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Class 10th Biology

Q#1 Ans.

Control and Coordination

How many divisions does a nervous system in human beings consists of? Human nervous system consists of three divisions:1. Central nervous system (CNS): It includes brain and spinal cord. 2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS): It consists of nerves which extend from the central nervous system to all parts of the body. It includes cranial and spinal nerves. 3. Autonomic nervous system (ANS): It consists of nerves connecting the visceral organs to the brain and spinal cord. It controls the involuntary activities of the body. It has two major components: Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. What are nerves? What are the different types of nerves? Nerves are composed of nerve fibres bundled together like the strands of a telephone cable. These nerve fibres or nerve cells are called neurons which form the basic units of the nervous system. Messages are conducted by nerves in the form of electrical impulses. Types of nerves There are three types of nerves depending upon the direction in which they transmit the nerve impulse. 1. Sensory nerves: These are also called afferent nerves (Latin: afferent means carry toward). There nerves carry messages (impulses) from receptors towards the brain. 2. Motor nerves: These are also called efferent nerves (Latin: efferent means carry away). These nerves take messages away from the brain towards the effector organ, such as muscles and glands. 3. Mixed nerves:- There are many nerves which are comprised of both afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerve fibres. These are called mixed nerves. For example, most cranial and spinal nerves are mixed nerves. Explain the structure of a nerve cell (Neuron). The functional unit of the nervous system is a highly specialized cell called the nerve cell or neuron for responding to stimuli. It receives information and transmits it from one part of body to another. Thus, neurons are structural and functional part of nervous system. Each neuron consists of three principal parts. 1. Cell body or cyton 2. Axon 3. Dendrites The cell body or cyton has a large, central nucleus surrounded by the cytoplasm. Cell organelles like mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, microfilaments and microtubules, are also present in the cell body. Several short, thread-like branches called dendrites (Greek: dendron means tree) arise from the cell body. One of the branches grows very large in comparison to others. This branch is called the axon. The axon is covered on the outside by three layers. 1. Axolemma (the innermost layer) 2. Myelin sheath or medullary sheath ( the middle layer ) 3. Neurilemma ( the outermost layer) The axolemma and neurilemma are continuous, whereas myelin sheath is not a continuous. It is constricted at intervals. These constrictions are known as nodes of Ranvier. The axon ends in axon endings. This is called terminal arborization.

Q#2 Ans.

Q#3 Ans.

Class 10th Biology

Control and Coordination

Q#4 Ans.

How is nerve impulse conducted in human beings? Nerve impulses pass along a neuron in one direction only. At one end, the neuron is connected to a sensory receptor that receives the message or stimulus and converts it into electro-chemical signals which are carried by the neuron. The stimulus from the receptor organ is received by the dendrites, conducted to the cell body of the neuron and passed on through the axon to another neuron and finally to the effecter organ. The axon endings of one nerve cell are loosely placed on the cell body or cyton of another nerve cell. What is Synapse? The loose connection between the axon endings of one nerve cell and cyton of the next nerve cell is called synapse. In other words, signals travel from one neuron to another neuron across a junction called synapse.

Q#5 Ans.

Q#6 Ans.

Explain the structure of human brain. Central nervous system- The human brain The human brain is highly developed. It is the highest coordinating centre. Human brain weighs about 1.2 to 1.4 kg and is made up of about 10,000 million neurons. It is protected by cranium part of skull. It is covered from outside by three membranes called meninges. The space between the meninges and the brain cavities or ventricles is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid protects the brain against external shocks and mechanical injury. It also helps in the exchange of nutrients and waste products between nervous tissue and blood. The human brain is divided into three major regions, namely forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Forebrain The forebrain includes two main parts: 1. Olfactory lobes: Olfactory lobes are the centre of smell and are poorly developed in human beings. 2. Cerebrum: Cerebrum is highly developed in man. It forms two-third of the brain. It is divided into the right and left cerebral hemisphere by a deep fissure. The cerebrum governs mental abilities like thinking, reasoning, memorizing, learning and consciousness and sense of responsibility. In fact, it is the seat of intelligence. It enables us to observe the things around us through sense organs like sense of sight, smell, taste, hearing, touch, etc. In the cerebrum specific regions for each kind of stimulus and its response are located. For example, occipital lobe is the region for visual reception, temporal lobe for auditory reception. Frontal lobe for muscular activities and parietal lobe for touch, smell, temperature and conscious association. Midbrain The midbrain consists of optic lobes which are the centre of vision. Midbrain also consists of group of nerves which connects forebrain with hindbrain. Hindbrain It consists of cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata. Cerebellum coordinates voluntary movements. It also controls body postures and equilibrium. 2

