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Environmental Science March 7, 2012

Q. 1. Explain social cost of pollution. Ans. Social cost pollution. If we analyse the environmental problems we have to recognise that each one of us is individually responsible for the quality of our environment. Our personal activities can either deteriorate or improve our environmental quality. Majority of us want a cleaner environment but we shall not be ready to change our lifestyles that contribute to a cleaner environment. The decisions and actions of individuals determine the quality of life for everyone. It is a pollution which is related to social economics i.e. one which is related to impact of pollution on community, economic status, human health etc. It means pollution has effect on social parameters given above. Q. 2. State Rio declaration about the sustainable development. Ans. According to C.H. Brundtland (1987), sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs, It is the development that lasts. Economic development, social development and environmental protection are three interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development (2005 World Summit). Rio declaration about the sustainable development The most important international effort for the preservation of environment during the 20th century after Stockholm conference was the Earth Summit held at Rio-dejanerio (Brazil) in 1992. The outcomes of this summit are known as Rio-declaration. According to Rio-declaration, substainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present generation without adversely affecting the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept of sustainable development is divided into two parts: 1.Concept of needs. Priority should be given to the essential needs of poor people of the world e.g., sanitation, drinking water, health, etc. 2. Concept of limitation. Limitation should be imposed on the state of technology and organization of the environment so that we can meet the need of present generation without compromising with the needs of future generations. Q. 3. Why is it necessary to enact environmental laws? Ans. Human activities have brought many changes in the environment, thus to protect and improve the environment, it has become necessary to enact various laws. Q. 4. List various social activities of man which are causing major environmental problems. Ans. Social activities. 1. Industrialization 2. Urbanization 3. Excess use of pesticides and fertilizers. Q. 5. What are three basic principles involved in maintaining ecological balance? Ans. 1. Maintain a balance between resources and human needs. 2. Proper planning for proper use of resources. 3. Environmental education and awareness.

Q. 6. Write a note on strategies of conservation. Ans. Strategies of Conservation. World over there are two possible strategies. These are (a) Special Interest Conservation Strategy. To conserve a resource which is in short supply or in danger of extinction. (b) Total Ecosystem Strategy. Conserving the entire habitat. Let us assume that a particular bird or insect species is on the verge of extinction (survival is threatened). We can spend our energies to conserve the species or alternatively, protect the whole forest. In the latter alternative, the interested species will automatically get conserved. The second strategy (Total ecosystem conservation strategy) is being practised by developed world. The first one i.e. Special Interest Conservation Strategy is fraught with danger of an Ecological Backlash or Boomerang. Q. 7. Why is World Environment Day celebrated on 5th June? Ans. World Environment Day is celebrated on 5th June. This day corresponds with the day on which U.N. Conference on Human Environment. was held in .Stockholm in 1972. It laid stress on the development or environmental education, as one of the most powerful instrument in all out attack on environmental crisis. Short Answer Type Questions Q. 1. Discuss causes, effects and control measures of urban industrial waste. (Dec. 2007) Ans. Refer to Q. No. 2 (SAQ) Chapter No. 5 Q. 2. Write short notes on (a) Management of municipal solid waste (b) Environmental scenario in India. Ans. (a) Refer to Q. No. (SAQ) Chapter No. 5 (b) ENVIRONMENTAL SCENARIO IN INDIA The man destroyed the whole environment system in the name of development. Following are humans concerns of environment management versus development in India. At present India is worlds sixth largest and second fastest growing producer of green house gases. Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai are three of worlds ten most polluted cities. To add further two-thirds of city dwellers lack sewerage and one third lack potable water. Indias urban population grows equivalent to an other New York city every year. Pollution and destruction of natural resources have reached such dimension in India that in some regions they pose an imminent risk to human health. Regarding these facts, India considers sustainable development as the overall goal of its development through environmental management. Q. 3. Write a short note on organic farming. Ans. Organic farming. It is defined as one more system of production which does not use synthetic fertilizers, man made pesticides, herbicides, growth regulators etc. and these crops when consumed do not cause any damage in the body.

1. Protecting the long term fertility of soil by maintaining organic matter, encouraging biological activities in the soil. 2. Providing crop nutrients indirectly using relatively insoluble nutrients source which are made available to the plants by the action of soil micro-organisms. 3. Nitrogen self-sufficiency through the use of legumes and biological nitrogen fixation as well as effective recycling of organic material including crop residues and livestock manures. Q. 4. What role do mangrove plants play in the event of a cyclone? Ans. Mangrove trees have a wide tolerance to various concentration of sea water. Trees has their own microdesalination system in its leaf tissues which removes the salt from sea water. Mangrove vegetation are vitally important for shoreline species during a cyclone because these trees act as buffers and absorb the shock or any other damage by tidal waves/wind/mOflSooncYclone/storm or Tsunami. They protect the shore from eroding. Q. 5. Rain water harvesting could be possible option for water conservation. Examine. Ans. Rain water harvesting. It. is the collection and storage of rain from roofs or from a surface catchment for future use. The water is generally stored in rainwater tanks or directed into mechanisms which recharge groundwater. This is appropriate in many parts of the world, such as Western Britain, China, Brazil, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Germany, Australia and India, where there is enough rain for collection and conventional water resources either do not exist or are at risk of being over-used to supply a large population. Rainwater harvesting can provide lifeline water for human consumption, reduce water bills and the need to build reservoirs which may require the use of valuable land. Q. 6. What is eco-mark ? What are its objectives? Ans. Eco-mark. To increase consumer awareness, the Govt. of India launched the eco-labelling scheme known as eco-mark in 1991 for easy identification for environmental friendly products. The eco-mark label is awarded to consumer goods which meets the specified environmental criteria and the quality requirements of Indian Standards. Eco-mark of India is represented by Earthen pot. The main objectives of eco-mark schemes are 1. To reward and give incentives to manufactures in reducing adverse environmental effect of their products. 2. To assist and aware consumer to become environmentally responsible while purchasing products. 3. To encourage consumers to purchase products which are environmentally friendly. 4. To improve the quality of the environment and the encourage sustainable management of resources. Q. 7. Discuss various international efforts in environmental policy making. Ans. International Efforts in environment policy making. After the establishment of U.N.O. It organised several summits and conferences at world level. In these conferences, many important decisions were taken to save and conserve our environment. Major coventions held on these topics are 1. 1946The Baruch Plan to regulate the use of nuclear energy.

