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BS 709 : 1983

UDC 621.791.55.05:669.14:620.1

O British Standards Institution. No part of this publication may be photocopied or otherwise reproduced without the prior permission in writing of BSI.

British Standard Methods of

Destructive testing fusion welded joints and weld metal in steel

Mthodes d'essai destructifs des assemblages souds par fusion et du mtal de soudure dans les aciers Verfahren zur zerstrenden Prfung von schmelzgeschweiten Nhten und Schweigut in Stahl

British Standards Institution


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BSI B S * 7 0 7 83
BS 709 : 1983

Contents
Page

Foreword Committees responsible Methods 1. Scope 2, Definitions

Inside front cover Back cover

Page Figures 1 . Dimensions of tensile t e s t piece from complete pipe of outside diameter less than or equal to 35 mm

1
,)

2 Method of cutting transverse tensile test


specimens from full plate thickness

3 4. 5. 5 . 1 5.2 5.3 6, 6 . 1 6.2 7. 8. 9.

Separation of test specimen Heat treatment Tensile tests Transverse tensile t e s t Cruciform test All-weld tensile test Bend tests Transverse and longitudinal bend tests Side bent test Nick-break t e s t Fillet weld fracture test Macro-examination Test for hardness across welded joint

IO. 11. Charpy V-notch impact t e s t 12. Intercrystalline corrosion test 13. Fracture toughness t e s t (K,,/CTOD test)
Appendices

1 1 2 2 2 6 7 7 10 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

3. Reduced transverse tensile t e s t specimen 4. Dimensions of tensile test specimen from pipe of outside diameter greater than 35 mm 5 . Radius reduced transverse tensile test
specimen 6.' Cruciform t e s t piece, specimens and method of testing 7. Position of all-weld t e s t specimens from different joint types 8. All-weld tensile test specimen 9. Method of testing transverse bend t e s t specimen IO. Method of testing longitudinal bend test specimen 11. Examples of specimen location for transverse and longitudinal bend tests 12. Bend test method using a roller 13. Method of testing side bend t e s t specimen 1 4 . Examples of specimen location 15. Side bend t e s t method using a former 16. Side bend test method using a roller 17. Method of fracturing nick-break t e s t specimen 18. Alternative forms of f i l l e t weld test piece and specimens 19. Typical test specimen for macro-examination 20. Location of hardness t e s t indentations 21. Charpy V-notch impact test specimen from plate or pipe joint 22. KI,ICTOD t e s t configuration

4 4

4
5

5 6 6

8
8-

A. Suggested methods of preparing etched


specimens

B. Vickers hardness t e s t report for wdded joints


Tables 1 Dimensions of t e s t specimens for transverse terlsiie test 2. Dimensions of t e s t specimens for all-weld tensile test 3. Intervals between hardness testing indentations in the heat-affected zone 4. Dimensions and tolerances of test specimens for the Charpy V-notch impact test

20 20

9 9 10 11 11 12
13

2 6 16 17

1 4 15 16
17 19

Foreword
This revision of BS 709 : 1971 has been prepared under the direction of the Welding Standards Committee. It retains the general pattern of the 1971 edition but has been modified to take into account developments in the international field. This edition introduces an intercrystalline corrosion test, a fracture toughness test and a t e s t of hardness gradient across a weld, BS 709 : 1971 is withdrawn. The standard covers only routine approval tests normally required by application standards, Tests for the susceptibility to lamellar tearing, re-heat cracking and fatigue are therefore not included. Standards relating to welded constructions in various branches of engineering generally include requirementsfor certain welding tests to be conducted, primarily for the approval of welding procedu. es and operators. There is seldom any technical reason for divergence from standard procedures to be followed for such welding tests and there are both practical and economic advantages to be gained in standardization. The main purpose of this standard is to describe test procedures and to specify requirementsfor t e s t specimens that should be quoted, or incorporated, in engineering application standards that deal with welded constructions. Where differences still exist between application standards, the methods of test given in this standard are to be preferred.