Class 10th Biology

Control and Coordination

Pons takes part in the regulation of respiration. It also contains nerve bands which join two lateral lobes of cerebellum.

Medulla oblongata: - It is also called brain stem. It controls involuntary functions, such as heartbeat, breathing movement, blood pressure by controlling contraction and relaxation of blood vessels. It is also a regulatory centre for swallowing, coughing, sneezing and vomiting. Q#7 Explain the structure and functions of spinal cord. Ans. Spinal cord is the extension of medulla oblongata of brain. It lies in the neural canal of vertebral column and extends from medulla to lumber region. Like brain it is also protected by three meninges and cerebrospinal fluid. It is enclosed by a bony cage called vertebral column. On each side of the spinal cord are two horns, the dorsal horn and the ventral horn. Dorsal horn is joined by sensory nerves which pick up impulses from sense organs. From ventral horn arises the motor nerve which carries the message from spinal cord to the organ. The spinal cord performs these functions: Spinal cord conducts impulses to and from the brain. It acts as a reflex centre. Q#10 What is a reflex action and reflex arc? Ans. There are certain body responses which are immediate and do not require any processing by the brain. These responses or actions are controlled by the spinal cord. These are called reflex actions. A reflex action may be defined as spontaneous, automatic and mechanical response to a stimulus controlled by the spinal cord without the involvement of brain. The pathway followed by sensory and motor nerves in a reflex action is called reflex arc. The entire sequence of events that constitute a reflex arc are given below:

Components of a reflex arc A reflex arc has four main components. Receptor or sensory organ to perceive the stimulus. Sensory or afferent nerve which carries the message from receptors to the spinal cord. Relay neurons of the spinal cord which transmit impulses from the afferent neurons to the efferent neurons. Motor or efferent nerve which carries the message from the spinal cord to the muscles or glands (effector organ) Some common examples of reflex action Blinking of eyes in response to a foreign particle that has entered the eye. Sneezing or coughing if any unwanted particles enter the nose or throat. Watering of the mouth at the sight of tasty food. Immediate withdrawal of hand if a person touches a hot object unknowingly. Withdrawal of the leg by a person walking bare feet if happens to steps on a nail. Q#11 What is automatic nervous system (ANS)? Ans. ANS includes special set of peripheral nerves that control and coordinate the activities of internal organs like heart, lungs, kidneys, glands, blood vessels and visceral organs. Hence, it is also called visceral nervous system. Autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Both these nervous divisions function in opposite manner to one another (work antagonistic to each other). One exerts a stimulatory effect while the other exerts inhibitory effect on a particular internal organ. Examples: (a)

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Control and Coordination

Sympathetic nerve accelerates the heartbeat and parasympathetic nerve decreases it. (b) Sympathetic nerve inhibits the gastric secretion and parasympathetic nerve stimulates it.

Q#12 What is peripheral nervous system (PNS) PNS comprises nerves that connect the CNS with different parts of body. PNS consists of two types of nerves, namely cranial nerves and spinal nerves.

