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October 2009 Teacher's Guide Table of Contents

About the Guide..............................................................................................3 Student Questions..........................................................................................4 Answers to Student Questions..................................................................... Che!"atters #u$$le% A Clue&'ess Che!ical Crossword........................(2 Answers to the Che!"atters #u$$le ........................................................(4 )S*S Correlation..........................................................................................(+ Antici,ation Guides.....................................................................................(
Question from the Classroom...............................................................................17 Where Do Chemical Elements Come From?........................................................18 What Uuought to Kno !"out Elements 11#$118..............................................1% &etals' (i))en *trengths......................................................................................#+ ,ra-hite .ersus Diamon)/ *ame Element "ut Different 0ro-erties.....................#1 1anotechnolog2's 3ig 4m-act...............................................................................##

-eadin. Strate.ies.......................................................................................23
Where Do Chemical Elements Come From?........................................................#5 What Uuought to Kno !"out Elements 11#$118..............................................#6 &etals' (i))en *trengths......................................................................................#7 ,ra-hite .ersus Diamon)/ *ame Element "ut Different 0ro-erties.....................#7 1anotechnolog2's 3ig 4m-act...............................................................................#8

/here 0o Che!ical *le!ents Co!e 1ro!2.............................................29

3ac8groun) 4nformation........................................................................................#% Connections to Chemistr2 Conce-ts.....................................................................97 0ossi"le *tu)ent &isconce-tions.........................................................................98 Demonstrations an) :essons...............................................................................98 *tu)ent 0ro;ects................................................................................................... 98 !ntici-ating *tu)ent Questions.............................................................................9% <eferences........................................................................................................... 5+ We" *ites for !))itional 4nformation.....................................................................5+

/hat to 6now About *le!ents ((27((8................................42

3ac8groun) 4nformation........................................................................................5# Connections to Chemistr2 Conce-ts.....................................................................61 0ossi"le *tu)ent &isconce-tions.........................................................................6# Demonstrations an) :essons...............................................................................6# *tu)ent 0ro;ects................................................................................................... 65 !ntici-ating *tu)ent Questions.............................................................................66 We" *ites for !))itional 4nformation.....................................................................66

"etals9 :idden Stren.ths............................................................................+8

3ac8groun) 4nformation........................................................................................68 Connections to Chemistr2 Conce-ts.....................................................................7#

0ossi"le *tu)ent &isconce-tions.........................................................................79 Demonstrations an) :essons...............................................................................75 *tu)ent 0ro;ects................................................................................................... 76 !ntici-ating *tu)ent Questions.............................................................................77 <eferences........................................................................................................... 77 We" *ites for !))itional 4nformation.....................................................................77

Gra,hite ;ersus 0ia!ond% Sa!e *le!ent but 0ifferent #ro,erties......<0

3ac8groun) 4nformation........................................................................................7+ Connections to Chemistr2 Conce-ts.....................................................................77 0ossi"le *tu)ent &isconce-tions.........................................................................77 Demonstrations an) :essons...............................................................................77 *tu)ent 0ro;ects................................................................................................... 78 !ntici-ating *tu)ent Questions.............................................................................8+ <eferences........................................................................................................... 8+ We" *ites for !))itional 4nformation.....................................................................8+ 3ac8groun) 4nformation........................................................................................89 Connections to Chemistr2 Conce-ts.....................................................................87 0ossi"le *tu)ent &isconce-tions.........................................................................8% Demonstrations an) :essons...............................................................................%+ *tu)ent 0ro;ects................................................................................................... %1 !ntici-ating *tu)ent Questions.............................................................................%# <eferences........................................................................................................... %9 We" *ites for !))itional 4nformation.....................................................................%9

About the Guide

William 3leam= Donal) &cKinne2= E) Escu)ero= an) <onal) >em-est= >eacher's ,ui)e E)itors= create) the teacher's gui)e article material. *usan Coo-er -re-are) the national science e)ucation content= antici-ation= an) rea)ing gui)es. Da?i) @lne2 create) the -uAAle. EBmail/ );olne2C? 0atrice 0ages= ChemMatters E)itor= coor)inate) -ro)uction an) -re-are) the &icrosoft Wor) an) 0DF ?ersions of the ,ui)e. EBmail/ !rticles from -ast issues of ChemMatters can "e accesse) from a CD that is a?aila"le from the !merican Chemical *ociet2 for D9+. >he CD contains all ChemMatters issues from Fe"ruar2 1%89 to !-ril #++8. >he ChemMatters CD inclu)es an 4n)eE that co?ers all issues from Fe"ruar2 1%89 to !-ril #++8. >he ChemMatters CD can "e -urchase) "2 calling 1B8++B##7B6668. 0urchase information can "e foun) online at .acs.orgFchemmatters

Student Questions
/here 0o Che!ical *le!ents Co!e 1ro!2
1. #. 9. 5. 6. 7. 7. 8. %. What chemical element is the -rimar2 constituent of a 2oung star? 1ame the astro-h2sicist ho first a)?ance) the i)ea that the chemical elements originate) from h2)rogen in stars. 1ame the stellar -rocess in hich the fusion of h2)rogen -ro)uces other elements. Wh2 is iron the hea?iest element that can "e -ro)uce) in stars? What are the t o o--osing forces at or8 as fusion ta8es -lace in stars? What name is gi?en to the eE-losion of a star? 1eutron ca-ture -ro)uces hat 8in) of elements in a star? 1ame the material sent into s-ace "2 a su-erno?a. What )oes a s-ectrosco-e )o to light?

/hat to 6now About *le!ents ((27((8

1. (o man2 of the elements "e2on) 1+9 ere 8no n to eEist in 1%7#? #. 1ame the isoto-e of the element in?ol?e) in the s2nthesis of all elements from 119B118= an) eE-lain h2 it as chosen. 9. Descri"e the role of the neutron in the actual s2nthesis of ne elements. 5. What are the similarities an) )ifferences "et een a normal nuclear reactor an) the (igh FluE 4soto-e <eactor G(F4<H? 6. Descri"e the -rocess of -ro)ucing CaliforniumB#5% in the la". 7. What -ro"lem )o scientists encounter hen using the hea?ier isoto-es of elements -ro)uce) "2 the (F4< in further eE-eriments? 7. What -ro"lem )o scientists face once the2 ha?e succee)e) in colli)ing the ions an) target nuclei? 8. What )o the names of elements 11# through 118 mean? %. Wh2 is it so )ifficult to gi?e a ne element a -ermanent name? 1+. Does element 117 eEist?

"etals9 :idden Stren.ths

1. What "asic atomic structural -ro-ert2 of metals accounts for thermal an) electrical con)ucti?it2? #. What is meant "2 the term metalloi)? 9. What are the t o most im-ortant limitations of silicon as a generator of electricit2 in a solar cell? 5. (o are silicon's limitations= mentione) in QI9= im-ro?e) u-on or eliminate)? 6. What is the function of tungsten or mol2")enum in a -lasticB"ase) solar cell? 7. (o )oes -hos-horescence increase the amount of light a"sor"e) "2 a -lastic solar cell? 7. (o ha?e research chemists ma)e -ol2cr2stalline memor2 materials res-onsi?e to a magneticall2Bin)uce) strain GelongationH? 8. (o are the holes or ?oi)s create) in the metal allo2?

%. What ha--ens electricall2 to the insulating la2er of a siliconB"ase) transistor as it "ecomes smaller GthinnerH? 1+. (o has the -ro"lem mentione) in QI% "een o?ercome= chemicall2 s-ea8ing? 11. What are the se-arate functions of gol) an) Airconium oEi)e in con?erting ?olatile organic molecules or com-oun)s G.@CH= such as formal)eh2)e= into car"on )ioEi)e GC@#H an) ater G(#@H? 1#. What a))itional ingre)ient is nee)e) "esi)es gol) to con?ert .@Cs to car"on )ioEi)e an) ater?

Gra,hite ;ersus 0ia!ond% Sa!e *le!ent but 0ifferent #ro,erties

1. #. 9. 5. 6. 7. 7. What are mo)ern )a2 uses of charcoal= an amor-hous form of car"on? What are some uses of gra-hite? :ist some of the contrasting -ro-erties of gra-hite an) )iamon). What is the )ifference in "on)ing "et een )iamon) an) gra-hite? Descri"e the sha-e of the lattice forme) in )iamon) an) in gra-hite. What are the allotro-es of car"on calle)? Descri"e the -rocess "2 hich )iamon)s foun) in remnants of ?olcanic eru-tions are forme). 8. (o )o )iamon)s hel- scientists un)erstan) the com-osition of the Earth's mantle? %. (o )oes the stu)2 of )iamon)s foun) in meteorites -ro?i)e clues to the origin of the solar s2stem? 1+. :ist three metho)s for -ro)ucing s2nthetic )iamon)s. 11. What is the state of -ro)uction of gem Jualit2 )iamon)s "2 C.D? 1#. What is gra-hene?

)anotechnolo.=9s >i. ?!,act

1. Kust hat is nanotechnolog2? #. What is nanotechnolog2's main a--eal? 9. >o hat is the )ifference in -ro-erties of nanomaterials attri"ute)? 5. What is a nanotu"e? 6. What -ro-erties affect the a2 nanotu"es con)uct electricit2? 7. What are nano ires? 7. What are fullerenes or "uc82"alls? 8. Wh2 are "uc82"alls "eing mo)ifie) for thera-eutics? %. (o is nanotechnolog2 "eing use) as a "etter a2 to )eli?er thera-eutic )rugs? 1+. (o are nanotu"es "eing use) in ater -urification? 11. What is the ma;or challenge facing nanotechnolog2? 1#. What safet2 issues are associate) ith nanotechnolog2?

Answers to Student Questions

/here 0o Che!ical *le!ents Co!e 1ro!2
1. /hat che!ical ele!ent is the ,ri!ar= constituent of a =oun. star2 Hydrogen is the primary constituent of a young star. #. )a!e the astro,h=sicist who first ad@anced the idea that the che!ical ele!ents ori.inated fro! h=dro.en in stars. Arthur Stanley Eddington first proposed the elements originating from hydrogen, in 192 . 9. )a!e the stellar ,rocess in which the fusion of h=dro.en ,roduces other ele!ents. !he stellar process producing other elements from hydrogen "y fusion is called nucleosynthesis. 5. /h= is iron the hea@iest ele!ent that can be ,roduced in stars2 #ron is the hea$iest element that can "e produced in stars "ecause the nucleosynthesis of elements hea$ier than iron a"sor" energy rather than release energy. !his is "ecause the "inding energy of the iron nucleus is $ery strong. 6. /hat are the two o,,osin. forces at worA as fusion taAes ,lace in stars2 !he t%o opposing forces are gra$ity and heat&pressure. 'ra$ity attempts to pull all of the matter in a star into the smallest $olume possi"le and the heat and pressure produced "y stellar fusion of gases li(e hydrogen and helium cause the matter to e)pand. 7. /hat na!e is .i@en to the eB,losion of a star2 Superno$a is the term for a star e)ploding. 7. )eutron ca,ture ,roduces what Aind of ele!ents in a star2 Elements hea$ier than iron are produced "y neutron capture. 8. )a!e the !aterial sent into s,ace b= a su,erno@a. !he matter sent into space "y a superno$a is called an interstellar cloud. %. /hat does a s,ectrosco,e do to li.ht2 A spectroscope "rea(s light into its component parts.

/hat to 6now About *le!ents ((27((8

1. :ow !an= of the ele!ents be=ond (03 were Anown to eBist in (9<22 According to Moody, only element 1 * %as suspected to e)ist in 19+2, "ut e$en that %as ,ust dotted in on the periodic ta"le. -ussian scientists had preliminarily claimed its e)istence. .one of the rest of the elements "eyond element 1 / had yet "een disco$ered&made. #. )a!e the isoto,e of the ele!ent in@ol@ed in the s=nthesis of all ele!ents fro! ((3& ((8C and eB,lain wh= it was chosen. Calcium0*1 is the element in$ol$ed in the synthesis of all elements from 11/0111. #t %as selected "ecause it is a sta"le nucleus, and it contains a large num"er of neutrons relati$e to its num"er of protons. 9. 0escribe the role of the neutron in the actual s=nthesis of new ele!ents. !he neutron acts as a heat a"sor"er&transporter. 2hen the neutron is e,ected from the nuclear collision, it ta(es %ith it large amounts of heat that %ould render the ne% element3s nucleus less sta"le if the heat %ere not remo$ed.

5. /hat are the si!ilarities and differences between a 3nor!al5 nuclear reactor and the :i.h 1luB ?soto,e -eactor D:1?-E2 Similarities and differences "et%een a normal reactor and the H4#- are the follo%ing5 !hey "oth %or( similarly6through nuclear reactions. A normal reactor is used to produce electricity6the H4#- is not. !he H4#- produces a"out 1 02 times more neutrons than a normal reactor. 6. 0escribe the ,rocess of ,roducin. Californiu!&249 in the lab. 7roducing californium02*9 in the la" "egins "y "om"arding curium 8isotopes 2**02*19 %ith neutrons from the high flu) isotope reactor 8H4#-9. !hrough a series of neutron "om"ardments, the mass of the curium isotope changes from Cm02** all the %ay up to Cm0 2*9: this then undergoes "eta decay, to produce ;(02*9. 4urther "eta decay produces californium02*9. 7. /hat ,roble! do scientists encounter when usin. the hea@ier isoto,es of ele!ents ,roduced b= the :1?- in further eB,eri!ents2 !he hea$ier isotopes of the elements produce in the H4#- are radioacti$e. !hey <uic(ly decay into other, lighter elements. Scientists must use them <uic(ly, "efore they decay. 7. /hat ,roble! do scientists face once the= ha@e succeeded in collidin. the ions and nuclei2 =nce scientists ha$e collided the particles successfully, they then ha$e to detect the ne% product. Many collisions occur6not ,ust the one they %ant. Scientists ha$e to "e a"le to detect the ne% particle "y its properties of mass and energy. 8. /hat do the 3na!es5 of ele!ents ((2 throu.h ((8 !ean2 !he names of elements 1120111 are really ,ust placeholders until the elements3 disco$erers are allo%ed to name the elements. !he temporary name is made of the >atin or 'ree( %ords that spell out the num"er. Element 112, for e)ample, is named unun"ium 8un0 one, un0 one, "i0 t%o9. %. /h= is it so difficult to .i@e a new ele!ent a ,er!anent na!e2 #t is difficult to gi$e an element a permanent name for t%o reasons5 first, it is a long, tedious process to produce and detect nuclei of the ne% element, and second, "ecause its production&e)istence must "e confirmed "y other scientists 8and there are $ery fe% la"s internationally that ha$e the re<uisite e<uipment. 1+. 0oes ele!ent ((< eBist2 !he author %aits until the $ery end of the article to hint to us a"out the e)istence of element 11+ "y telling us that -esearcher Moody at the >a%rence >i$ermore .ational >a"oratory is ?@actually %or(ing on ans%ering that right no%.A So the <uestion goes unans%ered6for no%. 8=r students could ta(e that to mean, no, it doesn3t e)ist yet, as far as scientists ha$e "een a"le to pro$e.9

"etals9 :idden Stren.ths

1. /hat basic ato!ic structural ,ro,ert= of !etals accounts for ther!al and electrical conducti@it=2 Metals ha$e freely mo$ing $alence electrons that contri"ute "oth to electron and thermal transfer. #. /hat is !eant b= the ter! !etalloid2 Metalloids ha$e properties intermediate to metals and non0metals. 9. /hat are the two !ost i!,ortant li!itations on silicon as a .enerator of electricit= in a solar cell2 Silicon can only capture a small fraction of the sunlight3s energy, and the electricity produced is short li$ed.

5. :ow are silicon9s li!itationsC !entioned in QF3C i!,ro@ed u,on or eli!inated2 ;y ma(ing solar cells from plastic %ith certain metals im"edded, all the $isi"le light from the sun can "e captured and used to generate electricity for a longer period of time. 6. /hat is the function of tun.sten or !ol=bdenu! in a ,lastic&based solar cell2 !hese t%o metals increase the range of the solar spectrum to "e captured "y a plastic solar cell compared %ith one that is silicon0"ased. 7. :ow does ,hos,horescence increase the a!ount of absorbed b= a ,lastic solar cell2 ;ecause phosphorescence is produced after sunlight is a"sor"ed "y the plastic material, the emission of light produced "y this phosphorescence adds energy that can release more electrons for production of an electric current. 7. :ow ha@e research che!ists !ade ,ol=cr=stalline !e!or= !aterials res,onsi@e to a !a.neticall=&induced strain Delon.ationE Manufacturing techni<ues ha$e produced a crystalline material that has lots of microscopic holes or $oids that allo% fle)i"ility, allo%ing the material to "end or elongate, then return to a pre$ious shape 8a type of metal elasticity9. 8. :ow are the holes or @oids created in the !etal allo=2 !he metal alloy is melted, and then poured into a porous material of sodium aluminate salt %hich forms a scaffold for the metals %ithout reacting. !hen the salt is remo$ed through the addition of an acid that dissol$es or leaches out the salt, lea$ing "ehind the small holes in the metal lattice. %. /hat ha,,ens electricall= to the insulatin. la=er of a silicon&based transistor as it beco!es s!aller DthinnerE2 As the insulating layer of silicon dio)ide "ecomes thinner, it e$entually reaches a thic(ness that no longer can insulate or pre$ent electrons from lea(ing "et%een the top and "ottom conducting layers. 1+. :ow has the ,roble! !entioned in QF9 been o@erco!eC che!icall= s,eaAin.2 Adding the compound, Hafnium o)ide to the insulating layer allo%s thinner transistors %ithout ha$ing the electron lea(age of silicon dio)ide. 11. /hat are the se,arate functions of .old and $irconiu! oBide in con@ertin. @olatile or.anic !olecules or co!,ounds D;OCsEC such as for!aldeh=deC into carbon dioBide DCO2E and water D:2OE2 !he gold acts as a catalyst to the reaction, %hile the Birconium o)ide is merely a structural element that holds the gold. 1#. /hat additional 3in.redient5 is needed besides .old to con@ert ;OCs to carbon dioBide and water2 !here must "e a form of energy, in this case, $isi"le light. !he "lue end of the $isi"le spectrum is most energetic and therefore the most producti$e %hile the entire spectrum of sunlight is less efficient 8C*D reduction in the concentration of formaldehyde using ,ust "lue light $s. 1 D reduction using sunlight3s spectrum9.

Gra,hite ;ersus 0ia!ond% Sa!e *le!ent but 0ifferent #ro,erties

1. /hat are the !odern da= uses of charcoalC an a!or,hous for! of carbon2 Charcoal is used in "ri<uettes for outdoor grilling and "ar"ecues, in %ater filters to remo$e "acteria, and in the form of stic(s and po%der used as dra%ing materials in art%or(. #. /hat are so!e uses of .ra,hite2 A mi)ture of clay and graphite is the ?leadA in pencils. 'raphite is also used as a lu"ricant "y adding it to oils and greases and as a molding material in glass manufacture.


'ist so!e of the contrastin. ,ro,erties of .ra,hite and dia!ond. Diamond is the hardest natural su"stance (no%n %hile graphite is one of the softest. Diamond does not conduct electricity %hile graphite is a good conductor of electricity. Diamond is the ultimate a"rasi$e %hile graphite is a good lu"ricant. 5. /hat is the difference in bondin. between dia!ond and .ra,hite2 #n diamond, each car"on is co$alently "onding to four other car"on atoms %hile in graphite each car"on atom is co$alently "onded to only three car"on atoms. 6. 0escribe the sha,e of the lattice for!ed in dia!ond and in .ra,hite. !he lattice in diamond is a three0dimensional tetrahedral lattice. !he lattice in graphite is a t%o dimensional sheet0li(e lattice %ith the car"on atoms arranged in a he)agonal pattern. 7. /hat are the allotro,es of carbon called2 !he allotropes of car"on are diamond, graphite, and fullerenes. 7. 0escribe the ,rocess b= which dia!onds found in re!nants of @olcanic eru,tions are for!ed. Diamonds form in the Earth3s mantle, %hich starts at appro)imately // (ilometers underground and is a"out / (m thic(. At a distance of a"out 1E (m pressures are E*, times greater than atmospheric pressure and the temperature ranges from 9 C to 1/ C. !hese are the conditions necessary for the formation of diamonds. Folcanoes that originate in the Earth3s mantle "ring the diamonds formed deep in the mantle to the surface in a type of roc( called (im"erlite. !he (im"erlite is li<uid %ithin the mantle and traps diamonds and other minerals. =n the surface the (im"erlite hardens to a solid %ith the diamond trapped %ithin its matri). 8. :ow do dia!onds hel, scientists understand the co!,osition of the *arth9s !antle2 ;ecause diamonds form deep %ithin the Earth3s mantle, scientists can study the mantle indirectly "y analyBing diamonds. #nclusions, impurities found in diamonds gi$e an insight into the composition of the mantle. Studies of these inclusions ha$e sho%n the mantle to "e heterogeneous. %. :ow does the stud= of dia!onds found in !eteorites ,ro@ide clues to the of the solar s=ste!2 ;y determining the age of the meteorites, the age of the em"edded diamonds can "e determined. #n some cases, the diamonds are older than the meteorites. !hese meteorites must ha$e formed in space and %ere later captured "y asteroids. !he diamonds %ere pro"a"ly formed in star e)plosions that predate the formation of our solar system. 1+. 'ist three !ethods for ,roducin. s=nthetic dia!onds. Synthetic diamonds may "e produced 819 in large high0pressure, high0temperature presses, 829 in e)plosions %hich generate $ery high0pressure shoc( %a$es, and 8/9 "y chemical $apor deposition 8CFD9. 11. /hat is the state of ,roduction of .e! Gualit= dia!onds b= C;02 A la" at the Carnegie #nstitution in 2ashington, D.C. recently made a 1E0carat 8/0gram9 diamond "y CFD. !he la" has also gro%n 11 millimeter thic( single crystals of diamond. 1#. /hat is 3.ra,hene25 Creation of graphene sheets is one of the hottest craBes in car"on chemistry. 'raphene sheets represent the thinnest su"stance produced. !he graphene sheets are one0atom thic( sheets of car"on arranged li(e atomic scale chic(en %ire.

)anotechnolo.=9s >i. ?!,act

1. Hust what is nanotechnolo.=2

.anotechnology refers to the study of materials %hich measure "et%een1 and 1 nanometers. Deri$ed from ?nanosA6the 'ree( %ord for ?a small personA6a nanometer is one "illionth of a meter. #. /hat is nanotechnolo.=9s !ain a,,eal2 =ne of the main appeals is that nanomaterials do not react the same %ay as the "ul( materials from %hich they deri$e. 9. To what is the difference in ,ro,erties of nano!aterials attributed2 !he different properties are due to an increase in the surface area of such materials and to their unusual shapes G such as tu"es and hollo% "alls G %hich can affect ho% dura"le they are, ho% they conduct electricity and heat, and ho% they a"sor" light. 5. /hat is a nanotube2 A nanotu"e is "asically a sheet of pure, car"on graphite rolled into a cylinder. .anotu"es are usually a fe% nanometers in diameter and "et%een 1 and 1 micrometers6one thousandth of a millimeter6in length. 6. /hat ,ro,erties affect the wa=s nanotubes conduct electricit=2 !he nanotu"e3s diameter and ho% the he)agons in the graphite sheet are arranged on the %all of the tu"e affect the %ay the nanotu"es conduct electricity. 7. /hat are nanowires2 Solid rods of silicon or other materials that are only a fe% nanometers %ide are called nano%ires. A nano%ire3s length is much longer than its %idth and it "eha$es li(e a %ire in %hich electrons can mo$e, thus conducting an electric current. 7. /hat are fullerenes or bucA=balls2 4ullerenes or "uc(y"alls are hollo%, soccer0"all0shaped molecules made up of C car"on atoms, %ith each car"on atom "onded to three ad,acent car"on atoms. !he sphere is a"out one nanometer in diameter. =ther "uc(y"alls e)ist that contain + or 1 car"on atoms. 8. /h= are bucA=balls bein. !odified for thera,eutics2 !he "uc(y"all0"ased therapeutics to "loc( inflammation is "ased on the "uc(y"all3s uni<ue a"ility to trap harmful free radicals %hich increase inflammation and can damage or (ill cells. !he "uc(y"alls can neutraliBe a free radical %hen its unpaired electron is transferred to the "uc(y"all forming a "ond. %. :ow is nanotechnolo.= bein. used as a better wa= to deli@er thera,eutic dru.s2 ;uc(y"alls ha$e a high potential for drug deli$ery. !his approach in$ol$es attaching drug molecules to the car"on atoms on the surface of the "uc(y"all. =ther chemical groups are added to ma(e the molecules more %ater solu"le. !his allo%s the medicine0loaded "uc(y"all to "e a"sor"ed "y the "loodstream %hen s%allo%ed or in,ected. !he "uc(y"all can then release the drug upon reaching a chemical trigger, such as a change in pH or a particular chemical su"stance 8such as those released "y cancer cells9. 1+. :ow are nanotubes bein. used in water ,urification2 An array of nanotu"es pac(ed side "y side in a mem"rane allo% %ater molecules to pass through the mem"rane 1 , times faster than predicted, yet the sodium and chloride ions did not pass through. !he %ater molecules appear to form a chain of one %ater molecule hydrogen "onded to t%o others in a head to tail configuration. !hese chains flo% through the nanotu"es %ith nearly no friction. !he sodium and chloride ions, surrounded "y their hydration spheres, are not a"le to pass through the mem"rane. 11. /hat is the !aIor challen.e facin. nanotechnolo.=2 !he ma,or challenge facing nanotechnology is creating "etter manufacturing methods. Creating the large <uantities needed is still time consuming and e)pensi$e. 1#. /hat safet= issues are associated with nanotechnolo.=2 Huestions ha$e not "een ans%ered concerning the impact of nanomaterials on the en$ironment and on the general pu"lic. #nhalation of nanoparticles is of special concern.



Che!"atters #u$$le% A Clue&'ess Che!ical Crossword

4n the cross or)Bli8e gri) "elo ill "e -lace) letters L "ut there are no clues -ro?i)e) M >hat's "ecause each of the 1+ or)s is the 1!&E of an element. We're using ;ust 17 al-ha"et lettersN the letters omitte) are F=(=K=&=0=Q=U=W=O an) P. ,i?en the lengths a?aila"le= the limite) letters= an) the s2mmetr2 im-ose)= onl2 18 names are -ossi"le= inclu)ing our ten. G1ote the a"sence of a u or m . >here go )oAens of metallic elements M H We'll suggest t o ?ersions for 2ou to tac8le. For a reall2 har) -uAAle= tr2 to com-lete the gri) )isregar)ing the num"ers in each "oE= an) ithout using a >a"le of the Elements. We "elie?e there is a uniJue solution. Can 2ou fin) it ?M !s a starting hint= the to- ro is the onl2 ro F column ith ;ust three s-aces to fill= so must contain the one element ith onl2 three letters in its name. For an easier ?ersion= all the "oEes that share the same num"er contain the same letter. *o once 2ou )e)uce one such "oE= its mates follo . 4t shoul) "e E:E&E1>!<O to com-lete the gri)M ,i?e it a tr2.

2 4 5

6 2 7 10 9 2 14

2 3 9

3 2 8

11 9 4 16 3 4 3 14

12 14 15 4 3 4 3

13 9 7 5



Answers to the Che!"atters #u$$le

1 T

6 2 S I 2 I 7 L 10V 9 E 14 R

7 L

2 I 4 O 5 D 2 I 3 N 9 E

3 N

8 C

4 O


12A 14 R 15G 4 O 14R 4 3 O N 3 N

2 I

9 E 4 3 O N 16B 4 O 3 N

3 N 2 I 8 C 13 K 9 E 7 L

5 D


)S*S Correlation
1ational *cience E)ucation Content *tan)ar)s !))resse) National Science Education Content Standard Addressed As a res !" #$ a%"&'&"&es &( )ra*es 9+ 12, a!! s" *e("s s-# !* *e'e!#. (*ers"a(*&() Science as $n%uir# Standard A/ a0# " s%&e("&$&% &(1 &r23 &h#sical Science Standard '/ #$ "-e s"r %" re #$ a"#4s &h#sical Science Standard '/ #$ "-e s"r %" re a(*"&es #$ 4a""er3 Earth and Space Standard "( a0# " "-e #r&)&( a(* e'#! "&#( #$ Ear"s2s"e43 Earth and Space Standard "( a0# " "-e #r&)&( a(* e'#! "&#( #$ "-e (&'erse3 Science and )echnolog# Standard E/ a0# " s%&e(%e a(* "e%-(#!#)23 Science in &ersonal and Social &erspecti es Standard */ #$ .ers#(a! a(* %#44 (&"2 -ea!"-3 Science in &ersonal and Social &erspecti es Standard *( a0# " (a" ra! res# r%es3 Science in &ersonal and Social &erspecti es Standard *( a0# " e('&r#(4e("a! 1 a!&"23 Science in &ersonal and Social &erspecti es Standard *( #$ s%&e(%e a(* "e%-(#!#)2 &( !#%a!, (a"&#(a!, a(* )!#0a! %-a!!e()es3 +istor# and Nature of Science Standard G( #$ s%&e(%e as a - 4a( e(*ea'#r3 +istor# and Nature of Science Standard G( #$ "-e (a" re #$ s%&e("&$&% 5(#6!e*)e3 +istor# and Nature of Science Standard G( #$ -&s"#r&%a! .ers.e%"&'es3

Question from the Classroom

Origin of Chemical Elements

Elements 112-118


Graphite s! "iamond



Antici,ation Guides
A("&%&.a"&#( ) &*es -e!. e()a)e s" *e("s 02 a%"&'a"&() .r&#r 5(#6!e*)e a(* s"&4 !a"&() s" *e(" &("eres" 0e$#re rea*&()3 I$ %!ass "&4e .er4&"s, *&s% ss s" *e("s7 res.#(ses "# ea%- s"a"e4e(" 0e$#re rea*&() ea%- ar"&%!e3 As "-e2 rea*, s" *e("s s-# !* !##5 $#r e'&*e(%e s ..#r"&() #r re$ "&() "-e&r &(&"&a! res.#(ses3 "irections for all Anticipation Guides( Before reading, &( "-e $&rs" %#! 4(, 6r&"e 8A9 #r 8D,9 &(*&%a"&() 2# r a)ree4e(" #r *&sa)ree4e(" 6&"- ea%- s"a"e4e("3 As 2# rea*, %#4.are 2# r #.&(&#(s 6&"- &($#r4a"&#( $r#4 "-e ar"&%!e3 I( "-e s.a%e (*er ea%- s"a"e4e(", %&"e &($#r4a"&#( $r#4 "-e ar"&%!e "-a" s ..#r"s #r re$ "es 2# r #r&)&(a! &*eas3


Question from the Classroom

Me )e,t Statement 13 A!! %#!#re* )ases are .#&s#(# s3

23 S"ea4 &s )ase# s 6a"er3

33 Gase# s 6a"er %a( rea%- a "e4.era" re #$ 4#re "-a( 200:C3

43 I( &"s 'a.#r $#r4, 6a"er &s &('&s&0!e3

53 Gase# s 6a"er %a( &)(&"e a 4a"%- -ea*3


Where Do Chemical Elements Come From?

