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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Q#1 Define symbol. What information is conveyed by symbol? Ans. A symbol is a brief representation of the name of the element. It consists of either the first letter or the first letter along with another significant letter of the name of the element. A symbol conveys the following information:1. The name of the element (qualitative significance) 2. One atom of the element (quantitative significance) 3. Atomic mass of the element (quantitative significance) The concept of symbol was first of all introduced by a Swedish Scientist Berzelius. Q#2 Ans. What is a chemical formula and write the significance of formula. The chemical formula of a compound is a brief representation of a substance in terms of symbols of various elements present in it. For example, formula H2O represents water. Significance of H2O:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Q#3 Ans. H2O represents water. H2O represents one mole of water. H2O represents one molecule of water. H2O shows that it is made of hydrogen and oxygen. It shows it contains 2-atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. It shows valency of oxygen is two and the valency of hydrogen is one. It shows molecular mass of water as 18 a.m.u. It indicates that 18 parts of water has 2 parts of hydrogen and 16 parts of oxygen by weight.

What is a chemical equation? Give the various steps involved in writing a chemical equation. The chemical equation is a statement that describes a chemical change in terms of symbols and formulae of the reactants and products. The substances which take part in a chemical reaction are called reactants and are written on the left hand side in a chemical equation while those substances which form during chemical reaction are called products and are always written on the right hand side in a chemical equation.

Writing chemical equation:- The different steps of writing an equation are listed below:1. 2. 3. 4. The reactants are always written on the left side of an arrow. The products are written on the right hand side of an arrow. The formulae of reactants and products are connected by plus sign (+). The sign of arrow shows the direction in which the reaction is predominant.

Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Q#4 What are the essentials of chemical equation? Ans. Following are the essentials of chemical equations 1. 2. 3. It must represent a true chemical change It must be balanced. It should be molecular.

Q#5 What are the limitation of chemical equation? Ans. The chemical equation suffers from certain limitations. It does not convey information about the following facts:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The physical state of the reactants and products. Concentration of the reactants. Time used in the completion of a reaction. Speed of the reaction. Whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. Whether the reaction is reversible or irreversible. Essential condition for reaction like temperature, pressure or use of any catalyst. Changes such as precipitation change in colour, evolution of heat, light, light or sound energy occurring during the chemical reaction.

Q#6

Write pre-knowledge before writing a balanced chemical equation.

Ans. Following knowledge is necessary before one starts writing a balanced chemical equation. 1. 2. 3. Whether or not a chemical reaction takes place between two chemical substances. One must know all the reactants and products formed during a chemical change. One must know the correct symbols and formulae of all the reactants and products.

Q#7 What is the significance of chemical equation. Ans. To understand the significance of chemical equation, we consider the equation 2H2 +O2 2H2O

The above equations conveys that 1. 2. 3. 4. Hydrogen gas combines with oxygen to form water. Two moles of H react with one mole of oxygen to form two moles of water. 2 molecules of hydrogen react with one molecule of oxygen to form two molecules of water. 4 gms of hydrogen react with 32 gms of oxygen to form 36 gms of water.

Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Q#8 Ans.

What are the various ways in which a chemical equation can be made more informative? Give examples to illustrate your answer. The chemical equations can be made more informative in three ways: i) ii) iii) By indicating the physical state of the reactants and the products. By indicating the heat changes taking place in the reaction. By indicating the conditions under which the reactions take place.

i)

By indicating the physical state of the reactants and the products:Solid state is indicated by the symbol (s) Liquid state is indicated by the symbol (l) Aqueous solution is indicated by the symbol (aq) Gaseous state is indicated by the symbol (g) The physical state of the reactants and products are shown by putting the symbols just after their formulae in the equation given below: CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) Hydrochloric acid CaCl2 (aq) Calcium chloride + H2O (l) Water + CO2 (g) Carbon dioxide

Calcium carbonate ii)

By indicating the heat changes taking place in the reaction. There are two types of reactions on the basis of heat changes involved, exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions. An exothermic reaction is indicating by writing +Heat or +Heat energy or +Energy on the products side of an equation as shown below: C(s) Carbon + O2 (g) Oxygen CO2 (g) Carbon dioxide + Heat

Similarly, an endothermic reaction is indicated by writing +Heat on the reactants side of an equation as shown in the equation given below CaCO3(s) + Heat CaO(s) Calcium oxide + CO2 Carbon dioxide

Calcium carbonate iii)

By indicating the conditions under which the reactions take place. If heat is required for a reaction to take place, then sign delta () is put over the arrow of the equation. If a catalyst is required for a reaction to take place, then the symbol or formula of a catalyst is written above or below the arrow sign in the equation. 2KClO3(s) Potassium chlorate
MnO 2

2KCl(s) Potassium chloride

3O2 (g) Oxygen


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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Also the conditions of temperature and pressure at which the reaction takes place can also be indicated in an equation by writing their values above or below the arrow sign in the equation. CO (g) + 2H2 (g) Hydrogen 300 atm; 3000C ZnO + Cr2O3 CH3OH (l) Methanol