Nerves arising from brain are called cranial nerves. There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves in man. Nerves arising from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves. There are thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves in man. Q#13 What is hormone? Ans. A hormone is a chemical messenger secreted by an endocrine gland and carried by blood or lymph to a target organ elsewhere in the body to stimulate a specific activity that may be biochemical or physiological. They help in regulation of physiological processes in the body such as growth, metabolic activities and reproduction. Characteristics of hormones They are secreted by endocrine glands. They are produced in trace amounts. They are specific chemical messengers. They are poured directly into the blood and carried by blood circulation to different parts of body. Their action is very rapid and they act on specific target organ. Q#14 Enlist various glands their hormones and functions performed by them. Endocrine Glands And Their Hormone Secreted Principal Functions Location Releasing hormone Regulates secretion of hormones from Head Region Hypothalamus anterior lobe of pituitary gland.

pituitary Gland It has three lobes. It is attached to the lower surface of the brain.

Anterior Lobe

Growth Hormone (GH) or Controls the overall development or growth Somatotrophic Hormone of the body, muscles, bones and tissues. (STH) Lack of this hormone (hypo activity) causes dwarfness. Its excessive secretion (hyper activity) causes excessive growth of bones making the person very tall (gigantism).

Trophic Hormone

Regulates secretion of hormones from endocrine glands like adrenal, thyroid, testes and ovary. 4

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Tyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Controls the growth and functioning of the thyroid gland. Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxin. Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete its hormone.

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)

Follicle Stimulating In males, it stimulates the secretion of male Hormone (FSH) hormone, testosterone (sex hormone in males). In females, it stimulates the secretion of oestrogen and progesterone (sex hormone in females). Prolactin Hormone (PRL) Posterior Lobe Oxytocin Enhances mammary gland development and milk production in females. Stimulates contraction of smooth muscles at the time of child birth. It also helps in milk ejection (lactation) from the mammary glands. or Regulates water and electrolyte balance in Hormone body fluids.

Vasopressin Antidiuretic (ADH) Intermediate Lobe

Melanocyte Stimulating Darkens skin colour Hormone(MSH) Stimulates the rate of cellular oxidation and metabolism.

Thyroxine Neck Region Thyroid Gland It is situated in the neck region on the ventral side of the body. It has two lateral lobes, one on either side of the trachea. Parathyroid Parathyroid Gland These are four small oval bodies (PTH) which lie embedded in the lobes of the thyroid gland. Abdominal Region Adrenal Gland In human beings, a pair of adrenal glands is present, one on top of each kidney. Each adrenal gland has an outer part called the cortex and an inner part, medulla. Glucocorticoids Adrenal Cortex

Hormone Regulates calcium and phosphate levels in the blood.

Regulates the metabolism of protein, fats and carbohydrates in the body and the level of blood sugar. Regulates heart rate and blood pressure. Regulates mineral balance in body 5

Mineralocorticoid

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(aldosterone)

Adrenalin (Epinephrine) Both these hormones together control and Nor-adrenalin (Nor emotions, fear, anger, blood pressure, epinephrine) heartbeat, respiration and relaxation of smooth muscles. Insulin Regulates the conversion of glucose to Pancreas It is a compound gland in the glycogen; i.e. it lowers blood glucose level. abdominal region located posterior to the stomach. It endocrine part is Islets of Langerhans, which secretes hormones. Glucagon Regulates the conversion of glycogen back to glucose; i.e. it increases blood pressure. Adrenal Medulla Progesterone and Ovaries These are a pair pf organs present Oestrogen in the lower abdominal region in females. Plays an important role in ovulation. These help in the preparation of uterus for the reception of fertilized ovum. These hormones also help in the maintenance of pregnancy. They are responsible for development of secondary sexual characteristics in females like mammary gland, voice, hair pattern, etc. Regulates the growth, development and functioning of accessory sex organs and controls the secondary sexual characteristics in males, such as enlargement of penis and scrotum, growth of facial and pubic hair , and enlargement of larynx that causes deepening of voice. It effects the concentration of pigment granules in the Melanocyte. Melatonin inhibits ovaries growth and ovulation.

Testosterone Testis These are extra-abdominal in position. The interstitial or Leydig cells present in testes produce the male hormone.