A general indication is given of the purpose served by each of the different tests, but the standard does not purport to lay down when any particular test should or should not be used; again it does not state the number of specimens to be tested or the repeat tests to be allowed in the event of failure. Such requirements are matters to be dealt with in the particular application standard, where this exists, or to be agreed between the manufacturer and purchaser,

It should be realized that variations in the welding procedure or the quality of t e s t specimen preparation can give rise to variations in the test results
Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.

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6s 709 : 1983

British Standard Methods of

Destructive testing fusion welded joints and weld metal in steel

1. Scope
This British Standard describes routine destructive methods of testing fusion welded joints and weld metal in steel (including pipes" where appropriate] but does not include non-destructive examination. It also specifies the shape and dimensions of standard t e s t pieces and specimens for the tests described.
NOTE. The titles of the publications referred to in this standard are listed on the inside back cover.

used for measurement. Particular attention shall be paid to this when measurement of proof stress, permanent set stress or yield stress i s t o be made. Machining i s usually the best method, but when a specimen is sheared or thermally cut an adequate allowance shall be left for machining if necessary. Each t e s t specimen shall be marked so that it i s possible to identify the exact position in the fabrication or t e s t assembly from which it was taken.

2. Definitions
For the purposes of this British Standard, the definitions given in BS 499 : Part It apply together with the following definitions given in BS 499 : Part 1 : 1965. 2 . 1 test piece. Components welded together in accordance with a specified welding procedure, or a portion of a welded joint detached from a structure for fest.

4. Heat treatment
Test specimens shall be heat treated only if specified or allowed by the application standard relating to the welded joint to be tested. Where possible, they shall be treated together with the welded part. Where this is not possible, the specimens shall be heat treated separately, the treatment and the rate of cooling being similar to that given to the welded part.

2.2 test specimen. A portion detached from a t e s t piece


and prepared as required for testing.

3. Separation of test specimen


The method employed for the separation of test specimens shall be such as to cause minimum deformation and minimum heating of that part of the t e s t specimen to be

A hydrogen release treatment shall be applied for the purpose of testing only in those situations where it i s permitted under the conditions specified in the application standard, e.g. BS 639,or the particular weld procedure. Details of any heat treatment applied to the t e s t pieces shall be reported.

*In this standard the word 'pipe' alone or in combination is used to mean 'pipe' or 'tube' or 'structural hollow section' (circular or rectangular), although these terms are often used for different categories of product by different industries. tunder revision.

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BSI BS*709 83 0 1 6 2 4 b b 0 0 b 7 4 3 0 T
BS 709 : 1983

5. Tensile tests
5.1 Transverse tensile test 5.1.1 Principle, The transverse tensile test measures the transverse tensile strength under static loading of a butt joint employing butt welds, The reduced transverse test does not indicate the tensile strength of the weld metal. Tests on radius reduced specimens induce failure in the weld metal and may give an indication of weld metal properties, These alternatives are covered in 5.1.2.2

machined. In this case, if flattening of the gripped ends is necessary, the possible resulting variations in thickness shall not affect the parallel length or the shoulder. 5.1.3 Procedure. Test the specimen in tension in accordance with BS 18 : Parts 2,3 and 4 as applicable. 5.1.4 Test report, The following shall be reported as results of the test: (a) type of specimen (reduced, radius reduced or complete pipe) and i t s dimensions; (b) whether the reinforcement was removed or not; (c) tensile strength (in N/mm2) calculated from the maximum load and the original nominal cross-sectional area, .e. the product of the parent metal thickness and the width of the specimen; (d) location of the fracture, whether in the weld, in the heat-affected zone or in the parent metal (if the fracture is in the parent metal, i t s approximate distance from the weld junction shall be stated, together with the weld width); (e) the type and location of any flaws present on the fracture surfaces. Evaluation ofthe results of the t e s t shall be in accordance with the appropriate application standard where this exists for the weld joint under t e s t or by agreement between the contracting parties. 5.2 Cruciform test 5.2.1 Principle. The cruciform t e s t determines the relative tensile strength under static loading of fillet welded joints between plates.
NOTE, This test should preferably be supplemented by the use of macro-examination of cross sections of the joint (see clause 9).