Carbon dioxide

Q#9 What is balanced and unbalanced chemical equation? Give some examples. Ans. Balanced equation:- A chemical equation in which no. of atoms of each element is same on the side of reactants and products. Example. 2Mg Magnesium 2KNO3 Potassium nitrate + O2 Oxygen 2MgO Magnesium oxide 2KNO2 + O2

Potassium nitrite

Unbalanced or skeleton equation:- A chemical equation in which number of atoms of various elements towards the side of reactants is not equal to number of atoms of various elements towards the side of products is called an unbalanced equation. Example KNO3 KNO2 + O2

This equation is wrong as atoms can neither be created nor destroyed by chemical reactions. Q#10 What do you understand by frequency number in a chemical equation? Ans. The frequency of occurrence of various elements in an equation is called frequency number. E.g. In KNO3 KNO2 + O2

frequency of K=2, frequency of Oxygen =3, Frequency of N=2 Rules for balancing a chemical equation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Write frequency numbers of all the elements in chemical equation. Start balancing equation from that element which has least frequency no. Other element should be balanced in the order of increasing frequency no. If two or more elements have same frequency no. then balance metallic element first If there are two or more metallic elements with same frequency number, balance the metal with highest at. no. first. Then balance the next metallic elements with low atomic nos. If there are two or more non-metallic elements, with same frequency number, balance the nonmetallic element with highest atomic number first. Other non-metallic element should be balanced in the decreasing order of atomic numbers.
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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Examples of finding frequency number:Ca(HCO3)2 f.no. ca=3 i. Element Frequency number Order of balancing each element Thus the equation is balanced as ii Al2 (CO3)3 Element Frequency number Order of balancing Thus the equation is balanced as iii. K2Cr2O7 Element Frequency No. 2 Order of balancing Thus the eqn. is balanced as 2K2Cr2O7 + 8H2SO4 2K2SO4 + 2Cr2(SO4)3 + 8H2O +3O2 + H2SO4 + HNO3 + Ca (OH)2 f.no of C=2, Ca 3 2nd H 3 3rd C 2 1st CaCO3 + H2 O

f.no of H=3 ,

f.no. of O=4 O 4 4th 2CaCO3 + 2H2O

Ca (HCO3)2 + Ca (OH) 2 Al (NO3)3 Al 2 1st C 2 3rd +H2O +CO2 O 5 5th H 2 4th N 2 2nd

Al2 (CO3)3

+ 6HNO3

2Al (NO3)3 + 3CO2 + 3H2O +H2O +O2 H 2 3rd S 3 4th

K2SO4 +Cr2(SO4)3 K 2 2nd Cr 2 1st O 6 5th

Q#11 What is the information conveyed by a balanced chemical equation Ans A balanced chemical equation is given below CuO + CO Cu + CO2

It gives us the following informations:i. ii. iii. iv. It tells us about the substances (reactants and products) It tells us about the symbols and formulae of all substances involved in a chemical reaction It tells us about the number of atoms or molecules of all substances involved in a chemical reaction. It tells us about the weights of all substances involved in a chemical reaction.

Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Q#12 What do you understand by chemical reaction? What are the characteristics of the chemical reaction?(g) Ans. A chemical reaction is a chemical change in which new chemical substances with new properties are formed under a set of certain specified and controlled conditions. During chemical reactions, rearrangements of atoms take place due to the breaking of old bonds and making of new bonds between the reacting molecules and the product molecules. The substances which take part in a chemical reaction are called reactants. The new substances produced in a chemical reaction are called products. Some examples of chemical reactions are as follows: 1. Calcium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride, carbon dioxide and water. CaCO3 + 2HCl Hydrochloric acid O2 Oxygen CaCl2 + H2O Water + CO2 Carbon dioxide

Calcium carbonate 2. 2H2 Hydrogen +

Calcium chloride 2H2O Water

electric spark or burning

3. 2Mg Magnesium

O2 Oxygen

heat

2MgO Magnesium oxide (White water)

Chemical reactions require different set of conditions such as, temperature, pressure, presence of light and presence of catalysts. Characteristics of chemical reaction:Some typical characteristics of chemical reactions are: 1. During the course of a chemical reaction, concentration of the reactants decreases and that of products increases with time. 2. The rate of a chemical reaction depends upon the concentration of the reactants, temperature, pressure and the presence of the catalyst. 3. During the course of a chemical reaction, energy in the form of heat, light or sound is either absorbed or evolved. The important characteristics of chemical reactions are: 1. Evolution of gas:- Some chemical reactions are characterized by the evolution of gas. For example, when calcium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid, then carbon dioxide gas is evolved. CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Similarly, zinc granules react with dilute hydrochloric acid produce hydrogen gas.
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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Zn

2HCl

ZnCl2

H2

2. Change in colour:- Some reactions are characterized by a change in colour. For example when green coloured copper carbonate is heated strongly, a black residue of copper oxide is left.
heat

CuCO3

CuO Copper oxide (Black)

CO2

Copper carbonate (Green)

