGREASING USING NON-HALOGENATED
ORGANIC SOLVENTS
RPS639 APPLICATION OF JOINTING COMPOUNDS DURING ASSEMBLY
RPS900 TECHNICAL CONTROL OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
CSS123 MARKING MATERIALS FOR TEMPORARY IDENTIFICATION OF
COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLIES
RQSP025 CORROSION PROTECTION BY ANODISING AND CHROMATING
AMS2475 PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS MAGNESIUM ALLOYS




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APPENDIX 1
CHROMATING SOLUTIONS
SOLUTION A
This is an aqueous solution containing the following:
Ammonium Sulphate (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
30 g/l
Ammonium Dichromate (NH
4
)
2
Cr
2
O
7
15 g/l
Potassium Dichromate K
2
Cr
2
O
7
15 g/l
Manganese Sulphate MnSO
4
5H
2
O 10 g/l
Operation
The chromating solution shall be operated at a temperature of 90C to 100C and the
components shall be immersed in the solution for 10 to 30 minutes. Parts which are liable to
retain air locks shall be turned periodically to release the trapped air.
Note
The life of the solution may be extended by the use of demineralised water for topping up.
Control
The pH value shall be maintained at all times when the bath is in use, between 3,6 and 4,0 by
means of additions of 50% v/v sulphuric acid (SG 1.84) solution. Bulk additions of acid shall
not be made while components are in the bath and it is preferable to add the acid by means of
a drip feed.
Analytical Limits
Total Dichromate K
2
Cr
2
O
7
27 - 33 g/l
Total Chloride (as NaCl) 0,2 g/l max
SOLUTION B
This is an aqueous solution containing the following:
Sodium Dichromate Na
2
Cr
2
O
7
2H
2
O 10% w/v 80 to 120 g/l
Manganese Sulphate MnSO
4
5H
2
O 5% w/v 40 to 60 g/l
Magnesium Sulphate MgSO
4
7H
2
O 5% w/v 50 to 120 g/l




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Operation
The components shall be immersed in the solution at a temperature and for a period of time
suitable for specific requirements. Suitable temperatures and times are as follows:
1 hours at 20C - 30C
1 hour at 35C - 45C
30 minutes at 50C - 60C
15 minutes at 70C to 80C
Components liable to contain air locks should be turned to release the trapped air.
Note
The life of the solution may be extended by the use of demineralised water for topping up.
Control
Additions of salts shall be made to maintain limits and the pH value shall be maintained at all
times when the bath is hot and in use, between 3,0 and 6,0 by the addition of 50% v/v
sulphuric acid (SG 1.84)/ water.
The solution shall be analysed and maintained within the above limits by additions of sodium
dichromate and manganese sulphate. With use of the solution, the concentration of
magnesium sulphate rises and when this exceeds 120 g/l, the solution, or part of it, shall be
renewed.
Analytical Limits
Total Chloride (as NaCl) 0,2 g/l max
SOLUTION C
This is an aqueous solution containing the following:
Ammonium Dichromate (NH
4
)
2
Cr
2
O
7
27.5 - 32.5 g/l
Ammonium Sulphate (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
13.7 - 16.0 g/l
Ammonia SG 0.908 1 ml/litre optimum
pH Range 5.0 to 5.5




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Operation
The components shall be immersed in a boiling solution for a period of 20 minutes.
Components liable to contain air locks should be turned to release the trapped air.
Note
The life of the solution may be extended by the use of demineralised water for topping up.
Control
The solution shall be analysed and maintained to the above limits. The pH range may be
adjusted by additions of ammonia or 10% v/v sulphuric acid whichever is appropriate.
Analytical Limits
Total Chloride (as NaCl) 0,2 g/l max
SOLUTION D
This is an aqueous solution containing the following:
Sodium Dichromate Na
2
Cr
2
O
7
2H
2
O 10 w/v 80 - 120 g/l
Manganese Sulphate MnSO
4
5H
2
5 w/v 40 - 60 g/l
Magnesium Sulphate MgSO
4
7H
2
O 5 w/v 50 - 120 g/l
Operation
The components shall be immersed in the solution for 30 - 60 minutes at a temperature of
50C - 60C.
Components liable to contain air locks should be turned to release the trapped air.
Note
The life of the solution may be extended by using demineralised water for make up and
topping up.