and 5,1,2,3.
5.1.2 Preparation of test specimen 5.12.1 General. The weld reinforcement and penetration bead shall be removed unless otherwise specified in the application standard. The penetration bead shall be left intact in pipe of outside diameter less than or equal to 35 mm (see figure 1. The test specimen thickness, a, is normally equal to the thickness of the parent metal, S, near the welded joint. It is permissible to take two or more test specimens from the welded joint to cover the full thickness of the joint as shown in figure 2. In such cases, the faces as well as the sides of the t e s t pieces shall be finished by machining or grinding, suitable precautions being taken to avoid superficial strain-hardeningor excessive heating of the material, and the position of each test piece from the joint thickness shall be identified. 5.1.2.2 Reduced specimen. The shape of the test specimen shall be as shown in figure 3 or figure 4 and the dimensions shall be as given in table 1,

Table 1. Dimensions of test specimens for transverse tensile test


Dimension Symbol

Value

Total length

IL,
Ibl

mm To suit particular testing machine Dependent on weld procedure

Maximum width of weld Width of shoulder

5.2.2 Preparation of test piece and test specimens. The t e s t piece shall be made from plate of full thickness. The test piece and t e s t specimens shall be of the shape and dimensions shown in figure 6. The plate thickness, fillet leg length, welding procedure and penetration shall be as specified in the appropriate application standard. If macro-examinationi s to be carried out, the inner edges of the outer discards shall be prepared in accordance with clause 9.

bz t 12

5 . 2 . 3 Procedure, Test the specimens in tension with the


load applied in the direction indicated in figure 6. 5.2.4 Test report. The following shall be reported as results of the test:

Width of parallel length plates 62 pipes 62 Parallel length Radius a t shoulder

> 20 > L, + 60
50

25

(a) thickness of parent metal;

(b) throat thickness and leg length of weld;


(c) location of the fracture, whether in the weld, in the heat-affected zone or in the parent metal (if the fracture i s in the parent metal, i t s approximate distance from the weld junction shall be stated); (d) the type and location of any weld flaws present on the fracture surfaces; (e) description of the appearance of surfaces subjected to macro-examinationand the type and location of any weld flaws present.

5.1 2.3 Radius reduced specimen. The shape and dimensions of the t e s t specimen shall be as shown in figure 5. 5.1.2.4 Test piece or specimen from pipe. Test pieces consisting of a complete length of pipe shall have plugs inserted in the ends. The dimensions of the plugs and their relation to the dimensions of the t e s t piece shall be as shown in figure 1. For pipe of outside diameter greater than 35 mm, a test specimen having the dimensions shown in figure 4 shall be

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BSI BS*709 8 3 m Lb24bb9 0067433 3 m


BS 709 : 1983

c .E
4 -

c .E
(v

c .E

a
Plug t o be inserted into each end of pipe

V-Jaws o f testing machine

.E
c
Q

NOTE 1. D is the diameter of the plug. NOTE 2. External weld reinforcement t o be dressed flush with parent metal. NOTE 3. Penetration bead to be left intact.

Figure 1. Dimensions of tensile test piece from complete pipe o f outside diameter less than or equal to 35 mm

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BS 709 : 1983

S is the thickness of the joint;


a is the thickness of the test specimen.

Figure 2. Method of cutting transverse tensile test specimens from full plate thickness

I
I

j
I

1 3

Figure 3. Reduced transverse tensile test specimen

Reduced

Figure 4. Dimensions of tensile test specimen from pipe of outside diameter greater than 35 mm

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BSI BS*709 83 m 3 b 2 4 b b 0067433 5 m


BS 709 : 1983

I < ;

Plate thickness, b u t not less than 25 mm

\-

Length t o s u i t testing machine

Direction o f test load

1i

All dimensions are in millimetres.