It secretes a hormone Pineal Pineal lies in the brain called melatonin. near to the pituitary gland. It is small rounded solid structure.

Q#15 Explain the coordination in plants? Ans. Plants do not possess nervous system and depend entirely on chemical coordination. Their responses are slower and they often involve growth. Growth in turn, can result in movement of an organ. Plants are coordinated by chemicals which have their effect on some aspects of growth, they are called growth substances. As some of these chemicals stimulate plant growth while some others retard the rate of growth, these chemicals are also referred to as plant growth regulators. Growth regulators include growth promoters (Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins) as well as growth inhibitors (Abscisic acid). These are essential for the balanced and controlled development of plants. These are commonly known as auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, and abscissic acid and ethylene. These are also called phytohormones. Q#16 What are plant hormones? List its types. 6

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Ans.

Control and Coordination

Plant hormones are defined as the organic substances which are synthesized in minute quantities in any part of the plant and transported to another part where they are active. There five main types of naturally occurring hormones. They are: 1. Auxins 2. Gibberellins 3. Cytokinins 4. Ethane or Ethylene 5. Abscicic acid (ABA).

Q#17 Discuss the function of each hormone? Ans. I. Auxin: The most common natural auxin is iodole 3-acetic acid or IAA. Discovery: - It was isolated for the first time by a Dutch botanist F.W. Went in 1928. The name Auxin was given by Went and he concluded no growth can occur without auxin.

Functions: 1. It promotes cell enlargement and cell differentiation in plants. 2. It is essential for the root formation on stem cuttings. 3. It suppresses the growth of lateral buds. 4. It promotes flowering in certain plants such as pine apple but delays it in lettuce. 5. Auxins are found to initiate many physiological processes, like protein synthesis, water uptake, respiration, seed germination. 6. It promotes fruit growth. 7. It prevents premature falling of leaves & fruits. 8. Auxins induce parthenocarpy in number of plants. Auxins are present in root and shoot apices. II. Gibberellin: - They occur in roots, stem, leaves, flower buds, fruits and immature seeds. Discovery: Gibberellins were discovered in 1926 by E. Kurosawa, a Japanese plant pathologist. Kurosawa while working in the rice fields observed that rice seedlings grew much taller than the others such plants were found to be infected by a fungus Gibberella fejikuroi. The disease was known as Bakanae disease Yabuta and Sumiki (1938) demonstrated that some substance secreted by the fungus was probably responsible for enlongation growth of the seedlings. They isolated this substance from Gibberella feujikrao and named it Gibberellic acid. Functions:i. G.ibberellin causes the elongation of stem and leaf sheaths. ii. Gibberellic acid stimulates cell division. iii. It helps in breaking the democracy in seeds and buds. iv. It also promotes fruit growth. v. It includes parthenocarpy in many plants e.g. tomato. Cytokinins: - They are synthesized in root tips from where they reach shoots. Discovery: Miller and Skoog in 1955 discovered a substance which was known to activate cell division. They named this compound as kinetin. The first natural cytokinin was zeatin. Funtions: i. The most important function of cytokinins the promotion of cell division. ii. Cytokinins along with auxins are required for the growth of cellular in tissue culture experiment. iii. It promotes cell enlargement. iv. It can break seed dormancy and also promote seed germination. v. Application of cytokinins delays the phenomenon of senescence or ageing. vi. It provides resistance to plants against very high and low temperature from injuries. 7

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vii. In some cases cytokinins have been found to induce flowering. viii. It enhances chlorophyll development and the rate of synthesis of chlorophyll. ix. They over come apical dominance and allow sprouting of lateral buds. x. It regulates phloem transport. Ethylene: - Ethylene is present as a volatile gas in atmosphere. It is produced in all living tissues of plants. It moves through diffusion process. Discovery:-Denny (1924) observed that ethylene gas was highly effective in inducing fruit ripening. Zimmerman at al (1931) found that it induces fruit ripening. Later on physiological studies led to discovery of ethylene as a natural product of fruit ripening.