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Control
Additions of salts shall be made to maintain limits and pH value shall be maintained at all times
when the bath is hot and in use, between 4.5 and 5.5 by the addition of 50% v/v sulphuric acid
(SG 1.84)/water.
The solution shall be analysed and maintained within the above limits by the addition of
sodium dichromate and manganese sulphate. With use of the solution, the concentration of
magnesium sulphate rises and when this exceeds 120 g/l, the solution or part of it, should be
renewed.
Analytical Limits
Total Chloride (as NaCl) 0,2 g/l




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APPENDIX 2
CHROMIC ACID STRIPPING SOLUTION
Solution
This is an aqueous solution containing:
Chromium Trioxide (CrO
3
) 90 - 120 g/l
Barium Chromate (BaCrO
4
) 2.5 g/l
or Barium Carbonate (BaCO
3
) 2.5 g/l
or Barium Hydroxide (Ba(OH)
2
) 2.5 g/l
The solution shall be made up by dissolving the chromium trioxide in water (preferably
demineralised) with constant stirring, then the barium salt shall be made into a slurry with a
separate amount of water and added to the chromic acid solution to precipitate out any
sulphates present and the whole made up with water to volume. If necessary, a suitable
quantity of silver chromate as prescribed by the Rolls-Royce Laboratories, may be added to
precipitate any chlorides which may be present.
Note
Chlorides are much more aggressive than sulphates towards magnesium and its alloys.
Operation
The solution shall be operated at 65C to 70C, (or in exceptional circumstances the
temperature may be raised to 90C to 100C, at the discretion of the Rolls-Royce
Laboratories).
Components shall be immersed in the solution until the chromate film is stripped, but the
maximum period is 3 minutes*. Components shall then be water washed to remove all traces
of treatment solution. Components to be stripped shall be placed in the stripping solution in
such a position that they are insulated from the sides of the tank or overhead supports to
prevent electrolytic coupling.
In the case of intricate shapes which may cause air locks, the parts shall be turned periodically
during immersion.
Note*
Unless otherwise authorised by the Rolls-Royce Laboratories.




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Control
The solution shall be analysed and additions made as required. The maximum permissible
limits of sulphate (SO
4
) shall be 0,3 g/l and of chloride (Cl) 0,1 g/l.
See Process Effect Testing in Appendix 6 for measurement checks on condition produced by
this solution.




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APPENDIX 3
TOUCH-UP PROCEDURES
1. In the pre-painted stage, if the area of damage is greater than approximately one
square inch, the component should be stripped and re-chromated. If however, the area
of damage is less than one square inch, or fine limit dimensions preclude
re-chromating, the damaged film shall be repaired using one of the systems shown
below.
1.1 In the case of components at engine build, despatch, or subsequent stages, if the area
of damage does not exceed one square inch, the film shall be repaired using one of the
systems below.
Note
If the damaged area exceeds approximately one square inch, the component shall be
referred to the Rolls-Royce Laboratories.
2. REPAIR
2.1 The damaged area shall be degreased to RPS128, RPS461 or RPS576 and rubbed
down feathering the edges, with a grade of abrasive paper approved by the
Rolls-Royce Laboratories.
2.2 The prepared surfaces shall then be treated in accordance with Clause 3 or 4.
3. ALOCROM 1200 SOLUTION
3.1 Solution Preparation
Dissolve 31 g of Alocrom 1200 in one litre of demineralised water add 3 ml of nitric acid
(SG 1.42) and stir, thoroughly. A small amount of insoluble residue is permissible.
3.2 Method
The prepared area shall be treated with the touch-up solution using a cotton wool swab
or clean soft brush.
The application shall be continued until a "brassy" coloured film is produced, the
solution shall then be water washed to remove all traces of treatment solution and
blown dry with clean dry compressed air.