2. 1948U.N. Scientific Summit on Use and Conservation of Natural Resources. 3. 1951 International Plant Protection Convention use and conservation of natural resources Rome-Italy. 4. 1954 International Convention on Prevention of Sea Pollution by Oil. 5. 1963Nuclear Weapons Test Ban Treaty. 6. 1972United Nations Convention on Human Environment Stockholm Sweden. 7. 1976U.N. Habitat Conference on Human SettlementsVancouver, Canada. 8. 1977World Water Conference_Mar-delplata, Argentina. 9. 1977U.N. Conference on DesertificatiOnNairobi, Kenya. 10. 1977World Convention on Environmental EducationTblisi, Georgia. 11. 1982U.N. Conference on Human EnvironmentNairobi, Kenya. 12. 1985Convention on Ozone ProtectionVienna, Austria 13. 1990Convention on Zone ProtectionMontreal, Canada. 14. 1992 Environment and Development Summit (Earth Summit). Rio-de Janeiro, Brazil. 15. 1997 Convention on decreasing release of CFCs in Atmosphere Kyoto, Japan. 1. Vienna Convention (1985). About 20 nations signed various agreements to protect ozone layer from various adverse effects. The convention was held at Vienna in Austria. 2. Montreal Protocol (1987). In Montreal, a city of Canada, about 24 countries agreed to cut emissions of ozone depleting substances. A detailed agreement was signed which is known as Montreal Protocol, to save ozone layer. 3. Helsinki Declaration. In 1993, Montreal Protocol was amended as Helsinki declaration by about 93 countries. 4. Vienna Meet (1995). A world meet on ozone depleting substances was organized in Vienna in 1995. Several agreements were reached as: (i) to phase out methyl bromide, a pesticide, by 2010. (ii) a ban on import and export of ozone depleting substances. 5. Kyoto Protocol (1997). UN Framework Convention on Climatic Change was organised in Kyoto, Japan, where a protocol was signed to impose limits on quantity of emissions and reduction thereof by each member country. India joined the Montreal Protocol after certain amendments in 1991. Earlier it insisted on provision of alternative substances as the country has not developed cost effective technologies so far. Alternative to CFCs are HFCs (Hydrofluoro carbons) which are less stable and will have a less effect on stratosphere ozone. These are ozone friendly as chlorine is not present.

Q. 8. Explain the role of disaster management in case of cyclones. Ans. Sudden changes in atmospheric pressure taking place as storms are referred to as cyclones. Most cyclones occur between noon and sunset, when late afternoon heating contributes to atmospheric instability. Devastation caused by disasters 1. Power, water and telecommunication systems fail. 2. Human, animal and plant life or the entire ecosystem is lost. 3. Buildings and infrastructural facilities are badly damaged. 4. Road, railway and other transportation facilities collapse completely. 5. Agricultural produce and cattle feed are damaged or spoilt beyond use. 6. Epidemic diseases, e.g., cholera, gastroenteritis, plague etc. spread due to inadequate sanitation measures. 7. Economic and social disturbances are created after the disaster. It requires a lot of money, man power and time to restore normalcy. Rehabilitation becomes an enormous task. Q. 9. Describe the salient features of Environment Protection Act. Ans. The Environment (Protection) Act The Act came into force on Nov. 19, 1986, the birth anniversary of our Late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, who was a pioneer of environmental protection issues in our country. The Act extends to whole of India. Under this act, the central government has responsibility for deciding standards, restricting industrial sites, laying down procedures and safe-guards for accident prevention and handling of hazardous waste, over-sight of investigation and research on pollution issues, on-site inspections establishment of laboratories and collection and disemination of information. Samples collected by central government officials can be admissible in court. Salient features of Environment (Protection) Act Under this law, the Central Government can take all such actions necessary for protection and improvement of the quality of environment and preventing, controlling and abating environmental pollution. Salient features of the law are as under; 1. Co-ordination of action taken by the State Governments. 2. Planning and execution of nation-wide programmes for pollution abatement. 3. Laying down standards for quality of environment. 4. Laying down standards for emission of environmental pollutants. 5. Any citizen can knock at the door of court to protect environment. Before this, he has to serve a notice of 60 days to the unit, industry or a person causing pollution. 6. A provision has been made for punishment. Any person causing pollution or harming environment can be sent to prison for a period of 5 years or a fine of Rs. One Lakh.

7. Government agencies can take and test samples of air, water, soil, or other elements. These can be used as a proof in the court. 8. The government agencies causing pollution also fall under the preview of this law. The head of the unit causing pollution will be held responsible. 9. Management and disposal of hazardous substances has to be given special attention. 10. The nominees of central government can go and check any unit. 11. The central government can order closer or shifting of any unit causing pollution. Without prior notice, the electricity, water or other services can be cut off. 12. The central government can sponser investigations and research relating to problems of environmental pollution. Q. 10. Explain basic principles of organic farming as against modern agricultural practices. Ans. The principles of organic farming serve to inspire the organic farming on its fullest diversity. Organic farming in based on: (1) The Principle of Health (2) The Principle of Ecology (3) The Principle of Fairness (4) The Principle of Care (1) The Principle of Health. The organic farming should sustain and enhance the health of soil, plants. The role of organic agriculture, whether in farming processing, distribution or consumption, is to sustain and enhance the health of ecosystem and organism from the smallest in the soil to human beings. In particular organic farming is intended to produce high quality, nutritious food that contribute to preventive health care and well beings. (2) The Principle of Ecology. Organic farming is based on living ecology system and cycles, work with then, help to sustain them. Organic farming shouldattaifl ecological balance through the design of farming system, establishment of habitats and maintenance of genetic and agricultural diversity. Those who produce, process, trade or consume organic products should protect the common environment including landscape, climate, habitat, biodiversity, air and water. (3) Fairness Principle. Organic farming. should build on relationship that ensure fairness with regard to the common environment and life opportunities. Those who are involved in organic farming should conduct human relationships at all levels and to all parties1 farmers, workers, processors distributors, traders etc. Organic farming should provide everyone involved with a good quality of life. Contribute to food sovereignty and reduction of poverty. It aims to produce a sufficient supply of good quality food and other products. (4) The Principle of Care. Organic farming should be managed in farming precautionary and responsible manner and protect the health and well being and future generation and the environment. The Principle states that precaution and responsibility are the key concern to managements development and technology choices in organic farming. However, scientific knowledge alone is not sufficient, practical experiemnts, accumulated wisdom and traditional and indegeneous knowledge offer valid solution, tested by time.