When citric acid reacts with potassium permanganate solution, then the purple colour of potassium permanganate solution disappears. 3. Formation of Precipitate:- Some reaction are characterized by the formation of a precipitate. e.g. when a solution of silver nitrate(colourless) is mixed with a solution of sodium chloride (colourless), a white precipitate of silver chloride is formed. AgNO3 Silver nitrate + NaCl Sodium chloride AgCl Silver chloride (white) + NaNO3 Sodium nitrate

Similarly, when dilute sulphuric acid is added to a solution of barium chloride, a white precipitate of barium phosphate is formed. BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2HCl Barium chloride sulphuric acid Barium sulphate When hydrogen sulphide gas is passed into the blue solution of copper sulphate, a black precipitate of copper sulphide is formed. CuSO4 + H2S Hydrogen sulphide CuS + H2SO4 Sulphuric acid

Copper sulphate (Blue)

Copper sulphide (Black)

4. Production of energy like heat energy:- Some chemical reaction are characterized by a change in temperature for example, When water is added to quicklime (calcium oxide), heat is evolved and the water becomes very hot. CaO + H2O Ca (OH)2 + Heat Calcium oxide Water Calcium hydroxide Similarly, when barium hydroxide and ammonium chloride are mixed in a test tube, then barium chloride, ammonia and water are formed. A lot of heat energy is absorbed during the reaction and the test tube becomes very cold due to fall in temperature. Ba(OH)2 + 2NH4Cl BaCl2 + 2NH3 + H2O

5. Change is state:- Some chemical reactions are characterized by the change in state. To show the change in state, s(for solid), l(liquid) , g(for gas) and aq(for aqueous) are written after their symbols or formulae. Fro example, Electrolysis of water gives hydrogen and oxygen gases.
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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

2H2O (l) 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) Water Hydrogen Oxygen Similarly, when candle wax is burned, then water and carbon dioxide is formed Q#13 What are the various types of chemical reactions? Explain by giving examples. Ans. Types of chemical reactions Chemical reactions are categorized on the basis of chemical changes which occur in them. Chemical reactions are of various types such as combination reaction, decomposition reaction, displacement reaction, double displacement reaction and oxidation and reduction reactions (redox reaction) 1. Combination reaction: - In this type of chemical reaction, two or more elements or compounds join together through chemical bonds to form a single substance. A reaction of this type may be represented generally as A + B AB

Pictorially, this can be represented as

+ A Examples:1. Nitrogen reacts with hydrogen at high pressure in the presence of iron catalyst o form ammonia. This is called Habers process. N2 Nitrogen + 3H2 Hydrogen Iron 2NH3 Ammonia B AB

2. Magnesium reacts with oxygen on heating to form magnesium oxide. 2Mg Magnesium + O2 Oxygen
Heat

2MgO Magnesium oxide

3. When iron is heated with sulphur, iron sulphide is formed. Fe(s) Iron 4. CO2 Carbon dioxide 5. CaO Calcium oxide + + + S(s) sulphur H2O Water H2O Water
Heat

FeS(s) Iron sulphide H2CO3 Carbonic acid Ca(OH)2 Calcium hydroxide

Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Decomposition reaction:- It is a chemical change during which a compound breaks down to give two or more substances. This reaction may be represented generally as AB A + B

Pictorially, this can be represented as

+ AB A B

Some examples of decomposition reaction are as follows:1. Mercuric oxide on heating above 3000C decomposes to form its respective metal and oxygen gas. 2HgO Mercuric oxide heat 2Hg Mercury + O2 Oxygen

2. When copper carbonate is heated, it decomposes into copper oxide and carbon dioxide. CuCO3 Copper carbonate heat CuO Copper oxide + CO2

3. 2NaCl Sodium chloride

Electric current

2Na(s)

Cl2(g)

Decomposition reaction may be further classified as. a. Thermal decomposition:- This is also known as pyrolysis . In this, a chemical compound is broken down by heat Example, 10000C CaCO3(s) Calcium Carbonate 2HgO Mercuric oxide 3000 C CaO(s) + CO2 (g) Carbon dioxide + O2 Oxygen

Calcium Oxide 2Hg Mercuric

Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation


K2Mno4 + Potassium manganate MnO2 + Manganese dioxide

Chemistry
O2

heat 2KMnO4 Potassium permanganate

b.

Electrolytic decomposition:- This is also called electrolysis .This is a process in which a chemical compound, in the molten state or in aqueous solution, is decomposed by the passage of electricity. Example, 1. 2NaCl (l) Fused sodium chloride
Electric Current

2Na sodium metal

cl2 chlorine gas.

2.