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4. DOW 19 SOLUTION
4.1 Solution Preparation
Add 8,5 g chromic acid (CrO
3
) followed by 6,25 g of calcium sulphate (CaSO
4
2H
2
O) to
one litre of demineralised water and stir vigorously for a minimum of 15 minutes.
4.2 Method
The prepared area shall be treated with the prepared solution using a clean soft brush
or cotton wool swab. The application shall be continued until a "brassy" coloured film
is produced, the solution shall then be water washed to remove all traces of treatment
solution and blown dry with clean, dry compressed air.




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APPENDIX 4
FLUORIDE ANODISING
Solution
This is an aqueous solution containing:
Ammonium Bifluoride (NH
4
HF
2
) 150 - 250 g/l
Operation
The inner wall of the tank must not conduct electricity. All clamping parts in the solution shall
be of magnesium alloy other than magnesium - manganese alloy.
The temperature of the solution shall not exceed 30C and good circulation shall be provided.
Parts are normally treated in pairs of approximately equal surface area. They shall be
suspended at least 250 mm below the surface of the solution and connected to a source of
alternating current such that the supplied voltage may be raised to a maximum of 120 volts.
During the treatment, the current flow is usually heavier at first but diminishes rapidly as
surface impurities are removed and an unbroken fluoride film is formed. The treatment shall
be continued for 10 - 15 minutes from the application of maximum voltage or until the current
has fallen to below 50 amps/m of the smaller electrode.
Analytical Limits
Total Chloride (as NaCl) Max 0,2 g/l




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APPENDIX 5
FLUORIDE FILM REMOVAL
This fluoride film shall be removed by one of the following methods as appropriate.
METHOD 1
Parts shall be treated in chromic acid solution in accordance with the requirements of
Appendix 2.
After treatment the parts shall be thoroughly washed in cold water to remove all traces of
treatment solution. The parts shall then be transferred to either of the following solutions.
Solution A
This is an aqueous solution containing sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 50 g/l nominal.
Operation
The solution is operated at boiling point. Parts are immersed for a period of about 5 minutes.
Control
The solution shall be discarded when no longer effective.
Solution B
This is an aqueous solution containing hydrofluoric acid (HF) 150 - 250 g/l.
Operation
Parts shall be immersed for 5 minutes at room temperature.
Control
The solution shall be discarded when no longer effective.
METHOD 2
This method shall be used only where dimensional loss can be tolerated.
Parts shall be treated in the following solution.
Solution
This is an aqueous solution containing nitric acid (HNO
3
) 50 - 100 g/l.




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The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied, or communicated to a third party, or used, for any
purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc.
Operation
Parts shall be immersed for 5 - 10 minutes at room temperature.
If necessary, parts shall be immersed after washing in Solution B of Method 1 to 5 minutes at
room temperature.
Control
The solution(s) shall be discarded when no longer effective.




Security classification
Controlled
Document number
RPS22
Issue
10
Security classification
Controlled
Page 19 of 20
2007 Rolls-Royce plc
The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied, or communicated to a third party, or used, for any
purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc.
APPENDIX 6
PROCESS EFFECT TESTING
When components are treated to Appendix 2, measurement checks shall be carried out on
suitably polished magnesium alloy control samples. The maximum permissible dimensional
change after treatment by the stripping process in Appendix 2 shall be 0,0015 mm per surface,
equivalent to a weight loss of 0.02 g/dm. A visible indication of excessive metal removal is
when the polished test piece appears dull. It is imperative that the test is carried out at the
maximum operating temperature of the bath.




Security classification
Controlled
Document number
RPS22
Issue
10
Security classification
Controlled
Page 20 of 20
2007 Rolls-Royce plc
The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied, or communicated to a third party, or used, for any
purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc.
CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS ISSUE
PAGE 5 Clause 9.6 added.