Q. 11. Discuss the result of the Montreal Protocol? Ans. On 16th September 1987, 24 nations suggested a protocol called Montreal Protocol that outlined a plan of reducing global emissions of chiorofluoro carbons (CFCs) to half the level of the emission of 1986. In May 1989, it was further ratified by 82 nations in Helsinki, pledging to phase out the use of CFCs by year 2000. Q. 12. Write short notes on maximum sustainable yield. Ans. Sustainable development encourages a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional changes are all in harmony. Such development enhances both present and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. The concept of sustainable development, thus, aims at a framework to integrate developmental strategies and environmental policies at local, national and global levels. Development should not endanger the natural systems that support life. Q. 13. What are the benefits and limitations of biotechnology? Ans. Biotechnology. It is the use of micro-organisms1 animal or plant cells or their components to generate products for the welfare of mankind. A few examples are 1. Plant tissue cultures have many potential and other applications which have been put into use. One of its most important applications is production of tailer made transgenic crops. 2. A transgenic crop contains one or more genes transferred by genetic engineering. Transgenic crops resistant to insects, with changed quality, capable of producing a medicinal protein, etc. are already being cultivated. 3. Food obtained from transgenic crops is called genetically modified food (GM food). Biotechnology can be helpful in achieving sustainable agriculture In the persent scenario, man is exloiting most of the resources. It is also resulting into depletion of resources and causing pollution. Such practices cannot continue for indefinite period. In case of sustainable agriculture would primarily use renewable resources, and at the same time cause minimum pollution. It will also result in high yield. Biotechnology can help in attaining such targets by use of biofertilizers, biopesticides producing genetically engineered disease and insect resistant varieties of crop, preparation of fermented food. Biofertilizers. The fertilizer of biological origin are called biofertilizers. The main sources of biofertilizers are (1) Bacteria (2) Cyanobacteria and (3) Fungi BiofertilizerS or biopesticides preferred to chemical fertilizers or pesticides? BiofertilizerS or biopesticideS are preferred to chemical fertilizers because they are safe to use, target specific, non-poisonoUS1 inexpensive and do not cause any type of pollution.

Misuse of Biotechnology Biotechnology is of great value for human welfare. But its misuse can be of great danger. The devices of bioweapons to be used in biowar are having alarming dangers. The delivery of virulent bioweapon agent to the enemys territory is one such example. Anthrax caused by gram positive Bacillus anthrcis. Some other examples bioweapoflS having potentials of causing diseases are smallpox, botulism, Q-Fever viral encephalitis, teularemi etc. 1. Veterinary. Includes utilization of hybrid technology for animal health care production of safe and efficient vaccines for infectious diseases, embryo transfer enhancement of nutritive value of fish and of vaccines for controlling mass mortality microbial and viral diseases etc. 2. Health and Medicines. Development of better and cheaper drug and vaccine for several diseases, development of better ant fertility agents, prevention of genetically transmitted disease etc. 3. Food. Increase nutritive value of foods, better prevention of food, enhancement of flavour, efficieint grain storage by eliminating pests and rodents, preventions of food spoilage etc. 4. Industry. Production of antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids, steroids, use of micro- organism to leach minerals, prevention of industrial products from spoilage etc. Q. 14. List various laws regarding Environment. Ans. (z) Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The EPA was enacted to provide for the protection and improvement of environment and matters connected therewith. The act consists of 26 sections distributed among four chapters, and extends to the whole of India and came into force on 19th Nov. 1986. (ii) The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. (Amended in 1987) The Air Act was framed in the year 1981 but enacted on 29 March, 1982 for the effective prevention, control and abatement of air pollution in the country. The Air Act extends to whole of India and is a welfare legislation dealing with the special evil of pollution. Therefore, it is considered as a modern act or special act. Central and Static Pollution Control Boards (constituted under water act, 1974) shall exercise the power and perform functions for the prevention and control of air pollution to improve the quality of Air. (iii) The water (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974. Water act was enacted on 23rd March, 1974 to implement the decision reached at stockholm conference under Article 252 and section-I of Indian constitution. It is a social welfare legislation enacted for the purpose of: Prevention and control of water pollution. Maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water.