Me )e,t Statement 13 T-e s .er(#'a #$ 1054, 6-&%- .r#'&*e* e(# )- !&)-" "# rea* a" (&)-", 6as *es%r&0e* 02 0#"- C-&(ese as"r#(#4ers a(* "-e A(asa;& &( "-e A4er&%a( S# "-6es"3 23 <#r 4#re "-a( 50 2ears, s%&e("&s"s -a'e 0ee( s" *2&() "-e !&(5s 0e"6ee( %-e4&%a! e!e4e("s a(* -#6 "-e2 are %rea"e*3 33 E!e4e("s !&)-"er "-a( &r#( are $#r4e* $r#4 s %%ess&'e ( %!ear $ s&#( rea%"&#(s, 0e)&((&() 6&"- -2*r#)e( a"#4s3 43 A!! s"ars $#r4 &r#( &( "-e&r %#res3 53 T-e -2*r#)e( ( %!e s &s "-e 4#s" s"a0!e ( %!e s &( (a" re3 63 E!e4e("s -ea'&er "-a( &r#( %a( #(!2 0e $#r4e* &( "-e $&rs" $e6 se%#(*s a$"er a s .er(#'a7s %#!!a.se3 73 T-e "2.e #$ e!e4e("s .r#* %e* 02 a s"ar *e.e(*s #( "-e "e4.era" re a(* .ress re #$ &"s %#re3 83 T-ere are (# ra*&#a%"&'e &s#" #$ (&%5e!3 93 T-e )as &( a( &("ers"e!!ar %!# * &s 4#s"!2 -e!& 43 103 A!! #$ "-e e!e4e("s #( Ear"-, e=%e." $#r -2*r#)e(, 6ere $#r4e* &( "-e &("er&#rs #$ s"ars3 113 As"r#(#4ers se s.e%" "# &*e("&$2 e!e4e("s &( s"ars 0e%a se ea%- e!e4e(" .r#* %es a (&1 e e4&ss&#( s.e%"r 43 123 O r s ( %#("a&(s a 'er2 s4a!! ( 40er #$ )#!* a"#4s3


What Uuought to Know About Elements 11 !11"

Me )e,t Statement 13 S .er-ea'2 e!e4e("s %a( #(!2 0e *&s%#'ere* "-r# )- s2("-es&;&() "-e4 &( a !a0#ra"#r23 23 Ca!%& 4+48 6as se* "# $#r4 e!e4e("s 113+118 0e%a se &" &s s"a0!e a(* (e "r#( r&%-3 33 >-e( ( %!e& &( "-e 0ea4 %#40&(e 6&"- "ar)e" ( %!e&, .r#"#(s %arr2 e(er)2 a6a23 43 T-e ( 40er #$ (e "r#(s &s (&4.#r"a(" &( "r2&() "# $#r4 a -ea'2 ( %!e s3 53 Ca!&$#r(& 4+249 %a( #(!2 0e .r#* %e* &( a !a0#ra"#r2 "-r# )- a ser&es #$ (e "r#( %a." res, $#!!#6e* 02 0e"a *e%a23 63 Ca!&$#r(& 4+249 -as a -a!$+!&$e #$ 4#re "-a( 350 2ears3

73 ?r#@e%"&!e ( %!e& &#(s are a%%e!era"e* &( a %2%!#"r#( ("&! "-e2 -a'e "-e r&)-" e(er)2 "# 0e se(" "#6ar* "-e "ar)e" ( %!e&3 83 A..r#=&4a"e!2 10A #$ "-e .r#@e%"&!es .r#* %e* &( "-e %2%!#"r#( .r#* %e "-e *es&re* .r#* %"3 93 T-e *e"e%"#r %a!% !a"es "-e 4ass #$ a( &#( 02 4eas r&() "-e "&4e re1 &re* $#r a( &#( #$ &("eres" "# "ra'e! 0e"6ee( "6# )r&*s a(* "-e *&s"a(%e 0e"6ee( "-e )r&*s3 103 As #$ "-e 6r&"&() #$ "-&s ar"&%!e, a!! #$ "-e e!e4e("s "-r# )- e!e4e(" 118 -a'e 0ee( *&s%#'ere* #r %rea"e* &( a !a0#ra"#r23


#etals$ %i&&en 'trengths

Me )e,t Statement 13 S&!&%#( &s a 4e"a!!#&* "-a" %a( %-ea.!2 a(* e$$&%&e("!2 %#('er" s (!&)-" &("# e!e%"r&%&"23

23 S#!ar %e!!s s&() s&!&%#( %a( se !&)-" 6&"- 6a'e!e()"-s %#rres.#(*&() "# 0! e #r )ree( !&)-"3

33 ?-#s.-#res%e(%e a(* $! #res%e(%e are "-e sa4e .r#%ess3

43 S-a.e+4e4#r2 a!!#2s "-a" rea%" "# -ea" -a'e 0ee( se* $#r 2ears &( *e("a! 0ra%es $#r "ee"- a(* #"-er a..!&%a"&#(s3

53 S-a.e+4e4#r2 a!!#2s "-a" rea%" "# a 4a)(e"&% $&e!* are (e6, a(* "-e s-a.e &s *e"er4&(e* 02 "-e *&re%"&#( #$ "-e 4a)(e"&% $&e!*3

63 Tra(s&s"#rs "#*a2 se -a$(& 4 #=&*e+0ase* 4a"er&a!s $#r a %#a"&() $&!43

73 V#!a"&!e #r)a(&% %#4.# (*s BVOCsC s %- as $#r4a!*e-2*e %a( 0e *e%#4.#se* &("# %ar0#( *&#=&*e a(* 6a"er3


(ra)hite *ersus Diamon&+ 'ame Element but Different ,ro)erties

Me )e,t Statement 13 B#"- *&a4#(* a(* )ra.-&"e -a'e 0ee( 5(#6( $#r 4#re "-a( 20 %e(" r&es3

23 T-e *&$$ere(%es 0e"6ee( *&a4#(* a(* )ra.-&"e are * e "# "-e $a%" "-a" "-e %ar0#( a"#4s &( ea%- a!!#"r#.e 0#(* "# *&$$ere(" ( 40ers #$ (e&)-0#r&() a"#4s3 33 D&a4#(* 6&!! *&ss#!'e &( s"r#() a%&*s3

43 D&a4#(*s (a" ra!!2 %#('er" "# )ra.-&"e3

53 D&a4#(*s 4a2 %#4e $r#4 Ear"-7s 4a("!e3

63 D&a4#(*s #$ )e4s"#(e 1 a!&"2 are $#r4e* &( as"er#&*s3

73 A )&)a("&% *&a4#(* -as 0ee( $# (* &( "-e %#re #$ a 0 r(e*+# " s"ar3

83 C rre("!2 "-ere are 3 6a2s "# .r#* %e s2("-e"&% *&a4#(*s3

93 Gra.-e(e, a #(e+a"#4 "-&%5 s-ee" #$ %ar0#(, 6as .r#* %e* &( 2004 s&() )ra.-&"e a(* a*-es&'e "a.e3


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Me )e,t Statement 13 A - 4a( -a&r -as a 6&*"- #$ a0# " 10 (a(#4e"ers3

23 Na(#4a"er&a!s -a'e a 4 %- s4a!!er s r$a%e area "-a( #r*&(ar2 4a"er&a!s3

33 A (a(#" 0e %a( 0e r#!!e* #(!2 #(e 6a23

43 A 80 %520a!!9 4a2 -a'e 60, 70, #r 80 %ar0#( a"#4s3

53 B %520a!!s %a( "ra. *a()er# s $ree ra*&%a!s3

63 I( "-e $ " re, 0 %520a!!s 4a2 0e se* "# *e!&'er *r )s *&re%"!2 "# "-e "ar)e" #r)a( &( "-e 0#*23 73 Car0#( (a(#" 0es 4 s" 0e a" !eas" 2 (a(#4e"ers a%r#ss3

83 S&(%e (a(#s%a!e 4a"er&a!s are 4a*e #$ %ar0#(, "-e2 are re!a"&'e!2 &(e=.e(s&'e3 93 D#s" .e#.!e a)ree "-a" 4#re s" *&es are (ee*e* "# *e"er4&(e "-e sa$e"2 #$ (a(#4a"er&a!s3 103 A "2.&%a! .r#"e&( s %- as -e4#)!#0&( &s a0# " a (a(#4e"er &( *&a4e"er3


-eadin. Strate.ies
T-ese 4a"r&%es a(* #r)a(&;ers are .r#'&*e* "# -e!. s" *e("s !#%a"e a(* a(a!2;e &($#r4a"&#( $r#4 "-e ar"&%!es3 S" *e(" (*ers"a(*&() 6&!! 0e e(-a(%e* 6-e( "-e2 e=.!#re a(* e'a! a"e "-e &($#r4a"&#( "-e4se!'es, 6&"- &(. " $r#4 "-e "ea%-er &$ s" *e("s are s"r ))!&()3 E(%# ra)e s" *e("s "# se "-e&r #6( 6#r*s a(* a'#&* %#.2&() e("&re se("e(%es $r#4 "-e ar"&%!es3 T-e se #$ 0 !!e"s -e!.s "-e4 *# "-&s3 I$ 2# se "-ese rea*&() s"ra"e)&es "# e'a! a"e s" *e(" .er$#r4a(%e, 2# 4a2 6a(" "# *e'e!#. a )ra*&() r 0r&% s %- as "-e #(e 0e!#63 Score 4 3 2 1 0 "escription E=%e!!e(" G##* <a&r ?##r N#" a%%e."a0!e E idence C#4.!e"eE *e"a&!s .r#'&*e*E *e4#(s"ra"es *ee. (*ers"a(*&()3 C#4.!e"eE $e6 *e"a&!s .r#'&*e*E *e4#(s"ra"es s#4e (*ers"a(*&()3 I(%#4.!e"eE $e6 *e"a&!s .r#'&*e*E s#4e 4&s%#(%e."&#(s e'&*e("3 Ver2 &(%#4.!e"eE (# *e"a&!s .r#'&*e*E 4a(2 4&s%#(%e."&#(s e'&*e("3 S# &(%#4.!e"e "-a" (# @ *)4e(" %a( 0e 4a*e a0# " s" *e(" (*ers"a(*&()


Where Do Chemical Elements Come From?

Directions/ As 2# rea*, %#4.!e"e "-e %-ar" 0e!#6 *es%r&0&() "-e $#r4a"&#( #$ e!e4e("s3 Elements +o- the# are formed (Use bullets or number each step.)

E!e4e("s . "# a(* &(%! *&() &r#(

>-a" e!e4e("s are $#r4e* 02 s"ars !ess 4ass&'e "-a( # r s (F >-a" e!e4e("s are $#r4e* 02 s"ars -a'&() a 4ass #$ #(e "# e&)-" s (sF >-a" e!e4e("s are $#r4e* 02 s"ars -a'&() a 4ass )rea"er "-a( e&)-" s (sF 8s9 .r#%ess/

8r9 .r#%ess/ E!e4e("s -ea'&er "-a( &r#(

8.9 .r#%ess/


What Uuought to Know About Elements 11 !11"

Directions/ As 2# rea*, .!ease %#4.!e"e "-e "a0!e 0e!#6 *es%r&0&() 6-a" s%&e("&s"s 4 s" %#(s&*er as "-e2 %rea"e s .er-ea'2 e!e4e("s &( a !a0#ra"#r23 Step De%&*&() 6-&%e!e4e("s "# se "escription A"#4&% ( 40er O"-er %#(s&*era"&#(s E(er)2 %#(s&*era"&#(s

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C2%!#"r#( %#!!&s&#(s

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Na4&() e!e4e("


#etals$ %i&&en 'trengths

Directions: As 2# rea*, .!ease %#4.!e"e "-e "a0!e 0e!#6 *es%r&0&() % rre(" a(* $ " re "e%-(#!#)&es3 Application )oda# *uture Ad antage

Solar Cells

Shape-Memor# Allo#s


Cleaner Air


(ra)hite *ersus Diamon&+ 'ame Element but Different ,ro)erties

Directions: As 2# rea*, .!ease %#4.!e"e "-e "a0!e 0e!#6 *&a4#(*, )ra.-&"e, a(* )ra.-e(e3 Attri.ute &h#sical properties "iamond Graphite Graphene



I( "-e %-ar" 0e!#6, *es%r&0e (a" ra! a(* s2("-e"&% s# r%es #$ *&a4#(*s3 Natural 13 13 S#nthetic






-anotechnolog.$s /ig 0m)act

Directions/ As 2# rea*, .!ease %#4.!e"e "-e %-ar" 0e!#6 *es%r&0&() *&$$ere(" (a(#4a"er&a!s3 Nanomaterials "escription Current and *uture /ses 13 +o- the# -ould -or0

Na(#" 0es







/here 0o Che!ical *le!ents Co!e 1ro!2

/ac1groun& 0nformation
"ore on the life c=cle of stars
4n or)er for stu)ents to un)erstan) the origin of the elements= the2 shoul) also ha?e an un)erstan)ing of "asic conce-ts that might "e co?ere) in an a)?ance) astronom2 course. >he -rocesses that -ro)uce the chemical elements are an integral -art of the life c2cle of stars. &an2 stu)ents thin8 that there is no matter in s-ace hen= in fact= there is. EEisting stars themsel?es are matter= mostl2 h2)rogen. E?en in "et een the stars= in hat is calle) interstellar s-ace= there is matter. 4t is a"out %%Q gas= -rimaril2 h2)rogen= an) 1Q soli). >he matter in s-ace is eEtremel2 lo )ensit2= from a fe thousan) -articles -er cu"ic meter to a fe hun)re) thousan) -articles. When a )enser region of interstellar matter "ecomes unsta"le= it is usuall2 referre) to as a ne"ula. When the ne"ula "egins to colla-se= the life c2cle of a star "egins. !ll stars go through similar stages in their life c2clesRne"ula= main seJuence= an) the re) giant -hase. >hen= )e-en)ing on the mass of the star= the c2cles ?ar2. :o er mass stars ha?e longer life c2cles. !fter the re) giant -hase these stars "ecome hite ) arfs an) then "lac8 ) arfs. !t the "eginning of the c2cle= gra?it2 causes h2)rogen atoms in the star to colla-se to ar) each other= an) the mass "egins to s-in. !s it s-ins= the tem-erature increases. When the tem-erature reaches 16 million )egrees GCH h2)rogen nuclei "egin to un)ergo nuclear fusion to -ro)uce helium. >he star sta"iliAes an) "egins to glo = much li8e our sun at -resent. >he force of gra?it2 an) the -ressure of eE-an)ing gases are in eJuili"rium. 4n stars there is a constant tension "et een these t o factors. ,ra?it2 -ulls stellar matter to ar) to star's core an) the heat an) -ressure of ne l2 forme) gases ten) to eE-an) the matter. !s a?aila"le h2)rogen is use) u-= helium nuclei un)ergo fusion to form car"on. When there is sufficient car"on -ro)uce) "2 nucleos2nthesis Gsee &ore on nucleos2nthesis= "elo H= the core of the star colla-ses a secon) time )ue to the increase) gra?itational attraction= eE-elling the outer gas la2er= resulting in a hite ) arf star. When the hite ) arf mass cools= the star is consi)ere) a "lac8 ) arf. (o e?er= if the star's mass is ?er2 large= on the or)er of 8B1+ times the mass of our sun G#.+ E 1+9+ 8g= a"out 999=+++ times the mass of the earthH= its life c2cle is shorter. Follo ing the re) giant -hase= massi?e stars "ecome the su-erno?a mentione) in the article. For massi?e stars= the nucleos2nthesis -rocess inclu)es the formation of elements hea?ier than car"on GoE2gen= nitrogen an) other elements u- to iron= as the article )escri"esH. Energ2 is reJuire) to fuse iron nuclei an) as a result the core tem-erature rises Juic8l2 to 1++ "illion )egrees. >he re-ulsi?e force of the iron nuclei is strong enough to o?ercome gra?it2 an) the core matter eE-lo)es in hat is a su-erno?a. !s the iron nuclei in the core are eE-elle) to ar) the outer la2er of the star at such high tem-eratures= the2 fuse to form isoto-es of elements hea?ier than iron. 4n this a2= a i)e ?ariet2 of elements results from the -rocesses that ta8e -lace )uring a star's lifetime. Which elements are most often create) in stars? !s the article states= there are eight elementsBB oE2gen= car"on= neon= nitrogen= magnesium= silicon= iron= an) sulfur. 4f e use the


sun as an eEam-le= this list of elements is confirme). >he com-osition of the sun from s-ectrosco-ic anal2sis Gsee &ore on s-ectrosco-2= "elo H/ *le!ent Abundance DJ of total Abundance nu!ber of ato!sE DJ of total !assE (2)rogen %1.# 71.+ (elium 8.7 #7.1 @E2gen +.+78 +.%7 Car"on +.+59 +.5+ 1itrogen +.++88 +.+%7 *ilicon +.++56 +.+%% &agnesium +.++98 +.+77 1eon +.++96 +.+68 4ron +.+9+ +.+15 *ulfur +.+16 +.+5+ (2)rogen an) helium= hich ma8e u- most of the mass of the sun "2 far= are also inclu)e) on this list. !nal2sis of other stars confirms that the2= too= are mostl2 h2)rogen an) helium. *tars are not homogeneous in com-osition. @ne a2 to thin8 a"out the com-osition of stars is to thin8 a"out them as ha?ing concentric la2ers. >he outmost la2er is ma)e u- of h2)rogen an) helium. >he neEt la2er is here h2)rogen fusion ta8es -lace to -ro)uce helium. &o?ing to ar) the core of the star= la2ers are -ro)ucing car"on= then oE2gen= then silicon an) finall2 iron in the core. !s 2ou mo?e to ar) the core the tem-erature increases= ma8ing a i)er ?ariet2 of nucleos2nthetic -rocesses -ossi"le. (o )o these elements get from a star in s-ace to -laces li8e the earth? >he article )escri"es the eE-losionBli8e e?ent in a star that sen)s matter out ar) from the star's core. >his matter is eE-elle) ith enough force to sen) it into the interstellar s-ace aroun) the star. >his matter is calle) interstellar me)ium. *tu)ents often thin8 that there is no matter in s-ace= "ut that is not com-letel2 true. >here is matter -resent in s-ace "ut limite) to a )ensit2 of a"out 1 atom -er m:. >his matter is )istri"ute) through s-ace "2 ?arious mechanisms an) some of the elements that ma8e u- this interstellar me)ium ha?e en)e) u- in our galaE2 an) in our solar s2stem an) on Earth.

"ore on nucleos=nthesis
>he article )iscusses ho hea?ier elements are -ro)uce) from lighter elements "2 means of nuclear fusion reactions in stars. *tu)ents shoul) ha?e some "ac8groun) in "oth isoto-es an) nuclear reactions an) shoul) "e a"le to follo ritten nuclear eJuations. 4f 2ou choose to )iscuss this area of the article ith stu)ents= it might "e "est to limit the )iscussion of fusion reactions to se?eral eEam-les= since the actual stellar fusion reactions in?ol?e su"Batomic -articles G-ositrons= neutrinos= etc.H not usuall2 co?ere) in a general chemistr2 course. >here are three im-ortant "asic stellar fusion -rocessesR-rotonB-roton fusion= helium fusion an) the car"on c2cle. Follo ing are the "asic ste-s in each. #roton&#roton 1usionR<ecall that the en?ironment for these reactions is a highB tem-erature en?ironment= thus creating highBenerg2 collisions "et een nuclei. *tu)ents


ma2 as8 a"out the role of electrons in this -rocess. Oou can note that the tem-erature is sufficientl2 high to ioniAe the elements -resent= clearl2 the a2 for nuclear reactions. (2)rogen is the most a"un)ant element in stars. ! h2)rogen nucleus is a single -roton. >he first ste- in this -rocess in?ol?es the fusing of t o h2)rogen nuclei= -ro)ucing a )euterium nucleus an) a neutron= hich is the result of the transmutation of one of the -rotons.

4n the neEt ste- a )euterium nucleus fuses ith another -roton to -ro)uce an isoto-e of helium/

> o of these helium nuclei then fuse to -ro)uce a (eB5 nucleus= an) t o -rotons are emitte)/

4n this c2clic -rocess the t o original -rotons are -ro)uce) an) helium is forme) from the original h2)rogen. 4f stu)ents can un)erstan) that the net result of this -rocess is to -ro)uce a helium nucleus from t o h2)rogen nuclei= the2 un)erstan) ho helium nuclei can fuse to -ro)uce hea?ier an) hea?ier elements. 1ote that each of these ste-s -ro)uces energ2. :eliu! 1usionR>his secon) "asic -rocess illustrates the -ro)uction of elements hea?ier than helium. 4f the core star tem-erature reaches a"out 1++ million 8el?ins= helium nuclei fuse to form isoto-es of "er2llium= an) then car"onB1#/

Carbon C=cleR!t 16 million 8el?ins= the car"on nuclei -ro)uce) ?ia helium fusion enter into a fusion -rocess that in?ol?es multi-le ste-s an) is thought to re-lace the h2)rogen G-rotonB-rotonH fusion as the main energ2 source for the star. 4n the first ste- a car"on nucleus fuses ith a -roton to -ro)uce nitrogenB19. ! -roton in the 1B19 transmutates to 2iel) car"onB19. >he CB19 fuses ith another -roton to -ro)uce nitrogenB15= hich fuses ith 2et another -roton to -ro)uce oE2genB16= ithin hich a neutron )eca2s= emitting an electron to -ro)uce nitrogenB16. @ne more fusion "et een a -roton an) the 1B16 -ro)uces oE2genB17= hich emits an al-ha -article Ga helium nucleusH 2iel)ing car"onB 1# to com-lete the c2cle. 4n these three eEam-les of nuclear fusion -rocesses= increasingl2 hea?ier elements are -ro)uce)Rhelium= "er2llium= car"on= nitrogen an) oE2gen. @ther elements in this mass range can "e -ro)uce) from isoto-es of the aforementione) elements. >hese t2-es of -rocesses ta8e -lace in stars that are relati?el2 lightRli8e our sun. Fusion -ro)uces hea?ier elementsRfrom oE2gen to ironRin stars that are more massi?e. >he fusion -rocesses for most nuclei are eEothermic. 0ro)ucing elements


hea?ier than iron= ho e?er= reJuires energ2= an) it is "elie?e) that these hea?ier elements are forme) onl2 )uring su-erno?a eE-losions. &ost sources claim that iron is the hea?iest element that can "e forme) "2 nuclear fusion in stars. >he theoretical "asis for this is Juestiona"le from a "in)ing energ2 -oint of ?ie . 4t is true that elements in the iron grou- ha?e high nuclear "in)ing energies= iron is not the highest. 1ic8elB7# has the highest "in)ing energ2= follo e) "2 ironB68 an) ironB67. 1uclear "in)ing energ2 is a measure of ho tightl2 -articles in the nucleus are hel) together. 1uclei ith high "in)ing energies are ?er2 sta"le. 3in)ing energ2 is the energ2 eJui?alent of the )ifference in mass "et een the masses of the in)i?i)ual nucleons an) the total mass of the resulting nucleus. >his energ2 oul) "e reJuire) to )isru-t the nucleus of an atom. >hus= nuclei li8e iron's an) those of hea?ier elements reJuire large amounts of energ2= far "e2on) the energ2 a?aila"le in a normal star. (o e?er= as the article states= a su-erno?a eE-losion creates enough energ2 to fuse nuclei hea?ier than iron. >he Juestion might arise a"out the origin of h2)rogen in the uni?erse. 4f it is the sim-lest element= ho )i) it originate? >he most acce-te) ans er is gi?en "2 the 3ig 3ang >heor2. *cientists "elie?e that 19 "illion 2ears ago all matter eEiste) in a tightl2 -ac8e)= ?er2 )ense s-ace. >he uni?erse "egan ith a single massi?e eE-losion that s-rea) matter o?er millions of miles at the s-ee) of light= creating hat e 8no as our uni?erse. *cientists "elie?e that the tem-erature at the time as so intense that onl2 su"Batomic -articles eEiste). Within secon)s after the eE-losion= the eE-an)ing matter coole) the uni?erse an) these su"Batomic -articles forme) neutrons an) -rotons= hich soon forme) the sim-lest of atomic nucleiRh2)rogen an) helium. *ince a h2)rogen nucleus is a single -roton= it as a?aila"le to "egin the fusion -rocess )escri"e) in the article. 4n a))ition to the eEam-les of stellar fusion liste) a"o?e there are se?eral other -rocesses that create hea?2 elements un)er s-ecial circumstances. !mong them are the s -rocess= the r -rocess= the r- -rocess an) the - -rocess. >he s -rocess= )iscusse) in the article= is also 8no n as slo neutron ca-ture. 4n stars there are a host of -rocesses that -ro)uce neutrons. !n eEam-le is the fusion of car"onB 19 ith an al-ha -article to -ro)uce oE2gen an) a neutron. >his a?aila"ilit2 of neutrons allo s hea?2 elements to a"sor" one or more neutrons to -ro)uce other hea?2 nuclei. For eEam-le/

>he C)B11+ a"sor"s a neutron to "ecome C)B111. >his neutron ca-ture ta8es -lace four more times to -ro)uce C)B116= hich imme)iatel2 un)ergoes "eta )eca2 to -ro)uce in)iumB116. 4n this seJuence a higher atomic mass nucleus Gin)ium from ca)miumH is -ro)uce). >he -rocess is call slo neutron ca-ture "ecause it ma2 ta8e thousan)s of 2ears to occur. >he r -rocess Gor ra-i) neutron ca-tureH= also mentione) in the article= o-erates "2 much the same mechanism as the s -rocess= "ut at a much faster rate. 4t is thought to occur onl2 in a su-erno?a en?ironment here the a?aila"ilit2 of neutrons is much greater. >he s -rocess an) r -rocess -ro)uce a ma;orit2 of stellar elements hea?ier than iron.


>he r- Gor ra-i) -rotonH -rocess -ro)uces elements hea?ier than iron "2 ca-turing -rotons at high stellar tem-eratures in an en?ironment that is h2)rogenBrich. >his -rocess is not com-letel2 un)erstoo)= "ut it is "elie?e) that the see) nuclei are -ro)uce) in the car"on c2cle= mentione) a"o?e. >he - -rocess Gor -hoto)isintegrationH is a mechanism for -ro)ucing hea?2 nuclei in hich the -rotonBneutron ratio fa?ors the -rotons Ghence= the - -rocessH. When gamma ra2s stri8e a nucleus= neutrons ma2 "e e;ecte) from that nucleus= thus )isru-ting the -rotonBneutron ratio= hich= in turn affects the ra)ioacti?it2 of that nucleus. >he -rocess or8s in nuclei ith more than 1++ nucleons G-rotons an) neutronsH.

"ore on su,erno@as
>he article mentions a su-erno?a from the 2ear 1+65 an) sho -hotos of se?eral more. >he2 are rare e?ents. @n a?erage there is one su-erno?a o"ser?e) in the &il82 Wa2 each centur2. !ncient recor)s suggest that Chinese astronomers sa a su-erno?a in 186 !D= ithout 8no ing= of course= eEactl2 hat it as. !stronomers no ha?e the a"ilit2 to trace celestial remnants of ancient su-erno?a an) a--roEimate the time the original su-erno?a occurre). @ther nota"le su-erno?a occurre) in 1++7 Gin the constellation of :u-usH= 1+65 Gin >aurus= o"ser?e) "2 >2cho 3raheH= in 167# Gmentione) in the articleH= an) one o"ser?e) "2 Ke-ler in the &il82 Wa2 in 17+5. &ost recentl2 in 1%87= su-erno?a 1%87! as o"ser?e) in a galaE2 near the &il82 Wa2.

S!fterS an) S3eforeS -ictures of *u-erno?a 1%87! G1!*!H !ccor)ing to 1!*!= *u-erno?ae are )i?i)e) into t o "asic -h2sical t2-es/ >2-e 4a. >hese result from some "inar2 star s2stems in hich a car"onBoE2gen hite ) arf is accreting matter from a com-anion. GWhat 8in) of com-anion star is "est suite) to -ro)uce >2-e 4a su-erno?ae is hotl2 )e"ate).H 4n a -o-ular scenario= so much mass -iles u- on the hite ) arf that its core reaches a critical )ensit2 of # E 1+% gFcm9. >his is enough to result in an uncontrolle) fusion of car"on an) oE2gen= thus )etonating the star. >2-e 44. >hese su-erno?ae occur at the en) of a massi?e starTs lifetime= hen its nuclear fuel is eEhauste) an) it is no longer su--orte) "2 the release of nuclear energ2. 4f the starTs iron core is massi?e enough then it ill colla-se an) "ecome a su-erno?a.


!lso from 1!*!= a sim-le eE-lanation of a su-erno?a/ ! su-erno?a eE-losion ill occur hen there is no longer enough fuel for the fusion -rocess in the core of the star to create an out ar) -ressure hich com"ats the in ar) gra?itational -ull of the starTs great mass. First= the star ill s ell into a re) least on the outsi)e. @n the insi)e= the core 2iel)s to gra?it2 an) "egins shrin8ing. !s it shrin8s= it gro s hotter an) )enser. ! ne series of nuclear reactions "egins to occur= tem-oraril2 halting the colla-se of the core. 3ut alas= it is onl2 tem-orar2. When the core contains essentiall2 ;ust iron= it has nothing left to fuse. G3ecause of ironTs nuclear structure= fusing iron )oes not result in a net 2iel) of energ2. *ince energ2 -ro)uction cannot then "e maintaine)= the star "egins to colla-se.H Fusion in the core ceases. 4n less than a secon)= the star "egins the final -hase of gra?itational colla-se. >he core tem-erature rises to o?er 1++ "illion )egrees as the iron atoms are crushe) together. >he re-ulsi?e force "et een the nuclei is o?ercome "2 the force of gra?it2. *o the core com-resses "ut then recoils. >he energ2 of the recoil is transferre) to the en?elo-e of the star= hich then eE-lo)es an) -ro)uces a shoc8 a?e. !s the shoc8 encounters material in the starTs outer la2ers= the material is heate)= fusing to form ne elements an) ra)ioacti?e isoto-es. >he shoc8 then -ro-els that matter out into s-ace. >he material that is eE-lo)e) a a2 from the star is no 8no n as a su-erno?a remnant. Ghtt-/FFimagine.gsfc.nasa.go?F)ocsFscienceF8no Ul1Fsu-erno?ae.htmlH

"ore on fusion
&ost teEt"oo8s a?aila"le to 2ou ha?e information on nuclear fusion so onl2 the "asics ill "e gi?en here "riefl2. Fusion is a reaction in hich t o lighter nuclei ;oin to form a hea?ier nucleus. 4n or)er for t o nuclei to ;oin= the re-elling force create) "2 their li8e charge must "e o?ercome. When nucleons are "rought close together the nuclear force ta8es o?er an) the t o ;oin. For elements lighter than iron= fusion releases energ2. 4n or)er to achie?e fusion the nuclei must "e heate) to ?er2 high tem-eratures= tem-eratures sufficient to accelerate the nuclei to s-ee)s that ill allo them to o?ercome the re-ulsi?e force of their li8e charges. (o e?er= hen fusion occurs there is enough energ2 create) that e can consi)er the o?erall -rocess to "e eEothermic. *e?eral eEam-les of fusion eJuations/

@ther eEam-les of fusion eJuations can "e foun) in &ore on nucleos2nthesis.

"ore historical bacA.round on stellar nucleos=nthesis

>he article refers to the no classic -a-er ritten "2 3ur"i)ge= 3ur"i)ge= Fo ler an) (o2le Goften referre) to as 3#F(H in 1%67 that eE-laine) stellar nucleos2nthesis. >he article also refers to or8 on the e?olution of stars "2 !rthur *tanle2 E))ington= an) English astro-h2sicist. E))ington -u"lishe) his theories in a 1%#7 -a-er title) >he 4nternal Constitution of the *tars.