2H2O

Electric Current

2H2

O2

Photosynthetic decomposition: - This is also known as photosynthesis. This is the breaking up of a compound brought about by light. Example 2HCLO Hypochlorous acid 2H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide. AgBr Silver Bromide This reaction is used in photography Uses of decomposition reaction 1. Thermal decomposition reactions are used in the extraction of less active metals from their ores . ZnCO3 Zinc carbonate ZnO Zinc oxide +
Heat Sunlight Sunlight U.V Sunlight

2HCl

O2 Oxygen O2 Oxygen

Hydrochloric acid 2H2O Water Ag Silver + +

Br Bromine

ZnO Zinc oxide


heat reduction

CO2 Carbon dioxide CO Carbon monoxide

C Coke

Zn Zinc metal

2. Electrolytic decomposition is used in the extraction of more active metals from their fused ionic compounds. 2NaCl Fused sodium chloride
Electric current

2Na Sodium metal at cathode

Cl2 Chlorine gas at anode


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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Decomposition reactions in our body:- Food which we eat consists of highly complex organic compounds such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins. These compounds are broken down in our digestive system. For example, the carbohydrates and fats break down to form simple substances like glucose and fructose. Similarly, the proteins break down to amino acids. Displacement reaction or substitution reaction:- When a more active element displaces a less active element from its aqueous ionic compound, the reaction which takes place is called displacement or substitution reaction. It may be represented as A + BC AC + B

This can be pictorially represented as.

BC

AC

The ability of an element to displace another is determined by its relative position in the reactivity series. A more electropositive metal displaces a less electropositive metal from its aqueous solution. Similarly, a more electronegative element displaces a less electronegative element. Some of the examples are given below. 1. When a piece of iron is placed in copper sulphate solution, then ferrous sulphate solution and copper are formed. CuSO4 + Fe Iron FeSO4 + Cu Copper

Copper sulphate (blue)

Ferrious sulphate (green)

In this Fe displaces Cu from copper sulphate solution. The blue colour of CuSO4 solution fades away and a pale green. Solution of ferrous sulphate is formed. Reddish brown copper metal gets deposited on the iron piece. 2. CuSO4 Copper sulphate (Blue) + Mg Magnesium MgSO4 Magnesium sulphate (colourless)
+

Cu Copper

Here magnesium displaces copper from the copper sulphate solution. 3. 2AgNO3 Silver nitrate (Colourless solution) + Cu Cu(NO3)2 Copper nitrate (Blue solution) + 2Ag Silver

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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

4. Zn (s) Zinc

2HCl(dil) hydrochloric acid

ZnCl2(aq) Zinc chloride

H2(g) Hydrogen

Activity Series:The activity series is an arrangement of elements in the decreasing order of the electropositive character. The activity series of metals is given in below Activity Series K Na Ba Ca Mg Al Zn Cr Fe Co Ni Sn Pb H Cu Hg Ag Au Pt

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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Double Displacement Reactions:A chemical reaction in which two ionic compounds in their aqueous solutions react by exchanging their ions/ radicals to form two new compounds is called double displacement reaction. It is also called partner exchange reaction. It can be represented as + AB Solution + +CD Solution +AD + +CB

This may be pictorially represented as

+ A B C D AD

+ CB

These reactions are of two types: Precipitation reactions: - In these reactions, two compounds react in their aqueous state to form an insoluble product which appears in the form of a precipitate. Some examples of precipitation reaction are given below: 1. Aqueous sodium chloride and silver nitrate react to form a white precipitate of silver chloride. NaCl Sodium chloride + AgNO3 Silver nitrate AgCl Silver chloride (White ppt) + NaNO3 Sodium nitrate

2. Aqueous copper sulphate and sodium hydroxide react to form a blue precipitate of copper hydroxide CuSO4 Copper sulphate + 2NaOH Sodium hydroxide Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4 SodiumSulphate

Copper hydroxide (sky blue)

3.

BaCl2(aq) Barium chloride

CuSo4(aq) Copper sulphate

BaSO4 Barim sulphate (White ppt.)

CuCl2(aq) Copper chloride

Neutralization reactions:- In these reactions and acid reacts with a base ; by exchanging their radicals, to form salt and water only.

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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Some examples are given below: 1. Sulphuric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide solution to form sodium sulphate(salt ) and water. H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O Sulphuric acid Sodium hydroxide Sodium sulphate water 2. HCl Hydrochloric acid + KOH Potasium hydroxide KCl + Potassium chloride H2O water

Reversible reactions:- These reactions which do not go completely from the reactants towards the products because the products too react among themselves to regenerate the reactants. After sometimes, a reversible reaction comes to a state of equilibrium in which the forward and backward reactions take place at the same speed and the amounts of the amounts of the compounds remain unchanged. Examples, N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2 NH3(g)

N2(g) +

O2(g)

2 NO(g)

2SO2 +

O2

2 SO3

Q#14 What is oxidation and reduction reaction? Explain with examples. Ans. Oxidation and reduction reactions:- According to the earlier concept, the oxidation of a substance takes place when: 1. There is addition of oxygen to a substance. 2. There is addition of a non metal to a substance. 3. There is removal of hydrogen from a substance. 4. There is removal of metal from a substance. Oxidising agents:- The substance is an oxidizing agent if : 1. It supplies oxygen from oxidation. 2. It supplies a non metal from oxidation. 3. It removes hydrogen from another substance. 4. It removes metal from another substance. Reduction:- The reduction of a substance takes place when; 1. There is addition of hydrogen to a substance. 2. There is addition of metal to a substance. 3. There is removal of oxygen from a substance. 4. There is removal of non metal from a substance.
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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Reducing agent:- The substances is a reducing agent if; 1. It supplies hydrogen for reduction. 2. It supplies metal for reduction. 3. It removes oxygen from another substance. 4. It removes non metal from another substance. Example; 1. When hydrogen gas is passed over heated copper oxide, the copper metal and water are formed. Reduced CuO + H2 Cu + H2O