Establishing pollution control boards. Assigning powers and functions relating water pollution to Boards. (iv) Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. This act, passed in 1972, provides the constitution of a wildlife Advisory Board, regulation of hunting of wild Animals and birds, laying down proceduers for declaring the areas of Santuaries and National Parks, and regulation of trade in wild animals. The Amendment to the Wildlife Protection Act in 2002 prevents the commercial use of resources of local people. (v) Forest Conservation Act, 1980. Act was enacted to check indiscriminate dereservation and diversion of forest land to non-forest purposes. Under this Act, prior approval of Central Government is required to declare reserve forest as deserved or to divert forest land to non-forest purpose. If diversion is permitted, compensatory afforestation is insisted upon and other suitable condition imposed. Q. 15. What is environment ? List a few measures for protection of environment. Ans. Environment. All organisms are dependent on the environment from which they derive their food, energy, water, oxygen, shelter and other needs. Thus, the environment is defined as sum total of living and non-living components, surrounding an organism. The relationship and interaction between organism and environment are highly complex. The environment is not static. The biotic and abiotic factors are in a flux and keep changing continuously. The organisms can tolerate changes in environment within a certain range called range of tolerance. There is a balance between organisms and abiotic (non-living) factors termed ecological balance. The system taken as a whole is useful to man. Environmental study is only a recent phenomenon. After the Stockholm Conference (1972), people started giving serious thinking about the environmental problems. The environment can be protected by adopting the following rules 1. By balancing the ecosystem. 2. By restricting and regulating the exploitation of natural resources. 3. By maintaining the environmental quality. 4. By adopting engineered technology without having adverse effects on the environment. 5. By promoting environment education among people. 6. By controlling the population crisis and over-consumption of resources. 7. By renovating, recycling and reusing the waste materials. 8. By formulating strict laws and regulations to control pollution. Q. 16. How environment has been affected by the prevailing model of development? Ans. Effects of development on environment. The mad race among nations over the globe for development jeopardised the health of man itself. Progress in agriculture and industry is taken as a general criterion of development. This craze resulted into unlimited exploitation of every bit of environment. It has resulted into following effects:

1. The spread of disease via environment. 2. Mans activities has impaired protective ozone cover. 3. Over use of natural resources such as land, water, minerals, coal, oil etc. Development has underminded the stock of natural resources. 4. It has resulted into global warming. 5. Addition of toxic pollutants to the environment. 6. Loss of biodiversity or genetic erosion. Q. 17. What do you understand by the conservation of environmental resources? Ans. Conservation of environmental resources. It refers to management of human use of biosphere so that it yields maximum sustainable benefit to the present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the requirements of the future generations. In simple words, conservation is the judicious use of natural resources in such a way that it is available for use by future generations. Illustration 1. A total ban on the harvest of forest products would not be considered as a good conservation strategy. The forest products equivalent to the rate, of increment or increase is allowed to be removed from the forest every year then the forest resource will remain intact for ever and will also be properly managed and conserved. A part from the judicious use of resource, it will be made available for the futir generation. 2. We take another example of conservation of fish, in such a case if we allow the fishing equivalent to the rate of growth of fish in the riverpond etc., we will term it as a better conservation strategy because the resource will be available for the future generation. Q. 18. List the various aspects which are looked after by the ministry of forest and environment. Ans. The Ministry of forest and environment plays a regulatory, advisory and supportive role in survey, research and non-formal Environmental Education through National level institutions. The ministry also looks after the following 1. Environmental laws and Policy. 2. Pollution-Monitoring and Control. 3. Survey and Conservation of Natural Resources. 4. Management and Conservation of Forests and Wildlife. 5: Promotion of Environment Research. 6. Environment Education, Awareness and Information. 7. International Cooperation. 8. It also co-ordinates the programme of various international agencies. Q. 19. Where was Earth Summit held ? What are the promises made by summit? Ans. Earth Summit. It was held at Rio-de-Janeiro in Brazil during June 1992. It was sponsored by

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). It was very well attended by over a hundred heads of nations and about 20,000 representatives of non-government organizations. Three assumptions promised by summit: 1. Making development ecological sustainable. 2. Capability of environment friendly technology as a saviour of environment. 3. Effectiveness of regulatory provisions for environmental protection. Q. 20. Make a list of various issues recognised by United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). Ans. List of issues recognised by United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) 1. Protection of the Atmosphere. 2. Protection of Ozone in Stratosphere. 3. Climatic Change (Global warming/Green house effect). 4. Protection of Fresh Water Quality. 5. Protection of Oceans and Coastal Areas. 6. Protection of Land Resources. 7. Deforestation and Desertification Problems. 8. Conservation of Biological Diversity. 9. Management of Biotechnology, Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals. 10. Protection of Human 1Iealth and Quality of Life. Q. 21. List laws which enforce control of pollution. Ans. 1. The Environment (protection) Act, 1986. This act clearly brings the protection of air, water and soil quality, and the control of environmental pollutants including noise under its purview. 2. The Insecticide Act, 1968. This act deals with the the regulation of import, manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of insecticides with a view to prevent risk to human health and other organisms. 3. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. This act deals with the preservation of water quality and the control of water pollution with a concern for the detrimental of water pollutants on human health and also on the biological world. 4. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. The act deals with the preservation of air quality and the control of air pollution with a concern for the detrimental effects of air pollutants on human health and also on the biological world. In 1987, important amendments of the Air Act 1981 were made and noise was recognised as an air pollutant.

5. Many countries have enacted legislation to control noise. India enacted Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and noise pollution has been declared as an offence. Q. 22. What is Ozone ? How does Ozone protect the life on earth? Ans. Ozone. It is fri-atomic oxygen i.e. three atoms of oxygen bound in an uneasy union; (compare it to di-atomic oxygen gas comprising 21% of air at sea level, which we breathe for oxidation of food). Ozone is a strong oxidant, therefore, can react with many materials of the atmosphere. This gas at the lower atmosphere is produced by light mediated reaction between nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons released by factories and motor vehicle exhaust and the diatomic oxygen of the air under the impact UV radiations. This is regarded as protector as well as destroyer for man. Ozone protects the life on earth by absorbing high energy UV radiation (UV-B wavelength 280 320 nm) of sun which otherwise would result in many harmful effects on all kinds of living organisms. Q. 23. Write a note on Ozone Hole. Ans. Ozone Hole. In 1985, the discovery of a hole in the ozone layer of the stratosphere shocked the world. The ozone layer screens the earth from most of the suns harmful ultraviolet radiation. Damage to the ozone layer has been caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by human activities. Efforts under international agreements are afoot to reduce CFCs production. Although fewer CFCs are now entering the stratosphere, those which are present will continue damaging ozone layer for at least several hundred years. Ozone depletion will endanger phytoplankton, threatening the worlds fisheries, and also cause skin and retinal cancer. Q. 24. What are the reasons for ozone depletion? Ans. Reasons for ozone depletion Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland suggested the role -of chlorofluoro carbon (CFC) in depleting the ozone in stratosphere. Properties of chiorofluoro carbons which destroy ozone layer. 1. CFCs are emitted through human activity and are unreactive/very stable in the higher atmosphere. It has a residence time of over, 100 years. These can stay as such for over 100 years. .2. CFCs diffuse upwards and enter stratosphere. In the stratosphere they are destroyed by UV-C (UV-radiations of wavelength between 100 and 280 mm resulting in the release of chlorine). 3. The chlorine produced reacts with ozone in a chainamatic fashion and one atom of chlorine may destroy over 5000 molecules of ozone per month. 4. About 0.9 million metric tonnes of CFCs are produced in the atmosphere annually. 5. These CFCs can account for Ozone depletion 100 times their production. Q. 25. What do you know about global warming? Ans. Global Warming. The amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased with an