!t the time of the 3#F( -a-er in 1%67= -re?ailing theor2 a"out the origin of the elements as that the2 ere all create) )uring the 3ig 3ang an) that the relati?e amounts of the elements remaine) constant in the uni?erse. >he -a-er= title) *2nthesis of the Elements in *tars= argue) that hile some lighter elements ha) "een create) "2 the 3ig 3ang= all elements are "eing continuousl2 create) "2 nuclear fusion in stars. 3#F( also argue) that scientists coul) trac8 ne elements "eing forme) in stars "2 loo8ing at their atomic s-ectra= hich oul) sho "oth hich elements an) ho much of each element as -ro)uce) o?er time. >he net result is that most scientists acce-te) the i)ea that some elements ere create) )uring 3ig 3ang G"ig "ang nucleos2nthesisH an) that man2 elements continue) to "e create) "2 stellar nucleos2nthesis. 3#F( ere a"le to i)entif2 s-ecific elements an) their isoto-es -resent is stars an) in interstellar s-ace. >he2 -re)icte) the s -rocess= the r -rocess an) the - -rocess to eE-lain ho hea?ier elements coul) "e -ro)uce) in stars. >he original -a-er can "e foun) here/ htt-/FF-rola.a-s.orgF-)fF<&0F?#%Fi5F-657U1. >he Juartet that -ro)uce) the classic -a-er inclu)e) ,eoffre2 3ur"i)ge= ho is a -h2sicist "2 training ith a s-ecialt2 in -article -h2sics. (e "ecame intereste) in astronom2 hen he marrie) astronomer &argaret 0each2 in 1%58. &argaret 3ur"i)ge -ioneere) the stu)2 of galaEies "2 connecting a s-ectrogra-h to a telesco-e. 4n the 1%%+'s she or8e) on the (u""le >elesco-e. 3oth ,eoffre2 an) &argaret are connecte) to the center for !stro-h2sics an) *-ace *cience at the Uni?ersit2 of California= *an Diego. Fre) (o2le= an English mathematicians an) theoretical -h2sicist= "egan or8ing on stellar e?olution in the 1%9+'s. (e esta"lishe) the conce-t of nucleos2nthesis in stars in 1%57. (e coine) the term 3ig 3ang= "ut later re;ecte) the theor2. William !lfre) Fo ler gaine) the most fame of the four authors of the 1%67 -a-er. (e share) the 1o"el 0riAe in 0h2sics in 1%89 for his theoretical an) eE-erimental stu)ies of the nuclear reactions of im-ortance in the formation of the chemical elements in the uni?erse.

"ore on s,ectrosco,=
Oour stu)ents li8el2 8no Gor ill 8no H a little a"out s-ectrosco-2 from the cha-ters on electrons in atoms. >he2 ill 8no that there are "asicall2 three t2-es of s-ectraRcontinuous s-ectra= emission s-ectra an) a"sor-tion s-ectra. Each of these t2-es of s-ectra can "e use) to i)entif2 the chemical elements -resent in a star.

G4mage from 1!*!H

Each element has its o n emission s-ectrum an) its o n a"sor-tion s-ectrum= hich are characteriAe) "2 either "right lines or )ar8 lines that a--ear at s-ecific a?e lengths Gor freJuenciesH along the electromagnetic s-ectrum. >he -attern of either "right or )ar8 lines is


uniJue for each chemical element. 4saac 1e ton stu)ie) the continuous s-ectrum of the sun. :ater William Wollaston o"ser?e) )ar8 lines in the sun's s-ectrum. !n) still later Kose-h ?on Fraunhofer sa 7++ )ar8 lines in the sun's s-ectrum an) esta"lishe) the relationshi-s "et een continuous= emission an) a"sor-tion s-ectra. *cientists can use s-ectral lines in the light "eing emitte) "2 stars not onl2 to i)entif2 the elements -resent in a star "ut also the )ensit2 of the element an) the tem-erature of the star. >he ta"le "elo = hich also a--ears in &ore on life c2cle of stars Ga"o?eH= lists the ten most a"un)ant elements in our sun Ga ta"le similar to this a--ears in the articleH. *le!ent Abundance DJ of total Abundance nu!ber of ato!sE DJ of total !assE (2)rogen %1.# 71.+ (elium 8.7 #7.1 @E2gen +.+78 +.%7 Car"on +.+59 +.5+ 1itrogen +.++88 +.+%7 *ilicon +.++56 +.+%% &agnesium +.++98 +.+77 1eon +.++96 +.+68 4ron +.+9+ +.+15 *ulfur +.+16 +.+5+ 3elo are the "right line s-ectra for the t o most a"un)ant elements in the sun= h2)rogen an) helium. &ost stars= in fact= ha?e a similar com-ositionRa"out 7+Q h2)rogen= #8Q helium "2 mass an) the other #Q "eing hea?ier elements.



(elium 4n a))ition to the "right line or emission s-ectra= scientists can use the a"sor-tion s-ectra to anal2Ae the com-osition of a star. !"sor-tion s-ectra sho )ar8 lines at a?elengths at hich energ2 is a"sor"e) "et een the light source an) the )etecting )e?ice. !s energ2 ra)iates from the core of a star it must -ass through the gases an) soli) matter that ma8e uthe star. Each of the elements Gthe gases an) soli)sH a"sor"s some of the energ2 at s-ecific locations along the s-ectrum. !s the energ2 reaches the earth= science can loo8 at the a"sor-tion s-ectrum an) i)entif2 elements -resent in the star "2 the a2 the energ2 as a"sor"e). 3elo is an eEam-le of an a"sor-tion s-ectrum for su"stances in the earth's atmos-here.

Connections to Chemistr. Conce)ts

1. Ato!ic StructureROou can connect the i)eas in this article to a unit on atomic structure inclu)ing the nucleus= isoto-es an) su"Batomic -articles. #. )uclear -eactionsR1uclear reactions ma2 or ma2 not "e an im-ortant to-ic in 2our course= an) if it is= 2ou li8el2 concentrate on fission reactions rather than fusion. >his article is a chance to intro)uce fusion to 2our stu)ents. 9. The *le!entsR@"?iousl2= since this article is a"out the origin of the elements= 2ou coul) relate it to an2 -art of 2our courses in hich the elements themsel?es -la2 an im-ortant role Relements ?s. com-oun)s= the -erio)ic ta"le= atomic structure= etc. 5. S,ectrosco,=ROou li8el2 inclu)e at least a "rief )iscussion of s-ectrosco-2 in 2our course= -ro"a"l2 in connection ith the "eha?ior of electrons. Oou can connect to this article at this -oint.


,ossible 'tu&ent #isconce)tions

1. 3? eB,losions were a for! of che!ical oBidation. :ow do stars eB,lode2 ?s the h=dro.en eB,lodin.25 Some students may thin( that the sun is actually ?"urningA hydrogen in a com"ustion reaction "et%een hydrogen and o)ygen to ma(e %ater. !he %ord ?e)plodeA is also often used in discussions of stars and the formation of elements. Iou should emphasiBe to students that %ords li(e ?"urningA and ?e)plodeA as used in this article 8and others9 are non0technical use of the %ords. ;urning and e)plosions are, in fact, chemical processes, %hile the processes in stars are nuclear processes. Another source of misconception here may "e that "oth "urning and many fusion processes are e)othermic. Students tend to associate e)othermic %ith "urning, "ut many processes are e)othermic. #. 3The title of this article fooled !e. ? this article was .oin. to be about where the ele!ents are found in nature.5 !he title might lead you to "elie$e that, "ut it is a"out ho% elements hea$ier than hydrogen are actually created in nature. 2e don3t often thin( a"out %here elements originate. And %e don3t often thin( a"out ho% one element can "e created from another element. !hat happens only in nuclear reactions li(e fusion. 2e do tend to discuss in chemistry %here the elements are found in nature6as nati$e elements, in compound form, as solids, li<uids or gases, etc., "ut this discussion is a"out the chemical properties of the elements6their state at room temperature, their reacti$ity, etc.

Demonstrations an& 2essons

13 23 33
5. >his is the site of the 1@.! >. sho = >he Elements/ Forge) in *tars. ! classroom acti?it2 is inclu)e). htt-/FF .teachers)omain.orgFresourceFess+6.sci.ess.eiu.fusionF >his acti?it2 from the !merican &useum of 1atural (istor2 G!&1(H simulates the com-osition of stars using multiBcolore) s-rin8les. Ghtt-/FF .amnh.orgFe)ucationFresourcesFcar)Uframe.-h-?ri)V1+57Wrurli)V1++9H >his acti?it2= also from the !&1(= allo s stu)ents to )etermine the actual elemental com-osition of the sun/ htt-/FF .amnh.orgFe)ucationFresourcesFcar)Uframe.-h-? ri)V1+#9Wrurli)V1++1. ! Iou !u"e ?i)eo= narrate) "2 1eil Degrasse>2son= a"out the origin of the elements can "e foun) here/ htt-/FF .2outu"e.comF atch??V3B:XU(KmAAc . >his com-uterB"ase) acti?it2 allo s stu)ents to eEamine EBra2s from stars to )etermine their com-osition. G<eJuires )o nloa) of soft areH Ghtt-/FFEmm.sonoma.e)uFe)uFcleaFin)eE.htmlC >his is a connecte) series of acti?ities from 1!*! on XBra2 *-ectrosco-2 an) the Chemistr2 of *u-erno?a <emnants/ htt-/FFimagine.gsfc.nasa.go?F)ocsFteachersFlessonsFEra2Us-ectraFs-ectraUunit.html !nother acti?it2 from 1!*!= this one on fusion/ htt-/FFimagine.gsfc.nasa.go?F)ocsFteachersFlessonsFEra2Us-ectraFacti?it2Bfusion.html *tu)ents can -erform flame tests for elements to illustrate the use of s-ectrosco-2 in the la"/ htt-/FF .8++mainstreet.comFs-ectFemissionBflameBeE-.html. *till another acti?it2 from 1!*! on s-ectrosco-2/ htt-/FFimagine.gsfc.nasa.go?F)ocsFscienceFho Ul1Fs-ectralUho .html

53 63
7. 8. %.

'tu&ent ,ro3ects



*tu)ents can com-are the life c2cle of a human ith the life c2cle of a star using images from 1!*!. Ghtt-/FF"tc.montana.e)uFceresFhtmlF:ifeC2cleFstars1.htmlC #. *tu)ents can research the histor2 of su-erno?a sightings. >he article )escri"es t o such sightings. htt-/FF .astro.cornell.e)uFaca)emicsFcoursesFastro#+1FsnUhistor2.htm or htt-/FF .se)s.orgF&E**4E<FmoreFm Usn.html 9. *tu)ents can research *u-erno?a 1%87!= o"ser?e) on Fe". #9= 1%87. @ne goo) -lace for stu)ents to "egin is the Chan)ra @"ser?ator2 site/ htt-/FFchan)ra.har?ar).e)uF-hotoF#++6Fsn87aF= or on this timeline site/ htt-/FF .google.comFsearch? JVsu-erno?aY1%87!WhlVenWsaV,Wt"sVtl/1Wt"oVuWeiVXXm!*?;%342C&JW,-e8CWoiVtim elineUresultWctVtitleWresnumV16= or the 1!*!F(u""le site/ htt-/FF .s-acetelesco-e.orgFne sFhtmlFheic+7+5.html.

Antici)ating 'tu&ent Questions

1. 3?f other ele!ents are for!ed fro! h=dro.enC where did h=dro.en ori.inate25 !he most accepted ans%er is gi$en "y the ;ig ;ang !heory. Scientists "elie$e that 1/ "illion years ago all matter e)isted in a tightly pac(ed, $ery dense space. !he uni$erse "egan %ith a single massi$e e)plosion that spread matter o$er millions of miles at the speed of light, creating %hat %e (no% as our uni$erse. Scientists "elie$e that the temperature at the time %as so intense that only su"0atomic particles e)isted. 2ithin seconds after the e)plosion, the e)panding matter cooled the uni$erse and these su"0atomic particles formed neutrons and protons, %hich soon formed the simplest of atomic nuclei6hydrogen and helium. Since a hydrogen nucleus is a single proton, it %as a$aila"le to "egin the fusion process descri"ed in the article.

#. 3/h= can9t ele!ents hea@ier than iron be ,roduced b= ordinar= nucleos=nthesis25 >he fusion -rocesses u- to the ones that -ro)uce iron are eEothermic. 0rocesses -ro)ucing elements hea?ier than iron are en)othermic= an) it is "elie?e) that these hea?ier elements are forme) onl2 )uring su-erno?a eE-losions. &ost sources claim that iron is the hea?iest element that can "e forme) "2 nuclear fusion in stars. >he theoretical "asis for this is Juestiona"le from a "in)ing energ2 -oint of ?ie . 4t is true that elements in the iron grou- ha?e high nuclear "in)ing energies= "ut iron is not the highest. 1ic8elB7# has the highest "in)ing energ2= follo e) "2 ironB68 an) ironB67. 1uclear "in)ing energ2 is a measure of ho tightl2 -articles in the nucleus are hel) together. 1uclei ith high "in)ing energies are ?er2 sta"le. 3in)ing energ2 is the energ2 eJui?alent of the )ifference in mass "et een the masses of the in)i?i)ual nucleons an) the total mass of the nucleus. >his energ2 oul) "e reJuire) to )isru-t the nucleus of an atom. >hus= nuclei li8e iron's an) those of hea?ier elements reJuire large amounts of energ2= far "e2on) the energ2 a?aila"le in a normal star. (o e?er= as the article states= a su-erno?a eE-losion creates enough energ2 to fuse nuclei hea?ier than iron. 9. 5? s,ectrosco,= had to do with electrons in ato!s. At te!,eratures in starsC aren9t electrons stri,,ed awa= fro! their nuclei2 ?f nuclei ha@e no electrons attached to the!C how can scientists stud= the ele!ents usin. s,ectrosco,ic !ethods25 While it is true that in the core of stars the tem-eratures are high enough to create -lasmaR that fourth -hase of matter consisting of ions an) electrons= there are at least t o other factors to consi)er. First= e?en in a -lasma= in)i?i)ual atoms ?acillate "et een hat e might refer to as groun) state an) -lasma= an) "ac8 again. >hat means that for -art of the


time= a gi?en nucleus has its normal num"er of electrons. *econ)= as ne elements are -ro)uce) "2 nucleos2nthesis= the2 are often mo?e) to -arts of the star farther from the core= thus )ecreasing in tem-erature. 4n these regions of the star there is a higher li8elihoo) of fin)ing com-lete atoms. !s light is emitte) from the star it -asses through the la2ers of the star here there are li8el2 com-lete atoms. 4n this a2= s-ectrosco-ists are a"le to )etermine the com-osition of the star.

>hiel8= Da?i). >he 3irth of the Elements. ChemMatters= @cto"er= #+++= -age 5. Fin8"einer= !nn. *tar 3orn/ >he @rigin of the Elements= ChemMatters= @cto"er= 1%85= -age 7. *el"in= Koel. >he @rigin of the Chemical Elements= J. Chem. Ed. 1%79= 6+= 9+7B1+ an) 98+B87.

Web 'ites for A&&itional 0nformation

"ore sites on the >i. >an. Theor=
For "ac8groun) on the 3ig 3ang >heor2 an) the origin of helium an) h2)rogen see this site from the EE-loratorium an) CE<1/ htt-/FF .eE-loratorium.e)uForiginsFcernFi)easF"ang.html.

"ore sites on nucleos=nthesis

>he follo ing sites ha?e a))itional information a"out this to-ic/ >he (2-er-h2sics site has information a"out the main c2cles in nucleos2nthesis/ htt-/FFh2-er-h2sics.-h2Bastr.gsu.e)uF("aseF!stroFastfus.htmlIc#3 1!*! has a collection of ne s articles a"out nucleos2nthesis/ htt-/FFhelios.gsfc.nasa.go?Fnucleo.html3 *hort ?i)eos of se?eral -rocesses/ htt-/FFAe"u.uoregon.e)uFteEt"oo8Fenerg2gen.html ! -o)cast a"out nucleos2nthesis/ htt-/FF nucleos2nthesisBelementsBfromBstarsF .uni?erseto)a2.comF#++8F+%F#%F-o)castB .astronom2cast.comFastronom2Fe-B

!stronom2 Cast has a series of lin8s at htt-/FF 1+7Bnucleos2nthesisBelementsBfromBstarsF3

"ore sites on the life c=cle of stars

From 1!*!'s 4magine the Uni?erse site/ htt-/FFimagine.gsfc.nasa.go?F)ocsFteachersFlifec2clesF:CUmainU-1.html


"ore sites on su,erno@as

1!*!'s 4magine the Uni?erse -age has more on this/ htt-/FFimagine.gsfc.nasa.go?F)ocsFteachersFlessonsFEra2Us-ectraF"ac8groun)Blifec2cles.html an) at htt-/FFimagine.gsfc.nasa.go?F)ocsFscienceF8no Ul#Fsu-erno?ae.html.

"ore on the histor= of su,erno@as

For a list of nota"le su-erno?as see htt-/FF .se)s.orgFZs-i)erFs-i)erF&iscFsn.html.

"ore sites on s,ectrosco,=

*-ectrosco-2 "asics in )etail Ghtt-/FF .astro.illinois.e)uFZ;8alerFso Fs-ectra.htmlC

*tellar *-ectrosco-2 Ghtt-/FF 1!*!'s 4magine the Uni?erse -age Ghtt-/FFimagine.gsfc.nasa.go?F)ocsFteachersFlessonsFEra2Us-ectraF"ac8groun)B s-ectrosco-2.htmlH htt-/FF (ere is an eEcellent -age on stellar s-ectrosco-2 from *urre2 Uni?ersit2 in Englan)/

"ore sites on historical conteBt of nucleos=nthesis

! lin8 to the original 3#F( -a-er on nucleos2nthesis/ htt-/FF-rola.a-s.orgFa"stractF<&0F?#%Fi5F-657U1 ! lin8 to a -a-er re?ie ing the origin of theories on nucleos2nthesis/ htt-/FFcococu"e).asu.e)uF-a-ersF allerstein%7.-)f

"ore sites on fusion

! com-lete or8"oo8 on fusion= see htt-/FFfusione).gat.comFimagesF-)fFWor8"oo8.-)f


/hat to 6now About *le!ents ((27((8

/ac1groun& 0nformation
"ore on the transfer!iu! ele!ents
>he transfermium G"e2on) fermiumH elements are those ith atomic num"ers a"o?e 1++ Gfermium is element 1++H. >his grou- inclu)es the su-erhea?2 elements. >he transfermium elements are grou-e) together for se?eral reasons/ the2 are all -re-are) in the la"N none of them occur naturall2 on EarthN the2 are ?er2 )ifficult to -re-areN an) e 8no ?er2 little information a"out them. G*ince the2're so har) to -re-are= there aren't man2 of them aroun) to stu)2.H Des-ite all this= scientists ha?e "een eager to stu)2 these elements "ecause the2 allo them to test h2-otheses an) ans er Juestions a"out the -erio)ic ta"le. *ince the transfermium elements are at the en) of the -erio)ic ta"le= stu)2ing them can gi?e scientists more information a"out -ossi"le limits on the num"er of elements e can ha?e or -ro)uce. Kust ho far can the -erio)ic ta"le go? (ere is some "asic information a"out the transfermium elements/ Element 1+1 1+# 1+9 1+5 1+6 1+7 1+7 1+8 1+% 1ame men)ele?ium no"elium la rencium rutherfor)ium )u"nium sea"orgium "ohrium hassium meitnerium *2m"ol &) 1o :r <f D" *g 3h (s &t

!ll the transfermium elements are -ro)uce) in -article accelerators= )u""e) atom smashers. >he isoto-es of the transfermium elements -ro)uce) in these atom smashers are all ra)ioacti?e= ith most ha?ing halfBli?es of a fe secon)s or less. !n) the eEistence of each ne element has "een i)entifie) through the )eca2 series it eE-eriences as its unsta"le nucleus )eca2s into other= Gusuall2H 8no n elements. >heir -ro-erties of mass an) ?elocit2 are use) to )etect these -articles. >he larger an atom is= the more li8el2 it is to "e unsta"le. >his insta"ilit2 occurs long "efore the su-erhea?2 elements are reache) on the -erio)ic ta"le. 4t turns out that all elements hea?ier than "ismuth are ra)ioacti?e. >his oul) suggest that all the elements scientists can -ro)uce "e2on) 1+% ill "e ra)ioacti?e an) unsta"le. &an2 scientists "elie?e that is not the case. >he2 ha?e -re)icte) that some elements ill "e es-eciall2 sta"le= starting at element 115. >his is consi)ere) to "e a magic num"erRthe num"er of -rotons or neutrons that result in a sta"le atom. 0re?ious magic num"ers are #= 8= #+= #8= 6+= an) 8#. @thers "e2on) 115 are


eE-ecte) to "e 1#+= 1#7 an) 185. >hus the sta"le isoto-e of element 115 G115B#%8= or H oul) ha?e 115 -rotons an) coul) ha?e 185 neutrons. >hat oul) gi?e it a )ou"le magic num"er= ma8ing it Gho-efull2H ?er2 sta"le. >hus the2 coul) -re-are enough of it to actuall2 stu)2 its chemical an) -h2sical -ro-erties= an) although it might not ha?e imme)iate -ractical a--lications= it oul) "e eEciting for scientists to ha?e it a?aila"le for stu)2. UuJB#%8 has not 2et "een -ro)uce)F)isco?ere)= although UuJB#8% is "elie?e) to ha?e "een )isco?ere). > o other 2etBtoB"e )isco?ere)= )ou"le magicBnum"er elements oul) "e 1#+B9+5 G G H. H an) 1#7B91+=

@ne s-ecial note/ the calciumB58 nucleus use) "2 scientists as the "ullet for man2 of the ne l2 )isco?ere) elements is itself )ou"l2 magicR#+ -rotons an) #8 neutrons= "oth magic num"ers. >hat is one reason it as chosenRit shoul) "e sta"le enough to ithstan) the collision ithout itself "rea8ing a-art u-on im-act. >he secon) reason is that it is neutronBrich= allo ing it to "ring into the collision the largest num"er of neutrons for its atomic num"er. G!s mentione) in the article= hea?ier nuclei usuall2 nee) a larger fraction of neutrons for maEimum sta"ilit2.

"ore on the ,eriodic table and the 3island of stabilit=5

*cientists ha?e long s-eculate) a"out the 4slan) of *ta"ilit2 for ne l2 )isco?ere)= hea?ier elements. 4n fact= ,lenn *ea"org= )isco?erer of ten of the transuranium elements= as the first to -ro-ose the i)ea. >his islan) of sta"ilit2 encom-asses isoto-es of ne elements that eEist for relati?el2 long time -erio)s Gfor ra)ioacti?e atomsH= on the or)er of a tenth of a secon) or longer. >his com-ares ith man2 isoto-es of transuranium elements= ith halfBli?es of onl2 a tin2 fraction of a secon). 4t is -ro-ose) that some of these elements ill ha?e halfBli?es on the or)er of 2ears. !n) more recent research has in)icate) that not onl2 )oes this islan) of sta"ilit2 eEist= "ut se?eral other islan)s eEist for much higher atomic mass elements. >he original islan) is locate) at element 115= an) the neEt islan) of sta"ilit2 is -re)icte) to eEist aroun) element 175Rfar from the su-erhea?2 elements no "eing )isco?ere)= in the 11+B1#+ range.

>he -ro-ose) islan) of sta"ilit2 G*ource/ htt-s/FF-u"licaffairs.llnl.go?Fne sFne sUreleasesF#++7F1<B+7B1+B+9.html C

>o ?ie a ?i)eo on a "it of the histor2 of the conce-t of an islan) of sta"ilit2 G hich came from ,lenn *ea"orgH= go to the 1o?a >eachers e" site to ?ie the 1o?a *cience 1o ?i)eo= 4slan) of *ta"ilit2. Ghtt-/FF .-"s.orgF g"hFno?aFteachersF-rogramsF9919U+#Unsn.htmlH >here is an o?er?ie of the 19 minute ?i)eo inclu)e)= as ell as ?ie ing i)eas for the teacher to


use ith stu)ents "efore an) after ?ie ing the ?i)eo. >he ?i)eo inclu)es an inter?ie ith Ken &oo)2= one of the researchers mentione) in the ChemMatters article= an) it sho s an animate) seJuence to eE-lain -rotonB-roton an) -rotonBneutron interactions. >he ?i)eo )iscusses the )isco?eries of the transuranium elements= an) then ;um-s to element 115= the neEt element eE-ecte) on the islan) of sta"ilit2. >he i)ea of the islan) of sta"ilit2 is "ase) on a h2-othesis that the nucleus is ma)e u- of shells of -rotons an) neutrons= similar to those of electrons in the atom. Fille) shells of -rotons an) neutrons in the nucleus oul) "e se-arate) "2 relati?el2 large energ2 ga-s from other shells= ;ust li8e those of electrons. >his oul) result in increase) sta"ilit2= hence longer lifetime for those fille) shells than for nearBrelati?e isoto-es ithout fille) shells. 4n a))ition to the i)ea of the islan) of sta"ilit2= *ea"org also -re)icte) the eEtension of the -erio)ic ta"le ell "e2on) the thenB-resent num"er of elements that ha) "een )isco?ere). (e suggeste) that the -erio)ic ta"le oul) inclu)e the elements of the g or"ital series of electrons. >his oul) reJuire t o more energ2 le?els than those -resentl2 on most -erio)ic ta"les at that time Gor e?en to)a2H. Wi8i-e)ia has an eEam-le of this ta"le at htt-/FFen. i8i-e)ia.orgF i8iFEEtensionUofUtheU-erio)icUta"leU"e2on)UtheUse?enthU-erio). 4t is eE-ecte) that atoms of elements a"o?e atomic num"er 177 coul) not eEist )ue to the limitation of the electrons' s-ee)s to that of light. >his limitation oul) not hol) for the nucleus= ho e?er= so elements' nuclei a"o?e 177 coul) still eEistN the2 oul) eEist as ions= though= not neutral atoms. For further )iscussion a"out ho far the -erio)ic ta"le ma2 actuall2 eEten)= see htt-/FF;eries.rihani.comF. >his site inclu)es *ea"org's ?ersion of the -erio)ic ta"le= num"ere) to 179= ith room all the a2 u- to element #18M @ther scientists )is-ute this claim= an) <ihani )iscusses some of that )isagreement.

"ore on the disco@er= of the su,erhea@= ele!ents

*le!ent ((0 Dununniliu!C 4unE !lthough element 11+ ha) "een )isco?ere) first in 1%%5 "2 researchers at the ,esellschaft f[r *ch erionenforschung Gthe *ociet2 for (ea?2 4on <esearch= or ,*4H :a"orator2 in Darmsta)t= ,erman2= an) o"ser?ations "2 other research teams also sa e?i)ence of element 11+= the e?i)ence )i) not confirm that )isco?er2N instea) it as later learne) that the other research teams ha) merel2 -ro)uce) )ifferent isoto-es of the same elementN in total= se?en )ifferent isoto-es ha) "een -re-are)= ranging from 167 neutrons to 171 neutrons. Finall2= in #++9= an international team of research scientists confirme) the )isco?er2. >he -rocess of -re-aring 11+ in?ol?e) the "om"ar)ment of 0"B#+8 ith 1iB75. >he confirmation of the )isco?er2 "2 the international research team in?ol?e) the -ro)uction of #7111+ "2 the same -rocess as that -erforme) "2 the ,*4 la"orator2. >he name )armsta)tium as gi?en to element 11+ in #++9 "2 the ,*4 research grou-= after 4U0!C officiall2 recogniAe) them as the )isco?erers of the element. Ghtt-/FFol).iu-ac.orgF-u"licationsF-acF#++1F79+7F79+7E+%6%.htmlH

DsB#71 then )eca2s into these )aughter -ro)ucts/ an)


3oth these elements coul) "e confirme)= hich in turn confirme) the eEistence of Uun Glater= DsH. *le!ent ((( Dunununiu!C 4uuE Element 111 as first )isco?ere) at the ,*4 in Darmsta)t= ,erman2 in Decem"er= 1%%5. ! oneB-age re-ort from the ,*4 of the )eca2 chains that coul) hel- to ?erif2 the )isco?er2 can "e foun) here/ htt-/FF .gsi.)eFforschungF8-F8-#Fshi-Fel111.html. >he element as -re-are) "2 "om"ar)ing 3iB#+% ith 1iB75. @nce again= onl2 three atoms ere -ro)uce)= so chemical -ro-erties coul) not "e )e)uce).

> o )aughter atoms in the )eca2 chains ere #781+% an) #751+7= t o isoto-es that ha) not "een i)entifie) "efore. an)

4U0!C a--ro?e) the )isco?er2 an) the name roentgenium on 1o?em"er 1= #++5 an) -u"lishe) their fin)ings here/ htt-/FFol).iu-ac.orgF-u"licationsF-acF#++5F771#F771#E#1+1.html. *le!ent ((2 Dununbiu!C 4ubE >he ,*4 la" as also res-onsi"le for the )isco?er2 of element 11# in 1%%7. >he2 -re-are) atoms of this element "2 "om"ar)ing 0"B#+8 ith Pn ions. >he first isoto-es to "e -ro)uce) ere 11#B#77= ith a halfBlife of +.# millisecon)s. Fi?e isoto-es ha?e "een -ro)uce)N the longest halfBlife of these is 1+ minutes an) comes from 11#B#86. >he eJuation for the reaction is

!n) the eJuation for the first )eca2 -rocess is

Element 11#'s )isco?er2 as a--ro?e) "2 4U0!C in #++%. .ie their re?ie official announcement at htt-/FFme)ia.iu-ac.orgF-u"licationsF-acF#++%F-)fF81+7E1991.-)f. Element 11# has "een name) co-ernicium GC-H "2 the ,*4 team in Darmsta)t= ,erman2. >he name as a--ro?e) "2 4U0!C. *le!ent ((3 Dununtriu!C 4utE


Ununtrium Gelement 119H as )isco?ere) as a "2B-ro)uct of the )eca2 series of unun-entium= )isco?ere) in #++5.

Uut as i)entifie) "2 its )eca2 chain Gseries of al-ha )eca2 -rocessesH of )aughter -articles/ an)


!lthough unun-entium atoms onl2 laste) for %+ millisecon)s= ununtrium's atoms eEiste) for 1.# secon)s "efore )eca2ing. >his is a long time for these usuall2 ?er2 unsta"le atoms -ro)uce) "2 scientists. !n article in the Kune= #++5 issue of 0o-ular &echanics cites the )isco?er2 of elements116 an) 119 "2 &oo)2 at the :a rence :i?ermore :a"orator2 an) <ussian scientists at the Koint 4nstitute for 1uclear <esearch. Ghtt-/FF .-o-ularmechanics.comFscienceFresearchF1#8#9#7.html?-ageV#H *le!ent ((4 DununGuadiu!C 4uGE 4t has "een re-orte) that onl2 one atom of element 115= ununJua)ium has e?er "een -ro)uce)= from a fusion of a calciumB58 ion ith a -lutonium atom= accor)ing to the follo ing reaction/

*le!ent ((+ Dunun,entiu!C 4u,E >he first of the su-erhea?2 elements to "e )isco?ere) G-ro)uce)H as element 116= unun-entium GUu-H. !mericiumB#59 as "om"ar)e) ith CaB58 to -ro)uce unun-entium= o"ser?a"le onl2 "2 its )eca2 chain of atoms= one of hich as -re?iousl2 un)isco?ere) element 119= ununtrium.

Unun-entium's 5 atoms Gthat's all that ere -ro)uce)H )eca2e) "2 al-ha )eca2 after a mere %+ millisecon)s into ununtrium= hich then further )eca2e)/

*le!ent (( DununheBiu!C 4uhE


Four in)e-en)ent international research grou-s all -ro)uce) 117B#%# G#%#UuhH "2 "om"ar)ing CmB#58 ith CaB58 ions= accor)ing to the follo ing reaction

>he Uuh atoms )eca2e) 57 ms later "2 al-ha )eca2 into UuJ atoms "2 the follo ing reaction/

*le!ent ((< Dununse,tiu!C 4usE Element 117 has not 2et "een )isco?ere). *le!ent ((8 Dununoctiu!C 4uoE 4n 1%%%= researchers at the U* D@E's :a rence 3er8ele2 1ational :a"orator2 -u"lishe) in 7hysical -e$ie% >etters the announcement of their )isco?er2 of element 118 an) the -ro)uct of its imme)iate )eca2= element 117. Using the 88Binch C2clotron an) "om"ar)ing lea)B#+8 ith highBenerg2 8r2-tonB87 ions= the2 "elie?e) the2 ha) succee)e) in -ro)ucing elements that ha) gotten them closer to the -re)icte) islan) of sta"ilit2 in?ol?ing nuclei ith a--roEimatel2 115 -rotons an) 185 neutrons.