Oxidised

In this, removal of oxygen takes place from copper oxide. So, copper oxide is reduced to copper. Similarly, addition of oxygen takes place in hydrogen. So, hydrogen is oxidized to water. In the above reaction, hydrogen removes oxygen from copper oxide; therefore, hydrogen is a reducing agent. Moreover, copper oxide is the supplier of oxygen; therefore copper oxide is an oxidizing agent. Oxidized (removal of hydrogen)

2.

H2 S Hydroigen sulphide

Br2 Bromine

2HBr + Hydro bromic acid

S Sulphur

Reduced (addition of hydrogen)

1.

When chlorine gas is passed through potassium iodide solution, it forms potassium chloride and iodine. 2KI Potassium iodide + Cl2 Chlorine 2KCl Potassium chloride + I2 Iodine

In the above reaction, potassium metal is removed from potassium iodide; therefore, potassium iodide is oxidized to iodine. Also, the addition of potassium metal takes place in chlorine. Therefore, chlorine is reduced to potassium chloride. Morever, potassium iodide supplies metallic element potassium, therefore it is a reducing agent. Chlorine removes metallic element potassium from potassium iodide; therefore it is an oxidizing agent.

Electronic concept of oxidation and reduction:Oxidation:- When an atom or an ion looses an electron /electrons, the oxidation is said to take place.
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Class 10th
Examples:1. 2.

Chemical Reaction and Equation


Na - e Na+ Sodium metal is oxidized to sodium ion. Fe2+ e Fe3+

Chemistry

Ferrous ion is oxidized to ferric ion. Reduction:- when an atom or an ion gains an electron/electrons, the reduction is said to taken place.

Examples:1. Cl + e Cl

Chlorine atom is reduced to chlorine ion. 2. Fe3+ + e Fe2+

Ferric ion is reduced to ferrous ion. Redox Reaction:- A Chemical reaction in which loss of electrons and gain of electrons takes place simultaneously is called redox reaction. Example:Sodium metal reacts with chlorine to form sodium chloride. 2Na Sodium + Cl2 chlorine 2NaCl sodium chloride.

The reaction can be written as, 2Na Cl2 + 2e 2e 2N+ 2Cl

In this sodium metal is oxidized to sodium ion and chlorine is reduced to chlorine ion. Q#15 What are the effects of oxidation reactions in everyday life? Ans. There are two common effects of oxidation reactions which we observe in our daily life are: i) Corrosion of metals ii) Rancidity of food.

Corrosion :- Is the process in which metals are eaten up gradually by the action of air, moisture or a chemical on their surface. Rusting of iron metal is the most common form of corrosion. In this, iron metal is oxidized by the oxygen of air in the presence of moisture to form hydrated iron (III) oxide called rust.

4Fe Iron

3O2

2.x.H2O Water

2Fe2O3.xH2O Rust
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Oxygen

Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation


(Iron (III) oxide

Chemistry

The no. of water molecules (x) in the rust varies. Rust is a soft and porous substance which gradually falls off from the surface of an iron object and hence weakens and eats up the whole iron object. Rancidity:- The condition produced by aerial oxidation of fats and oils in foods marked by unpleasant smell and taste is called rancidity. Rancidity spoils the food material such as potato chips, fried items etc. prepared in fats and oils which have been kept for a considerable time and makes them unfit for eating. The rancidity of food can be prevented or retarded in the following ways: 1. Rancidity can be prevented by adding antioxidants like BHA (Butylated Hydroxy-Anisole) and BHT (Butylated Hydroxy-toluene) to foods containing fats and oils so that fats and oils do not get oxidized easily. Rancidity can be prevented by packaging fats and oils containing foods in nitrogen gas. This prevents the food from being oxidized and hence do not turn rancid. Rancidity can be retarded by keeping food in a refrigerator which slows down the oxidation of fats and oils due to low temperature. Rancidity can be retarded by storing the food in air-tight containers where exposure of oxygen is very much reduced. Rancidity can be retarded by storing foods away from light.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Text Book Questions


Q#1 Ans. Why should a magnesium ribbon be cleaned before burning in air? Magnesium ribbon forms a coating of basic magnesium carbonate on its surface by the slow action of moist air. This layer hinders the burning of magnesium. Hence it is cleaned by rubbing with a sand paper before burning in air. Write the balanced equation for the following chemical reaction. Hydrogen + Chlorine Barium chloride + Aluminium sulphate Sodium + Water i) ii) iii) Q#3 H2 3BaCl2 2Na + + + Hydrogen chlorine Barium sulphate + Aluminium chloride

Q#2 a. b. c. Ans.