increase in the use of fossil fuels. These gases (mostly CO2. but also methane, nitrous oxides, ozone and chiorofluorocarbons) prevent the escape of heat from the earths surface into the space. This increases the overall global temperature. Global warming will melt polar ice caps, sea levels will rise, coastal cities will be flooded, and the usual temperature and rainfall patterns will change. This will greatly affect agriculture and natural ecosystems. It is essential that the addition of greenhouse, gases to the atmosphere be minimised by reducing the use of fossil fuel or by finding an alternative source of energy. It is difficult to predict when the global warming will show its effects. Effects of global warming. 1. Effect on weather and climate. (i) The average temperature of earth may increase by 1.4 to 5.8 by the year 2100. (ii) Winter precipitation may decrease at lower altitude. (iii) Frequency of draughts, floods may increase. (iv) Climatic change is threat to human health in tropical and subtropical countries. 2. Sea level change. Sea level had been raised by I to 2 mm per year during the 20th century. It is predicted that by the year 2100, the global mean sea level can increase up to 0.88 m over the 1990 level. The global warming may contribute to sea level rise due to the thermal expansion of ocean. 3. Effect on range of species distribution. Vegetation may extend 250-600 km poleward with a global rise in temperature by 2 to 5C during 21st century. 4. Effect on food production. Increased temperature will cause eruption of plant diseases and pests and vast growth of weeds. 5. Indias annual monsoon rains may even ceases altogether. 6. Deserts are likely to increase. 7. One-third of the global forest might be swept away. 8. Chances of hurricanes, cyclones and floods will be more. 9. About 6,000 km of Indias coastline is directly threatened by a rise in the sea level. 10. Global warming is likely to cause extinction of more than one million species of plants and animals by 2050. Q. 26. What is Smog ? Explain its two kinds. Ans. Smog is a mixture of smoke (from coal combustion) and fog in suspended droplet form. The word smog is formed by adding the words smoke and fog together and has persisted as a description of this type of urban atmosphere. There are two types of smog: (a) London smog is a mixture of coal smoke and fog. The fog part is mainly a mixture of sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide and humidity. It is generally bad in the early morning hours and becomes worse after sunrise, due to sunlight induced oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide, followed by reaction with humidity. This yields sulphuric acid aerosol. Such a smog causes

bronchial irritation and also acid rain. Smog also causes poor atmospheric visibility. (b) Los Angeles smog (photochenilcal smog) is not related to smoke or fog. It is worst in the sunshine with peaks in the afternoon. The oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2) alongwith carbon dioxide, water vapours, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbon particles (emitted from automobile exhausts) and also sulphur dioxide cause Los Angeles smog. Photochemical smog is sometimes called summer smog, because unlike the classical London type smog, it is more typical in summer at many localities, often because it requires long hours of sunshine to build up. When photochemical smog was first observed in Los Angeles, people believed them to be much the same as the smogs of London and Pittsburgh. Effects of Smog 1. It causes irritation to eyes and lungs, 2. It causes several damages to plants, 3. It causes irritation to nose, throat, and 4. It causes increased changes of asthamatic attack and mortality. Measures to Reduce Smog We can protect overselves from smog by decreasing the nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon levels of the air by providing catalytic converters in modern automobiles. These reduce the quantity of hydrocarbons as well as unwanted products, e.g., nitrogen dioxide going out of the exhaust pipes of automobiles. It may be pointed here that these catalysts get quickly poisoned by lead compounds (like TEL), therefore, such automobiles require unleaded petrol. Long Answer Type Questions Q. 1. What do you mean by sustainable development? How is this concept of carrying capacity associated with it. Ans. The aim of development is to achieve the target through use of resources of biosphere while conservation aims at achieving them by ensuring that these resources remain available for use by the future generations. Need for Conservation 1. Use of natural resources is increasing but the amount of these resources is decreasing. 2. It takes time to cure the past mistakes committed by man on nature. After the action is taken, nature also takes time to respond to the action. For example, Reforestation in an area will need time and energy for planting trees to correct the mistake of deforestation. After planting the saplings in the forests nature will take its own time to come to the original state of the forest. 3. National and International capacities conserve the resources are not properly organized. Even the priorities differ. In order to avoid duplication of efforts we must have some common conservation strategy. Objectives of Conservation of natural resources Objectives of conservation of natural resources for the future generations as well as for our own concern are 1. To maintain the essential ecological processes (food chain, food web, recycling of mineral resources etc.) and the life support system-soil, air, water, land,