!ccor)ing to -esearch .e%s= a -u"lication of the :a rence 3er8ele2 :a"orator2= the isoto-e of ununoctium= Uuo= the2 -ro)uce) as UuoB#%9= ith 118 -rotons an) 176 neutrons. >he atoms of UuoRonl2 three of hich ere )etecte)Reach )eca2e) ithin a millisecon) "2 al-ha )eca2 into element 117= hich also instantl2 )eca2e) into element 115. G*ee elements 117 an) Element 115= a"o?e for eEam-les of these )eca2 reactions.H >he chain of al-ha )eca2s continue) at least until element 1+7. >he lea) researcher -artl2 attri"ute) his team's ne )isco?er2 to a ne l2 constructe) a--aratus= the 3er8ele2 ,asBfille) *e-arator. >his se-arator ha) su--ose)l2 increase) efficienc2 an) su--ression of "ac8groun) nuclear reactions. >he other factor that allo e) them to ma8e their )isco?er2 as the uniJue a"ilit2 of the 88Binch C2clotron to accelerate ions such as KrB87 to high energ2 an) high intensit2 "eams. *cientists aroun) the orl) toute) this )isco?er2 as a clear sign that the islan) of sta"ilit2 as real an) coul) "e reache). Unfortunatel2= their ;u"ilation as short li?e). > o 2ears later= in #++1= the same research team re-orte) in a corres-on)ence to 7hysical -e$ie% >etters a retraction of their )isco?er2. <eBanal2sis of the -rimar2 )ata files "2 the original research team an) outsi)e in)e-en)ent eE-erts in)icate) their re-orte) claims ere not e?i)ent in the 1%%% )ata. 4t seems that onl2 one of the original researchers ha) actuall2 trace) their results all the a2 "ac8 to the -rimar2 )ata. G(e as later relie?e) of his -osition.H 3er8ele2's -esearch .e%s also -u"lishe) a re-ort on the retraction. 3oth -esearch .e%s references can "e seen at htt-/FF .l"l.go?F*cienceB!rticlesF!rchi?eFelementsB117B 118.html. Tr= a.ainK


3ut that's not the en) of the stor2 for element 118M 4n @cto"er= #++7 scientists at the Koint 4nstitute for 1uclear <esearch GK41<H in Du"na= <ussia= an) &oo)2's team at the :a rence :i?ermore 1ational :a"orator2= -u"lishe) in the ;ournal 7hysical -e$ie% C= a ;ournal of the !merican 0h2sical *ociet2= their )isco?er2 Gagain?H of element 118. 4n a 6Bmonth -erio) in #++6= the2 ha) -ro)uce) 9 atoms of element 118. >he2 "ase) their fin)ings on the al-ha )eca2 chains from 118 to 117 to 115= as ha) the 3er8ele2 :i?ermore team in #++1. 32 this time ho e?er= element 117 ha) alrea)2 "een -ro)uce) an) i)entifie). >heir a--roach this time as significantl2 )ifferent from the KrB87 "om"ar)ment of 0"B #+8. >his time the2 "om"ar)e) CaB58 into a californium target.

(ere again= )eca2 -rocesses hel-e) the research teams to i)entif2 the ne element/

Element 118 as -re)icte) to "e a no"le gas= accor)ing to its eE-ecte) electron configuration an) its -osition on the -erio)ic ta"le. !s such= it has long "een a goal of nuclear chemists an) -h2sicists. 1o that its )isco?er2F-ro)uction has "een accom-lishe)= scientists are or8ing on -ro)ucing e?en hea?ier elements. !n) e?en though some of the su-erhea?2 elements ha?e "een relati?el2 sta"le Gfor ra)ioacti?e elementsH= the2 still )eca2 relati?el2 ra-i)l2. *le!ent ((9 Dununenniu!C 4ueE Element 11% has not 2et "een )isco?ere). *le!ent (22 D2E 3ut -erha-s not all su-erhea?2 elements' nuclei are unsta"le. <esearchers at the (e"re Uni?ersit2 of Kerusalem re-orte) in #++8 that the2 ha) )isco?ere) se?eral atoms of element 1## in a small sam-le of a -urifie) solution of thorium Gelement %+H. 32 anal2Aing the solution in a mass s-ectrometer= the2 )isco?ere) atoms ith masses ;ust o?er #%#= hen the2 shoul) ha?e "een seeing masses of a--roEimatel2 #9# Gfor common isoto-es of thorium ith a"out 15# neutronsH. >eam lea)er !mnon &arino? of the (e"re Uni?ersit2 research team state) that no 8no n naturall2Boccurring element ha) a mass as high as the one the2 o"ser?e). (e offere) the -ossi"ilit2 that this -re?iousl2 un)isco?ere) element might "e U"" Gun"i"iumH ith 1## -rotons an) 17+ neutrons= or e?en element 1#5 ith 178 neutrons= since there as no a2 to -ro?e hich element the2 sa . >he researchers estimate) the element's halfBlife to "e on the or)er of 1++ million G1 E 1+8H 2ears.


*ince the -re?ailing theories of the time eE-ecte) either of these elements to ha?e unsta"le nuclei= )eca2ing in a matter of nanosecon)s= other scientists Juic8l2 eE-resse) )ou"t a"out &arino?'s team's research. Elements locate) in the islan) of sta"ilit2 mentione) in the article are eE-ecte) to reJuire 185 neutrons= far more than &arino?'s nuclei containe). >he original -a-er )etailing &arino?'s fin)ings as -oste) on a -reB-u"lication ser?er here/ htt-/FFarEi?.orgFa"sF+8+5.987%. Oou can )o nloa) the entire article in -)f format at this site. 3loggers also got into the act= an) one in -articular sho e) another inter-retation of &arino?'s team's mass s-ectrogra-hs hich seems to refute &arino?'s claim. Oou can fin) a co-2 of the "log refuting his fin)ings at htt-/FF .chemistr2B"log.comF#++8F+5F#%Fa)ressingB marino?sBelementB1##BclaimF. *cientific ;ournals seem to "e in concert ith the )ou"tersN although &arino? su"mitte) his -a-er to .ature an) .ature 7hysics= "oth ;ournals refuse) to -u"lish itRe?en "efore sen)ing it for -eer re?ie . Chemistry 2orld= the online re-orting arm of the <o2al *ociet2 of Chemistr2= also re-orts a"out )ou"ting scientists at htt-/FF .rsc.orgFchemistr2 orl)F1e sF#++8F& !ttem-ts ha?e "een ma)e to -ro)uce element 1##= first at Du"na= <ussia in 1%7# "2 colli)ing a UB#98 nucleus ith a PnB77 nucleus= an) later in Darmsta)t= ,erman2 in #+++ G ith greater )etector sensiti?it2H "2 "om"ar)ing UB#98 ith PnB7+. 3oth attem-ts faile) to -ro)uce an2 atoms of U"".

"ore on the :1?>he @a8 <i)ge 1ational :a"orator2's G@<1:H (igh FluE 4soto-e <eactor G(F4<H is use) to -ro)uce neutrons for international research on con)ense) matter. >he neutron fluE is use) for neutron scattering to -ro"e the fun)amental -articles of con)ense) matter. 4n a))ition to research into the -ro)uction of ne elements= the (F4< is use) to stu)2 more -ractical materials. >he neutron fluE can "e hel-ful in stu)ies to learn more a"out/ the arrangement of molecules in -ol2mers= the s-ecial -ro-erties of cr2stalline materials= or the stu)2 of ?arious materials in su-ercon)ucti?it2= ;ust to name a fe . &ore than #++ research -ro;ects are )one at the (F4< annuall2. *ome of these -ro;ects are highlighte) on the @<1: e"site/ htt-/FFneutrons.ornl.go?Fne sFhighlights.shtml. >he (F4< "egan fullB-o er o-erations in 1%77. 4t is the sole su--lier of CfB#6# in the estern orl). CfB#6# is an isoto-e use) in cancer thera-2 an) )etection of -ollutants in the en?ironment an) eE-losi?es in luggage. @-erating at 86 mega atts= (F4< is the highest fluE reactorB"ase) source for neutrons for research in con)ense) matter in the Unite) *tates.

"ore on ,article accelerators

>here are essentiall2 t o t2-es of -article acceleratorsRlinear accelerators an) circular accelerators. 4n a linear accelerator GlinacH the -articles are shot li8e "ullets from a gun either into a stationar2 target= a circular accelerator= or a colli)ing -article "eam from another linear accelerator. 4n a circular accelerator Galso calle) a c2clotronH= an electric fiel) first accelerates charge) -articles. >hen huge electromagnets are use) to continuall2 "en) the "eam of fastB mo?ing charge) -articles into a circular -ath. >hese -articles are containe) in the magnetic fiel) an) e?entuall2 colli)e either ith stationar2 targets or ith other -articles crossing their -ath. :inear accelerators are easier an) chea-er an) to "uil)= "ut the2 usuall2 can't -ro)uce energies as large as those in circular accelerators. Circular accelerators are more com-leE= o ing to the arra2 of electromagnets nee)e) to 8ee- the -articles going in a circle= an) the nee) for a large )iameter Gsometimes on the or)er of 8ilometersH in or)er to get those larger


energies. >his= of course= ma8es circular accelerators more eE-ensi?e to "uil). 4n a))ition to the larger energies a c2clotron can -ro)uce= the re-eate) circular -ath of the accelerate) -articles results in a much higher -ro"a"ilit2 of collisions ith the target -articles at the intersection of their -aths. >o see a ?er2 sim-le )emonstration of a -article accelerator using a -ing -ong "all= see this 1B1F# minute Oou>u"e ?i)eo/ htt-/FF .2outu"e.comF atch??VEKEAX!QK?38WeurlVhttQ9!Q#FQ#F?i)eoQ#EgoogleQ#EcomQ#F?i)eosearchQ9FhlQ9DenQ#7sourceQ9Dh-Q#7J Q9D-articleQ#3acceleratorQ#3eE-erimentQ#7umQ9D1Q#7ieQ9DU>FQ#D8Q#7ei Q9D#1u<*uQ#D%(4mPl!fu+-,1D!Q#7saWfeatureV-la2erUem"e))e)ItV15. 4f 2ou ant to use it in 2our classroom= "ut 2our school "loc8s Oou>u"e= sim-l2 )o nloa) it at home to 2our o n com-uter an) sa?e it to a flash )ri?e to ta8e to school an) -ut on 2our school com-uter. !s the energ2 nee)s for the continue) -ro)uction of ne elements increase)= man2 of the lo erBenerg2 -article accelerators res-onsi"le for the )isco?er2 of the transuranium elements ere )ecommissione) an) ha?e "een re-lace) "2 ne = higherBenerg2 instruments. >he latest ne U* -article accelerator= originall2 -ro-ose) "2 &ichigan *tate Uni?ersit2 as the 4soto-e *cience Facilit2= "ut later rename) the Facilit2 for <are 4soto-e 3eams GF<43H= is "eing -lanne). >he go?ernment in #++8 a ar)e) a D66+ million grant to &ichigan *tate Uni?ersit2 for its -ro-osal to )e?elo- the instrument. >he -rimar2 -ur-ose of F<43 is to -ro)uce the higher energies nee)e) to accelerate hea?ier ions into hea?ier nuclei in or)er to -ro)uce e?en hea?ier su-erhea?2 elements. !ll of this ill also hel- scientists "etter un)erstan) the nuclear reactions "ehin) stars an) stellar eE-losions test -resent theories a"out the nature of matter= an) to helto )e?elo- ne nuclear technolog2 an) me)icines. 4t is eE-ecte) to ta8e a )eca)e to )esign an) "uil) the facilit2. (ere is the official De-artment of Energ2's @ffice of *cience announcement of the a ar)ing of the grant/ htt-/FF .sc.)oe.go?Fn-F-rogramFF<43.html. !n) this )ocument contains an illustration of the -ro-ose) facilit2/ htt-/FF .orau.orgF<4!Ffri"Ffri"Bfacilit2B )escri-tion.-)f. For an eEam-le 2ou coul) use ith stu)ents= 2ou -ro"a"l2 ha?e in 2our o n home an eEam-le of a linear -article acceleratorRa tele?ision or com-uter monitor ith a catho)e ra2 tu"e GC<>H screen. 4n the case of the C<> screen= the -articles "eing accelerate) are electrons. Electrons are emitte) from a heate) filament= similar to that of a normal light "ul". >he heate) filament is the catho)e. >he negati?e electrons are attracte) Gaccelerate)H through the e?acuate) -icture tu"e to ar) the ano)e= consisting of a focusing ano)e an) an accelerating ano)e. > o sets of electromagnets )eflect the accelerate) electrons to control their ?ertical an) horiAontal -ositioning as the2 colli)e ith 2our >. screen. 0hos-hors on the screen then glo hen struc8 "2 those electrons. 4n a "lac8Ban)B hite monitor= there is onl2 one -hos-hor that glo s hite hen im-acte)N in a color tele?ision= there are three -hos-horsRre)= green an) "lueRthat emit light hen eEcite). >here are also three in)i?i)ual electron "eams that eEcite the three )ifferent -hos-hor colors to gi?e 2ou com-osite colors. 4f 2ou ant to 8no more a"out ho tele?isions or8= see the (o *tuff Wor8s e" -age on (o >ele?ision Wor8s at htt-/FFelectronics.ho stuff or8s.comFt?.htm.

"ore on na!in. ele!ents Gan) the role of 4U0!CH

3efore a ne element can "e officiall2 name)= it must first get official recognition of its eEistence "2 the go?erning "o)2 of chemistsRthe 4nternational Union of 0ure an) !--lie) Chemistr2 G4U0!CH. 4U0!C has forme) a Koint Wor8ing 0art2 GKW0H ith the 4nternational Union of 0ure an) !--lie) 0h2sics G4U0!0H to ;u)ge the claims of the ?arious research teams


regar)ing the )isco?er2 of a ne element. >heir criteria ere -u"lishe) in 1%%1 in 4U0!C's official ;ournal= 7ure and Applied Chemistry, an) can "e foun) online at htt-/FFol).iu-ac.orgFre-ortsF-erio)icUta"leFin)eE.html. !fter much )e"ate an) criticism in the earl2 1%%+s ithin the chemistr2 communit2 a"out the -ro?isional names gi?en to the transfermium elements Gatomic num"ers 1+1B1+%H= 4U0!C formall2 s-ecifie) the names of the transfermium elements in 7ure and Applied Chemistry in 1%%7. Oou can fin) the -u"lication online at htt-/FFol).iu-ac.orgFre-ortsF1%%7F7%1#transfermiumFin)eE.html. >he official names= from that -u"lication= are/ *le!ent 1+1 1+# 1+9 1+5 1+6 1+7 1+7 1+8 1+% )a!e men)ele?ium no"elium la rencium rutherfor)ium )u"nium sea"orgium "ohrium hassium meitnerium S=!bol &) 1o :r <f D" *g 3h (s &t

@nl2 the follo ing three su-erhea?2 elements ha?e 4U0!CBacce-te) names/ At. )o. 11+ 111 11# )ew )a!e )armsta)tium roentgenium Co-ernicium S=!bol Ds <g COld )a!e ununnilium unununium Un"i"ium

Connections to Chemistr. Conce)ts

1. Obser@ationsR*cientists use all their senses in their eE-eriments $ an) hen these are insufficient= the2 use instrumentation to ai) their senses. >he )etectors use) to )etect the ne -articles -ro)uce) in the c2clotron are eEam-les of this. #. #eriodicit=R\>he -ro-erties of the su-erhea?2 elements )o not necessaril2 follo the rules of the -erio)ic ta"le. 9. ?soto,esR&an2 eEam-les are note) in the article that coul) gi?e stu)ents -ractice in Gan) -ractical a--lications forH un)erstan)ing isoto-es. 5. *Guations for nuclear reactionsR:ots of eEam-les of nuclear reactions a--ear in the article. Oou can use these for "alancing nuclear eJuations. 6. )uclear stabilit=C reacti@it= and half&li@esREEam-les a"oun) of unsta"le isoto-es an) the role of neutrons in these reactions. 7. )uclear deca=R3eta )eca2 is illustrate) in the articleN al-ha an) gamma )eca2 ill reJuire further )e?elo-ment outsi)e the article.


,ossible 'tu&ent #isconce)tions

1. 3Scientists ha@e alread= disco@ered all the ele!ents there are to disco@er.5 Well= the -ro"lem ith this statement is the or) )isco?er. !ctuall2= the stu)ent ma8ing this statement ma2 "e right in that scientists aren't )isco?ering elements an2moreN the2're ma8ing them. 3ut then again= there ma2 "e more elements Gof higher atomic massH out there in s-ace Ginsi)e no?ae= for eEam-leH that scientists ha?en't 2et )etecte). !n2 ne elements that scientists are )isco?ering no are in)ee) "eing ma)e "2 them= an) in that sense of the or)= there ma2 "e Gare?H more to come. #. 3Ato!s of one ele!ent can9t be chan.ed to ato!s of another ele!ent that9s what !aAes it an ele!ent.5 !his %as the "elief of scientists historically, "ut a "etter scientific understanding of the natural %orld in the last 1 years has changed those "eliefs. 2e no% (no% that unsta"le atoms regularly undergo a change from one element to another as they e)perience radioacti$e decay. 9. 3Scientists can alwa=s Iust shoot a hea@ier ele!ent at the ele!ent to !aAe hea@ier new ele!entsC one b= one.5 Knfortunately, it3s not that easy, as the article states. Many factors ma(e this an untrue statement, including the relati$e insta"ility of hea$ier ?"ulletA atoms&ions, and the energy re<uired to fuse the t%o nuclei. Also, scientists in the recent past ha$e "elie$ed they3d produced ne% elements %hen, in fact, they had not. 5. 3Ato!s can fuse to.ether easil= to !aAe new ele!entsC Iust liAe ato!s co!bine to !aAe new co!,ounds.5 Although this %ould seem to ma(e sense, fusing nuclei together re<uires much greater energy to o$ercome the huge repulsion "et%een the nuclei 8proton0 proton repulsions, %ith no electron0proton attractions, li(e those that e)ist in chemical "onds9. #n chemical "ond formation, the small electron0electron repulsions are more than made up for "y the ne% proton0electron attractions, resulting in a more sta"le ne% molecule.

Demonstrations an& 2essons

>here trul2 are no )emonstrationsFeE-eriments that can "e )one ith the transfermium elements )irectl2 Gunless -erha-s 2our high school is affiliate) )irectl2 ith the :a rence :i?ermore 1ational :a"orator2H. !n) there are onl2 a fe eE-eriments that can "e )one in?ol?ing ra)ioacti?it2 )irectl2. >hose are the ol) stan)ar) acti?ities= liste) in 1H= "elo . >he acti?ities follo ing 1H= "elo are simulations of ra)ioacti?it2 eE-eriments that can "e )one in the la". G>here are no transfermium simulations foun) or liste).H >hese= too= are ?ersions of ol) stan)ar)s. 1. 4f 2ou are fortunate enough to ha?e access to nuclear sources Gal-haB or "etaBsourcesRan) -erha-s= gammaBsources as ellH= 2ou can )o the stan)ar) eE-eriments in?ol?ing aH the in?erse sJuare la an) nuclear ra)iation intensit2= "H nuclear ra)iation intensit2 an) shiel)ing= an) cH halfBlife )etermination. ! stan)ar) set of these eE-eriments can "e foun) at the :a rence 3er8ele2 :a"orator2 site/ htt-/FF .l"l.go?Fa"cFContents.htmlIeE-eriment. !nother source of real nuclear eE-erimentsF)emonstrations can "e foun) at the 0ractical 0h2sics e" site. !l-ha ra)iation/ range an) sto--ing Ghtt-/FF .-ractical-h2sics.orgFgoFEE-erimentU687.htmlH= an) 3eta ra)iation/ range an) sto--ing Ghtt-/FF .-ractical-h2sics.orgFgoFEE-erimentU688.htmlN;sessioni)Va(0)2s?-)nmU? to-icUi) (an)ling an) safet2 are inclu)e) in teacher notes.


!n) this one comes from 1!*! G#++#H. @r"ital *-ace *ettlements @nline Course -ro?i)es <a)ioacti?e *hiel)ing= an eE-eriment reJuiring al-ha= "eta an) gamma sources to test shiel)ing effects. Ghtt-/FF .nas.nasa.go?F!"outFE)ucationF*-ace*ettlementFteacherFcourseFra)ioacti?eUshi el)ingUeE-e.htmlH 4n 1uclear EE-eriments Oou Can Do= a "oo8let "2 the >homas !l?a E)ison Foun)ation= stu)ents are intro)uce) to nuclear science. >he "oo8let is ?er2 )ate) G1%87= last -rintingH= "ut it )oes contain an eE-eriment on shiel)ing. !n) if 2ou'?e e?er ante) to "uil) 2our o n ,eiger counter= the instructions are inclu)e). #. (alfBlife acti?itiesR&an2 e" sites -ro?i)e han)sBon acti?ities to in?ol?e the stu)ents in simulations that allo them to )isco?er for themsel?es hat a halfBlife is. (ere are ;ust a fe of them/ <oc8 of !gesR! (alfBlife !nalog -ro?i)es a geological ?ie of halfBlife= com-lete ith ra)iologic )ating ith CB15. Ghtt-/FF .geolog2. isc.e)uFZmuseumFhughesF<oc8!ges.htmlH >he reason this ?ersion is offere) is t oBfol)/ first= it gi?es a )irect a--lication of halfBlife )etermination an) secon)= it re-laces the )eca2e) atom ith its )aughter atom to sho Gmore or lessH conser?ation of mass. &ost other simulations sim-l2 remo?e the )eca2e) atoms G hich is -ro"a"l2 more correct in the case of CB15= as it )eca2s into a gaseous nitrogen atom hich lea?es the s2stemH. >his la" also inclu)es state GWisconsinH an) national science stan)ar)s. <a)ioacti?e Deca2/ ! * eet *imulation of a (alfBlife is one of man2 can)2B"ase) simulations. Ghtt-/FF .sciencenetlin8s.comFlessons.-h-?Doc4DV178H >he reason this one is chosen is "ecause it -ro?i)es for teachers an entire lesson scri-t for the acti?it2= hile it also -ro?i)es a stu)ent la" sheet. 4t is one in a series of 9 lessons on ra)ioacti?it2. G:esson one is 4soto-es of 0ennies an) lesson three is Frost2 the *no man &eets his Demise/ !n !nalog2 to Car"on Dating. >his site is also one of the *cience1et:in8s sites= s-onsore) "2 the !merican !ssociation for the !)?ancement of *cience G!!!*H. *uita"le for honors chemistr2 stu)ents= a "eefe)Bu- ?ersion of the acti?it2 from Westminster College= (alfB:ife *imulation ith &W&s= -ro?i)es for stu)ents to )iscuss the )eca2 -rocess in terms of the )eca2 constant an) the integrate) rate la . Ghtt-/FF . estminster.e)uFaca)FsimF)ocumentsF*(alfB:ife*imulation.&&s.-)fH !gain= for honors Gor secon)B2earH stu)ents= if 2ou ante) to gi?e in)i?i)ual stu)ents access to simulate) )ata= 2ou coul) go to (alflife *imulation Ghtt-/ >here stu)ents Gor 2ouH can choose from a--roEimatel2 9+ )ifferent isoto-es. @nce an isoto-e is chosen= )ata a"out the original num"er of atoms an) final num"er of atoms o"ser?e)= an) the num"er of )a2s o"ser?e) is gi?en. Unfortunatel2= the eJui-ment faile) "efore enough )ata coul) "e gathere). >he stu)ent must then )eci)e the -arameters of the eE-eriment= run the eE-eriment= an) )etermine the halfBlife. 3ac8groun) ra)iation is inclu)e) in the ne )ata= ;ust to confuse things further. 4t's an interesting eEercise. E?er2 stu)ent coul) get in)i?i)ual )ata an) then -lot it. 9. 4f 2ou oul) li8e to ;ust sho stu)ents a re-resentation of halfBlife as -art of 2our lesson= 2ou can )o that= too. .isit htt-/FF .lonBca-a.orgFZmm-Fa--listF)eca2F)eca2.htm. >his is a ?er2 sim-le a--let GKa?a reJuire)H that sho s a large num"er of )ots re-resenting atoms. Oou can choose the time of the halfBlife= an) hen 2ou -ress *tart= the )ots )isa--ear at the rate for the halfBlife 2ou choose Gtimes chosen are relati?e times= not "ase) on real timeH. ! histogram is sho n simultaneousl2 for reference -ur-oses. >he Uni?ersit2 of Colora)o's 0hE> e" site has a simulation on al-ha -article )eca2 that sho s halfBlife in animation at htt-/FF-het.colora)o.e)uFsimulationsFsims.-h-? simV!l-haUDeca2.


! sim-le classroom )emonstration of halfBlife using the fli--ing -ennies i)ea can "e foun) here/ htt-/FFserc.carleton.e)uFJuants8illsFacti?itiesF0enn2Deca2.html. 5. 4f 2ou oul) li8e more information a"out t2-ical ra)ioacti?e )eca2 series= 2ou can fin) a Ka?a a--let= <a)ioacti?e Deca2 *eries= "2 Walter Fen)t= at htt-/FF . alterB fen)t.)eF-h15eFla )eca2.htm that sho s a chart ith ste-B"2Bste- )eca2s of four ra)ioacti?e isoto-es. 53 ! series of 5 lessons= 1uclear Energ2/ 1uclear Deca2= can "e foun) at htt-/FF .montgomer2schoolsm).orgF)e-artmentsF4nternFst-F or8sho-sUshilling.html. >he lessons ere ritten for an en?ironmental science class an) a lin8 on the site contains "ac8groun) information on nuclear science= an) three acti?ities. @ne is a simulation "2 0h2sics #+++= calle)= sim-l2= (alf:ife Ghtt-/FF .colora)o.e)uF-h2sicsF#+++Fisoto-esFra)ioacti?eU)eca29.htmlH= hich ta8es stu)ents through a simulate) )iscussion "et een t o -eo-le a"out hat half life reall2 means= an) inclu)es an a--let that )emonstrates atoms )eca2ing an) a gra-h of that -henomenon o?er time. >he secon) acti?it2 in?ol?es an interacti?e lin8 that sho s )eca2 chains of ith s-ecific ste-s in each )eca2 -rocess. !n) the thir) acti?it2 )iscusses using t o )ifferent colors of )ice to )etermine the halfBlife of each GselfBcontaine) on the siteH. *tu)ent )ata ta"les are inclu)e) for this acti?it2. Oou )on't ant to ;ust gi?e this GoriginalH e" site to stu)ents "ecause aH it's a lesson -lan site for teachers= an) "H it contains a hot lin8 that is su--ose) to ta8e the rea)er to the site that )is-la2s the interacti?e ta"le of elements an) their )eca2 series Gsecon) of the three acti?itiesH= "ut it goes to a= shall e sa2= less )esira"le site Greall2 hotH. G>he site has "een ta8en o?er since the riting of the lesson -lan.H >he site the acti?it2 shoul) access has change) to htt-/FF 1@> .nucli) 7. Oou coul) gi?e stu)ents an i)ea of ho a -article accelerator or8s "2 sho ing them a C<> tele?ision or com-uter monitor= -refera"l2 remo?e) from its case so the2 can see the internal or8ings. *ee the last -aragra-h in &ore on -article accelerators earlier in this >eachers ,ui)e for "asic information. ! reference e" site for an eE-lanation of ho the C<> screen or8s is gi?en there.

'tu&ent ,ro3ects
1. *tu)ents coul) research in)i?i)ual su-erhea?2 elements an) re-ort on the histor2 of their )isco?er2 Gor -ur-orte) )isco?er2Bsee element 1##H. 23 For a list of -ossi"le stu)ent -ro;ects for ritten re-orts on nuclear science or societal issues= see htt-/FF .l"l.go?Fa"cF allchartFcha-tersFa--en)iEFa--en)iE".html. 33 (ere is an account of a stu)ent -ro;ect in?ol?ing the use of a )igital camera's :CD in)o to ?ie al-ha ra)iation from a rea)il2 a?aila"le ra)iation source Ga smo8e )etectorH. Ghtt-/FF .in?entgee8.comF0ro;ectsF!l-ha<a)Fo?er?ie .as-EH 5. *tu)ents coul) research an) re-ort on "in)ing energ2 ithin atoms. 6. *tu)ents coul) research an) re-ort on the unif2ing theor2 of -h2sics= ith its 7. While 2ou ma2 not ant to encourage this in 2our o n stu)ents= it might -a2 off in the long term. 4n the &arch= #++7 issue= Disco?er magaAine carrie) the G?er2 shortH stor2 of >hiago @lson= a high school senior an) 3o2 *cout= ho achie?e) in his "asement the fusion of h2)rogen to -ro)uce -lasma. Ghtt-/FF)isco?ermagaAine.comF#++7FmarFra)ioacti?eB"o2B scoutH


Antici)ating 'tu&ent Questions

1. 3?s there a li!it to how lar.e a nucleus can be ,roduced b= ,resent !ethods25 Scientists don3t really (no% the ans%er to this <uestion, although it is "ecoming more difficult for them to produce hea$ier and hea$ier nuclei "y this process. ;ut scientists are al%ays %or(ing on ne% methods that may allo% them to produce hea$ier elements. #. 3/h= would ele!ents ((2 and ((8 ha@e different ,ro,erties than antici,atedL,redicted25 Element 112 is e)pected to "e more inert than Hg 8directly a"o$e Ku" on the periodic ta"le9, %hile element 111 is e)pected to "e more acti$e than -n 8directly a"o$e 111 on the periodic ta"le9. 7art of the reason for the predictions is that there are so many protons inside Ku"3s nucleus that the nucleus %ould contract the electron cloud and that, to pre$ent their "eing pulled into the nucleus, some of the electrons %ould need to "e tra$eling $ery close to the speed of light. !his had suggested to scientists that it %ould ma(e the nucleus highly unreacti$e, li(e a no"le gas. !hese e)pectations are also "ased on spin0or"it interaction %ithin the nuclei. 84or more on this phenomenon, you3ll need to $isit <uantum physics theory.9 9. 3O6C wh= can9t we Iust test ele!ents ((2 and ((8 to see if their ,ro,erties are different than ,redicted25 Knfortunately, only a fe% nuclei at a time are produced in the cyclotron. Kntil scientists can create enough of the element and ha$e them remain un0 decayed long enough to test them in the la", %e %on3t "e a"le to determine their gross properties. .e% information suggests that Ku" may actually "e much closer in properties to Hg than -n. !his disco$ery %as made e$en %ith only t%o atoms of Ku". See http5&& +&May& 2 E + /.asp for the details. #t3s %orth%hile to note that at the time of this e)periment, the e)istence of element 112 had not yet "een sanctioned "y #K7AC. A similar report of the same e)periment came from *cientific !merican at http5&&$y0 element0unun"ium0has0ordinary0chemistry. 5. 3/here do all these new ele!ents co!e fro!25 !he ne% superhea$y elements are created "y scientists: they do not e)ist in nature 8as far as scientists (no% no%9. 8!here may "e an e)ception to this: see the section in ?More on superhea$y elementsA, %here the possi"le 2 1 disco$ery of element 122, K"", is discussed. 6. 3?s there an end to the ,eriodic table25 Scientists don3t (no% the ans%er to this <uestion. Although all the superhea$y elements to0date ha$e "een unsta"le, some scientists ha$e predicted that elements in the island8sL9 of sta"ility may once again "e sta"le. Sea"org predicted elements all the %ay up to 211.

Web 'ites for A&&itional 0nformation

"ore sites on transfer!iu! ele!ents
For a tongueBinBchee8 treatment on the )isco?er2 of a ne element= calle) go?ernmentium= see htt-/FF)ocstal8."logs-ot.comF#++8F11Fco-Bla renceBli?ermoreBla"oratoriesBhas.html3

"ore sites on the ,eriodic table and the island of stabilit=

htt-/FF For another ?ie of the eEten)e) -erio)ic ta"le= this one from see .chemeuro-e.comFleEi8onFeF0erio)icUta"leUGeEten)e)HF.


&ar8 :each has an eEtensi?e co?erage of -erio)ic ta"les of e?er2 siAe an) arrangement on his Chemogenesis e" site. .ie the collection at htt-/FF .metaB s2nthesis.comF e""oo8F96U-tF-tU)ata"ase.-h-?3uttonV1%6+B1%%%YFormulations. (ere is another list of more than 1++ ?ariations on the -erio)ic ta"le= as ell as a list of sites ith lessons relate) to the -erio)ic ta"le/ htt-/FF)u""er7.tri-o).comF hereisitFi)6#.html.