Functions:1. It has inhibitory effect on growth. 2. It promotes transverse or is diametric growth and inhibits longitudinal growth. 3. It induces senescence or ageing. 4. It induces yellowish of leaves. 5. It induces flowering in some plants like pine apple. 6. Ethylene stimulates abscission of various plant parts. 7. It suppresses bud growth. 8. It induces ripening in fruit. 9. It induces epinasity. (downward bending of leaves) 10. It induces germination in some species. 11. It induces root their formation. Abscisic acid (ABA):- ABA are thought to be formed in leaves and then transported to apices through phloem. These work as growth inhibitors. Discovery:-Corn and Addicot (1963) while working on shedding of cotton balls found that a chemical substance abcisin II is responsible for their shedding. This substance was named as Abscisic acid (ABA). Functions: 1. It has inhibitory effect on growth. 2. It promotes senescence or ageing. 3. It promotes abscission or falling of leaves, fruits & flowers of plants. 4. It favours stomatal closure. 5. ABA plays an important role in plants during water stress and during drought conditions. 6. It is known to inhibit the process of flowering, fruit and seed development. Q#18 What type of movement are shown by plants ? Ans. There are two types of movements shown by plants: Growth movements and Non Growth movements. In touch me not plant there is no growth involved however the leaves fold up and droop due to response to stimulus i.e. touch. However at the time of germination movement is observed as a result of growth. Roots grow downwards and stems upwards. These movements are not possible without growth. Thus the movement of any part of the plant is usually a growth movement. 8

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Q#19 What are types of movements in plants due to external stimuli? Ans. The movements in plants due to external stimuli are of two types: i. Tropic movements ii. Nastic movements Q#20 Define tropism. Ans. The unidirectional movement of plants in response to external stimuli is called tropic movements. The movements are either towards or away from the stimuli. The phenomenon of such movements is called as tropism. Depending upon the nature of external stimulus the tropic movements are of following types: i. Geotropism:- The movement of stem and root of a plant in response to the force of gravity is called geotropism or geotropic movement. Different parts of a plant respond differently to the stimulus of gravity. Primary root always moves in downward direction. This is known as positive geotropism. The shoot moves upwards just opposite to the force of gravity. Hence the stem of a plant shows negative geotropism.

ii. Phototropism:- The movement of plant organs in response to the effect of light is known as phototropism. In simple words the response of a plant to the light is called phototropism. When some parts of a plant for example stem moves towards the light it is called positive phototropism, on the other hand when some organs for example, roots move away from the light it is called negative phototropism. iii. Hydrotropism:- The movement of plant parts in response to the effect of water stimulus is known as hydrotropism. In simple words the response of a plant part to water is called hydrotropism. If some parts of a plant move towards the water it is called positive hydrotropism. While if some plant parts move away from the water it is called negative hydrotropism. Roots are positively hydrotropic as they bend towards the source of water. iv. Chemotropism:- The movement of a plant part in response to the stimulus of a chemicals is called chemotropism. But if the plant moves away from the chemical stimulus, it is called positive Chemotropism. But if the plant moves away from the chemical stimulus it is called negative chemotropism. The growth of pollen tube through the style towards the embryo sac is the example of positive chemotropism. v. Thigmotropism:- The movement of a plant in response to the touch of an object is called thigmotropism. The climbing parts of the plants like tendrils grow towards any support, tendril coil around the support as it touches that so the tendrils of a plant are positively thigmotropic. Q#21 Define photoperiodism and flowering. Ans. Photoperiodism is the phenomenon of physiological change occurring in plants in response to relative length of day and night (i.e. photoperiods). The term photoperiodism was first of all used by Garner and Allard (1920) for the responses of plants to photoperiods expressed in the form of flowering. The role of photoperiodism in control of flowering was clearly demonstrated for the first time in 1920 by Garner and Allard of U.S. Department of Agriculture. They noticed that Maryland Mammoth variety of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacym), despite of its profuse vegetative growth failed to flower during summar. The same variety, when growth in a green house during the winter produced flowers and fruits. Later these workers concluded by performing several experiments that it was the short day length which controlled flowering in these plants. They referred to the photoperiods that promoted flowering in Maryland Mammoth tobacco as short days and called this plant as a short day plant. They found a number of other plants, e.g., Glycine max, cosmos, etc. which initiated flowering under short days. However, several other plants, e.g., Spinach, Radish, Lettuce, etc. remained vegetative under short days but flowered when exposed to long days. Garner and Allard called such plants as long day plants. 9