plants, animals above all the biosphere etc. 2. To ensure the availability and sustainability of resources which assumes the survival of all species in a healthy and easy manner. 3. To preserve the diversity/variety of life forms at the specific, habitat level so that the evolution and development of life in the long run does not get disturbed. Q. 2. How do you classify the factors responsible for relocation of people ? Explain the problem and concerns about resettlement and rehabilitation of people. Ans. Rehabilitation is a process which is being applied more frequently to the humans and environment. It aims to reverse the deterioration of a national resource even if it cannot be restored to its original state. In an overpopulated country like India, the available land space is either already inhabited or under cultivation. Whenever, a project or an industry is likely to be set up, it occupies land and other resources, the persons are uprooted from their homes and leave their profession. The priority of the government is to rehabilitate and resettle the uprooted persons. Rcently, in the construction of Tehri Dam (Uttaranchal) it is estimated that nearly 4600 hectare of forest land had submerged and 3,500 families have been displaced from their native place. Most of the affected persons are agricultural labourers, small farmers and others who are economically backward. It seems unlikely that they have received their share of money in compensation or alternate nonagricultural occupation. Therefore, a sound national policy on rehabilitation and resettlement of affected people is necesary. The following points should be included in formulating such as policy. 1. The extent of damage and suffering that the proposed project would cause and the number of people involved should be studied and evaluated before the commencement of the project. 2. The advantages of rehabilitation should be at the same level with those of the beneficiaries of the proposed project. 3. The rehabilitation and resettlement work should be made a part of the project and all those affected should be rehabilitated before the start of the project. 4. The extent of rehabilitation and resettlement should meet the ends of social justice and balanced development. 5. The people should be rehabilitated on a minimum dislocation basis by selecting adj4cent areas or locations. 6. Necessary help should be provided during shifting and reconstruction of alternative residential sites. Q. 3. Briefly explain the green house effect. Ans. Generally, the quality and quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere is in equilibrium Movement of gas by the simple diffusion from the air reservoir into aquatic reservoirs equals the rate of diffusion of CO2 back into the air from the water. Similarly, the photosynthesis and respiration also maintain the equilibrium of gases. However, over the past several hundred years man has been burning fossil fuels such as coal., oil and natural gas at higher and higher rates. It is estimated that an amount equal to six to nine billion tons of carbon per year is being added to the atmosphere currently as a

result of burning of these fuels. Thus, the amount of CO2 is increasing in the atmosphere. CO2, along with water vapours in the atmosphere is translucent to suns electromagnetic radiations in the wavelength spectrum of visible light, but not to longer infrared wavelengths. When energy warms of the earths surface each day infrared radiation is emitted back from terrestrial atmosphere.

Diagrammatic representation of green house effect. But CO2 and water vapours dont allow these infrared wavelengths to escape, thus producing the green house effect, on the earths atmosphere. In the last hundred years there has been an increase of temperature of 1.8F. This trend of increasing temperature continuous, could potentially lead to melting of polar ice caps and in the result sea levels would arise. Moreover, green house effect protects the life on earth from U.V. rays reaching the surface. Q. 4. Give a summary of global efforts to check the depletion of ozone layer. Ans. Global efforts to check depletion of ozone layer. The major cause of worry of the scientists in the indiscriminate use of Ozone Depleting Substances by man in the name of development and luxuries. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) right from the initial years of its inception in 1972 had been feeling concerned about the problem. In its attempt to find solution it convened a Vienna Convention for the protection of ozone layer which was adopted in 1985. British team discovered a hole in ozone layer as large as that of the United States. This was followed by Montreal Protocol in 1987, which called for a 50% cut in the use of CFCs by 1998reducing to the level of 1986. Many countries including India did not sign the Protocol. India did not see any rationale as its release of CFC is just 6,000 tonnes a year, equivalent to one and a half days of worlds total. In our country per capita consumption of CFC is 0.02 kg against 1 kg of developed world was endorsed. Thus the idea of a fund to help the developing world was endorsed. CFCs are mainly the problem of developed world, as 95% of CFCs are released by European countries, U.S.A., USSR and Japan. USA alone releases 37% CFCs. The European Community decided to cut production by 85%. The three-day international Saving the ozone layer conference was organised jointly in London in March 1989 by the British Govt. and the UNEP. This conference highlighted the global problem created by the developed world, which in turn, is trying to dictate its terms to the developing countries of CFC pollution. It was stressed that nothing short of the final withdrawal of all these 03 developing CFC and Other chemicals. Mrs. Thatchers idea was supported by many countries. UNEP, World Meteorological Organisation of the United Nations and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) convened a joint meet in Villach, Austria to discuss the issue of climatic change, in details. It prepared a World Climate Programme for the intergovernmental panel on Climate change in 1988. With the assistance of UNESCO and FAO, it proposed measures to reduce the emission of green house gases, increase in planting trees etc., as sinks for carbon dioxide and other green house gases. It also called for a global convention on climate change. Later, under the UN framework, it formulated a Convention on climate change in early 1991. This was adopted by heads of 154 nations during the World Earth Summit at Rio-de-Janeiro (Brazil) or also known as the UN conference on environment and development (June 3-04-1992) There was held another international conference on ozone at Helsinki in May, 1989 to revise the Montreal Protocol. As many as 80 nations agreed to have a total ban on chemicals that cause