(a) Test piece and method of cutting fest specimens
(b) Method of testing specimens

Figure 6. Cruciform test piece, specimens and method of testing

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BS 709 : 1983
5.3 All-weld tensile test 5.3.1 Principle, A tensile t e s t on an all-weld specimen is carried out either:

Table 2. Dimensions of test specimens for all-weld tensile test


Crosssectional area, So

(a) to test electrodes or filler wire using a special weld preparation as shown in figure 7(a); or
(b) to test the quality of the deposited metal in a welded joint using a t e s t specimen as shown in figure 7(b).
NOTE, In each case the tensile strength and ductility of the
deposited weld metal may be determined but a clear distinction should be maintained in the evaluation of results.

Diameter,

Gauge length,

LO

mm2

mm

200
150

5.3.2 Preparation of test specimen. The round proportional test specimen shall be machined from the welded joint as indicated in figure 7. It shall be taken longitudinally to the welded joint in such a way that, after machining, the calibrated part of the specimen consists wholly of weld metal, care being taken that the longitudinal axis of the t e s t specimen coincides with the centreline of the weld. The shape of the test specimen shall be as shown in figure 8.
The gauge length shall be 5.654S0, where So is the original cross-sectional area of the test section. The dimensions of the test specimen shall be as given in table 2. Unless stated otherwise in the particular application standard concerning the welded joint under test, the t e s t specimen shall be taken as close as possible to the weld face. i n the case of double-sided joints more than one test specimen may be taken a t different locations through the thickness as shown in figure 7(c), in which case the position of each test specimen in the joint cross section shall be identified. 5.3.3 Procedure, Test the specimen in tension in accordance with ES 18 : Parts 2 and 4.

1 O0 50 25 12.5

15.96 13.82 1 I .28 5.64

80 69 56 40 28 20

56 42 28

3 2

5.3.4 Test report. The following shall be reported as results of the test: (a) type of joint from which specimen was taken (see 5.3.1 and 5.3.2); (b) yield stress or proof stress (in N/mm2); (c) tensile strength (in N/mm2);
(d) percentage elongation; (e) percentage reduction of area; (f) the type and location of any flaws present on the fracture surfaces. Evaluation of the results of the test shall be made in accordance with the appropriate application standard where this exists for the welded joint under t e s t or by agreement between the contracting parties.

(a) Wide gap test piece with backing material, typically used for testing welding consumables

(b) A test specimen from a joint welded from one side only

(c) Test specimens from a joint welded from both sides where a different welding process or consumable is used on each side

Figure 7 .Position of all-weld test specimens from different joint types


I

L o = 5d

k
73

-@
'\
I
c

/-

LcS

Lo+2d

--iGa

/ ,

Figure 8. All-weld tensile test specimen

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BS 709 : 1983
6. Bend tests
6.1 Transverse and longitudinal bend tests 6.1.1 Principle. Transverse and longitudinal bend tests determine the soundness of weld metal, weld junctions and heat-affected zones (.e. weld zones) and may also be used io give a measure of the ductility of weld zones. The best tests are carried out using either a former (see 6.1.3.1) or a roller (see 6.1.3.2).
NOTE. It is usually unnecessary for both transverse and longitudinal bend tests to be made for each application. The transverse bend test has a wider applicability than the longitudinal bend test (see also 6.2.1).

or
D t -t - with a maximum of 40 mm for pipes 2o over 60.3 mm outside diameter

where t i s the pipe thickness; D is the outside diameter.


NOTE. By applying suitable gauge marks at the outer surface of the test specimen before testing, the extension may also be measured.

6.1.3 Procedure

6.1.2 Preparation of test specimen. The shape and dimensions of the t e s t specimen shall be as shown in figure 9 for the transverse bend test and figure 10 for the longitudinal bend test. The edges of the specimen on the side in tension in the weld area shall be rounded to a radius not exceeding 10 % of the specimen thickness, a. The width of the test specimen shall be not less than 1.5a, with a minimum of 20 mm, and the length of the t e s t specimen shall be sufficient for testing as shown in figures 9 and 1O. The t e s t specimen shall normally be the full thickness of the parent material a t the welded joint, and the upper and lower surfaces of the weld shall normally be dressed flush with the original surface of the material for the transverse bend t e s t and should normally be so dressed for the longitudinal bend test. Any undercut shall not be removed by machining unless specified in the application standard. I f the material thickness exceeds 30 mm, two or more test specimens may be taken from the welded joint, provided that the thickness, a, of each specimen shall be not less than 30 mm, and that they cover the full thickness of the joint (see figure 11). In such a case, the position of each test specimen in the welded joint thickness shall be identified. Each root and face bend test specimen from a butt joint in pipe shall be a strip of parallel width equal to D t+ for pipes up to and including 60.3 mm ' O outside diameter