Sodium hydroxide + Hydrogen Cl2 Al2(SO4)3 2H2O 2HCl 3BaSO4 2NaOH + + 2AlCl3 H2

Write a balanced chemical equation with state symbols for the following reactions: i) Solutions of barium chloride and sodium sulphate in water react to give insoluble barium sulphate and the solution of sodium chloride. ii) Sodium hydroxide solution in water) reacts with hydrochloric acid solution (in water) to produce sodium chloride solution and water.
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Class 10th
Ans. i) ii) Q#4 BaCl2(aq) NaOH(aq)

Chemical Reaction and Equation


+ + Na2SO4(aq) HCl (aq) BaSO4(s) NaCl(aq) + +

Chemistry
2NaCl(aq) H2O(l)

A solution of a substance X is used for white washing. i) ii) Name the substance X and write its formula. Write the reaction of the substance X named (i) above with water. The substance X is quicklime and its formula is CaO. CaO(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq)

Ans.

i) ii)

Q#5 Ans.

Why the amount of gas is collected in one of test tubes in Activity 6.7 is double of the amount collected in the other? Name this gas. Since the electrolysis of water produces 2 volumes of hydrogen gas and 1 volume of oxygen gas i.e. in the ratio of 2 : 1. 2H2O(l)
Electrolysis

2H2(g)

O2(g)

Thus one of the gases collected in one of the test tubes is double than the other gas and the gas is hydrogen. Q#6 Ans. Why does the colour of copper sulphate solution change when an iron nail is dipped in it? Iron displaces copper from copper sulphate solution as shown by the equation given below; CuSO4(aq) Blue + Fe(s) FeSO4(aq) Light green + Cu(s)

The deep blue colour of copper sulphate solution fades due to the formation of light green solution of iron sulphate. Q#7 Ans. Give an example of a double displacement reaction other than the one given in Activity 6.10. AgNO3(aq) Silver nitrate Q#8 (i) (ii) Ans. + NaCl(aq) Sodium Chloride AgCl(s) Silver chloride + NaNO3(aq) Sodium nitrate

Identify the substances that are oxidized and the substances that are reduced in the following reactions: 4Na(s) CuO (s) + + O2(g) H2(s) 2Na2O(s) Cu(s) + H2O(l)

i) Na has gained oxygen to form Na2O. But addition of oxygen is called oxidation, so sodium (Na) is oxidized to sodium oxide (Na2O). Now, O2 is changing into Na2O by the addition of sodium metal. But addition of metal is reduction, so oxygen (O2) is reduced to Na2O.

ii)

CuO(s) Copper oxide

H2(g) Hydrogen

Cu(s) + Copper

H2O(l) Water
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Class 10th
(Black)

Chemical Reaction and Equation


(Red)

Chemistry

Copper oxide is reduced to copper as CuO has lost oxygen to form Cu. However, H2 has gained oxygen to form H2O, therefore H2 is oxidized to water.

Exercise

Q#1

Which of the statements about the reaction below are incorrect? 2PbO(s) a) b) c) d) + C(s) 2Pb(s) + CO2 (g)

Lead is getting reduced. Carbon dioxide is getting oxidized. Carbon is getting oxidized. Lead oxide is getting reduced. (I) (II) (III) (IV) (a) and (b) (a) and (c) (a) (b) and (c) All and (b)

Ans.

i)

(a)

Pbo has lost oxygen to form pb. Therefore, lead dioxide is getting reduced. Carbon has gained oxygen to form CO2; therefore carbon is getting oxidized to CO2. Q#2 Fe2O3 + 2Al Al2O3 + 2Fe

The above reaction is an example of a a) b) c) d) Ans. Q#3 Combination reaction Double displacement reaction. Decomposition reaction. Displacement reaction.

Displacement reaction What happens when dilute hydrochloric acid is added to iron fillings? Tick the correct answer. a) . b) c) Chlorine gas and Iron hydroxide are produced. No reaction takes place.
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Hydrogen gas and iron chloride are produced

Class 10th
d)

Chemical Reaction and Equation


Iron salt and water are produced.

Chemistry

Ans.

The following reaction takes place Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2

Thus, hydrogen and iron chloride are produced. Q#4 Ans. What is a balanced chemical equation? Why should chemical equations be balanced? A chemical equation in which number of atoms of each element is same on the side of reactants and products is called balanced equation. Example, 2Mg + O2 2MgO

According to the law of conservation of mass, the total mass of the elements present in the reactants has to be equal to the total mass of the elements present in the products. Hence, we should balance a skeletal chemical equation. Q#5 a) b) c) d) Ans. a) b) c) d) Q#6 a) b) c) d) Translate the following statements into chemical equations and then balance them: Hydrogen gas combines with nitrogen to form ammonia. Hydrogen sulphide gas burns in air to give water and sulphur dioxide. Barium chloride reacts with aluminium sulphate to give aluminium chloride and a precipitate of barium sulphate. Potassium metal reacts with water to give potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. N2 H2S 3 BaCl2 2K + + + + 3H2 3O2 Al2(SO4)3 2H2O 2NH3 2H2O 2AlCl3 2KOH + + + 2SO2 3BaSO4 H2