ozone depletion by 2000 A.D. However, the conference backed away from a plan put forward by Dr. Mostafa Tolba, Executive Director, UNEP to set up an international climate fund. While the developing countries preferred to have the fund, the developed ones, including Japan, USA and UK rejected the plan. The agreement for CFC elimination by 2000 A.D. is needed as a major step towards environmental protection. Very recently, June 1989, two Japanese leading companies Mitsubishi Electric and Taiyo Sanyo (a gas company) have claimed to have jointly developed an alternative to CFCs. The device, called ice cleaning, is a semiconductor washing device which uses fine particles of ice and frozen alcohol at temperatures below 50C. This helped blow dust off semiconductors without harming them and the results were comparable to CFCs. Q. 5. Give an account of salient features of Water Pollution Act (1974) and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981. Ans. Laws Relating to Water Pollution. The Water Act was enacted by Indian Parliament on 23rd March, 1974 to check and control water pollution. This law was amended in 1988. The main aims of this law were: 1. To check water pollution. 2. To maintain the quality and restore wholesomeness of water. 3. To establish Pollution Control Boards at the centre and state level. 4. To give various responsibilities to Pollution Control Boards to check water pollution. A person causing water pollution can be imprisoned for a period of 6 years or fined Rs. 10,000/- on non-compliance of orders of Pollution Control Board. The Board can also close down pollution causing units. Laws Relating to Air Pollution The Indian government enacted Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, in March 1981. In this act, the mandate of Central and State Pollution Control Boards was enlarged to deal with air pollution also. This Act was notified in November 1982. Boards were given new powers such as: 1. State Pollution Control Boards will also work for control of Air Pollution. 2. There will be a Central Pollution Control Board working for maintenance of quality of air and control of air pollution. 3. The State Government can declare any area as air pollution control region. To check and control air pollution, only certified appliances can be used in irdustries in this region. 4. The state government can stop the use of any type of fuel in industries in this region. 5. Incineration of waste materials can be stopped. 6. No person or organisation can establish a new unit without prior permission from government. 7. No person or industrial unit can release air pollutants above the specified limit. 8. Any member of the State Pollution Control Board can inspect an industrial unit and collect samples of smoke emissions.

9. A person can be imprisoned for a period of one year and six months to 6 years on noncompliance of directions of the State Pollution Control Board. Q. 6. Write an Essay on Rain Water Harvesting. Ans. Rain water harvesting. It is the collection and storage of rain from roofs or from a surface catchment for future use. The water is generally stored in rainwater tanks or directed into mechanisms which recharge groundwater. This is appropriate in many parts of the world, such as Western Britain, China, Brazil, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Germany, Australia and India, where there is enough rain for collection and conventional water resources either do not exist or are at risk of being over-used to supply a large population. Rainwater harvesting can provide lifeline water for human consumption, reduce water bills and the need to build reservoirs which may require the use of valuable land. Traditionally, rainwater harvesting has been practised in arid and semi-arid areas, and has provided drinking water, domestic water, water for livestock, water for small irrigation and a way to replenish ground water levels. This method may have been used extensively by the Indus Valley Civilization. Currently in China and Brazil, rooftop rainwater harvesting is being practised for use for all the above purposes. Gansu province in China and semi-arid north east Brazil have the largest rooftop rainwater harvesting projects ongoing. Rainwater harvesting in urban areas can have manifold reasons. To provide supplemental water for the citys requirement, to increase soil moisture levels for urban greenery, to increase the ground water table through artificial recharge, to mitigate urban flooding and to improve the quality of groundwater are some of the reasons why rainwater harvesting can be adopted in cities. In urban areas of the developed world, at a household level, harvested rainwater can be used for flushing toilets and washing laundry. Indeed in hard water areas it is superior to mains water for this. It can also be used for showering or bathing. It may require treatment prior to use for drinking. Types of Systems There are many types of systems to harvest rainwater. The type used depends on physical and human considerations. A mechanism can be used to send the initial water flow to waste, usually the first few liters. These are commonly known as first-flush diverters, and are used to increase the chance that the largeparticle residue that might accumulate on your collection surface is washed away from (and not into) your storage tank. Such a system also compensates for the fact that the initial minutes of a rainfall can include airborne pollutants being washed from the sky, and likewise minimizes contamination of your captured supply. Simple but regular inspection and maintenance of such a device is usually necessary. 1. From the roof tops, bring the rainwater down using closed PVC pipes and direct it to a sump. Include a simple 3-part filtration unit consisting of sand, brick jelly and broken mud bricks. 2. If you do not have sump, use a well. In many parts of the country, old wells when they go dry, is used as garbage dumps. Please clean the well and put the rain water into it. 3. If you do not have a well, construct a baby well (about 2 feet in diameter and about 16 feet deep based on soil structure) 4. Other types of RWH-collect the ground water and stop their flow at the gate. Put a concrete slab with holes in it, build a 2 feet deep pit, across the full with of the gate. Collect and connect a pipe and flow the water to well or a baby well.

Benefits A water tanker bringing water from unknown sources and untested for its quality will cost about Rs. 1000 to Rs. 2500 for 10,000 litres of water. You cannot put a price on peace of mind knowing that you have water for a month. 1. Rainwater may also be used for groundwater recharge. where the runoff on the ground is collected and allowed to be absorbed, adding to the groundwater. In US, rooftop rainwater is collected and stored in sump. 2. In India this includes Bawdis and johads, or ponds which collect the run-off from small streams in wide area. Quality As rainwater may be contaminated, it is often not considered suitable for drinking without treatment. However, there are many examples of rainwater being used for all purposes including drinking following suitable treatment. Rainwater harvested from roofs can contain animal and bird faeces, mosses and lichens, windblown dust, particulates from urban pollution, pesticides, and inorganic ions from the sea (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4), and dissolved gases (CO2. NON, SON). High levels of pesticide have been found in rainwater in Europe the highest concentrations occurring in the first rain immediately after a dry spell the concentration of these and other contaminants are reduced significantly by diverting the initial flow of water to waste, as described above. The water may need to be analysed properly, and used in a way appropriate to its safety. Harvested rainwater is boiled in parabolic solar cookers before being used for drinking. In Brazil alum and chlorine is added to disinfect water before consumption. Appropriate technology methods such as solar water disinfection, provide low-cost disinfection options for treatment of stored rainwater for drinking. Q. 7. What is acid rain? Discuss its importance. Ans. 1. The term acid rain also known as acid precipitation is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, dew, or dry particles. A more accurate term is acid precipitation cause acid rain occurs when sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are emitted int9 the atmosphere, undergo chemical transformations, and are absorbed by water droplets in clouds. The droplets then fall to earth as rain, snow, mist, dry dust, hail, or sleet. This increases the acidity of the soil, and affects the chemical balance of lakes and streams. 2. The term acid rain is sometimes used more generally to include all forms of acid deposition both wet deposition, where acidic gases and particles are removed by rain or other precipitation, and dry deposition removal of gases and particles to the Earths surface in the absence of precipitation. 3. Acid rain is defined as any type of precipitation with a pH that is unusually low. 4. Dissolved carbon dioxide dissociates to form weak carbonic acid giving a pH of approximately 5.6 at typical atmospheric concentrations of CO2. 5. Therefore, a pH of less than 5.6 has sometimes been used as a definition of acid rain. 6. However, natural sources of acidity mean that in remote areas, rain has a pH which is between