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Classification of Photoperiodic Responses Garner and Allard (1920) recognized three classes of plants according to their photoperiodic responses. i) The plants in which flowering is induced by exposure to short days are known as short day plants (SDP). ii) The plants in which flowering is induced by exposure to longer days are known as long day plants (LDP). iii) The plants in which the flowering is not affected by length of day are known as day neutral plants. Short Day Plants (SDP) A short day plant is one that flowers on photoperiods shorter than the critical day length. For example, Maryland Mammoth variety of tobacco flowers when it gets photoperiodic induction of less than 12 hours of light and more than 12 hours light and less than 12 hours dark, it fails to flower. Various experiments performed using short day plants (e.g., Xanthium) indicate that it is the long and uninterrupted dark period which is important in these plants. This was demonstrated by interrupting the light and dark periods. Interruption of light period by darkness had little or no effect. However, if the long dark period is interrupted even by a brief flash of light, the flowering is inhibited. Some common examples of short day plants are Nicotiana tobacco var. Maryland Mammoth (tobacco), Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium rubrum, Glycine max, Chrysanthemum, etc.

Long Day Plant (LDP) A long day plant is one that flowers on photoperiods longer than the critical day length. Longer days of summer provide the long day plants perfect photoperiods to permit flowering. These plants require a relatively small dark period. The long dark periods have inhibitory effect on flowering in long day plants. As in case of short day plants, the flowering in long day plants is not determined by the period of day, but it is determined by the period day, but it is determined by the period of short night. Some common examples of long day plants are Hyoscyamus niger, Avena sativa, Dianthus superbus, radish, spinach, etc. Day Neutral Plants These plants do not require specific photoperiods to flower. Such plants flower in almost all photoperiods ranging from few hours to 24 hours of uninterrupted light periods. The day neutral plants are also known as photoneutral plants, Some common examples of day-neutral plants are Cucumis sativa, Impatients balsamina, Zea mays, Lycopersicum esculentum,etc.

Textual Questions
Q#1 Ans. What is the difference between a reflex action and walking? Reflex action is a immediate response of the spinal cord to a sudden impulse. It is conducted by the spinal cord. But walking is a voluntary action which is controlled by hind brain (by cerebellum). What happens at the synapse between two neurons? The neurons lie end in a chain to transmit the impulses in an animal body. The neurons are not connected. There occurs a very minute gap between the terminal portion of axon of one neuron and dendrite of the other neuron. This gap is called synapse. At the end of the axon, the electrical impulse sets off the release of some chemicals. These chemicals cross the gap(synapse), and start a similar electrical impulse in dendrite of the next neuron. Synapses actually act like one way valves. This is because the chemical substance is present on only one side of the gap. In this way synapses ensure that nerve impulse travel is only one direction. Which part of the brain maintains the posture and equilibrium of the body? 10

Q#2 Ans.

Q#3

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Ans. Q#4 Ans.

Control and Coordination

Cerebellum part of the hind brain maintain the posture and equilibrium of the body. What is the role of the brain in reflex action? The reflexes which involve only the spinal cord are called spinal reflexes. Though spinal reflexes are produced in the spinal cord but the message of reflex action taken also goes on to reach the brain where thinking process occurs. Some reflex arcs involve the brain, rather than the spinal cord only. They are called cerebral reflexes. Close of eyes exposed to flash of light and salivation at the sight are the examples of cerebral reflexes. What are plant hormones? In plant, certain chemical substances are necessary for proper growth and development. These chemical substances are called plant hormones. Different plant hormones help to coordinate growth, development and responses to the environment. For example, auxins, gibberellins cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid are plant hormones.