Balance the following chemical equations: HNO3 NaOH NaCl BaCl2 + + + + Ca(OH)2 H2SO4 AgNO3 H2SO4 Ca(NO3)2 Na2SO4 AgCl BaSO4 + + + + H2 O H2 O NaNO3 HCl

Ans.

a) b) c) d)

2HNO3 2NaOH NaCl BaCl2

+ + + +

Ca(OH)2 H2SO4 AgNO3 H2SO4

Ca(NO3)2 Na2SO4 AgCl BaSO4

+ + + +

2H2O 2H2O NaNO3 2HCl

Q#7

Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions:


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Class 10th
a) b)

Chemical Reaction and Equation


Calcium hydroxide + Carbon dioxide Zinc + Silver nitrate Calcium carbonate + Water 4Zinc nitrate + Silver

Chemistry

c) d) Ans. a) b) c) d) Q#8 a) b) c) d) Ans. a)

Aluminium + Copper chloride Barium chloride + Potassium sulphate Ca(OH)2 Zn 2Al BaCl2 + + + + CO2 2AgNO3 3CuCl2 K2SO4 CaCO3

Aluminium chloride + Copper Barium sulphate + Potassium chloride + + + + H2 O 2Ag 3Cu 2KCl

Zn(NO3)2 2AlCl3 BaSO4

Write the balanced chemical equation for the following and identify the type of reaction in each case: Potassium bromide (aq) + Barium iodide?(aq) Zinc carbonate (s) Hydrogen (g) + Chlorine (g) Magnesium (s) + Hydrochloric acid(aq) 2KBr(aq) + BaI2(aq) Potassium iodide (aq) + Barium bromide(s)

Zinc oxide (s) + Carbon dioxide (g) Hydrogen chloride(g) Magnesium chloride (aq) + Hydrogen (g) 2KI(aq) + BaBr2(aq)

It is double displacement reaction b) ZnCO3(s) ZnO(s) + CO2(g)

It is decomposition reaction c) H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g)

It is a combination reaction. d) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Displacement reaction Q#9 Ans. What does one mean by exothermic and endothermic reactions? Give examples. Exothermic reaction:- Those reactions which take place with the evolution of heat are called exothermic reactions. In these reactions, the total heat energy absorbed by the reactants to break old bonds is less than the total heat energy released by the products on the formation of new bonds. Example, The burning of coal in air to form CO2 is exothermic reaction i. ii. iii. iv. C N2 2Mg CH4 + + + + O2 3H2 O2 O2 CO2 2NH3 2MgO CO2 + + + + Heat Heat Heat H2O + Heat
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Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Endothermic reactions:- Those reactions which take place with the absorption of heat are called endothermic reactions. In these reactions, the total heat energy absorbed by the reactants is more than the total heat energy released by the products. Examples: Formation of nitric oxide (NO) by the combination of N2 and O2 at 30000C is an endothermic reaction. i. ii. iii. iv. N2 CaCO3 2KClO3 C + + + + O2 Heat Heat 2S + + Heat CaO 2KCl Heat + + 2NO CO2 3O2 CS2

Q#10 Why respiration is considered an exothermic reaction? Give examples. Ans. During respiration, glucose combines with oxygen in the cells of our body to form carbon dioxide and water along with the production of energy. C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) + E

Since energy is produced during this process, therefore it is an exothermic reaction. Q#11 Why decomposition reaction is called the opposite of combination reaction? Ans. In decomposition reaction, a single compound splits to give two or simpler substances whereas in a combination reaction two or more simpler substances combine together to form a single compound. Hence, they are opposite to each other. Examples of decomposition reactions: i) ii) CaCO3(s) 2HgO(s)
Heat Heat

CaO(s) 2Hg(l)

+ +

CO2(g) O2(g)

Examples of combination reaction: i) ii) 2Mg(s) C(s) + + O2(g) O2(g) 2MgO(s) CO2(g)

Q#12 Write one equation each for decomposition reaction where energy is supplied in the form of heat, light or electricity. Ans. i) Decomposition reaction involving absorption of heat. 2HgO
heat

2Hg(l)

O2(heat)

ii)

Decomposition reaction involving absorption of light. 2AgCl


Sunlight

2Ag(s)

Cl2(g)
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Class 10th
iii)

Chemical Reaction and Equation


Decomposition reaction involving absorption of electricity. 2H2O(l)
Electric Current

Chemistry

2H2(g)

O2(g)

Q#13 What is the difference between displacement and double displacement reaction? Write equations for these reactions. Ans. In a displacement reaction, a more active element displaces a less active element from its aqueous ionic compound, where as in a double displacement reaction, two ionic compounds in their aqueous solutions react by exchanging their ions/ radicals to form two new compounds. Example for displacement reaction Mg(s) Magnesium + CuSO4(aq) Copper sulphate (Blue) Example for double displacement reaction AgNO3(aq) Silver nitrate + NaCl(aq) Sodium chloride AgCl Silver chloride (White ppt.) Q#14 The refining of silver, the recovery of silver from silver nitrate solution involved displacement by copper metal. Write down the reaction involved. Ans. 2AgNO3(aq) + Cu(s) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s) + NaNO3(aq) sodium nitrate MgSO4(aq) Magnesium sulphate (Colourless) + Cu(s) Copper