"ore sites on the disco@er= of the su,erhea@= ele!ents

Wi8i-e)ia sho s 2ou a timeline of the histor2 of the )isco?er2 of the elements= inclu)ing the unconfirme) )isco?eries of the su-erhea?2 elements= at htt-/FFen. i8i-e)ia.orgF i8iF>imelineUofUchemicalUelementsU)isco?eries. 4U0!C has a -erio)ic ta"le of the )isco?er2 of the elements= "2 6+B2ear inter?als. 4t inclu)es the earl2 transfermium elements= "ut it )oes not contain the su-erhea?2 elements. Oou can fin) it at htt-/FFol).iu-ac.orgFre-ortsF-erio)icUta"leFin)eE.html. 0rofessor 3o" 3runer's e" site contains a ealth of chemistr2 internet resources= inclu)ing s-ecific references to the )isco?eries of some of the su-erhea?2 elements. ,o here to start/ htt-/FF""runer.orgF11net.htmI>o-.

"ore sites on ,article accelerators

>he :a rence 3er8ele2 1ational :a"orator2 has a site hich -ro?i)es stu)ents ith information a"out each of the orl)'s eight ma;or accelerators. 4nformation inclu)es schematics= )escri-tions of hat the accelerator is )esigne) to stu)2= an) hat im-ortant )isco?eries ere ma)e at each. Oou can fin) the site at htt-/FF-articlea)?enture.orgF?ariation.html. Fermi:a"'s e" site inclu)es an animate) seJuence of the e?ents that trans-ire to accelerate -articles insi)e their chain of accelerators. >he Fermi:a" accelerators )eal ith much higher energies G1 trillion electron ?olts= instea) of 1 "illion e.H an) much smaller -articles G-rotons an) anti-rotons= rather than large nucleiH than the accelerators )iscusse) in the article= "ut it )oes sho linear an) circular accelerators "eing use) in tan)em. 4t com"ines colors an) soun)s to sho the changes in energ2 as a -article is accelerate) through the chain of accelerators. .ie Glisten toH it at htt-/FF B").fnal.go?F-u"licFin)eE.html.

"ore sites on na!in. ele!ents

>he 4nternational Union of 0ure an) !--lie) Chemistr2 G4U0!CH has -u"lishe) its 1aming of 1e Elements )ocument at htt-/FFol).iu-ac.orgF-u"licationsF-acF#++#F-)fF75+6E+787.-)f. 4t restricts hat names a )isco?erer of an element can -ro-ose to the categories "elo . 4n 8ee-ing ith tra)ition= elements are name) after ] a m2thological conce-t or character Ginclu)ing an astronomical o";ectHN ] a mineral= or similar su"stanceN ] a -lace or geogra-hical regionN ] a -ro-ert2 of the elementN or ] a scientist


>o a?oi) confusion in the literature= hen a name has "een in unofficial use for a -articular element= "ut a )ifferent name is ultimatel2 chosen for that element= then the first name cannot "e transferre) for use for another element. ! case in -oint is element 1+6 for hich the name hahnium has "een unofficiall2 use). *ince the name )u"nium as chosen for that element= hahnium cannot "e use) for another as 2et unname) element. For linguistic consistenc2= the names of all ne elements shoul) en) in Bium. >he site also lists the -roce)ure a scientist must follo to o"tain acce-tance of the -ro-ose) name. !n) reference is ma)e to interim namesRthose in?ol?ing the -refiEes for their atomic num"ersN e.g.= U""= etc. 4n the !ugust 18= #++9 issue of Chemical and Engineering .e%s= the !merican Chemical *ociet2 re-orte) on the naming of Darmsta)tium Gelement 11+H/ htt-/FF-u"s.acs.orgFcenFto-stor2F8199F8199not 1.html.

'eneral 2e" -eferences

>he 1uclear *cience Di?ision of the :a rence 3er8ele2 1ational :a"orator2 e" site -ro?i)es a ealth of research )ata a"out elements an) all their isoto-es Gmostl2 for scientists= "ut also useful for teachers an) stu)entsH at this site/ htt-/FFie.l"l.go?Ftoi.html. Within this site= there are ta"les of isoto-ic )ata= "oth real \a -)f file ith #1 -ages^ Ghtt-/FFie.l"l.go?FtoiF-)fFchart.-)fH an) theoretical \9 -age -)f file^ Ghtt-/FFie.l"l.go?Ftoi-)fFtheor2.-)fH. >he site also contains an interacti?e -erio)ic ta"le= from hich 2ou can choose an element an) it ill sho 2ou all the 8no n isoto-es for that element Ghtt-/FFie.l"l.go?Fe)ucationFisoto-es.htmH. 4f 2ou ant more inB)e-th information on ?er2 recent results of stu)ies a"out su"Batomic -article -h2sics= chec8 out the 0article !)?enture/ >he Fun)amentals of &atter an) Force= -ro)uce) "2 the 0article Data ,rou- of the :a rence 3er8ele2 1ational :a"orator2. >his e" site sho s 2ou Gor stu)ents?H the stan)ar) mo)el of matter= the -resent un)erstan)ing of the four forces of nature= an) the "uil)ing "loc8s of matter Gno= not ;ust atoms= "ut Juar8s= ha)rons= le-tons= etc.H. 4t ta8es 2ou Gthem?H on an a)?enture through the orl) of the su"microsco-ic. 4t also -resents a section on -article accelerators an) )etectors. Oou can fin) the site at htt-/FF .-articlea)?enture.orgF.


"etals9 :idden Stren.ths

/ac1groun& 0nformation
From the -erio)ic ta"le= metals are the most a"un)ant categor2 of elements foun) on earth Gof course in the uni?erse= it is the nonBmetal h2)rogenMH. !n) hen one consi)ers the long histor2 of human8in)= metals are fun)amental to the a)?ance of ci?iliAations= ha?ing -la2e) a ma;or role in their )e?elo-ment= from the cru)est of tools ma)e from co--er Gsuccee)ing stone im-lementsH to -resent )a2's -lethora of tools that )e-en) on metals for their o-eration. Earl2 histor2 is often )i?i)e) into ages or e-ochs "ase) on the t2-es of toolsR*tone= 3ronAe= 4ron !ges. 4f the #1st Centur2 can "e consi)ere) the era of communications= then= as mentione) in -art of the &etals article= e ha?e the e?erBshrin8ing transistor )e?ice ith its microcircuits constructe) from a ?ariet2 of metals. We nee) to )istinguish "et een -ure metals GelementalH an) the more common miEes of metals Gallo2sH that -ro)uce a multitu)e of characteristics. >he mo)ern alchem2 turns a collection of in)i?i)ual metals Gan) nonBmetalsH into a material ith characteristics that are not necessaril2 those of an2 one element in the miE. !gain= the some hat curious chemical fact is that se?eral elements chemicall2 reacte) together lose their elemental characteristic -ro-erties. When the2 react so)ium metal an) toEic chlorine gas -ro)uce the com-oun) so)ium chlori)e Ga saltH that is not metallic= gaseous= or toEic. Fin)ing the correct "len) of chemicals in the mo)ern era of electronics= for instance= "ecomes "oth an art an) a science. When one loo8s at something li8e su-ercon)ucti?it2= the ?arieties of chemical "len)s that ha?e "een )e?elo-e) for the electrical con)ucting me)ium are not entirel2 intuiti?e. ! mo)ern ;et engine is constructe) from a ?ariet2 of metallic elements inclu)ing titanium G98QH= nic8el G97QH= chromium G1#QH= co"alt G7QH= aluminum G6QH= nio"ium G1QH an) tantalum G+.+#QH. :oo8ing at these "len)s= some of hich can "e consi)ere) allo2s= har8ens "ac8 once again to one of the earlier e-ochs= the 3ronAe !ge= hen har)er tools ere someho crafte) from a miE of co--er an) tin. !s human technolog2 )e?elo-e) a2s to -ro)uce hotter fires Guse of enclosuresRfurnacesH= iron as remo?e) from its ore "2 se-arating the iron from other com-oun)s "2 hammering G rought ironH the heate) ore or= later= melting out the iron itself G"last furnaceH. 4n the -rocess= car"on from the charcoal fire or car"on monoEi)e acci)entall2 a))e) har)ness to the soft elemental iron. >his altere) material GsteelH succee)e) "ronAe as the ne har) metal for tools an) ea-ons.

"ore on solar cells D,hoto@oltaicsE

htt-/FF htt-/FF >he "asics of the o-eration of solar cells= inclu)ing goo) )iagrams= are foun) at .ho stuff or8s.comFsolarBcell.htm an) .solar"otics.netFstartingF#++#+#UsolarUcellsF#++#+#UsolarUcellU-h2sics.html.

Essentiall2= the chemistr2 of the materials use) in solar cells )e-en)s on creating "oth a source of electrons an) some holes into hich the electrons flo . >he ma;orit2 chemical of choice is silicon= the secon) most a"un)ant element after oE2gen in the Earth's crust. *ilicon is a semiBcon)uctorRthat means it can "e an electron )onor an) an insulator= the -ro-erties of "oth metals an) nonBmetals. !))ing the element germanium to the silicon has "een foun) to increase the efficienc2 of the electron mo?ement. Dis-lacement of electrons al a2s reJuires some form of energ2 hich= in this case= oul) "e -hotons. >he materials in the solar cell Ga


center a"sor"er la2er -lus t o outsi)e la2ersH act to -ro?i)e "oth a source of electrons that mo?es un)er an electric fiel) G hich -ro)uces a ?oltage or -otential )ifferenceH as ell as a )estination for those electrons= 8no n as holes ithin the solar cell. >his arrangement inclu)es a -ath for the flo of )is-lace) electrons= thus creating a current Gassociate) ith the mo?ement of electronsH. >he t o outsi)e la2ers of a solar cell are la"ele) 1 an) 0. >he 1Bt2-e la2er in the cell is negati?e or the source of electronsN the 0Bt2-e la2er is -ositi?e an) the )estination for electrons= or the holes. >o -ro?i)e a flo of electrons from the 1 to the 0 la2ers= a))itional chemicals are intro)uce) into the silicon. >his is 8no n as )o-ing. *e?eral elements that are often use) inclu)e -hos-horus Gan) other mem"ers of grou- 6!H in the 1 la2er for electron )onation Gthin8 fi?e ?alence electronsH. 4n the 0 la2er= "oron or other mem"ers of grou- 9! such as gallium can "e use) to create electron holes Gthree ?alence electrons for "oronH. G*ee the "asics of a semicon)uctor at htt-/FFelectronics.ho stuff or8s.comF)io)e1.htm an) the entire series of articles on semicon)uctors at htt-/FFelectronics.ho stuff or8s.comF)io)e9.htm H >hin film solar= as an alternati?e to siliconB"ase) solar cells is )escri"e) at htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)VsolarB-o erBlightensBu-B ithBthinBfilmBcells. !n illustration of a commercial -ro)uct can "e foun) at htt-/FF .glo"alsolar.comFtechnolog2F. !lso from the 1ational <ene a"le Energ2 :a"orator2= 1<E:= is an u-)ate on the efficienc2 of thinBfilm solar cells at htt-/FF .nrel.go?Fne sF-ressF#++8F675.html.

"ore on sha,e !e!or= allo=s

*ha-e memor2 allo2s came out of U* 1a?al research "2 William K. 3uechler of the late 1%6+s= earl2 1%7+s. Ghtt-/FF .americanheritage.comFarticlesFmagaAineFitF1%%9F#F1%%9U#U18.shtmlH (is curiosit2 as s-ar8e) "2 the change in soun) of a -articular allo2 of nic8el an) titanium hen the metal as heate) Gcol) soun) as a thu)= an) arm metal soun)= a "ellBli8e soun)H. >he change in soun) ith a change in tem-erature as )ue to a change in sha-e. &etals an) metal allo2s consist of tin2 cr2stallites that ha?e a regular atomic structure. >hese cr2stallites are hel) together through "on)s that gi?e a -articular orientation. 4f the structure is heate) an) a sha-e is force) onto the structure= the "on)ing arrangements are change) from that of the col)er GroomH tem-erature. Cooling this cr2stalline structure )oes not alter the "on)ing esta"lishe) at the higher tem-eratureRit is loc8e) in. For the 1i>i ire Gcalle) 1itinolH= the cr2stalline structure changes= )e-en)ing on the tem-erature. !t tem-eratures "et een + an) 1++ )egrees Celsius= there are t o im-ortant -hases or cr2stal structures calle) austenite Ghigh tem-eratureH an) martensite Glo tem-eratureH. >he austenite -hase has the s2mmetr2 of a cu"e an) is characteriAe) "2 har)ness an) rigi)it2. When the ire is heate)= a ne sha-e can "e intro)uce). >hat sha-e remains after the ire cools to room tem-erature. >he ire is fleEi"le at the lo er tem-eratures. When the ire is )istorte)= the stress is a"sor"e) within the structure of the in)i?i)ual cr2stallites. !t the higher tem-erature= the cr2stalline structure is stiff an) stresses )ue to "en)ing are a"sor"e) "2 the "on)s between the cr2stallites= as in a normal metal. >he a"ilit2 to change the sha-e of the material )eri?es from )efects or irregularities in the -ac8ing of the atoms of the material. >he )efects= hich can "e altere) at the high tem-erature of a can)le flame here 1i>i is in the


austenite -hase= are use) to create the sha-e to "e remem"ere) "2 forcing grou-s of atoms to ha?e -articular -ositions relati?e to one another. Bhtt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFmo)ulesF(igh*choolFmemor2F&emor2U&etalU@?er?ie .-)fC Ghtt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFcine-leEF1i>iFRa series of ?i)eos that )emonstrate the "eha?ior of the 1i>i ireH >he a--lication of the memor2 metals utiliAes this tem-eratureB)e-en)ent transition. For instance= in the case of )ental "races= the "race can "e sha-e) into a cur?e at high tem-erature that the teeth are su--ose) to follo . When the "race is at room tem-erature= it is fleEi"le an) can "e sha-e) to fit the mouth aroun) the teeth of the earer. >hen "o)2 tem-erature causes the metal to return to the stiff= -reforme) sha-e= eEerting -ressure on the teeth. >his same i)ea of changing to an original sha-e at higher tem-eratures fin)s a--lications in ?al?es that ill shut off if tem-eratures of liJui)s -assing through the ?al?e go higher than )esire). !nother ChemMatters article on ho memor2 metals or8 at the molecular le?el G ith )iagramsH is foun) in the @cto"er= 1%%9 issue= --.5B7 G?Memory MetalA9. !n a--lication of futuristic -ro-ortions is the construction of a ro"ot "at that can fl2= ha?ing fleEi"le ings that= if )istorte)= ill return to the original sha-e= using the characteristics of memor2 metal for muscle function. >he )istortion in sha-e of the memor2 metal= hich is highl2 elastic= is )one using heat from an electric current sent to the ires that are the siAe of a human hair. (eating causes contraction Ggoing to the higher tem-erature's original sha-eH. Contraction of the ires increases electrical resistance an) a change in current flo that can "e use) as a sensor2 in-ut to control electronics. Cooling allo s the metal to return to another sha-e or length "ecause of the ire's elasticit2. Ghtt-/FFne s.ncsu.e)uFne sF#++%F+7F ms"ungetro"o"at.-h-C an) Ghtt-/FF .heral)online.comF1+%Fstor2F1577+7#.htmlIC

"ore on transistors
! )escri-tion of the hafniumB"ase) transistor Greferre) to in the &etals articleH is foun) at htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)VtheBmagicBingre)ientsBin as ell as htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)Vmicro-rocessorBcom-uterBchi-. >he latter reference )escri"es the metho)= at the nanoscale= of )e-ositing in)i?i)ual atoms for the 1B an) 0Bla2ers of a transistor that allo s for much thinner transistors. !lso= there is a )ifferent use for transistorsRto control the flo of molecules rather than of electrons= there"2 mo?ing molecules themsel?es ithout using mo?ing -arts such as ?al?es an) -um-s. >he conce-t is "ase) on the earl2 or8 of mo?ing ions "et een electricall2 charge) -lates. >his techniJue can "e use) to anal2Ae molecules such as D1!= -roteins= etc. at a nanoscale. Ghtt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)VtransistorBflo BcontrolH

"ore on allo=s
!llo2s come in a ?ariet2 of miEes G"oth homogeneous an) heterogeneousH that -ro?i)e a ?ariet2 of useful characteristics. *omething li8e allo2 steels ha?e ?arious small amounts of metals a))e) to iron. >hese inclu)e/ Chromium for increase) har)ness an) resistance to corrosion >ungsten an) mol2")enum for increase) heat resistance 1ic8el a))s toughness Gas in armor -latingH


.ana)ium a))s s-ringiness &anganese im-ro?es resistance to ear

>his e"site=htt-/FF .gcsescience.comFeE#8.htm -ro?i)es information on the ?arious allo2s of aluminum= co--er= iron= lea)= titanium an) soBcalle) smart allo2s Ganother term for memor2 metals such as 1itinolH.

"ore on ores
From here )o metals come in nature? *tu)ents ma2 not "e a are of the i)ea that metals usuall2 occur in nature as com-oun)s GmineralsH in roc8 Gthe oreH= rather than as a -ure su"stance such as gol) an) sil?er. >he mining in)ustr2 an) su"seJuent -rocesses of refining a metal from its ore shoul) "e un)erstoo) in the same a2 as the fact that mil8 comes from co s= not from a refrigerator in a storeM ! ?ariet2 of com-oun)s of metals can "e foun) in the earth in the -h2sical form of roc8sM EEam-les of ores or minerals from roc8s that contain ?arious metal com-oun)s inclu)e/ >he mineral olframite= FeW@5 F &nW@5 is the source of tungsten= element WN Gin Danish= tung sten= means hea?2 stoneHN W is o"taine) from olfram oEi)e= W@9 "2 re)uction using car"on or h2)rogen. Chromium oEi)e= Cr#@9= from hich the element chromium= Cr= is isolate) "2 reacting the oEi)e ith silicon G*iH 4ron oEi)es= Fe@ an) Fe#@9 or hematite= hich turns roc8s re) "ro n= 2iel) iron through a heating -rocess utiliAing car"on Gco8eH or car"on monoEi)e for re)uction of the iron com-oun) Co--er occurs in a num"er of com-oun)s inclu)ing Cu#* GchalcociteH= CuFe*# Gchalco-2riteH= Cu#C@9G@(H# GmalachiteH= Cu9GC@9H#G@(H# GaAuriteH an) is isolate) from the ore "2 heating in air GroastingH !luminum is isolate) from the mineral= h2)rate) aluminum oEi)e= !l#@9= or "auEite "2 electrol2sis EE-lanations ith )iagrams on electrol2sis for eEtraction of metals can "e foun) at the three relate) e"sites here/ htt-/FF .gcsescience.comFeE.htm= htt-/FF .gcsescience.comFeE1.htm, an) htt-/FF .gcsescience.comFeE#.htm. >he histor2 of mining for gol)= inclu)ing -resent )a2 metho)s= is foun) in another ChemMatters article= ?!he .e% 'old -ushA: @cto"er 1%8%= --. 5B8.

"ore on the ele!ent siliconC a !etalloid Dse!i&!etalE

*ilicon of solar -hoto?oltaic fame is o"taine) "2 melting an) re)ucing the com-oun)= *i@#= associate) ith JuartA cr2stals= as foun) in common san). <e)uction is accom-lishe) through the use of car"on monoEi)e or elemental car"on/ *i@# GlH Y C GsH *i GlH Y # C@# GgH >his -ro)uces %8Q -ure silicon. !))itional -urification of this silicon can "e )one "2 using chlorine= Cl#/


*i GsH Y #Cl# GgH *iCl5 GlH >he silicon tetrachlori)e= *iCl5 is re-eate)l2 )istille) to 2iel) gaseous *iCl5 hich is then reacte) ith magnesium/ *iCl5 GgH Y &g GsH # &gCl# Y *i GlH For use in solar cells= the silicon shoul) ha?e a -urit2 of at least 16Q "ut )esire) -urities a"o?e #+Q are sought for increase) efficienc2. !))ing the element germanium from the same chemical famil2 also increases the efficienc2 of electron transfer ithin the solar cell. 1ormall2 the solar cell is cut from essentiall2 a sausage of silicon.

"ore on catal=sis of h=drocarbons and be=ond

From an article in the !ugust #++8= *cientific !merican= G*elfBCleaning &aterials= --. 88B%5H are foun) t o chemicall2 relate) to-ics on selfBcleaning an) selfB)isinfecting surfaces that -ro?i)e more )etails on the surface chemistr2 in?ol?e). >he selfB)isinfecting to-ic )el?es into -hotoBcatal2sis using titania= hich is titanium )ioEi)e. >his catal2sis is a"le to s-lit organic com-oun)s into ater an) car"on )ioEi)e using ultra?iolet light as the acti?ator. >he )etails of this -articular reaction in?ol?e the microsco-ic surface of titania acting as a semiBcon)uctor ith the U. light= creating t o mo"ile chargesRa )is-lace) electron an) a -ositi?el2Bcharge) hole hich acts much li8e a -ositi?el2 charge) -article. >here is a ?er2 goo) colore) )iagram in the article to illustrate the effect. >hese t o mo"ile charges interact ith ater an) oE2gen at the surface of the titania= -ro)ucing su-eroEi)e ra)ical anions G@#BH an) h2)roE2l ra)icals G@(H. >hese ?er2 reacti?e s-ecies can then con?ert organic com-oun)s into car"on )ioEi)e an) ater. !nother interesting )isco?er2 a"out titania concerns the a"ilit2 of a titania la2er to again interact ith U. light= "ut no "ecoming hat is 8no n as a surface ith multi-le t2-es of eta"ilit2N i.e.= a"le to a"sor" not onl2 ater "ut also oil. >he mechanism of o-eration is "ase) on the fact that the U. light remo?es some of the oE2gen atoms of the titania surface= creating a surface at the nanoscale that is a"le to a)sor" h2)roE2l grou-s. 4n "et een these h2)roE2lB a)sor"ing surface structures are areas for a"sor"ing oil. >his -articular surface then acts as a selfBcleaning one in hich ater is a"le to s-rea) across the entire area= forming a sheet of ater that carries a a2 )irt as it flo s. >he -hotocatal2tic action of the titania also can act as a )eo)oriAer as ell as a )isinfectant "2 "rea8ing )o n organics an) 8illing "acteria. !s such= the technolog2 has "een )e?elo-e) to not onl2 incor-orate this com-oun) into clothing "ut also to use in -laces here )isinfecting is nee)e)= such as 8itchens an) "athrooms Gtiles that can "e eE-ose) to lightH. 4n a))ition= a--lication of the titania to surfaces of "uil)ing materials that are har) to access ill allo for selfBcleaning hen eE-ose) to rain or other ater sources. 3ecause glass= hich a"sor"s U.= ma2 "e "et een sunlight an) a titania surface= it has "een foun) that a))ing nitrogen or sil?er to the titania surface G)o-ing= as in siliconB"ase) -hoto?oltaic cellsH i)ens the "an) of ?isi"le light that can acti?ate the -hotocatal2sis of the titania la2er.

Connections to Chemistr. Conce)ts


1. ;alence electronsR3oth for the o-eration of solar cells an) other transistor t2-es of electrical )e?ices= metals are -ro?i)ing electrons for con)uction= "ase) on the loosel2 hel) outer ?alence electrons. #. "etallic >ondin.L delocali$ed electronsRWith nonB)irectional "on)s in metals )ue to )elocaliAe) electrons= metal are a"le to "e goo) con)uctors of heat an) electricit2 as ell as "eing mallea"le to sha-ing. 9. Ther!alL*lectrical Conducti@it= of "etalsR3ecause the ?alence electrons in metals are rather mo"ile ithin the metallic cr2stal= the2 are easil2 )is-lace) "2 an a--lie) ?oltage. >he same is true for thermal con)ucti?it2 in metals in hich higher tem-eratures -ro)uce higher 8inetic energies for the electrons= hich if mo?ing to cooler regions of the metal= ill transfer some of their 8inetic energ2 to the cr2stal lattice. >his is a more ra-i) transfer than for -oor con)uctors that )e-en) u-on ?i"rations of atoms or molecules a"out fiEe) -ositions in the cr2stal lattice colli)ing ith a);acent atoms= ith a resultant transfer of energ2 that is slo er than for mo?ement of electrons. 5. OBidationC -eductionR4solation of metals from their -arent ores )e-en)s on the re)uction of the metal in the ore. 4n the -rocess= oEi)ation of the re)ucing agent has to ta8e -lace as ell. 6. Allo=s of !etalsR>he -articular miE of metals -ro?i)e for a ?ariet2 of -h2sical characteristics. 3rass Gco--er an) AincH an) "ronAe Ga miE of co--er an) tinH ere some of the earliest allo2s in the histor2 of tools G"et een stone an) ironH. ,ol) is ma)e har)er "2 a))ing co--er. &elting -oints of metals can "e lo ere) "2 creating an allo2. !n eEam-le is Woo)'s metal= a miE of "ismuth= lea)= tin an) ca)mium= -ro)ucing a melting -oint of 7+ o C. *tainless steel com"ines iron ith chromium= nic8el an) some car"on Gfor har)nessH. 7. #hotoelectric effectR*olar cells )e-en) on the )is-lacement of electrons in metals an) metalloi)s "ase) on the -hotoelectric effect in hich a -articular freJuenc2 of electromagnetic ra)iation G?isi"le light as ell as infrare) an) ultra?ioletH -ro?i)e enough energ2 to )is-lace electrons from silicon atoms into a circuit. 7. 1luorescenceC ,hos,horescenceR4n fluorescence= -hotons a"sor"e) "2 molecules cause the emission of -hotons at a )ifferent an) usuall2 longer a?elength. 4n -hos-horescence= -hotons a"sor-tion causes reBemission of -hotons at the same a?elength "ut ith a time )ela2 an) a slo release of the -hoton emission. >his eEtra light -ro)uction means a))itional electricit2 generation in s-ecial solar cells that incor-orate hafnium oEi)e into the silicon "ase. 8. #ol=!erR0ol2mers= com-are) ith siliconBt2-e glass= allo not onl2 ?isi"le light "ut also infrare) an) ultra?iolet transmission through the material. >his a))itional trans-arenc2 allo s for a "roa)er s-ectrum of electromagnetic ra)iations to "e a"sor"e) "2 -hoto?oltaic materials. %. 0o,in.R4n or)er to ma8e a metalloi) such as silicon a "etter con)uctor= a))ing a))itional elements that are either "etter electron )onors or acce-tors= contri"ute to the soBcalle) 1 an) 0 la2ers of a transistor. *uch elements inclu)e 0hos-horus as a )onor an) 3oron as an acce-tor.

,ossible 'tu&ent #isconce)tions

1. 3All !etals are !a.netic.5 .ot all metals ha$e magnetic properties. !he so0called ferrous metals that include iron and nic(el are attracted to a magnet %hereas gold and aluminum are not. Such a distinction can "e used in separation techni<ues in recycling operations. #. 3"ost !etals occur in nature as ,ure !etalsMread= for use.5 Most metals are found in nature as compounds and are called minerals. Farious techni<ues, including the use of heat


and acids, are used to separate the metal from its parent compound. A fe% metals such as gold and sil$er can "e found as a pure su"stance in nature "ecause these elements do not readily react %ith other chemicals in the en$ironment, particularly o)ygen, %hich is %hy these metals are a"le to retain their metallic luster. 9. 3"etallic ores and !inerals are the sa!e thin..5 !hey are not the same thing though they are ?relatedA. !he term ore refers to the roc( or earthen material that contains metal compounds %hich are called minerals. So, ores contain minerals. 5. 3A !etal catal=st is one of the reactants in a che!ical reaction.5 A catalyst is a chemical su"stance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction. #t may "e part of the reaction at one or more stages "ut it is not permanently altered or consumed, %hich %ould "e re<uired if it %ere a reactant. #t %ould ha$e to change chemically.

Demonstrations an& 2essons

1. *tu)ents -ro"a"l2 )o not 8no the source of metals from the earth= ith the -ossi"le eEce-tion of gol) hich is not the norm for metalsM >o illustrate the i)ea of ores an) the minerals the2 contain= it oul) "e goo) to ha?e roc8 sam-les containing metal com-oun)s GmineralsH. >he co--er minerals are -articularl2 attracti?e an) inclu)e some of the gemstones ith hich stu)ents ma2 "e familiar= such as malachite an) aAurite. *tu)ents ill "e im-resse) ith the cr2stalline structures. >his coul) lea) to a )iscussion as to ho one goes from these stones to a -iece of co--er ire= for instance. *e?eral la" eEercises liste) "elo can hel- in illustrating the -urif2ing -rocess. #. >here is a ?er2 goo) ?i)eo series on the histor2 of metals that eE-lores the a2s "2 hich ci?iliAation has "een sha-e) through man8in)Ts use of mineral resources. >his series= @ut of the Fier2 Furnace is still a?aila"le either for rent or -urchaseN there is also a "oo8 of the same name. @ut of the Fier2 Furnace originall2 a 03* -ro)uct of 1%86. .i)eoFC %#7B%99 is from htt-/FF .li"."er8ele2.e)uF&<CF.i)eoseries.html. !lso the 1e"ras8a (umanities Center Ghtt-/FF .ne"ras8ahumanities.orgFs-ea8ersFhrc.htmlH has three e-iso)esC each 7+ minutes. >he titles are/ a. * or)s an) 0loughshares= ". *hining ConJuests= c. >he <e?olution of 1ecessit2. 9. *tu)ents can -erform a re)uction -rocess for isolating metals from their ores. With a co--er com-oun)= such as co--er car"onate= re)uction can "e carrie) out using charcoal. *tu)ents ill o"ser?e the color changes associate) ith ionic ?s. elemental co--er. De-en)ing on here 2ou are in the curriculum= stu)ents also ha?e an o--ortunit2 to rite re)oE eJuations to sho the changes occurring. *e?eral la" -roce)ures for "oth co--er car"onate an) co--er oEi)e re)uction can "e foun) at/ htt-/FF""oo8s? i)VDuK:OJ548:+CW-gV0!189Wl-gV0!189W)JV<e)uctionYco--erYcar"onateWsourceV"lWo tsV1gXDK3@E)&WsigVD*W@#Oh<!%?.D1u? Pc8FnUQg!cWhlVenWeiV<1m!*u2*3K(5 1">oB)+CWsaVXWoiV"oo8UresultWctVresultWresnumV%I?Vone-ageWJV<e)uction Q#+co--erQ#+car"onateWfVfalseN G"asic la" -roce)ure for the re)uction of co--er oEi)e inclu)ing three )ifferent sources of re)ucing agentH !nother -roce)ure uses co--er oEi)e G6.+ gH ith 9.+ g of car"on Gacti?ate) charcoalH miEe) together= then -lace) in a cruci"le ith a li). *trong heating e?entuall2 re)uces the oEi)e to orangeB"ro n co--er. Car"on )ioEi)e gas forms an) esca-es. >his can also "e )one in a large 02reE tu"e ith a )eli?er2 tu"e carr2ing the car"on )ioEi)e to lime ater in hich a -reci-itate of calcium car"onate ill formRthe classic test for car"on )ioEi)e. .i)eos sho ing re)uction of co--er oEi)e can "e foun) at htt-/FF .rsc.orgFe)ucationFteachersFlearnnetF?i)eo)emosFre)uction.-)fN an) htt-/FF .2outu"e.comF atch??V7nEt7cWU,* N ! ?i)eo of co--er oEi)ation can "e foun) at htt-/FF .2outu"e.comF atch??V1o.K6E88)WsW1<V1.