6.1.3.1 Bend test method using a farmer. Bend the test specimen by the movement of a former of diameter D. The side of the specimen to be placed in tension and the angle of bend shall be as specified in the appropriate application standard (see figure 9 and figure IO).
6-13.2 Bend test method using a roller. Firmly clamp the test specimen a t one end in a testing device having two parallel rollers as shown in figure 12(a). Bend the t e s t specimen over the inner stationary roller by rotation of the outer roller through an arc centred on the axis of the inner stationary roller. The angle of bend (see figure 12(b)) about the inner stationary roller shall be as specified in the appropriate application standard. NOTE. By applying suitable gauge marks at the outer surface of the test specimen before testing, the extension may also be
measured.

6.1.4 Test report, The following shall be reported as results of the test: (a) width, thickness and location of specimen; (b) direction of bend (transverse or longitudinal) and which surface was in tension (root or face); (c) angle of bend; (d) method used and diameter of former or stationary roller; (e) appearance of joint after bending, e.g. type and location of any flaws present: (f) extension of specimen (when applicable).
Evaluation of the bend test specimen shall be made in accordance with the appropriate application standard where this exists for the welded joint being tested or by agreement between the contracting parties.

a
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BS 709 : 1983

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5 = thickness of the joint


Figure 11. Examples of specimen location for transverse and longitudinal bend tests

(b)

Dimension is in millimetres.

Figure 12. Bend test method using a roller

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BS 709 : 1983

6.2 Side bend t e s t (for material of thickness 10 mm and over) 6.2.1 Principle. The side bend test determines the soundness of a welded joint in cross section using either a former (see 6.2.3.1) or a roller (see 6 . 2 . 3 . 2 ) .
NOTE, The side bend test may be preferable to the transverse bend test on thicker material.

movement of a former. The angle of bend, a,and the diameter of the former, D , shall be as specified in the appropriate application standard (see figure 15).
NOTE, The shape of the cross section of the welded joint and its position in the test specimen can be made apparent if necessary by lightly macro-etching the surface of the test specimen to be put in tension.

6.2.2 Preparation of test specimen. The shape and dimensions of the test specimen shall be as shown in figure 13 and all edges of the specimen shall be rounded to a radius not exceeding 1O % of the specimen thickness. The length of the specimen shall be sufficient for testing as shown in figure 13. The width, b, of the test specimen shall normally be the full thickness of the material a t the welded joint and the upper and lower surfaces of the weld shall normally be dressed flush with the original surface of the material. If the material thickness exceeds 40 mm, two or more specimens of equal width may be cut from across the plate thickness, provided the specimen is not less than 20 mm and not greater than 40 mm wide, and that the test specimens cover the full thickness of the joint (see figure 14). In such a case, the position of each t e s t specimen in the welded joint thickness shall be identified.
NOTE. By applying suitable gauge marks at the outer surface of the test specimen before testing, the extension may also be measured.

6.2.3.2 Side bend test method using a roller. Firmly clamp the test specimen a t one end in a testing device having two parallel rollers as shown in figure 16. Bend the test specimen over the inner stationary roller by rotation of the outer roller through an arc centred on the axis of the inner stationary roller. The angle of bend, a,and the diameter, D , of the inner stationary roller shall be as specified in the appropriate application standard. 6.2.4 Test report. The following shall be reported as results of the test:

6.2.3 Procedure 6.2.3.1 Side bend test method using a former. Support the t e s t specimen on two parallel rollers and bend it by the

(a) width and thickness of specimen; (b) angle of bend; (c) method used and diameter of former or stationary roller; (d) appearance of joint after bending, e.g. type and location of any flaws present. Evaluation of the bend test specimen shall be made in accordance with the appropriate application standard where this exists for the weld joint being tested or by agreement between the contracting parties.