Q#15 What do you mean by a precipitation reaction? Explain by giving examples. Ans. Precipitation reactions: - In these reactions, two compounds react in their aqueous state to form an insoluble product which appears in the form of a precipitate. Some examples of precipitation reaction are given below: 1. Aqueous sodium chloride and silver nitrate react to form a white precipitate of silver chloride. NaCl + AgNO3 AgCl + NaNO3 Sodium chloride Silver nitrate Silver chloride Sodium nitrate (White ppt) 2. Aqueous copper sulphate and sodium hydroxide react to form a blue precipitate of copper hydroxide CuSO4 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4 Copper sulphate Sodium hydroxide Copper hydroxide SodiumSulphate (sky blue) 3. BaCl2(aq) + Barium chloride CuSo4(aq) Copper sulphate BaSO4 + Barim sulphate (White ppt.) CuCl2(aq) Copper chloride

Q#16 Explain the following in terms of gain or loss of oxygen with two examples each.
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Class 10th
a) b) Ans. Oxidation Reduction

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Oxidation:- Oxidation is a process which involves addition of oxygen

Examples i) Burning of carbon in the presence of oxygen C(s) ii) + O2(g)


Oxidation

CO2(g)

Burning of magnesium in the presence of oxygen 2Mg(s) + O2(g)


Burning

2MgO(s)

Reduction:- Reduction is a process that involves removal of oxygen. Examples: i) Heating zinc oxide with carbon ZnO(s) + C(s)
Heat

Zn(s)

CO (g)

Reduced (Removal of oxygen) ii) Copper oxide is heated with hydrogen gas CuO(s) + H2(g)
Heat

Cu

H2O

Here copper oxide is reduced to copper. Q#17 A shiny brown coloured element X on heating in air becomes black in colour. Name the element X and the black coloured compound formed. Ans. The element X is copper and the black coloured compound formed is copper oxide (CuO) .Tthe reaction is given below: 2Cu(s) + O2(g)
Heat

2CuO(s)

Q#18 Why do we apply paint on iron articles? Ans. We apply paint on iron articles because air and moisture do not come in contact with the iron objects and hence no rusting takes place.

Q#19 Oil and fat containing food items are flushed with nitrogen. Why? Ans. Oil and fat containing food items are flushed with nitrogen gas to prevent from being oxidized and hence the food items do not turn rancid.

Q#20 Explain the following terms with one example each. a) b) Corrosion Rancidity
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Class 10th
Ans.

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Chemistry

Corrosion: - Is the process in which metals are eaten up gradually by the action of air, moisture or a chemical on their surface. Rusting of iron metal is the most common form of corrosion. In this, iron metal is oxidized by the oxygen of air in the presence of moisture to form hydrated iron (III) oxide called rust. 4Fe Iron + 3O2 + 2.x.H2O Water 2Fe2O3.xH2O Rust (Iron (III) oxide

Oxygen

The no. of water molecules (x) in the rust varies. Rust is a soft and porous substance which gradually falls off from the surface of an iron object and hence weakens and eats up the whole iron object.

Rancidity:- The condition produced by aerial oxidation of fats and oils in foods marked by unpleasant smell and taste is called rancidity. Rancidity spoils the food material such as potato chips, fried items etc. prepared in fats and oils which have been kept for a considerable time and makes them unfit for eating. The rancidity of food can be prevented or retarded in the following ways: 1. Rancidity can be prevented by adding antioxidants like BHA (Butylated Hydroxy-Anisole) and BHT (Butylated Hydroxy-toluene) to foods containing fats and oils so that fats and oils do not get oxidized easily. 2. Rancidity can be prevented by packaging fats and oils containing foods in nitrogen gas. This prevents the food from being oxidized and hence do not turn rancid. 3. Rancidity can be retarded by keeping food in a refrigerator which slows down the oxidation of fats and oils due to low temperature. 4. Rancidity can be retarded by storing the food in air-tight containers where exposure of oxygen is very much reduced. 5. Rancidity can be retarded by storing foods away from light.

List of common metals in the increasing order of their atomic numbers/ atomic masses. Metals Na Atomic Number 11 Atomic Mass 23
25

Class 10th

Chemical Reaction and Equation


Mg Al K Ca Cr Mn Fe Ni Cu Zn Ag Ba Au Hg Pb 12 13 19 20 24 25 26 28 29 30 47 56 79 80 82 24 27 39 40 52 55 56 59 64 65 108 137 197 201 207

Chemistry

List of common non- metals in the increasing order of their atomic numbers/ atomic masses. Non-metals H C N O F Si P S Cl Br I Atomic Number 1 6 7 8 9 14 15 16 17 35 53 Atomic Mass 1 12 14 16 19 28 31 32 35 80 127

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