4.5 and 5.6 with an average value of 5.0 an& so rain with a pH of less than 5 is a more appropriate definition. 7. The US EPA says, Acid rain is a serious environmental problem that affects large parts of the US and Canada. 8. Acid rain accelerates weathering in carbonate rocks and accelerates building weathering. It also contributes to acidification of rivers, streams, and forest damage at high elevations. When the acid builds up in rivers and streams it can kill fish. History and trends Acid rain was first found in Manchester, England. In 1852, Robert Angus Smith found the relationship between acid rain and atmospheric pollution. Though acid rain was discovered in 1852, it wasnt until the late 1960s that scientists began widely observing and studying the phenomenon. Canadian Harold Harvey was among the first to research a dead lake. Public awareness of acid rain in the U.S. increased in the 1990s after the New York times promulgated reports from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire of the myriad deleterious environmental effects demonstrated to result from it. Evidence for an increase in the levels of acid rain comes from analyzing layers of glacial ice. These show a sudden decrease in pH from the start of the Industrial Revolution of 6 to 4.5 or 4. Other information has been gathered from studying organisms known as diatoms which inhabit ponds. Over the years these die and are deposited in layers of ediment on the bottoms of the ponds. Diatoms thrive in certain pH levels, so the numbers of diatoms found in sediment layers of increasing depth give an indication of the change in pH over the years. Since the industrial revolution, emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere have increased. The problem of acid rain not only has increased with population and industrial growth, but has become more widespread. The use of tall smokestacks to reduce local pollution has contributed to the spread of acid rain by releasing gases into regional atmospheric circulation. Often deposition occurs a considerable distance downwind of the emissions, with mountainous regions tending to receive the most (simply because of their higher rainfall.) CAUSES OF ACID RAIN Emissions of chemicals leading to acidification The most important gas which leads to acidification is sulphur dioxide. Emissions of nitrogen oxides which are oxidized to form nitric acid are of increasing importance due to stricter controls on emissions of sulphur containing compounds. Natural phenomena The principal natural phenomena that contribute acid-producing gases to the atmosphere are emissions from volcanoes and those from biological processes that occur on the land, in wetlands, and in the oceans. The major biological source of sulphur containing compounds is dimethyl suiphide. The effects of acidic deposits have been detected in glacial ice thousands of years old in remote parts of the globe. Human activity The principal cause of acid rain is sulphuric and nitrogen compounds from human sources, such as electricity generation, factories and motor vehicles. Coal power plants are one of the most polluting.

The gases can be carried hundreds of kiometres in the atmosphere before they are converted to acids and deposited. Factories used to have short funnels to let out smoke, but this caused many problems, so now, factories have longer smoke funnels. The problems with this is those pollutants get carried far off, where it creates more destruction. Chemistry In acid rain When clouds are present the loss rate of SO2 is faster than can be explained by gas phase chemistry alone. This is due to reactions in the liquid water droplets

Plants can be damaged by acid rain but the effect on food crops is minimized by the application of fertilizers to replace lost nutrients. In cultivated areas, limestone may also be added to increase the ability of the soil to keep the pH stable. Acid ram depletes minerals from the soil and then it stunts the growth of the plant. Human health Some scientists have suggested direct links to human health, but none have been proven. However, fine particles, a large fraction of which are formed from the same gases as acid rain (sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide), have been shown to cause illness and premature deaths such as cancer and other deadly diseases. Other adverse effects 1. Acid rain can also cause damage to certain building materials and historical monuments. Acid rain can cause weathering on ancient and valuable statues and has caused considerable damage. This is because the sulphuric acid in the rain chemically reacts with the calcium compounds in the stones (limestone, sandstone, marble and granite) to create gypsum, which then flakes off. This is also commonly seen on old gravestones where the acid rain can cause the inscription to become completely illegible. Acid rain also causes an increased rate of oxidation for iron. Visibility is also reduced by sulphate and nitrate in the atmosphere. 2. Surface waters and aquatic animals Both the lower pH and higher aluminium concentrations in surface water that occur as a result of acid rain can cause damage to fish and other aquatic animals. At pHs lower than 5 most fish eggs will not hatch and lower pHs can kill adult fish. As lakes become more acidic biodiversity is reduced. Acid rain has eliminated insect life and some fish species, including the brook trout in some Appalachian streams and creeks. Wet deposition Wet deposition of acids occurs when any form of precipitation (rain, snow, etc.) removes acids from the atmosphere and delivers it to the Earths surface. This can result from the deposition of acids produced in the raindrops (see aqueous phase chemistry above) or by the precipitation removing the acids either in clouds or below clouas. Wet removal of both gases and aerosol are both of importance for wet deposition. Dry deposition Acid deposition also occurs via dry deposition in the absence of precipitation. This can be responsible for as much as 20 to 60% of total acid deposition. This occurs when particles and gases stick to the ground, plants or other surfaces.

3. Soils Soil biology can be seriously damaged by acid rain. Some tropical microbes can quickly consume acids but other microbes are unable to tolerate low pHs and are killed. The enzymes of these microbes are denatured (changed in shape so they no longer function) by the acid. The hydronium ions of acid rain also mobilize toxins and leach away essential nutrients and minerals. 4. Forests and other vegetation Acid rain can slow the growth of forests, cause leaves and needles to turn brown and fall off and die. In extreme cases trees or whole areas of forest can die. The death of trees is not usually a direct result of acid rain, often it weakens trees and cause makes them more susceptible to other threats. Damage to soils can also problems. High altitude forests are especially vulnerable as they are often surrounded by clouds and fog which are more acidic than rain.