5. *tu)ents can isolate a -ure metal Gco--erH from a metallic com-oun) using electrol2sis. >his can "e )one as a Juantitati?e la". >he easiest arrangement is to use a +.# & solution of co--er G44H chlori)e in UBtu"es= ith car"on electro)es Geither -encil lea) or -encils ith "oth en)s of the -encil eE-ose) enough to cli- ires to the lea)H an) a nineB?olt "atter2. *tu)ents shoul) o"ser?e changes occurring at each electro)e= inclu)ing color an) -ro)uction of gases Go)or of chlorine ill "e e?i)entH. !gain= )e-en)ing on here stu)ents are in the curriculum= the2 shoul) rite eJuations to eE-lain hat is ha--ening at each electro)e. 6. >o illustrate the 4)ea of an allo2 such as "rass GCu= PnH= stu)ents can )o their o n "rassing of a -enn2 "2 reacting a -enn2 in an al8aline solution of Ainc. *ee la" -roce)ure at htt-/FF .chemistr2lecturenotes.comF3rassU0enn2U:a".htm. 7. Catal2sts= inclu)ing enA2mes= len) themsel?es to "oth goo) )emonstrations as ell as la" acti?ities that stu)ents can -erform. >he chemistr2 "ehin) catal2sts in?ol?es a stu)2 of reaction rates an) acti?ation energies for hich there is -lent2 of information in stan)ar) chemistr2 teEts. (o e?er= as an eEam-le of a catal2st )emonstration= sim-l2 ta8e some 9Q h2)rogen -eroEi)e Gfrom a )rug storeH= o"ser?e= then a)) a small -inch of manganese )ioEi)e an) o"ser?e. !n a))itional an) more colorful reaction is to sho the catal2tic action of the io)i)e ion G4BH on the )ecom-osition of h2)rogen -eroEi)e G9+QB"e ?er2 carefulMH. G<efer to the eJuations for this reaction at htt-/FFantoine.frost"urg.e)uFchemFseneseF1+1F8ineticsFfaJFmechanismBh#o#Bio)i)e.shtml.H >he -roce)ure for )oing the io)i)eFh2)rogen -eroEi)e reaction is foun) at htt-/FFantoine.frost"urg.e)uFchemFseneseF1+1Fre)oEFfaJFele-hantsBtooth-aste.shtml. For a))itional succinct information on catal2sts= "oth inorganic an) organic G"iologicalH ith some mechanisms suggeste)= see htt-/FFantoine.frost"urg.e)uFchemFseneseF1+1FreactionsFfaJFeEam-lesBofBcatal2sts.shtml.

'tu&ent ,ro3ects
1. @"tain chea- solar cells an) ha?e stu)ents )etermine to hat freJuencies of light the solar cell res-on)s. >his coul) "e )one using filters= as long as the intensit2 of the light is 8e-t the same. 4n)irectl2= the2 coul) "e o"ser?ing the -hotoelectric effect since a solar cell res-on)s in the infrare) as ell as the "lueBultra?iolet region= not o?er the entire ?isi"le s-ectrum. >he2 coul) com-are this res-onse to that of chloro-h2ll= "ase) on a"sor-tion s-ectra of chloro-h2ll solutions Gchloro-h2ll eEtracte) from s-inachB chec8 ith "iolog2 teacher for la" -roce)ureH. #. *tu)ents coul) in?estigate an) com-are -ro-erties of metals an) metalloi)s in terms of magnetism= luster= aci) reactions= con)ucti?it2= mallea"ilit2= an) "rittleness. 9. *tu)ents coul) test the "asic -ro-erties of metals in terms of setting sha-e in a metal GannealingH. Using a hair-in= heat the center section re) hot an) cool slo l2. >he -in ill "e soft an) "en) easil2. >his is calle) annealing. 1eEt= reheat the same -in an) Juench in ater. >his -rocess of tem-ering -ro)uces a har)ene) or tem-ere) metal. 5. *tu)ents coul) research the ?arious metho)s for eEtracting metals from ores. >he metho)s ?ar2= )e-en)ing on the -articular metal to "e isolate) from its ore. 53 *tu)ents coul) research the conce-t of su-ercon)ucti?it2. *u-ercon)ucti?it2 is )e-en)ent on the -ro-er miE of metals= nonBmetals= an) metalloi)s to -ro)uce a material that ill con)uct electricit2 ith essentiall2 no resistance at ?er2 lo tem-eratures. >he a"ilit2 to -ro)uce su-ercon)ucti?it2 means transmission of electricit2 ith ?er2 lo losses of -o er. 4t also allo s for hat is 8no n as magnetic le?itation or the sus-ension of a magnetiAe) o";ect a"o?e a su-ercon)ucting material. >hat conce-t is currentl2 "eing use) in soBcalle)


magle? trains that mo?e along at ?er2 high s-ee)s ith much less electrical energ2 than normal electricB-o ere) engines. >he Juest for con)ucti?it2 has "een going on since the first su-ercon)uctor as -ro)uce) in 1%11. <ecentl2 the )isco?er2 of ironB"ase) com-oun)s 8no n as -nicti)es for su-ercon)ucti?it2 ha?e "ecome the ne focus "ecause these com-oun)s can -ro)uce su-ercon)ucti?it2 tem-eratures higher than -re?ious miEes Gin this case= at B##9 KH. 4f su-ercon)ucting materials can "e foun) that o-erate close to roomBtem-erature= such a s-ectacular )isco?er2 oul) contri"ute to the im-ro?ement in a large num"er of electricB"ase) technologies. Gref. *cientific !merican= !ugust #++% issue= --. 7#B7%N htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)VanBironB8e2BtoBhighBtem-N an) htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)Vlo Btem-eratureBsu-ercon) Gfrom !-ril #++6 issue of *cientific !mericanH 7. *tu)ents coul) in?estigate the hole realm of en?ironmental issues associate) ith mining of metalBcontaining ores here in the U*!= "ut es-eciall2 in -oorer countries= such as on the !frican continent. 73 *tu)ents coul) research the chemistr2 "ehin) the use of catal2tic con?erters in auto eEhaust s2stems. ! starting -oint for them oul) "e the reference at htt-/FFauto.ho stuff or8s.comFcatal2ticBcon?erter#.htm hich inclu)es la"ele) -hoto )iagrams. *tu)ents coul) also tie the -ro)uction of these con?erters to the mining an) -rocessing of the ?arious metals inclu)e) in the con?erter= inclu)ing -latinum= rho)ium= an)For -alla)ium. ,ol) is also no inclu)e) ith the other metals "ecause it is chea-er. 8. *tu)ents coul) -erform Juantitati?e eE-eriments using enA2mes G"iological catal2stsH such as catalase Ga?aila"le as a -o )erH an) the enA2mes containe) in 2east cells. .aria"les to "e teste) inclu)e tem-erature= concentration an) -(. >here are a2s to Juantif2 the rates of the chemical reaction through the measure of gas -ro)uction Gcar"on )ioEi)eH. Chec8 ith 2our "iolog2 colleagues for some la" -roce)ures that in?ol?e floating )is8s. Gsee htt-/FF .accesseEcellence.orgF!EF!>,F)ataFrelease)F++75B,en1elsonFin)eE.-h- H

Antici)ating 'tu&ent Questions

1. 3Co!,ared with !etalsC wh= does a non&!etal co!,ound not conduct electricit= or ,ossess !a.netic ,ro,erties25 .on0metal compounds in$ol$e "onding that does not pro$ide for $alence electrons that are easily displaced for conduction. Metals ha$e "onding 8non0directional9 that in$ol$es $alence electrons that are not as tightly "onded and are easier to displace for conduction 8an array of metal cations in a ?seaA of electrons9. Magnetic properties are dependent on unpaired electrons that are influenced "y the orientation of neigh"oring electrons. #n the presence of a magnetic field, the electrons align strongly in the same direction creating a magnetic force in the metal. #. 3:ow does an allo= differ fro! an a!al.a!25 An alloy is a mi) of metals 8more than one element96there are solution alloys, heterogeneous alloys and inter0metallic alloys. An amalgam is a special case of an alloy in %hich mercury is present as a sol$ent. 9. 3?s an ore a rocA or a ,iece of !etal read= to !elt25 An ore is roc( material that contains minerals that are metal0containing compounds from %hich a metal can "e e)tracted using $arious procedures including heat and electricity. 5. 3Can a solar cell use sources other than sunli.ht25 !s long as the light source -ro?i)es freJuencies of electromagnetic ra)iation to hich a solar cell is ca-a"le of res-on)ing= the energ2 ill "e a"sor"e). >he light )oes not ha?e to "e sunlight.


!s mentione)= there is a "oo8 as ell as a ?i)eo series on the histor2 of )e?elo-ing an) using metals in cultures Gthe im-act of metals on the histor2 of man8in)H. >he "oo8= =ut of the 4iery 4urnaceA "2 <o"ert <a2mon) is a?aila"le from >he 0enns2l?ania *tate Uni?ersit2 0ress= 1%85= 4*31 +B#71B++51BX G-"8H. >he ?i)eo series can "e o"taine) from the Uni?. of California Ghtt-/FF .li"."er8ele2.e)uF&<CF.i)eoseries.htmlC.

Web 'ites for A&&itional 0nformation

"ore sites on solar cells
htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)Vho B)oesBsolarB-o erB or8 GeE-lains the "asics of ho a solar cell or8sH htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)VsolarB-o erBlightensBu-B ithBthinBfilmB cells Guse of thin film to im-ro?e transmissionFa"sor-tion of lightH htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)Vho BtoBuseBsolarBenerg2BatBnight Guse of molten salts to store the heat generate) "2 solar a"sor-tion )uring the )a2= then use the heat to con?ert ater to steam to -o er electricit2Bgenerating tur"ines at nightH htt-/FF-hoto?oltaics.san)ia.go?F)ocsF0.F*C,alliumU!rseni)eU*olarUCells.htm Gthe "asics of solar cells that incor-orate the elements of gallium an) arsenic to im-ro?e efficienc2 of siliconB"ase) solar cellsH htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)VnanoscaleBtreesBim-ro?eBefficienc2B -lasticBsolarBcells Guse of nanoscale for solar cell fa"rication to im-ro?e efficienc2H htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)Vsu-erefficientBcostBeffec

htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)VchasingBrain"o s Ga))ing tungsten an) mol2")enum to silicon to increase light a"sor-tion o?er the full range of sunlight= from U. to )ee- re) hich silicon alone cannot )o.H htt-/FF .solar"otics.netFstartingF#++#+#UsolarUcellsF#++#+#UsolarUcellU-h2sics.html Gthe -h2sics "ehin) solar cell o-erations= in case 2ou ant more )etailH htt-/FF .solar"otics.netFstartingF#++#+#UsolarUcellsF#++#+#UsolarUcells.html Gthe histor2 "ehin) the )e?elo-ment of solar cellsH htt-/FF .solar"otics.netFstartingF#++#+#UsolarUcellsF#++#+#UsolarUcellUt2-es.html GeE-lains the )ifference "et een single cr2stal= multiBcr2stalline= an) amor-housBt2-e solar cellsH htt-/FF .?acengmat.comFsolarUcellU)iagrams.html Gmore )iagrams sho ing the o-erational "asics of the 10Bt2-e of thinBfilm solar cellH


htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)VaBsolarBgran)B-lan G>his is a must rea) for un)erstan)ing the nee) for an o?erBarching gran) -lan for )e?elo-ing a solarB"ase) econom2 to re)uce )e-en)ence on car"onB"ase) fuels an) )rasticall2 re)ucing greenhouse gas emissions. 4t inclu)es a uniJue storage s2stem for the )a2time solar generate) electricit2R com-resse) air. Fin) out ho an) h2 transmission lines oul) "e DC.

"ore sites on transistors

htt-/FFchemlin8s."eloit.e)uFChi-F-agesFtransUr.html G! glossar2 relate) to ma8ing a transistorH htt-/FF .a--lie)materials.comFhtmatFanimate).html G>his is a ?er2 com-lete ?i)eo ith animations to sho ho transistors are fa"ricate) an) ho the2 function. >eacher -re?ie for ela"oration ill "e im-ortant in or)er to hel- clarif2 for stu)ents hat is "eing sho n.H htt-/FFelectronics.ho stuff or8s.comF)io)e1.htm G>his is a goo) site to sho = ith )iagrams= the construction an) or8ings of a semiBcon)uctor.H

"ore sites on !etal !e!or= foa!s

htt-/FF .science)ail2.comFreleasesF#++7F1#F+71##+111619.htm GEE-lains the -ro)uction of memor2 foams= ith a microB-hoto.H htt-/FFcleantechnica.comF#++8F11F+%Flight eightBmetalBfoamBma8esBautosBsaferF G!n article that )iscusses the use of metal foams to increase safet2 an) fuel efficienc2 in autos.H htt-/FFcommons. i8ime)ia.orgF i8iFFile/&etalUFoamUinU*canningUElectronU&icrosco-e=Umagni ficationU1+E.,4F G.er2 clear -hotomicrogra-h of a metal formH htt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFcine-leEF1i>iF G! series of ?i)eos that sho mani-ulation of memor2 metal= 1itinol. 4t coul) "e use) in class if 2ou )o not ha?e an2 sam-les of the metal. !lso it is -art of a larger -ro;ect that -ro?i)es la" acti?ities for chemistr2 class calle) EE-loring the 1ano Worl)H Ghtt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFin)eE.htmlH htt-/FF .ste?es-anglerscience.comFeE-erimentF+++++117 G>his is another series of ?i)eos sho ing mani-ulation of 1itinol ire.H

"ore sites on su,erconducti@it=

*u-ercon)ucti?it2 is "oth an interesting to-ic in the use of metals as ell as an im-ortant future -rocess that ill form the "asis for all 8in)s of technolog2 that re?ol?e aroun) energ2 efficienc2= from electricit2 generation to electrical energ2 a--lications= from transmission to trans-ortation. >here is an interesting article relate) to su-ercon)ucti?it2 that sho s= through the use of electron an) XBra2 "eams G ith ?isual enhancementH= or"itals in the metallic "on)ing of co--er. From these or"ital -ictures= it has "een )etermine) that the "on)ing is not ;ust metallic "ut also ionic an) co?alent. >his information is -art of the research to un)erstan) "on)ing in co--er G hich is -art of ?arious co--erB"ase) allo2s use) in lo tem-erature su-ercon)ucti?it2H. >he goal is to "e a"le to -ro)uce su-ercon)ucti?it2 at tem-eratures higher


than the -resent that are close to 96 8el?in. 4)eall2 the tem-erature oul) "e room tem-erature. Ghtt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)Vo"ser?ingBBor"italsH !nother interesting connection to su-ercon)ucti?it2 is the -ro-osal for future energ2 using hat is 8no n as a *u-er,ri). >his su-er gri) oul) )eli?er "oth electricit2 as ell as h2)rogen fuel. >he transmission lines oul) "e coole) ith h2)rogen gas in or)er to allo for su-ercon)ucti?it2. >he h2)rogen gas oul) also "e a?aila"le as a fuel hen sent to some terminal. G*ee htt-/FF .scientificamerican.comFarticle.cfm?i)VaB-o erBgri)BforBtheBh2)rB#++7B +73 H For more references on the to-ic of su-ercon)ucti?it2= go to the suggestions liste) un)er *tu)ent 0ro;ects.

'eneral 2e" -eferences

htt-/FF ! useful search tool G ith in)eEH in chemistr2 is foun) at .gcsescience.comFchemistr2BscienceBin)eE.htm.

More 2e" Sites on !eacher #nformation and >esson 7lans

>his college e"site is a ?er2 useful reference ith all 8in)s of classroom tools. *ee htt-/FFantoine.frost"urg.e)uFchemFseneseF1+1Fin)eE.shtml.


Gra,hite ;ersus 0ia!ond% Sa!e *le!ent but 0ifferent #ro,erties

/ac1groun& 0nformation
"ore on allotro,es
!llotro-es are )ifferent forms of the same element that result from a )ifferent arrangement of its atoms. Common eEam-les are oE2gen G+# an) +9H= -hos-horus G hite= re)= "lac8 an) 2ello H an) the )ifferent forms of car"on. >he most commonl2 liste) allotro-es of car"on are )iamon)s= gra-hite= fullerenes an) car"on nanotu"es. Confusion ma2 arise hen the car"on allotro-es are liste) as cr2stalline ?s. amor-hous. 3oth )iamon) an) gra-hite are cr2stalline. !mor-hous car"on is the name use) for coal= soot an) other car"on com-oun)s that are neither gra-hite nor )iamon). >he amor-hous forms of car"onN e.g.= charcoal an) lam"lac8= consist of man2 grou-s of small gra-hite cr2stals. >he chart "elo lists the most common forms of car"on.

Ghtt-/FF .tutor?ista.comFcontentFchemistr2Fchemistr2BiFcar"onFcar"onBallotro-2Ban)B allotro-es.-h-H ! more com-lete )escri-tion of all of the allotro-es of car"on Gthe source lists eightH ma2 "e foun) at htt-/FF .nanoscience or8s.orgFnano-e)iaFcar"onBallotro-es. EEistence of an allotro-e )e-en)s on the t2-e of "on)ing associate) ith the car"on atoms. Diamon)s are the result of s-9 "on)ing hile the other gra-hiteBli8e allotro-es are the result of car"on s-# "on)ing ithin a -lane an) )elocaliAe) -i "on)ing "et een -lanes. ,ra-hite an) )iamon)s are al a2s reference) in chemistr2 teEt"oo8s= "ut "uc82"alls G"uc8minsterfullerenesH an) car"on nanotu"es ma2 get less )iscussion "ecause of their recent )isco?er2R"2 *malle2= Kroto an) Curl in 1%86. Car"on nanofoams= a t2-e of car"on aerogel= ere )isco?ere) in 1%%7 "2 !n)rei .. <o)e an) coB or8ers. >he nanoscience or8s lin8


Ga"o?eH -ro?i)es more )etails. >o ?ie an interacti?e -age on the structure of gra-hite= )iamon) an) "uc8minsterfullerenes= see htt-/FF .creati?"on.htm. @ther common elements that eEist in allotro-ic forms are -hos-horus= sulfur an) car"on. :i8e car"on= the )ifferences in the allotro-es can "e accounte) for "2 the arrangement of atoms. #hos,horusR<e) -hos-horus is a cr2stalline -o )er ith four atoms of the element arrange) in a -2rami). 4t is sta"le in air= "ut still ?er2 reacti?e. 4t is use) in stri8e an2 here matches= since the heat generate) "2 friction can ignite the allotro-e. 4n "lac8 -hos-horus= the atoms are arrange) in a -uc8ere) sheet= some hat li8e gra-hite. 4t is ?er2 unreacti?e. Com-are) to the other t o= it has a higher "oiling -oint an) melting -oint. White Gor 2ello H -hos-horus is a aE2 soli) at room tem-erature. 4t is ?er2 flamma"le in air. 4t is store) un)er ater for this reason. 4t has a garlicBli8e o)or. OB=.enR&olecular oE2gen= +#= is ma)e u- of t o oE2gen atoms -er molecule= an) has the -ro-erties stu)ents 8no a"out. @Aone has three oE2gen atoms -er molecule an) has an acri) o)or. @Aone can "e forme) from oE2gen "2 -assing an electric charge through the oE2gen. 4t can "e )etecte) in the air after a lightning storm. 4n ?er2 small concentrations it causes "reathing -ro"lems in humans. *o oE2gen near the surface of the earth is a -ollutant. @Aone higher in the atmos-here has the a"ilit2 to a"sor" U. ra)iation from the sun an) acts a -rotector for the earth. SulfurR3ase) on cr2stal structure it is -ossi"le to i)entif2 at least four allotro-es of sulfur. *oli) sulfur consists of molecules containing eight sulfur atoms ;oine) in a ring= *8. *uch molecules can -ac8 to form more than one cr2stal. >he most sta"le form of sulfur consists of orthorhom"ic cr2stals. 4f orthorhom"ic sulfur is heate) to liJui) an) then coole)= the secon) soli) allotro-e of sulfur= long nee)leBli8e monoclinic cr2stals= are forme). >he2 ill slo l2 re?ert to orthorhom"ic form o?er time. 3oth forms are com-ose) of *8 molecules. 4n the liJui) -hase the allotro-e is calle) lam")a sulfur= hich is a lo ?iscosit2 liJui) that is solu"le in nonB-olar sol?ents. 4f it is heate) more strongl2 the *8 rings "rea8 a-art to form long sulfur chains calle) mu sulfur. &u sulfur is not rea)il2 solu"le in common sol?ents an) is a ?er2 ?iscous liJui).

"ore on .ra,hite
!n allotro-e of car"on= gra-hite is usuall2 foun) as ?eins= lenses= -oc8ets an) in thin la2ere) )e-osits. 4t is foun) often ith fel)s-ar= mica= or JuartA as im-urities. >here as no gra-hite -ro)uce) in the Unite) *tates in #++7. 4m-orts came -rimaril2 from China= 5#QN &eEico= 9+QN Cana)a= 18QN 3raAil= 7QN an) other= 5Q. &uch of the gra-hite in use to)a2 is -ro)uce) s2ntheticall2 from -etroleum co8e= the tar resi)ue after cru)e oil refining. #h=sical ,ro,erties Densit2/ 1.% B #.9 gFm: Gcom-are) to )iamon) at 9.6+H (ar)ness/ 1 B # &ohTs scale m.-. V 976#B97%7_C Gsu"limesH *-ecific heat V +.17 calFgBoC (eat of refractoriness Gresistance to heatHRu- to 9+++oC in an inert atmos-here Flamma"ilit2R"urns in oE2gen at tem-eratures "et een 7#+_C to 7#+_C.


>he cr2stal structure of gra-hite is ma)e u- of car"on atoms "oun) co?alentl2 to near"2 car"on atoms at a )istance of a"out 151.8 -m to form heEagon rings. >hese rings form sheets of gra-hite hich are loosel2 "oun) to each other "2 ea8 ?an )er Waals forces. >o see the cr2stal structure in a ?ariet2 of forms= see the 1a?al <eser?e :a"orator2 Center for Com-utational &aterials *cience site at htt-/FFcstB 4ses/ !ccor)ing to the Unite) *tates ,eological *er?ice= the ma;or uses of natural gra-hite in #++7 ere refractor2 Ghigh heatH a--lications= #7QN "ra8e linings= 16QN an) "atteries= foun)r2 o-erations= an) lu"ricants= 8Q. >he uses )e-en) on the t2-e of gra-hite -ro)uce)/ fla8e= lum-2 Gcr2stallineH or amor-hous. Fla8e gra-hite has lo electrical resisti?it2 an) so is use) in ma8ing electro)es an) "atteries. >he fla8e form is also use) to ma8e gra-hite cruci"les "2 com"ining the gra-hite ith cla2 an) san) at high tem-eratures. *uch cruci"les are use) to melt nonBferrous metals li8e "rass an) aluminum. 3oth amor-hous an) cr2stalline gra-hite are use) in lu"ricants "ecause of their lo coefficient of friction. >he gra-hite is sus-en)e) in oil to form the lu"ricant. !mor-hous gra-hite is also the form of choice in -encil manufacture "ecause it is "est at lea?ing resi)ue on -a-er. >he finer the gra-hite -o )er is= the )ar8er the strea8. 4n a))ition to its use in -encils= gra-hite is use) to ma8e "atter2 electro)es= in com-osites here strength is im-ortant Gtennis racJuets= golf clu"sH helico-ter "la)es= artificial heart ?al?es= lu"ricants= an) as a nuclear -o er -lant mo)erator. !gain= accor)ing to the U*,*= S!)?ances in thermal technolog2 an) aci)Bleaching techniJues that ena"le the -ro)uction of higher -urit2 gra-hite -o )ers are li8el2 to lea) to )e?elo-ment of ne a--lications for gra-hite in highBtechnolog2 fiel)s. *uch inno?ati?e refining techniJues ha?e ena"le) the use of im-ro?e) gra-hite in car"onBgra-hite com-osites= electronics= foils= friction materials= an) s-ecial lu"ricant a--lications. FleEi"le gra-hite -ro)uct lines= such as gra-hoil Ga thin gra-hite clothH= -ro"a"l2 ill "e the fastest gro ing mar8et. :argeB scale fuelBcell a--lications are "eing )e?elo-e) that coul) consume as much gra-hite as all other uses com"ine).S >hese uses are interesting "ecause the2 highlight other -ro-erties of gra-hite. *2nthetic car"on can "e ma)e into fi"ers= hich are "oth strong an) heat resistant. *o this form can "e use) in -laces li8e "ra8e shoes= electric motors an) heatBresistant -ro)ucts. EE-an)a"le gra-hite fin)s uses in fireBresistant structures li8e fire )oors. When the gra-hite is heate)= it eE-an)s an) re)uces the s-rea) of the fire. ,ra-hite is relate) to a class of car"on allotro-es calle) fullerenes= hich inclu)e car"on nanotu"es an) the more familiar "uc82"alls. Car"on nanotu"es are use) here strength is im-ortant= in -ro)ucts li8e fishing ro)s= golf clu"s an) "i8e frames. >hese materials are often referre) to as com-osites.

"ore on .ra,hite and ,encils

>he article mentions the )isco?er2 of gra-hite in Englan) an) its use as lea) in -encils. >his -articular use re-resents the most common contact stu)ents ill ha?e ith gra-hite. *tu)ents ma2 ish to learn more a"out gra-hite's use in the manufacturing of -encils. >he @ct.


#++7 ChemMatters >eacher's ,ui)e -resents eEcellent "ac8groun) material. Oou can access the >eachers ,ui)e for @cto"er= #++7= as ell as all the other >eacher ,ui)es an) selecte) articles from the last fi?e 2ears at htt-/FF-ortal.acs.orgF-ortalFacsFcorgFcontent? Unf-"VtrueWU-age:a"elV00U!<>4C:E&!41Wno)eUi)V1+%+WcontentUi)VC>0U++67+#WuseUs ecVtrueWsecUurlU?arVregion1WUUuui)V77751e1%B++#1B5)78B%c%cB177ef#)%e)"a. For 2our con?enience= some of the -ertinent "ac8groun) material is -rinte) "elo .
>he earliest e?ent that ena"le) -encil -ro)uction on a large scale as the )isco?er2 of a huge gra-hite )e-osit at the *eath aite Fell site near 3orro )ale= Cum"ria= Englan)= in 1675. :ocal shee-her)ers use) it for mar8ing their floc8. Chemistr2 as in its ?er2 earl2 stages as a )isci-line= an) the gra-hite as thought to "e a form of lea). @riginall2 it as use) to line the mol)s for cannon"all manufacture "ecause of its refractor2 -ro-erties. 0encils ere ?er2 much a secon)ar2 use= an) it ha) to "e smuggle) out of the mines for use in -encil ma8ing. >he soft gra-hite as originall2 ra--e) in shee- s8in or string to ma8e a sta"le -encil. Woo)en housing ma)e the -encil more -o-ular= an) for nearl2 t o hun)re) 2ears= gra-hite from the 3orro )ale mines su--lie) -encils for Englan) an) the rest of Euro-e. !s the 3orro )ale )e-osit "egan to "e )e-lete)= manufacturers loo8e) for other materials to miE ith gra-hite to eEten) its lifetime. 1icolasBKacJues Conte as the -erson in France ho )e?elo-e) the -o )ere) gra-hiteB-o )ere) cla2B ater miEture that re-lace) -ure gra-hite "2 the late 17++T s. Conte also foun) that he coul) ?ar2 the )ar8ness of the -encilTs mar8ings "2 ?ar2ing the ratio of gra-hite to cla2 in the miEture. !t the time Englan) an) France ere at ar an) -ure gra-hite as not a?aila"le to the French. ConteTs metho) is still the "asis for -encil manufacture to)a2. >he orl)Ts secon) "ig gra-hite mine as )isco?ere) in the 185+s as Kean 0ierre !li"ert= searching originall2 for gol)= foun) high Jualit2 gra-hite in *i"eria along the Chinese "or)er. &uch of this as shi--e) to ,erman2 here !. W. Fa"er 0encil Com-an2 as on its a2 to "ecoming one of the orl)Ts largest -encil manufacturers. 32 the "eginning of the nineteenth centur2 -encils ere ?er2 -o-ular aroun) the orl) inclu)ing in the Unite) *tates. >here ere= ho e?er= no -encils "eing manufacture) in the U.*. WhatTs more= the War of 181# shut )o n -encil im-orts from Englan). @f economic necessit2= se?eral U.*. entre-reneurs "egan to manufacture -encils Gof lo er Jualit2H an) se?eral sources of gra-hite ere )isco?ere). !mong the manufacturers ere William &onroe in &assachusetts= Kose-h DiEon in 1e Kerse2 an) E"erhar) Fa"er in 1e Oor8 Cit2. !lso among the earl2 manufacturers as one Kohn >horeau ho li?e) in Concor)= &assachusetts. (is "rotherBinBla = Charles Dun"ar ha) foun) gra-hite )e-osits in 1e (am-shire. >horeauTs son= (enr2 Da?i)= e?entuall2 ;oine) his father= an) in the 18#+Ts foun) the same formula that Conte has use) for miEing gra-hite ith cla2 for the filler for the -encil. 4t is fairl2 certain that the 2ounger >horeauBof Wal)en 0on) fameBma)e the )isco?er2 in)e-en)ent of Conte Ge?en though it as some 2ears laterH since the metho)s of -encil manufacture in Euro-e ere closel2 guar)e) secrets. !fter the Ci?il ar= four ma;or com-anies )ominate) -encil manufacture in the Unite) *tatesBEagle 0encil Com-an2= E"erhar) Fa"er G"rother of the ,erman Fa"er an) an immigrant to the U*H= the !merican :ea) 0encil Com-an2= an) Kose-h DiEon Cruci"le Com-an2. Kose-h DiEon= originall2 from &assachusetts= eE-erimente) as a 2outh ith -encil ma8ing. (e sa the -otential of -encils e?en though his com-an2 as foun)e) to ma8e gra-hite cruci"les for ma8ing steel. 4n 1857 he mo?e) his com-an2 to Kerse2 Cit2= 1K. >hree 2ears later he recei?e) -atents for the use of gra-hite cruci"les in -otter2 an)


steel. >he com-an2Ts no famous DiEon >icon)eroga -encils ere name) for the fort in 1e Oor8 hich -la2e) a -rominent role in the French an) 4n)ian War an) the <e?olutionar2 War. 32 the 187+Ts o?er #+=+++=+++ -encils ere -urchase) -er 2ear in the U*. 32 1%1#= the figure ha) gro n in the U* to "e 76+=+++=+++= hile orl) i)e the figure as at t o "illion. >he article sa2s that the current U.*. -ro)uction is #.8 "illion.

0encils in use to)a2 are characteriAe) "2 a har)ness scale of the lea). >he Shar)nessS of -encils is )etermine) "2 the ratio of gra-hite to cla2 in the miEture. 4n the Unite) *tates= a num"ering s2stem is use) ith 1 re-resenting a soft miEture an) a 5 "eing a har) miEture. 4n Euro-e letters are use) instea) of num"ers= ith 3 )esignating soft lea) an) ( meaning har) lea). >he common gra)es are/ U.*. Euro-e ,ra-hiteQ Cla2Q I1 3 71 #9 I# (3 78 #7 I# ` F 77 #8 I9 ( 79 91 I5 #( 7+ 95 WaE Q 6 6 6 6 6

"ore on Che!ical ;a,or 0e,osition DC;0E

>his -rocess is "riefl2 )escri"e) in the article an) much research is still "eing )e?ote) to its im-ro?ement. 4n one sim-le sense= methane= C(5= is a SlogicalS starting material "ecause it has tetrahe)ral "on)s= much li8e those foun) in )iamon). 4n the C.D a--roach= methane is con?erte) into )iamon)= hich is some hat sur-rising= since gra-hite is the more sta"le allotro-e of car"on at the con)itions at hich the -rocess is run Gsee Connections to Chemistr2 Conce-tsH. >he reason this can occur is )ue to the fact that= hile gra-hite ma2 "e more thermo)2namicall2 sta"le= it isnTt forme) as ra-i)l2 as )iamon)N i.e.= the 8inetics of the -rocess fa?or the formation of )iamon) rather than gra-hite. >he acti?ation energ2 for forming )iamon) films is lo er than that for forming gra-hite. >his is illustrate) in the )iagram "elo /


*o the tric8 is to set u- the con)itions so one forms )iamon)= "ut not gra-hiteN i.e.= one arranges things so the 8inetics of the -rocess )ominates o?er the thermo)2namics. !lthough the reasons are not 2et full2 un)erstoo)= it has "een )isco?ere) that one can 8ee- gra-hite from "eing create) "2 forming the )iamon) un)er a constant stream of h2)rogen. >he role of the h2)rogen is thought to "e to etch a a2 an2 gra-hite that might "e forme). >here are ?ariations on this -rocess. *ometimes oE2acet2lene torches or sim-le heate) tungsten filaments are use) instea) of a micro a?e. <ecentl2 the methane has "een re-lace) "2 "uc82"alls.