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Q#6 Ans.

How is the movement of leaves of a sensitive plant different from the movement of the shoot towards light? The movement of leaves of a sensitive plant is neither towards nor away from stimulus like touch. While movement of shoot is towards stimulus like light. The movement of leaves of sensitive plant is non directional while the movement of shoot is directional. Give an example of a plant hormone that promotes growth. Auxine is the plant hormone that helps in cell elongation and growth. How do auxine promote the growth of a tendril around a support? The movement of tendril around the support is caused by the auxine hormones. Less auxine occurs on the side of contact as compared to the free side. Auxine promote the growth on the free side. As a result of growth on the free side, the tendril coils around the support. Design an experiment to demonstrate hydrotropism. Experiment to Demonstrate Hydrotropism: 1) Take a wire mesh and cover it with moist saw dust. 2) Place some germinated seedling (pea or gram) on the moist saw dust. 3) Keep the saw dust moist by sprinkling water at regular intervals. Observe after 2-3 days. 4) As the radicals come out of seeds, they are seen to move towards the perforation. After some growth they bend back and enter the perforations to reach the moist saw dust in complete disregard of gravity (positive hydrotropism).

Q#7 Ans. Q#8 Ans.

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Q#10 How does chemical coordination take place in animals? Ans. In animals chemical coordination is achieved through the agency of hormones which function as chemical messengers or informational molecules. Hormones are secreted in a very small amount by specialized tissues in the body called endocrine glands. In fact endocrine glands are often called ductless glands, because hormones are secreted directly into the blood without the involvement of any special duct. Hormones coordinate the activities of living organisms and also their growth. They affect only particular tissues called target tissues. For example, pancreas secretes two hormones, insulin and 11

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growth. The function of insulin hormone is to lower the blood glucose. Deficiency of insulin hormones in the body causes a disease known as diabetes. The function of glucagons hormone is to increase the blood glucose. Q#11 Why is the use of iodised salt advised? Ans. Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroxin hormone in the thyroid gland. Thyroxin regulates carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism in the body so as to provide the best balance for growth. In case of deficiency of iodine in our diet, there is a possibility that we suffer from goitre. Thus use of iodised salt is advisable to prevent iodine deficiency in the body. Q#12 How does our body respond when adrenaline is secreted into the blood? Ans. Adrenaline hormone is secreted in small amounts all the time, but in large amounts when a person is frightened. When adrenaline is secreted in large amounts it prepares our body for action. It increases the rate of heartbeat and breathing, raises blood pressure and allows more glucose to go into the blood to give us a lot of energy quickly to fight or runaway from the frightening situation. Adrenaline is termed as gland of emergency. Q#14 What is the function of receptors in our body? Think of situations where receptors do not work properly. What problems are likely to arise? Ans. The receptors in our body collect information about changes in the environment around us in the form of stimuli, e.g., photoreceptors, gustoreceptors, thermoreceptors, statoreceptors, tangroreceptors. These

then pass the information in the form of nerve impulse to the central nervous system (spinal cord and / or brain) where the message is interpreted and appropriate instructions are sent to effectors (glands or muscles) which reveals responses. When receptors do not function normally, the environmental stimuli are able to create nerve impulses and the body does not respond. Q#15 Which signals will get disrupted in case of spinal cord injury? Ans. In case of spinal injury, reflex actions and involuntary actions will get disrupted. Q#16 How does chemical coordination occur in plants? Ans. In plants, chemical coordination occurs with the help of plant hormones (phytohormones). Amount of hormones depends upon the environment and other stimuli. Different plant hormones help to coordinate growth, development and responses to the environment. They are synthesized at places away from where they act and simply diffuse to the area of action, for example, auxin. Another example of plant hormones are gibberellins which help in the growth of the stem. Cytokinins psromote cell division. Abscisic acid is a plant hormone which inhabits growth and its effects include wilting of leaves. Q#17 What is the need for a system of control and coordination in an organism? An.s The body of a multicellular organism consists of a number of components and sub-components and each specialized to perform a particular function. Therefore, it is necessary that various organs of the body of an organism work together in a proper manner to produce proper function to a stimulus. In human being nervous system and endocrine system work together to control and coordination. Q#18 How are involuntary action and reflex action different from each other? Ans. Sr.No. Involuntary Action Reflex Action