"ore on wh= .ra,hite isn9t easil= con@erted into dia!onds

>here are a lot of "oth sim-le an) ?er2 com-leE thermo)2namics an) 8inetics connecte) to the transformation of gra-hite to )iamon) an) ?ice ?ersa. >hermo)2namicall2= gra-hite is more sta"le than )iamon) at room con)itions. >his means that a )iamon) ill Ss-ontaneousl2S transform itself into gra-hite if gi?en enough time. 3ut this o"?iousl2 )oesnTt occur= an) the reason is fairl2 sim-le an) common. @ne coul) ;ust as easil2 as8 h2 a )iamon) )oesnTt s-ontaneousl2 "urst into flame= since it is thermo)2namicall2 fa?ora"le for a )iamon) an) oE2gen to transform into car"on )ioEi)e an) ater. >he reason is a ?er2 common one for man2 Ss-ontaneousS chemical reactions. >he transformation has a high acti?ation energ2 "arrier. *ome hat sim-lifie)= in or)er for the transformation to ta8e -lace= the colli)ing molecules Gor atomsH must o?ercome an energ2 "arrier. 4f the colli)ing molecules )o not -ossess enough initial 8inetic energ2 hen the2 colli)e= the2 ill sim-l2 "ounce off each other an) ill not transform into the -ro)uct molecules. ! similar Juestion might as8 h2 2our morning ne s-a-er )oesnTt s-ontaneousl2 "urst into flame "efore 2ou can rea) it. !gain= the ans er is that the reaction of -a-er ith oE2gen=


although highl2 eEothermic= reJuires that the colli)ing molecules -ossess enough initial energ2 to surmount the acti?ation energ2 "arrier. 4f 2ou -ro?i)e this energ2 ?ia a match= some molecules can then react= an) the energ2 release) hen the2 react can "e use) "2 other molecules to get o?er the "arrier= an) the energ2 the2 release= etc.= etc.= etc. @nce e get the reaction going= it "ecomes selfBsustaining. ! match ill or8 to ignite a ne s-a-er "ut ill not ignite a )iamon). >he acti?ation energ2 for con?erting a )iamon) an) oE2gen gas to car"on )ioEi)e an) ater is so high that a "urning match isnTt at a sufficientl2 high tem-erature to accom-lish this. 4n fact= if 2our house "urns )o n= )onTt rush in to sa?e 2our )iamon)s= as the2 ill not "urn at the tem-erature of an or)inar2 house fire. Diamon)s )onTt s-ontaneousl2 con?ert into gra-hite at room tem-erature sim-l2 "ecause the acti?ation energ2 "arrier for this con?ersion is ?er2 high. !lthough gra-hite is thermo)2namicall2 more sta"le than )iamon)= the energ2 )ifference is Juite small= onl2 a"out #.% 8K -er mole of car"on. G>he gra-h a"o?e is not )ra n to scale.H >hen h2 canTt e ;ust ta8e some gra-hite= -ut it in an en?ironment ithout air= get it ?er2 hot Gso e can surmount the acti?ation energ2 "arrierH an) con?ert it into )iamon)? We might ;ust as ell as8 h2 e oul)nTt "e con?erting a )iamon) into gra-hite ?ia this -roce)ure. 4n fact= this is hat oul) -ro"a"l2 ha--en if e trie) it this a2. ,ra-hite is thermo)2namicall2 fa?ore)= so it is more li8el2 that a )iamon) oul) con?ert into gra-hite= "ut not the re?erse. >his as )one in a great scene in 0hili- &orrisonTs >he <ing of >ruth series. 3ut at ?er2 high -ressures )iamon) "ecomes more sta"le than gra-hite. ! )iamon) is a more com-act structureRthe atoms are closer together. (igh -ressure fa?ors this structure= so if e a--l2 enough -ressure an) also get the s2stem to a high enough tem-erature to surmount the acti?ation energ2 "arrier= the transformation of gra-hite to )iamon) can ta8e -lace. >his is hat ha--ens )ee- in the earth an) this is ho earl2 artificial )iamon)s ere ma)e.

Connections to Chemistr. Conce)ts

1. *le!ents other than carbon eBist as allotro,es in natureR!llotro-es are forms of a chemical element in hich the atoms are arrange) )ifferentl2= -ro)ucing forms of the same element ith )ifferent -ro-erties. Elements other than car"on ith commonl2 occurring allotro-es are G1H oE2gen an) oAone= G#H re) an) hite G2ello H -hos-horus #. Tetrahedral bondin. in s,3 and tri.onal ,=ra!idal bondin. in s,2C si.!a and ,i bondin.REach car"on atom in a )iamon) is "on)e) to four other car"ons. >he "on)s are co?alent an) the angles are all tetrahe)ral angles of 1+% o #8'. >he car"on atoms in gra-hite are "on)e) to each other in a -lane. Each car"on is "on)e) to three other -lanar car"on atoms ith "on) angles of 1#+o. >hese co?alent "on)s in "oth )iamon) an) gra-hite are classifie) as sigma "on)s. 4n a sigma "on) the electron )ensit2 of the share) -air is locate) on a line "et een the t o car"on atoms. >he "on)ing "et een la2ers in gra-hite is calle) -i "on)ing. >he electrons are )elocaliAe) an) free to mo?e if an eEternal force is a--lie). >his allo s the la2ers of car"on in gra-hite to sli- easil2= ma8ing gra-hite an eEcellent lu"ricant an) a ?er2 goo) con)uctor of electricit2.


9. -ole of ther!od=na!ics and Ainetics in che!ical transfor!ationsR<efer to the section &ore on h2 gra-hite isn't easil2 con?erte) into )iamon)s for a more com-lete

,ossible 'tu&ent #isconce)tions

1. 30ia!onds and .ra,hite can9t ,ossibl= be !ade of the sa!e !aterial.5 !he difference in properties and appearance can "e accounted for "y the difference in "onding. Ho% atoms "ond is the (ey to the manifestation of macroscopic properties such as color, hardness, etc. #. 3'ead ,encils contain leadC not .ra,hite. Otherwise the= would be called .ra,hite ,encils.5 !his is a long standing misconception that the article helps clear up. 9. 3All !eteorites are the sa!e. The= fall out of the sA= fro! s,ace.5 !he article discusses the importance of car"onaceous meteorites %hich contain microscopic diamonds. Most meteorites contain iron. !he main classification of meteorites is "ased on the amount of iron in the particular sample. 5. 3Gra,hene can be !ade b= rubbin. a ,encil on ,a,er.5 !he statement has some truth to it. -u""ing a pencil on a piece of paper does deposit layers of graphite onto the paper. !o "ecome graphene, though, either the pencil %ould ha$e to lea$e on the paper only one layer of car"on atoms, or many, many layers of graphite %ould ha$e to "e remo$ed until only one layer of car"on atoms remained. !his %ould "e the layer of graphene. Such a layer %ould "e in$isi"le to the na(ed eye and %ould re<uire a po%erful electron microscope to o"ser$e it.

Demonstrations an& 2essons

(ere is a series of ?i)eos an) eEercises on nanotu"es an) other forms of car"on G)iamon)= gra-hite= "uc82"alls= an) nanotu"es. >he ?i)eos can "e use) as a class -resentation on the in)i?i)ual allotro-es. Ghtt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFcine-leEFnanotu"eFin)eE.htmlH #. @"tain a set of mineral sam-les from an earth science teacher an) re?ie the &oh's scale of har)ness that the stu)ents ma2 ha?e encountere) in an earlier course. ,ra-hite an) )iamon) a--ear at the eEtremes of the scale. ,ra-hite is grou-e) ith minerals similar to talc an) is gi?en a ?alue of 1.6 on the har)ness scale. Diamon)= on the other han)= is gi?en a ?alue of 1+= the highest num"er use) in the scale. *omeho = the same element can -resent itself either as the softest of minerals or as the har)est of minerals. >he t o eEtremes eEhi"ite) "2 allotro-ic forms of the same element -ro?i)e a ?ehicle to stress the im-ortance of chemical "on)ing on the -ro-erties of a -ure su"stance. 9. >he follo ing e" site is a com-lete classroom unit of stu)2 on the allotro-es of car"on/ htt-/FF .nsec.north estern.e)uFCurriculumQ#+0ro;ectsFCar"onQ#+!llotro-es.-)f. 5. >he follo ing three U<:'s are ?i)eos from the collection at ho stuff !n2 one of the three= or all three= coul) "e incor-orate) into a lesson on car"onFgra-hite. 0h2sical *cience/ >he *tuff of Diamon)s htt-/FF?i)eos.ho stuff or8s.comFhs F1#+6+B-h2sicalBscienceBtheBstuffBofB)iamon)sB ?i)eo.htm 0ure Car"on/ >he *cience of 1anotu"es htt-/FF?i)eos.ho stuff or8s.comFhs F8##5B-ureBcar"onBtheBscienceBofBnanotu"esB ?i)eo.htm


0ure Car"on/ >he Chemistr2 of Diamon)s an) ,ra-hite htt-/FF?i)eos.ho stuff or8s.comFhs F8###B-ureBcar"onBtheBchemistr2BofB)iamon)sBan)B gra-hiteB?i)eo.htm

'tu&ent ,ro3ects
1. 3uil) a )iamon) mo)el. >he !-ril 1%%+ issue of ChemMatters inclu)e) a tem-late for constructing a )iamon) mo)el. >he tem-late is re-ro)uce) "elo . 4t ma2 "e resiAe) an) co-ie) onto stiff -a-er. *tu)ents ma2 use the tem-late to construct in)i?i)ual mo)els= or the2 ma2 com"ine tem-lates to construct a much larger mo)el. ! series of the in)i?i)ual mo)els coul) "e artisticall2 com"ine) to create a )iamon) mo"ile.


#. 0re-are a re-ort on conflict )iamon)s. (o )i) the name conflict arise? !lthough )iamon)s are -ortra2e) as s2m"ols of lo?e= the histor2 of )iamon) mining -aints a much )ar8er -icture. Diamon)s ha?e fuele) conflicts in !ngola= Democratic <e-u"lic of Congo= 4?or2 Coast= :i"eria= an) *ierra :eone. 4nclu)e a )iscussion on the Kim"erle2 0rocess "2 hich )iamon)s are no certifie) an) )istinguishe) from conflict )iamon)s. 9. (a?e a stu)ent ho is also enrolle) in an art course ?isit an art su--l2 store= or or8 ith the art teacher= to )e?elo- a list of the )ifferent t2-es of gra-hiteBcontaining -encils that are a?aila"le. >he stu)ent coul) then correlate the -ro-erties an) uses of the -encils ith the


-ercent gra-hite an) -ercent cla2 Gor other filler materialH use) in the -ro)uction of the -articular -encil.

Antici)ating 'tu&ent Questions

1. 3/h= can9t coal be sGuee$ed into a dia!ondC as seen in the !o@ies25 !he preferred form of coal is graphite if one loo(s at thermodynamic sta"ility. Coal 8graphite9 can "e coa)ed to form diamonds at e)tremely high pressures and temperatures, conditions not usually found in a traditional la". #. 3/h= are ,encils called 3lead5 ,encils instead of 3.ra,hite5 ,encils25 !here is no lead in ?leadA pencils. ;efore graphite %as used in the manufacture of pencils, lead, a $ery soft metal %hich %ill lea$e grey mar(s %hen ru""ed against paper, %as originally used in ?pencils.A 9. 3?f .ra,hite is so softC wh= does it ha@e a !eltin. ,oint al!ost as hi.h as dia!ond which is the hardest substance Anown25 'raphite is ?softA "ecause the "onding "et%een layers is %ea( and consists of a cloud of delocaliBed electrons. 2ithin each layer of graphite, the car"on atoms are co$alently "onded to each other in a he)agonal pattern. #t is these strong "onds that gi$e graphite the $ery high melting point.

Paugg= (arol). ,ro ing Diamon)s. ChemMatters. .ol. 8= 1o.#= !-ril 1%%+= --. 1+B15. >he article inclu)es a center fol) out tem-late for constructing a )iamon) mo)el. ! si)e "ar features an !ustralian high school stu)ent= !n)re ,oo)= ho )e?elo-e) a ne -rocess for gro ing )iamon) films. >he article is similar in sco-e to the current one. Da?en-ort= Dere8 !. 3urning Diamon)s an) *JueeAing 0eanuts. ChemMatters. .ol. 8= 1o. #= !-ril 1%%+= --.15B16 Woo)= Clair. 3uc82"alls. ChemMatters. .ol. 1+= 1o. 6= Dec. 1%%#= --. 7B%. >he article inclu)es a tem-late for "uil)ing a "uc82"all mo)el. <itter= *te?e. 0encils an) 0encil :ea). ChemMatters. .ol. #6= 1o. 9= @ct= #++7= --. 11B 1#. EEcellent "ac8groun) article on the manufacture of -encils.

Web 'ites for A&&itional 0nformation

"ore sites on s=nthetic dia!ond !anufacturin.
>his is the :ife ,em e"site. >he com-an2 ma8es )iamon) for families ho ha?e lost a lo?e) one. >he car"on from the remains of a cremation= or a loc8 of hair from a "urial are incor-orate) into the materials to create a s2nthetic )iamon). >he -rocess is eE-laine) in the e"site. Ghtt-/FF .lifegem.comFsecon)ar2F:,

"ore sites on the che!istr= of dia!onds and .ra,hite


! ?i)eo com-aring an) contrasting the )ifferences "et een )iamon) an) gra-hite can "e foun) at htt-/FF?i)eos.ho stuff or8s.comFhs F8###B-ureBcar"onBtheBchemistr2BofB)iamon)sBan)B gra-hiteB?i)eo.htm.

"ore sites on .ra,hite

(ere is a ?i)eo )escri"ing the -ro-erties of gra-hite/ htt-/FF?i)eos.ho stuff or8s.comF)isco?er2F#8+%9BassignmentB)isco?er2Bgra-hiteB?i)eo.htm.

"ore sites on allotro,ic for!s of carbon

(o *tuff Wor8s -resents a ?i)eo )escri"ing the structure of car"on as )iamon)= the formation of )iamon)s= an) the structure of gra-hite an) its uses/ htt-/FF?i)eos.ho stuff or8s.comFhs F899#Bchemistr2BatB or8BtheBman2BformsBofBcar"onB ?i)eo.htm.

"ore sites on carbon&containin. !eteorites

! ?i)eo )escri"ing the significance of car"onaceous meteorites/ htt-/FF?i)eos.ho stuff or8s.comFhs F85#9BcosmicBcollisionsBcar"onBcontainingBmeteoritesB ?i)eo.htm

"ore sites on dia!ond cr=stal structure

! e" site featuring the cr2stal structure of )iamon)/ htt-/FFcstB

"ore sites on .ra,hite cr=stal structure

! e" site featuring the heEagonal structure of gra-hite/ htt-/FFcstB

"ore sites on dia!ond structure

! e"site featuring a cr2stal mo)el of )iamon) that can "e mani-ulate)/ htt-/FFne

"ore sites on the for!ation of dia!onds

htt-/FF >he 1ature e"site hich inclu)es an interacti?e -ortion on the formation of )iamon)s/ .-"s.orgF netFnatureF)iamon)sFin)eE.html

"ore sites on fa!ous cut dia!onds

>hese se?en )iamon)s are among the most rare an) ?alua"le in the orl). >he2 are "eing )is-la2e) together for the first an) onl2 time through the colla"orati?e efforts of the *mithsonian 4nstitution= >he *teinmetA ,rou-= an) the ,emological 4nstitute of !merica. >he )iamon)s range from 6.11 to #+9.+5 carats in eight. !ll cr2stalliAe) from car"on atoms )eeithin the Earth an) en)ure) an eE-losi?e ;ourne2 to the Earth's surface. @neRthe De 3eers


&illennium *tarRis com-ose) -urel2 of car"on atoms. >he others ere tinte) rare colors as im-urities an) )efects re-lace) some car"on atoms )uring gro th. Ghtt-/FF"itsFsiBgemsFH

"ore sites on dia!onds in s,ace

>he film )ocuments the efforts of researchers aroun) the orl) to create s2nthetic )iamon)s= some of hich ha?e "ecome so in)istinguisha"le from natural )iamon)s as to fool eE-erts. >his segment= Diamon)s in the *82 Ghtt-/FF .-"s.orgF g"hFno?aF)iamon)Fs82.htmlH= is a -art of the full 1o?a series= >he Diamon) Dece-tion Ghtt-/FF .-"s.orgF g"hFno?aF)iamon)FH.

'eneral 2e" -eferences

T-e e("r2 a0# " %ar0#( &( >&5&.e*&a #$$ers a 6ea!"- #$ &($#r4a"&#( #( %ar0#(3 A!! #$ "-e "#.&%s %#'ere* &( "-e ChemMatters ar"&%!e are *&s% sse* &( "-e >&5&.e*&a e("r23 T-&s e("r2 -as a 'er2 'a! a0!e !&s" #$ re$ere(%es as 6e!! as e("r2 .#&("s "# a 'ar&e"2 #$ %ar0#( re!a"e* "#.&%s3 Bhtt-/FFen. i8i-e)ia.orgF i8iFCar"onC


)anotechnolo.=9s >i. ?!,act

/ac1groun& 0nformation
"ore on the !eanin. of nanotechnolo.=
>he meaning of the term nanotechnolog2 has change) since its theoretical ca-a"ilit2 as state) "2 <ichar) Fe2nman= a -h2sics 1o"el laureate= in his no famous remar8s= gi?en at the annual meeting of the !merican 0h2sical *ociet2 on Decem"er #%th= 1%6% )uring an afterB )inner tal8= 4 ant to "uil) a "illion tin2 factories= mo)els of each other= hich are manufacturing simultaneousl2L>he -rinci-les of -h2sics= as far as 4 can see= )o not s-ea8 against the -ossi"ilit2 of maneu?ering things atom "2 atom. 4t is not an attem-t to ?iolate an2 la s/ it is something= in -rinci-le= that can "e )oneN "ut in -ractice= it has not "een )one "ecause e are too "ig. >he term nanotechnolog2 as -o-ulariAe) "2 K Eric DreEler in the 1%8+'s. (e concentrate) on "uil)ing machines on the scale of molecules. >he 1ational 1anotechnolog2 4nitiati?e G114H as create) "2 -resi)ential eEecuti?e or)er in #++1. >he 114 as charge) to accelerate the res-onsi"le )e?elo-ment an) a--lication of nanotechnolog2 in or)er to create ;o"s an) economic gro th= to enhance national securit2 an) to im-ro?e the Jualit2 of life for all citiAens. >he Center for <es-onsi"le >echnolog2 states that Lnanotechnolog2 is the engineering of functional s2stems at the molecular le?el. >his co?ers "oth current or8 an) conce-ts that more a)?ance). 4n its original sense= ananotechnolog2' refers to the -ro;ecte) a"ilit2 to construct items from the "ottom u-= using techniJues an) tools "eing )e?elo-e) to)a2 to ma8e com-lete= high -erformance -ro)ucts. &ihail <oco of the U* 1ational 1anotechnolog2 4nitiati?e )escri"es four generations of nanotechnolog2 )e?elo-ment/ 1H -assi?e nanostructures= #H acti?e nanostructures= 9H s2stems of nanos2stems= an) 5H molecular nanos2stems. (e -resents the information in chart form at htt-/FFcrnano.t2-e-a).comF.share)Fimage.html?F-hotosFuncategoriAe)F5UgenU1.K0,. We are currentl2 entering the thir) generation. 32 #+1+ <oco s-ea8s of s2stems of nanos2stems that ill feature thousan)s of interacting com-onents. >he first generation centere) on -assi?e nanostructures. >hese materials ere )e?elo-e) to -erform one tas8. EEam-les inclu)e aH )is-erse) an) contact nanostructuresN e.g.= aerosols an) colloi)s= an) "H -ro)ucts incor-orating nanostructuresN e.g.= coatings= nano-articleBreinforce) com-osites= nanostructure) metals= -ol2mers an) ceramics. >he secon) generation= in hich e currentl2 fin) oursel?es= centers on acti?e nanostructuresRthe )e?ices )iscusse) in the article. >hese can "e )i?i)e) into the follo ing/ aH "ioBacti?e= health effectsN e.g.= targete) )rugs an) "io)e?ices= an) "H -h2sicoB chemical acti?e )e?icesN e.g.= 9D transistors= am-lifiers= actuators= an) a)a-ti?e structures. <oco -ro;ects that "et een #+16 an) #+#+ e ill "e or8ing ith the first integrate) nanos2stems functioning much li8e a mammalian cell ith hierarchical s2stems ithin s2stems. &ichael Crichton's no?el 0re2 ta8es the creation of freeBfloating assem"lers or nano"ots to an eEtreme. >he no?el )oes not -ortra2 goo) science= "ut coul) act as a )iscussion -oint among intereste) stu)ents.

"ore on the histor= and ,roduction of carbon nanotubes


@n a large or macrosco-ic scale= imagine cutting a soccer "all in half $ along its )iameter. >hen ta8e a sheet of the material from hich the soccer "all as ma)e an) roll ;ust enough of the material into a tu"e or c2lin)er ha?ing the )iameter of the original soccer "all. Carefull2 ;oin the en) of the tu"e to the half of the soccer "all. 4f )one -ro-erl2= the soccer "all ill form a ca- to a tu"e hose length can ?ar2 )e-en)ing on the amount of material use). 4f chic8en ire ere use) instea) of the soccer "all material= the structure shoul) loo8 li8e a chic8enB ire tu"e to--e) at one en) ith a chic8en ire hemis-here. !n enter-rising stu)ent or grou- of stu)ents might consi)er creating such a structure out of chic8en ire. 1o = instea) of the soccer "all= su"stitute half of a C7+ "uc82"all or fullerene molecule. 4nstea) of the soccer "all material or chic8en ire= su"stitute a sheet of gra-hene. ,ra-hene= as )iscusse) in another article in this issue of ChemMatters= is a heEagonall2 "on)e)= singleBla2er sheet of car"on atoms. <oll a sheet of the gra-hene to create a tu"e ha?ing the )iameter of the C7+ molecule. !ttach G"on)H one en) of the gra-hene tu"e to the half of the C7+ molecule an) one has ma)e a car"on nanotu"e. 4t certainl2 is not ?isi"le to the na8e) e2e as as the soccer "all structure. 4t ta8es a -o erful electron microsco-e to allo one to actuall2 ?ie the nanotu"e. >he ina"ilit2 to ?ie the car"on nanotu"es ithout the a?aila"ilit2 of electron microsco-es in use to)a2 -ro?i)es the "ac8groun) hen tr2ing to )etermine the histor2 of the car"on nanotu"es. >he histor2 is not clear an) has "een the su";ect of much )e"ate. !s earl2 as the 1%6+'s= <oger 3acon ma2 ha?e s2nthesiAe) the nanotu"es= "ut ithout an instrument to ?ie them= he as not gi?en cre)it for the original )isco?er2. (e as the first to )escri"e a tu"e of atoms that coul) "e ca--e) "2 a "uc82"all. >he 1ational (istoric Chemical :an)mar8s -ortion of the !merican Chemical *ociet2's e"site -ro?i)es a fascinating loo8 at 3acon's or8= es-eciall2 hen a com-an2 allo s its researchers free reign to or8 on to-ic of interest.
>he mo)ern era of car"on fi"ers "egan in 1%67= hen Union Car"i)e o-ene) its 0arma >echnical Center ;ust outsi)e Cle?elan). >he com-leE as one of the ma;or la"oratories of Union Car"i)e's "asic research -rogram= mo)ele) after the uni?ersit2Bst2le cor-orate la"s that "ecame -o-ular in the late 5+s an) 6+s. >he2 gathere) 2oung= "right scientists from a ?ariet2 of "ac8groun)s an) let them loose on their fa?orite -ro;ects= gi?ing them an eEtraor)inar2 )egree of autonom2. With a freshl2 minte) 0h.D. in -h2sics= <oger 3acon ;oine) the 0arma staff in 1%67. 4 got into car"on arc or8= stu)2ing the melting of gra-hite un)er high tem-erature an) -ressures= 3acon recalls. 4 too8 on the ;o" of tr2ing to )etermine the tri-le -oint of gra-hite. >hat's here the liJui)= soli)= an) gas are all in thermal eJuili"rium. >he eJui-ment as a8in to the earl2 car"on arc streetlam-s= onl2 o-erating at much higher -ressures. *mall amounts of ?a-oriAe) car"on oul) tra?el across the arc an) then )e-osit as liJui). !s 3acon )ecrease) the -ressure in the arc= he notice) that the car"on oul) go straight from the ?a-or -hase to the soli) -hase= forming a stalagmiteBli8e )e-osit on the lo er electro)e. 4 oul) eEamine these )e-osits= an) hen 4 "ro8e one o-en to loo8 at the structure= 4 foun) all these his8ers= he sa2s. >he2 ere im"e))e) li8e stra s in "ric8. >he2 ere u- to an inch long= an) the2 ha) amaAing -ro-erties. >he2 ere onl2 a tenth of the )iameter of a human hair= "ut 2ou coul) "en) them an) 8in8 them an) the2 eren't "rittle. >he2 ere long filaments of -erfect gra-hite. >he 2ear as 1%68= an) 3acon ha) )emonstrate) the first high -erformance car"on fi"ers. ..Car"on fi"ers are -ol2mers of gra-hite= a -ure form of car"on here the atoms are arrange) in "ig sheets of heEagonal rings that loo8 li8e chic8en ire. 3acon's


gra-hite his8ers ere sheets of gra-hite rolle) into scrolls= continuous o?er the entire length of the filament.

ith the gra-hite sheets

!fter stu)2ing the hec8 out of these things= 4 finall2 -u"lishe) a -a-er in the Journal of Applied 7hysics in 1%7+= 3acon sa2s. >he -a-er has since "ecome a milestone= -artiall2 "ecause some ha?e claime) that 3acon ma2 ha?e "een the first -erson to -ro)uce car"on nanotu"es R hollo c2lin)ers of gra-hite ith )iameters on the or)er of single molecules. >heir incre)i"le -ro-erties ha?e ma)e nanotu"es one of the hottest areas of research in recent 2ears= -romising to re?olutioniAe ;ust a"out e?er2 area of science. *umio 4i;ima -u"lishe) a -a-er in 1%%1 that is often regar)e) as the first )isco?er2 of car"on nanotu"esN it re-orte) on a metho) that -ro)uce) "oth tu"es an) scrolls. >he -rocess is similar to 3acon's= suggesting that he too ma2 ha?e -re-are) nanotu"es along ith his his8ers= although he )i)n't 8no it at the time. 4 ma2 ha?e made nanotu"es= "ut 4 )i)n't )isco?er them= he sa2s. 32 -ro)ucing his high strength an) high mo)ulus his8ers= 3acon ha) )emonstrate) eE-erimentall2 something that theoreticians ha) -ro-ose) long ago. 3ut the fi"ers ere still ;ust a la"orator2 -henomenon= not a -ractical )e?elo-ment. 4 estimate) the cost of hat it too8 to ma8e them= an) it as D1+ million -er -oun)= he sa2s. >o ta- their full -otential= manufacturers nee)e) a chea- an) efficient a2 to -ro)uce the fi"ers. &uch of the research in the ensuing )eca)es as )e)icate) to eEactl2 that. Bhtt-/FFacs e"content.acs.orgFlan)mar8sFlan)mar8sFcar"onFcar9.htmlC

>he s2nthesis of the first single alle) car"on nanotu"es as confirme) in 1%%9. 4i;ima= hom 3acon mentions in the a"o?e section= an) Donal) 3ethune= s2nthesiAe) tu"es no 8no n as "uc82tu"es. <ussian nanotechnologists also ha) "een or8ing in this area= "ut their announcement came later an)= as a result= 4i;ima an) 3ethune are gi?en full cre)it for the )isco?er2 of the car"on nanotu"e. 4n 1%%9= Dr. 3ethune an) his 43& !lma)en colleagues )isco?ere) that transition metals such as co"alt can catal2Ae the formation of singleB all car"on nanotu"es. 4n #++#= the !merican 0h2sical *ociet2 a ar)e) the Kames C. &c,ro))2 0riAe for 1e &aterials ;ointl2 to 3ethune an) 0rof. *umio 4i;ima of 1EC for their in)e-en)ent )isco?eries of singleB all car"on nanotu"es an) metho)s to -ro)uce them= using transitionBmetal catal2sts. 4n #++5= the !merican Car"on *ociet2 &e)al as a ar)e) to 3ethune= 4i;ima an) 0rof. &ori"un)o En)o of *hinshu Uni?ersit2 for their outstan)ing contri"utions to the )isco?er2 of an) s2nthesis or8 on car"on nanotu"es. Bhtt-/FF)omino.research.i"m.comFcommFresearchU-eo-le.nsfF-agesF" >he lac8 of a suita"le -ro)uction metho) to create car"on nanotu"es hin)ere) the research on the eEciting -otential of the car"on nanotu"es. <ichar) *malle2's grou- at <ice Uni?ersit2 -ro?i)e) the "rea8through nee)e) to -ro)uce nanotu"es in Juantities large enough to sustain research stu)ies on their -ro-erties an) -otential. *malle2 himself is one of the researchers cre)ite) ith the )isco?er2 of the "uc82"all in 1%86. >he )isco?er2 of the C7+ molecule an) its structureRan atomBsiAe) soccer "all= is a fascinating stor2 in itself. <ichar) *malle2 an) <o"ert Curl of <ice Uni?ersit2= along ith *ir (arol) Kroto of the Uni?ersit2 of *usseE in 3righton= UK ere a ar)e) the 1%%7 1o"el 0riAe in Chemistr2 for their coB)isco?er2 of the fullerenes. >he announcement of the <ice Uni?ersit2 )isco?er2 follo s/
<ice researchers ha?e -ro)uce) )efectBfree nanoro-es in useful Juantities= the neEt steto ar) "ringing -ro)ucts to mar8et ma)e from nanoscale materials.


For the first time= nanoro-es ma)e u- of con)ucti?e car"on nanotu"es= resem"ling "un)les of long )rin8ing stra s= can "e -ro)uce) in high 2iel)sBmore than 7+ -ercentB accor)ing to research le) "2 0rofessor <ichar) *malle2 at the Center for 1anoscale *cience an) >echnolog2 at <ice Uni?ersit2. ! 8e2 to )e?elo-ing a--lications "ase) on nanoscale science an) technolog2 is ha?ing enough material to or8 ith= an) until no = nanotu"e -ro)uction has "een inefficient at -ro)ucing tu"es ith fe or no )efects. >he a)?ance allo s for a s2stematic= clean stu)2 of the strongest an) most con)ucti?e class of nanotu"es= *malle2 sa2s. >he nanotu"e fi"ers that -ac8 together to ma8e ro-es are -re)icte) to "e 1++ times stronger than steel= an) "oast an electrical con)ucti?it2 similar to co--er an) the thermal con)ucti?it2 of )iamon). ! -a-er )escri"ing the -ro)uction of uniform )iameter singleB all nanotu"es= hich selfB organiAe into tightl2 -ac8e) ro-es= a--ears in the Kul2 #7 issue of *cience. SCr2stalline <o-es of &etallic Car"on 1anotu"es=S is authore) "2 a team of researchers le) "2 *malle2= ,ene an) 1orman (ac8erman 0rofessor of Chemistr2 an) -rofessor of -h2sics at <ice. Bhtt-/FF .me)ia.rice.e)uFme)iaF1e*n4DV# C

>he -rocess em-lo2e) in the -ro)uction of the nanotu"es is calle) laser ?a-oriAation. ! s-ecial nic8elBco"alt catal2st is use) in a 1#++ )egree Celsius furnace in hich car"on -articles are ?a-oriAe). >he catal2st -re?ents the car"on tu"es that form from "eing ca--e)= allo ing them to gro to great lengths in relati?el2 short -erio)s of time. @?er time= the original -rocess has "een im-ro?e) to the -oint that car"on nanotu"es of -rescri"e) lengths an) -ro-erties can "e massB-ro)uce). 1o that singleB alle) car"on nanotu"es an) more com-licate)= larger structures= such as nano"alls= nanocars= an) nano )rug )eli?er2 )e?ices are a"le to "e manufacture)= -otential uses for the tu"es are closer to "ecoming a realit2. >he article )escri"es a num"er of uses= utiliAing the uniJue -ro-erties of eEtremel2 high tensile strength= electrical con)ucti?it2= large surface area= an) the a"ilit2 to o-en an) close the tu"es on comman). >hese areas inclu)e= "ut are not limite) to= the me)ical an) en?ironmental a--lications mentione) in the article. !reas not mentione) in the article inclu)e the -otential of nanotu"es to transmit ner?e signals in the case of s-inal in;uries. !s semicon)uctor chi-s= the -otential for smaller= more -o erful com-uters is almost limitless. 4n the t ent2 2ear histor2 of nanotu"es an) relate) materials= no technolog2 hol)s the -otential an) -romise for hel-ing to sol?e so man2 of the orl)'s -ro"lems as )oes nanotechnolog2.