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Control and Coordination


They involve autonomic nervous They involve all parts of voluntary nervous system. system through they do not consult the will. They occur in response to internal They operate against harmful stimuli which stimuli. are generally external. They are connected with functioning They are connected with emergency. of the internal body parts. Involuntary actions also occur without the will of the animal. For example, heartbeat, breathing, etc. These are regulated by medulla (hind brain) Some reflexes involve the brain, rather than the spinal cord. Reflex actions generally controlled by spinal cord.

5.

Q#19 Compare and contrast nervous and hormonal mechanism for control and coordination in animals. Ans. In human beings, the nervous system controls the various functions by small units called neurons. Neurons receive the information through sensory nerves and transfer them through motor nerves. Hormones coordinate the activities of the body and also its growth. Some certain important functions like sugar level metabolism, growth and development etc. are controlled by hormones secreted by various endocrine glands. Hence, in human beings nervous system and endocrine system work together in control and coordination in our body.

Q#20 Which hormone is released into the blood when its sugar level rises? Name the organ which produces the hormone and its effect on blood sugar level. Also name one digestive enzyme that this organ secretes and the function of this enzyme. Ans. Insulin hormone is released into the blood when its sugar level rises. Pancreas secretes the insulin hormone. The function of insulin hormone is to lower the blood sugar level. Deficiency of insulin hormone in the body causes a disease known as diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by large quantities of sugar in the blood. The insulin hormone controls the metabolism of sugar. If due to some reason, pancreas does not produce and secrete sufficient amount of insulin into blood, then the sugar level in the blood rises. The high sugar level in the blood can cause many harmful effects to the body of person. The people having severe diabetes are treated by giving injection of insulin. The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which contains enzymes like trypsin for digesting proteins, lipase for breakdown of emulsified fats and amylase for breakdown of starch. Q#21 What is nastic movement? Ans. Nastic movements are movements due to turgor changes in the cells. These may be growth movements which are elastic and permanent, or these may be turgor or variation movements, which are elastic and reversible. Such movements are due to the stimulus of light, temperature or contact but the direction of response is determined by the direction of stimuli. However, from whichever direction the stimulus is applied, it affects all the parts of the organs of a plant equally and they always move in the same direction. In nastic movements these are mostly exhibited by the flat organs of the plant such as leaves and petals of flowers. Nastic movements are of the following two types: i) Seismonastic movement ii) Nyctinastic movement 13

Class 10th Biology

Control and Coordination

i) Seismonastic movement:- The best example of seismonastic movement is the movement of the leaves of the sensitive touch me not plant Mimosa pudica. These movements take place in response to touch. Leaves of touch me not plant droops rapidly when touched. It is due to turgidity of cells at the base. Here touch response is diffused affecting the entire leaf. Thus, the leaf droops down due to loss of turgor pressure. ii) Nyctinastic movement: - The diurnal (change in day and night) movements of leaves and flowers of some species which take up sleeping position at night are called nyctinastic movements. Since these movements occur in response to day and night, they are also known as sleep movements. These are movements due to turgor change in cells. Depending upon the stimulus they may be photonastic or thermonastic. When the movement is induced by the change in light intensity, it is called photonastic. The photonastic movements are exhibited by the flower of oxalis, Portulaca, Nicotina, Oenothera, etc. The flower of Oxalis and Portulaca are open during the day and close at night where as those of Nicotina and Oenothera are close in day and open at night. The movement due to change in temperature, is called thermonastic. The flower of tulips (Tulipa) and Crocus show thermonastic movements.

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