Connections to Chemistr. Conce)ts

1. "olecular si$es&!etric scale re@iewR>he follo ing chart lists the -refiEes use) for "oth small an) large num"ers ithin the metric s2stem. EE-onentb 0refiE b 1um"er 1+#5 1+#1 O@>>! 1=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++ PE>>! 1=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++


1+18 1+16 1+1# 1+% 1+7 1+9 1+# 1+1 1+B1 1+B# 1+B9 1+B7 1+B% 1+B1# 1+B16 1+B18 1+B#1 1+B#5 1+B#7 1+B9+

EX! 0E>! >E<! ,4,!

1=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++ 1=+++=+++=+++=+++=+++ 1=+++=+++=+++=+++ 1=+++=+++=+++

&E,! 1=+++=+++ K4:@ 1=+++

(EC>@ 1++ DEK! DEC4 1+ .1

CE1>4 .+1 &4::4 .++1

&4C<@ .+++ ++1 1!1@ 04C@ .+++ +++ ++1 .+++ +++ +++ ++1

FE&>@ .+++ +++ +++ +++ ++1 !>>@ E1>@ F4>@ *O>@ .+++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++1 .+++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++1 .+++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++1 .+++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++1

><ED@ . +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++1


>he nanoscale region inclu)es micelles= -roteins= D1!= anti"o)ies= ?iruses= an) ri"osomes. 4n)i?i)ual atoms an) molecules are smaller an) fall "elo the nanoscale region. #. )anoscale li!its7definin. nano!aterialsR\!s state) in other entries= the nanoscale region encom-asses materials ranging in siAe from one nanometer to 1++ nanometers.^ >2-ical 1anomaterials GaH 1anocr2stals an) clusters @ther nano-articles G"H 1ano ires *iAe Ga--roE.H Diameter 1B1+ nm Diameter 1B1++ nm Diameter 1B1++ nm &aterials &etals= semicon)uctors= magnetic

materials Ceramic oEi)es &etals= semicon)uctors= oEi)es= sulfi)es= nitri)es 1anotu"es &etal= la2ere) metal ,rou- .4 G17H com-oun)s Gchalcogeni)esH # # GcH #BDimensional arra2s Gof &etals= semicon)uctors= magnetic *e?eral nm Bm nano-articlesH materials *urfaces an) films >hic8ness 1B1+++ nm .arious materials G)H 9BDimensional structures *e?eral nm in all &etals= semicon)uctors= magnetic Gsu-erlatticesH three )imensions materials Gsource/ htt-/FF .ece.u)el.e)uFZ"alooF0ro-ertiesQ#+ofQ#+nanomaterials.-)fH 9. #ro,erties of nano!aterialsR0ro-erties are an integral -art of an2 chemistr2 curriculum. a. #h=sical ,ro,erties of nano!aterialsR4ncrease) surface area affects the -h2sicalFmechanical -ro-erties of nanomaterials. (ar)ness= scratch resistance= fracture toughness= an) energ2 )issi-ation are all increase). ". Che!ical ,ro,erties of nano!aterialsR>he increase in surface area increases the rate of chemical reactions. 1ano-articles ma8e ?er2 effecti?e catal2sts. c. *lectrical conducti@it= of nano!aterialsR1anomaterials can hol) a consi)era"l2 higher charge than con?entional materials "ecause of the eEtremel2 high surface area of the nanomaterials. ). "a.netic ,ro,erties of nano!aterialsR>he strength of magnets increase ith )ecreasing grain siAe an) s-ecific surface area Gsurface area -er unit ?olumeH of the grains. (igher -o er magnets can "e -ro)uce) from nanocr2stalline materials. 5. Che!ical bondin.7free radicalsRFree ra)icals are atoms or grou-s of atoms Gmolecules an) ionsH that contain un-aire) electrons. *uch su"stances ten) to "e ?er2 reacti?e. 4n the atmos-here= chlorine free ra)icals forme) from the atmos-heric )ecom-osition of chlorofluorocar"ons GCFC'sH formerl2 use) in the refrigeration in)ustr2 an) as an aerosol -ro-ellant ere lin8e) to the )estruction of the oAone la2er. Eliminating most uses of the CFC's le) to a solution to the oAone )e-letion. Free ra)icals are im-licate) in a num"er of serious "iological con)itions. !lthough necessar2 in a num"er of "iological -rocesses= free ra)icals ha?e "een associate) ith the aging -rocess. a. ?onic bondin.7h=dration shellsR!n ion )issol?e) in ater attracts ater molecules to itself. Water molecules are -olar= ith electron )ensit2 greater near the oE2gen en) of the molecule. >he ater molecules orient themsel?es )e-en)ing on the charge of the ion. ! -ositi?e ion attracts the oE2gen en) of the ater molecule hile negati?e ions attract the h2)rogen en) of the ater molecule. >he num"er of molecules an) the strength of the attraction )e-en) on the siAe an) charge of the ions. *mall highl2 charge) ions -ro)uce the greatest attraction for ater molecules. >he ater molecules grou-e) aroun) the ion are calle) the h2)ration shell. >he orientation of the ater molecules in the h2)ration shell affects the h2)rogen "on)ing an) orientation of ater


molecules in the ?icinit2 of the ion. >hese ater molecules ma8e u- the secon) h2)ration cell. ". Co@alent bondin. in carbon7two& and three&di!ensional bondin. D.ra,hite and nanotubesER3ul8 gra-hite consists of a large num"er of la2ers of car"on atoms. Each atom is co?alentl2 "on)e) to three other car"ons ithin the -lane. >hese -lanes of co?alentl2 "on)e) car"on atoms account for gra-hite's high melting an) "oiling -oints. GWith )iamon)= the2 re-resent the highest melting an) "oiling -oints of an2 8no n materials.H >he remaining electron in gra-hite )oes not form a single co?alent "on). 4t "elongs to a sea of )elocaliAe) electrons "oun)e) "2 t o co?alentl2 "on)e) la2ers. >hese electrons are free to mo?e= an) the2 account for the metallicBli8e electrical con)ucti?it2 of gra-hite. >hese same electrons also account for gra-hite's eEcellent lu"ricating -ro-ert2. >he in)i?i)ual sheets are a"le to mo?e an) sli)e across each other. >he in)i?i)ual -lanes of co?alentl2 "on)e) car"on sheets are sheets of gra-hene. ,ra-hite ma2 therefore "e consi)ere) an eEtremel2 large arra2 or la2ers of sheets of gra-hene. 4n)i?i)ual la2ers of gra-hene can "e rolle) into a c2lin)er creating the car"on nanotu"es )escri"e) in the article. 6. Che!ical Safet=7nano!aterials in the en@iron!entR>he manufacture an) use of nanomaterials creates safet2 consi)erations not co?ere) "2 tra)itional safet2 -ractices. >he eEtremel2 small siAe of the -articles intro)uces -ersonal safet2 issues surroun)ing -ossi"le ingestion an) inhalation of the nano-articles. Earl2 animal stu)ies in)icate that ingeste) -articles are eEcrete) in the urine. 4nhale) -articles are a more serious concern. EE-osure to nano-articles can trigger allergic asthma s2m-toms or aggra?ate) s2m-toms of -neumonia. Car)iac an) circulator2 s2stems ma2 also "e affecte). 4ssues in the manufacture an) )is-osal of nanomaterials must also "e a))resse). 7. Che!ical s=nthesis or direct co!bination reactions7buildin. nano!aterials fro! the botto! u,RChemical s2nthesis or )irect com"ination reactions re-resent the reactions of small -articles GatomsH to -ro)uce larger structures Gmolecule or ionic soli)sH. When run in a la" these reactions -ro)uce macrosco-ic Juantities of -ro)ucts. >he -ro)ucts forme) cannot "e consi)ere) nanomaterials. 3ottomBu- s2nthesis "egins ith in)i?i)ual atoms an) molecules to create larger structures= "ut structures hose siAe lies "et een 1 nm an) 1++ nm. >he forces of attraction that eEist "et een the atoms an) molecules are 8e2 to im-lementing the -rocess. Electro-lating is the tra)itional a--roach to "ottomBu-rocessing. Chemical ?a-or )e-osition is an alternate a--roach to "uil)ing nanomaterials from the "ottom u-. ! goal is to )esign an) im-lement a set of con)itions such that the atoms or molecules ill self assem"le into the )esire) material.

,ossible 'tu&ent #isconce)tions

1. 3)ano !aterials are si!,l= @er= s!all !aterialsMso!ethin. that reGuires a !icrosco,e for @iewin..5 !he term ?nanoA has come to mean particles "et%een 1 nanometer and 1 nanometers in siBe. =ther terms apply to particles that are smaller or larger. #. 3)ano !aterials are dan.erous. Hust looA at the !o@ie industr= and ,o,ular no@els.5 A num"er of mo$ies ha$e em"raced the ?nanoA theme. Scenes from the mo$ies could "e used as introductions to specific nanotechnology topics. Mo$ies employing the ?nanoA theme include5 ?4antastic FoyageA 8miniaturiBed su"marine on an emergency medical mission9, ?Jurassic 7ar(A 8"ionanotechnology used to resurrect dinosaurs9, ?!erminator 2A 8ro"ot composed of an amorphous structure made up of tiny self assem"ling nano"ots9, ?# -o"otA 8the nano"ots are called nanites9, ?Nnight -iderA 8the car utiliBed all sorts of adapti$e nanotechnology9. =ther mo$ies on microscaling include ?!he #ncredi"le Shrin(ing ManA,


?!he #ncredi"le Shrin(ing 2omanA, ?#nnerspaceA, ?Honey, # Shrun( the NidsA, and ?Ant ;ullyA. 0re2 "y Michael Crichton is perhaps the "est (no%n popular no$el "ased on the runa%ay, self0assem"ling nano"ots. A great story "ut %ea(, at "est, scienceO

Demonstrations an& 2essons

1. (a?e 2our stu)ents ta8e the 1ational 4nstitute of *tan)ar)s an) >echnolog2's 14*> 1ano 4Q QuiA. >he JuiA is a?aila"le at htt-/FF .nist.go?F-u"licUaffairsFnanotechJuiA.htm? totalQuestionsV1+W!+V#W!1V5W!#V#W!9V5W!5V9W!6V5W!7V1W!7V5W!8V1W!%V1. *coring +B9 correct V 1ano 1o?ice= 5B7 correct V 1ano 1er)= 7B1+ correct V 1ano ,enius. 23 >he 4nteracti?e 1anoB.isualiAation in *cience W Engineering E)ucation G41B.*EEH is a consortium of uni?ersit2 an) in)ustr2 scientists an) engineers= communit2 college an) high school science facult2 an) museum e)ucators ith a common ?ision of creating an interacti?e Worl) Wi)e We" GWWWH site to )e?elo- e)ucational thrust "ase) on remote o-eration of a)?ance) microsco-es an) nanofa"rication tools cou-le) to -o erful surface characteriAation metho)s. Clic8ing on &o)ules "rings u- a list of acti?ities that can "e -erforme) in class. >he :in8s section contains a ealth of resources. >he mo)ules an) lin8s section are the most ?alua"le to teachers. Each one inclu)es numerous acti?ities a?aila"le to teachers an)For stu)ents. Ghtt-/FFin?see.asu.e)uFin?seeFin?see.htmC 33 Cutting it Do n to 1ano is an eEercise ith the follo ing o";ecti?es/ un)erstan) the smallness of the nanoscale= a--reciate the im-ossi"ilit2 of creating nanoscale materials ith macroscale o";ects= an) un)erstan) the in?isi"ilit2 of the nanoscale to the unai)e) e2e. htt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcF40*EFe)ucatorsFacti?itiesFcutting1ano.html. 5. >he e"site liste) a"o?e is locate) at the Uni?ersit2 of WisconsinB&a)ison &aterials <esearch *cience an) Engineering Center. ! num"er of other nanoscale acti?ities are inclu)e). >o-ics lin8e) to the e"site are liste) "elo . 1ot all )eal ith the s-ecific to-ics co?ere) in the ChemMatters article= "ut if the article s-ar8s stu)ent interest in nanotechnolog2= such interest can "e channele) to one or more of the acti?ities hich follo . Each of the acti?ities liste) "elo inclu)es a materials section= a set of training ?i)eos on ho to con)uct the acti?it2 an) a learn more section -ro?i)ing lin8s to more information on the to-ic. 53 3alloon &o)els of 1anotu"es G>a"leto-H G3uil) a nanotu"e ma)e of "alloons.H 63 3alloon &o)els of 1anotu"es G*us-en)e) *cul-tureH G*imilar to I7 a"o?e= "ut this mo)el is sus-en)e) from the ceiling.H 73 Cutting it Do n to 1ano G!n acti?it2 to hel- un)erstan) ;ust ho small a nano-article isH 83 Forms of Car"on GEEamines the atomic structure of )iamon)= gra-hite= fullerenes an) car"on nanotu"es an) hel-s eE-lain h2 the2 ha?e such )ifferent -ro-erties from each otherH 93 &itten Challenge Gsimulates the challenge of or8ing ith macro tools to mani-ulate micro materialsH 1+. (ere are more acti?ities that are also on the site= "ut -erha-s less )irectl2 relate) to the article. a3 !mor-hous &etal 03 1anogol) *ensors %3 1anostaine) ,lass *3 1anosurfaces e3 0ro"e &icrosco-2 $3 Wheel of Fortune )3 Writing ith :ight


-3 &3 @3 53 !3 43

Electric *JueeAe Ferroflui) :EDs :iJui) Cr2stals &agic *an) &emor2 &etal

'tu&ent ,ro3ects
1ano.enture/ >he 1anotechnolog2 3oar) ,ame eE-lores the connections "et een science= s-ecificall2 nanotechnolog2= an) societ2. 4n this game= -la2ers "ecome lea)ers of a ne countr2. >he lea)ers are challenge) to ma8e )ecisions regar)ing their countr2's use of nanomaterials an) nanotechnolog2 for in)ustrial eE-ansion= militar2 a--lication= economic securit2 an) "asic scientific research= hile maintaining a high a--ro?al rating from the citiAens of the countr2. >hese )ecisions reJuire -la2ers to carefull2 anal2Ae the inter-la2 of technological a)?ances= regulations= -u"lic -erce-tion an) ris8= hile also learning a"out the emerging fiel) of nanotechnolog2. 4t is "est to -la2 ith four or fi?e -la2ers. (o e?er= teams can "e use) if there are more than siE -la2ers. !n inJuir2 as to the cost an) a?aila"ilit2 of the game le) to the follo ing re-l2/ >han8 2ou for 2our interest in our 1ano.enture game. WeTre still finaliAing )istri"ution )etails ith the 4nstitute for Chemical E)ucation G hich is the nonB-rofit )istri"utor for all of our 8itsH= "ut in the mean time= e are selling the 8its at cost for D56 each= hich inclu)es shi--ing. >he cost ill increase once e )istri"ute through 4CE to co?er their a)ministrati?e costs an) o?erhea)= -ro"a"l2 to ZD7+= "ut no guarantees. 4f 2ou ant to )irect -eo-le to u-BtoB)ate information= 2ou can list m2 email a))ress ,reta &. Penner \gmAennerC isc.e)u^= the 1ano.enture e"site Ghtt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFsu--liesFnano?entureFin)eE.htmlH= or the 4CE e"site at G .ice.chem. isc.e)uH. 1ano.enture isnTt u- on the 4CE e"site 2et= "ut it ill "e soon. Duc8 3o2 in 1anolan)/ 3ig !)?entures in a 1ano orl). 4n this onBline game= Duc8 3o2 is eE-loring 1anolan). 4t is a strange -lace here not is all that it seems= !s Duc8 3o2 eE-lores 1anolan) he encounters a strange -henomenonN as he -la2s 1anolan)'s games the2 re)uce in siAe to nanoBscaleM 0la2ing the game is much har)er at nanoBscale until Duc8 3o2 is intro)uce) to solutions "ase) in 1anotechnolog2 hich hel- nanoBDuc8 3o2 com-lete the challengesM >he game is suite) for all au)iences. *tu)ents use) to online game -la2ing ma2 fin) the game some hat unso-histicate)= "ut com-leting the game )oes -ro?i)e one ith a series of -ro-erties associate) ith nanomaterials. Ghtt-/FF orl).as-H 4f a school "u)get allo s= 4n)igo 4nstruments offers a series of car"on nanotu"e mo)els. >he mo)els ha?e enough -arts to "uil) armchair= AigAag= an) chiral nanotu"es. Kits run from ZD5+BD#++. Ghtt-/FF .in)igo.comFmo)elsFcar"onBnanotu"eBmolecularBmo)elB 8its.htmlH 4f fun)s are not a?aila"le for the -urchase of mo)el 8its= a mo)el of a nanotu"e can "e constructe) from "alloons. Com-lete instructions are gi?en for "uil)ing t o mo)els $ a tenB foot mo)el or a ta"leBto- mo)el. Ghtt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFnanola"F"alloonsF3alloon1anotu"esU0rogram,ui)e.-)fH !nother -age at the Uni?ersit2 of WisconsinB&a)ison site gi?es stu)ents using this site -a-er GelectronicH mo)els of the three )ifferent t2-es of nanotu"es that the2 can "uil) for themsel?es. ! 0DF file re-resenting gra-hene sheets ma2 "e re-ro)uce) an) use) in "uil)ing the mo)els. Ghtt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFcine-leEFnanotu"eFgra-hene.-)fH






>he site also inclu)es ?i)eos )escri"ing each of the mo)els/ Ghtt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFcine-leEFnanotu"eFin)eE.htmlH 63 >he EE-loratorium e" site contains a series of *mall >al8 0o)casts hich eE-lore the to-ics -resente) in the articles. 0o)casts inclu)e/ 1ature's 0la2ing Fiel)/ 1anotechnolog2 an) &e)icine G91 min.H= 1anotechnolog2's <ole in &a8ing Chea- *olar 0o er G#7 min.H= Consumer 0ro)ucts Using 1anotechnolog2 G97 min.H= an) .roomM 1anocars an) 1anofactories G#8 minH= 1anograffiti/ 3uil)ing from the !toms U- G#9 minH. Ghtt-/FF .eE-loratorium.e)uFtiF-o)castsFsmalltal8.-h-H 7. >he sites liste) un)er We"sites for &ore 4nformation offer a ealth of "ac8groun) information for stu)entB-ro)uce) ritten= oral= or ?i)eo class -resentations. @ne -ro;ect in -articular might "e of interest to stu)ents/ 4s there a real )anger in using sunscreens that contain nano-articles? Frien)s of the Earth -ro?i)es a consumer gui)e for a?oi)ing nanoB sunscreens at htt-/FFaction.foe.orgFcontent.;s-?8e2V9+7+. ! more "alance) re-ort tracing the histor2 of the use of nano-articles in sunscreen an) results of -ro)uct testing can "e foun) at htt-/FFrealiAe"eaut2. or)-ress.comF#++%F+9F#7FAincBan)BtheBnanoBsunscreenB re?olutionF.

Antici)ating 'tu&ent Questions

1. 3/hat are the differences a!on. bucA=ballsC nanotubesC nanobudsC and nanowires25 ;uc(y"alls "elong to the family of car"on allotropes called fullerenes, named after the famous architect ;uc(minster 4uller, %ho introduced the use of the geodesic dome into architecture. !he most common "uc(y"alls are CC and C+ .

.anotu"es are cylindrical structures of fullerenes. !hey are usually a fe% nanometers %ide and can "e up to millimeters lengths. !he tu"es can ha$e either open or closed ends.

.ano"uds are structures composed of "uc(y"alls attached to nanotu"es that e)hi"it properties of "oth.


.ano%ires are nanostructures that ha$e incredi"ly large length to %idth ratios. .ano%ires can "e as thin as one nanometer, although the usual %idth is C 0+ nanometers.

All images are ta(en from the 2i(ipedia gallery. #. Wh. are )eo)le concerne& about nano)articles use& in sunscreens? !he older Binc o)ide sunscreens pro$ided protection from the KF rays of the sun "y completely "loc(ing any KF rays from penetrating the Binc o)ide ointment. !he Binc o)ide came in a $ariety of colors, "ut all %ere opa<ue and co$ered the s(in. ;y transforming the Binc o)ide into nanosiBed particles, the sunscreen "ecomes transparent "ut still affords the same protection. Concerns ha$e arisen as to the mo"ility of the Binc o)ide particles penetrating the surface of the s(in and entering the "ody. Health effects of the nanoparticles on "ody tissue are still un(no%n.

>he Uni?ersit2 of Wisconsin$&a)ison= &aterials <esearch *cience an) Engineering Center on 1anostructure) 4nterfaces has -ro)uce) a com-rehensi?e e"site co?ering all areas of nanotechnolog2. 4f onl2 one site ere to "e accesse)= this site -ro?i)es reJuisite "ac8groun) information= -ro;ects= la"s= ?i)eos= lessonsRan2thing a teacher oul) nee). Bhtt-/FFmrsec. isc.e)uFE)etcFC

Web 'ites for A&&itional 0nformation

"ore sites on nanotechnolo.=


>he Center for <es-onsi"le 1anotechnolog2 -resents a "roa) loo8 at ?arious as-ects of nanotechnolog2. @f s-ecial interest is the final section of the site/ &ore 3ac8groun) on 1anotechnolog2. 4nclu)e) in this section are/ 1anotechnolog2 3asicsRFor stu)ents an) other learners &anaging &agicR! "rief o?er?ie of the challenges -ose) "2 a)?ance) nanotechnolog2 1anotechnolog2 on an U- ar) *lo-eR!n online 0o er0oint -resentation >urn on the (igh 3eamsR!n essa2 -u"lishe) "2 4uture ;rief 1an *imulationR! a2 to ?isualiAe hat is meant "2 molecular manufacturing De"ating the Future of 1anotechnolog2R0ers-ecti?e from the Foresight 4nstitute *afe UtiliAation of !)?ance) 1anotechnolog2R@ne of the foun)ing -a-ers of C<1 6B&inute 1anos2stemsR! Juic8 summar2 of Eric DreEler's foun)ational or8 on nanotechnolog2 1anotechnolog2 0ress KitRCom-ile) an) -u"lishe) "2 .anotechnology .o%. >he 0ress Kit itself contains a ealth of information. >he o-ening -age inclu)es an animate) or8ing mo)el of one of the largest nanomechanical )e?ices e?er mo)ele) in atomic )etail= a -arallelBshaft s-ee) re)ucer gear ma)e u- of 16=95# atoms. Ghtt-/FF .crnano.orgF hatis.htmH >he 1orth estern Uni?ersit2 Disco?er1!1@ site offers a com-lete intro)uction to all as-ects of the fiel) of nanotechnolog2. >he site inclu)es a histor2 of nanotechnolog2= a glossar2 of terms= a--lications of nanotechnolog2= societal im-act of nanotechnolog2= a section s-ecificall2 for teachers= a nano art galler2= an) interesting lin8s. >he site also offers free registration for future nanotech to n hall meetings. *treaming ?i)eos of -re?ious to n hall meetings are a?aila"le. Bhtt-/FF .)isco?ernano.north estern.e)uFin)eEUhtmlH

"ore sites on carbon nanotubes

>his is a site com-letel2 )e)icate) to car"on nanotu"es. 4t contains a su-er" set of images as ell as the s-ecific lin8s that follo the main e"site. htt-/FFnanotu"e.comF )ano!aterials Fullerenes Fullerene chemistr2 !--lications 4n -o-ular culture >imeline Car"on allotro-es -ano)articles Quantum )ots 1anostructures Colloi)al gol) Colloi)al sil?er 4ron nano-articles 0latinum nano-articles See also 1anotechnolog2 ! ?i)eo on a massi?e construction -ro;ect in Ka-an "ase) on nanotu"es/


htt-/FF?i)eos.ho stuff or8s.comFhs F8##5B-ureBcar"onBtheBscienceBofBnanotu"esB?i)eo.htm

"ore sites on carbon fiber ,rosthetics

4n this >ED archi?e ?i)eo from 1%%8= -aral2m-ic s-rinter !imee &ullins tal8s a"out her recor)Bsetting career as a runner= an) a"out the amaAing car"onBfi"er -rosthetic legs Gthen a -rotot2-eH that hel-e) her cross the finish line. Ghtt-/FF .te).comFtal8sFlangFengFaimeeUmullinsUonUrunning.htmlH

"ore sites on @iewin. C& 0 in carbon nanotubes and how one @isuali$esL@iews ato!ic si$ed ,articles
3-eactions in Chemistry3 is an eightB-art or8sho- for the -rofessional )e?elo-ment of high school chemistr2 an) -h2sical science teachers. >he or8sho- "len)s chemistr2 content= histor2= an) technological a--lications ith a range of classroom lessons to -ro?i)e teachers ith u-)ate) 8no le)ge an) ne a--roaches to -e)agog2. >eachers ill see )i?erse classes )oing han)sBon lessons an) la"s an) ill hear teachers reflect on their o n -ractices. >he onB camera teachers meet in roun)ta"le )iscussions a"out teaching strategies an) the -articular challenges of hel-ing stu)ents connect the content to their o n li?es. >he -rograms also -resent the or8 of in)ustrial an) forensic chemists an) researchers. Ghtt-/FFlearner.orgF?o)F?o)U in)o .html?-i)V181#C 'Wor8sho- #. &acro to &icro *tructures' is the -rogram that )eals ith the conce-tualiAation of micro -rocesses an) en?ironments. 4t in?ol?es teaching chemistr2 through macro -henomena= hich can "e o"ser?e)= an) micro -rocesses= hich occur on the molecular le?el= an) can onl2 "e imagine). Conce-tual change must occur in or)er for stu)ents to un)erstan) chemical -henomena. >eaching for conce-tual change -oses a great challenge to teachers= "ecause the2 must create imaginar2 an) -h2sical mo)els in or)er to hel- stu)ents ?isualiAe microen?ironments an) -rocesses that occur ithin them.

"ore sites on all as,ects of nanotubes

>he -rimar2 -ur-ose of >he 1anotu"e *ite is to facilitate the eEchange of i)eas among researchers "2 concentrating lin8s to sites )e)icate) to nanotu"es. @ne of the "enefits is to -ro?i)e an easier Gor "etter structure)H electronic access to "i"liogra-hical information an) -re-rints. 4nformation a"out -ro?i)ers of nanotu"es is inten)e) to increase the -ro)uction ?olume an) fin) ne a--lications for nanotu"es. Ghtt-/FFnanotu"e.msu.e)uFC

"ore sites on nanotube and fullerene si!ulations

>his is the home-age of 1anotech <esearch in Da?i) >omane8's ,rou-. (e states <esearch on car"on nanotu"es in m2 grou- focuses on mo)eling the selfBassem"l2 an) electronic -ro-erties of these s2stems. <ecent a)?ances in the s2nthesis of i)entical car"on nanotu"es ith a )iameter of 1.5 nm= 2et hun)re)s of microns in length= "ear high -romise for the a--lication of these a)?ance) materials in neEtBgeneration electronic nanoB)e?ices. !)?ance) com-utational techniJues= inclu)ing largeBscale -aralleliAa"le molecular )2namics simulations of the gro th mechanism an) firstB-rinci-les calculations of the electronic structure= are "eing a--lie) to mo)el the selfBassem"l2 an) the electronic -ro-erties of these structures. <esults ill eluci)ate a2s to )irect an) o-timiAe gro th con)itions= mechanical an) thermal sta"ilit2= an) the usefulness of nanotu"es as -erfect nanoscale con)uctors. Bhtt-/FF .-a.msu.e)uFZtomane8Fnanotu"es.htmlC


"ore sites on nanotubes and nanostructures

>he site inclu)es an interacti?e )ata"ase. Ghtt-/FFumino8ai.netFnanotu"eFin)eE.-h-H

"ore sites on safet= issues and nanotubes

! ne stu)2 has foun) that car"on nanotu"esRif inhale)Rcoul) "e as )angerous as as"estos. >his is not onl2 -ro"lematic for a future of semicon)uctors that oul) li8e to eE-loit the technolog2= "ut also for the goo)s alrea)2 on the mar8et no that use nanotu"es in com-osite miEtures= li8e "ase"all "ats an) tennis rac8ets. *ome entrees a--ear to "e of a serious nature= hile others are Juestiona"le. >he site nee)s to "e mine) for the ?alua"le nuggets. Ghtt-/FFgiAmo)o.comFtagFnanotu"esC >he article of interest is !re 1anotu"es the 1e !s"estos?

More 2e" Sites on !eacher #nformation and >esson 7lans

!n all inclusi?e e"site s-onsore) "2 1!*!R1anotech ,aller2. >he site inclu)es images= 0o er 0oint -resentations= re-orts= e"casts an) mo?ie cli-sRall of hich oul) "e ai)s in )e?elo-ing lessons on nanotechnolog2. >he home-age of the site eE-lains h2 1!*! is so intereste) in nanotechnolog2. Ghtt-/FF .i-t.arc.nasa.go?Fgaller2.htmlH >he relati?el2 ne &icrosoft search engine ." -ro?i)es a sur?e2 of nanotechnolog2 that co?ers an2 to-ic hich might "e on interest to a teacher. !n o?er?ie of each site is accesse) "2 mo?ing the cursor to the right si)e of the site. <elate) lin8s at this e"site are liste) "elo the U<: for the main site. Ghtt-/FF ."ing.comFsearch?F@<&V*@:>DFWJVhistor2YofYnanotechnolog2C A,,lications @f 1anotechnolog2 0efine 1anotechnolog2 1uture 1anotechnolog2 "edical 1anotechnolog2 4ses @f 1anotechnolog2 ?ntroduction To 1anotechnolog2 "ilitar= 1anotechnolog2 0efinition @f 1anotechnolog2 ! com-lete set of lesson -lans on nanotechnolog2 ma2 "e foun) at htt-/FF ."scs).orgFteachersF)?ic8er2Fnanotechnolog2.htm. *ections inclu)e/ What is 1anotechnolog2? Wh2 focus on 1anotechnolog2? 1anotechnolog2 3asics 1anotechnolog2 in >ech .alle2RWhat's ,oing @n? 4n)ustries an) @ccu-ations !ffecte) "2 1anotechnolog2 (el-ing >ech .alle2 *tu)ents ,et a (ea) *tart in 1anotechnolog2. >he Uni?ersit2 of 0enns2l?ania's 4>E*>B1ano <esource :i"rar2 contains materials use) in their *ummer De?elo-ment >eacher Wor8sho-= #++8. >he first t o mo)ules 4ntro)uction


to 1anotechnolog2 4 an) 44 are a?aila"le as 0DF ?ersions of the original sli)es. >he thir) mo)ule= Cell 1anosurger2/ Deli?ering &aterial into Cells an) !nal2Aing Effects fits in -erfectl2 ith the article. >he t o sets of 0o er 0oints sli)es an) *u--ort Files are eEcellent resources an) com-lement the article. >he site also inclu)es three 03: units/ 1anotechnolog2 an) *unscreen= 1anotechnolog2 an) Cancer= an) 1anotechnolog2 an) En?ironmental Clean U-= all a?aila"le as Wor) files. Each is a com-lete set of lessons inclu)ing la"orator2 acti?ities. Ghtt-/FF .gse.u-enn.e)uFitestFresources.htmH