TMax. rad, 10 YO a

%up p or t
Figure 13. Method of testing side bend test specimen (diagrammatic only)

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BS 709 : 1983

I
a

I t
a is the thickness of the test specimen; b is the width of the test specimen (b = 1.5a, but 20 mm min.); S is the thickness of the joint.

Figure 14. Examples of specimen location

2 1.3,L,-

NOTE. If it i s not otherwise specified in the application standard concerning the welded joint under examination, the diameter, D , of the former should be chosen in such a way that, after bending, the width, , , of the weld face is included in an angle not exceeding 90 O .

Figure 15. Side bend test method using a former

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B S I B S * 7 0 9 8 3 IL b 2 4 b b 0 0 b 7 4 4 0 2 H

BS 709 : 7983

a h

Dimension is in miliimetres. NOTE, If it is not otherwise specified in the application standard concerning the welded joint under examination, the diameter, D , of ! t inner roller should be chosen in such a way that, after bending, the width, I!.,, of the weid face is included in an angle not exceeding 90 ,

Figure 16. Side bend test method using a roller

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- BSI BS*703 83 m 1624669 0067L14l

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BS 709 : 1983

7. Nick-break test (for material of thickness 10 mm


and over) 7.1 Principle. The joint is broken through the weld to permit examination of the fracture surfaces for welding defects.

7 . 3 Procedure. The specimen shall be fractured along the


centreline of the weld by slow bending or by hammer blows (see figure 17). 7.4 Test report. The following shall be reported as results of the test:

7.2 Preparation of test specimen. The t e s t specimen shall


be cut transversely to the welded joint and shall be the full thickness of the plate, a, a t the joint. The excess weld metal and penetration bead shall be left intact. The shape and dimensions of the t e s t specimen and location of the saw cuts shall be as shown in figure 17,

(a) a full description of the appearance of the fracture surfaces; (b) if any weld defects are present, a full description of their type and location.

n
J
.Excess weld metai

1
All dimensions are in millimetres.

kupport

Figure 17. Method of fracturing nick-break test specimen (diagrammatic only)

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BS 709 : 1983

8. Fillet weld fracture test


8.1 Principle. The joint i s broken through the weld to permit examination of the fracture surfaces for welding defects. 8.2 Preparation of test piece and test specimens. The form of the test piece shall be one of those shown in figure 18. The thickness of the plates used shall be greater than the throat thickness of the fillet weld under test. The test piece shall be cut to give three test specimens of approximately equal length.
NOTE. To ensure fracture in the weld, a central saw cut 2 mm deep may be made along the length of the weld surface.

8.3 Procedure. Fracture the specimens either by bending or by blows applied in the direction indicated in figure 18. 8.4 Test report. The following shall be reported as results of the test: (a) thickness of parent metal; (b) throat thickness and leg length of weld; (c) location of fracture; (d) appearance of joint after testing, e.g. type and location of any defects present.

t
v1
(v

Direction of fracture force

,-Saw cut 2 mm deep ( i f required 1

Saw cut 2 mm deep ( if required)

Direction

c
I

100

4
I

of fracture force

E& I4
I

100

(a) Fillet weld T-joint

(b) Fillet weld lap joint

All dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 18. Alternative forms of fillet weld test piece and specimens

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BS 709 : 1983

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9. Macro-examination
9.1 Principle. The soundness of the welded joint i s checked
by macro-examination. The test is used to examine 'actual size' features by visual inspection.

9.2 Preparation of test specimen. The specimen shall be the full thickness of the material a t the welded joint, and the excess weld metal and penetration bead shall be left intact. The specimen shall contain a length of the joint of a t least 1O mm and shall extend on each side of the weld for a distance that includes the heat-affected zone and some parent metal (see figure 19).

9 . 3 Surface preparation. The specimen shall be prepared,


polished and etched. NOTE.Suitable methods of surface preparation are described in
appendix A.

9.4 Procedure. Examine the t e s t specimen either with the naked eye alone, or with the additional use of a hand lens of magnification not greater than five diameters. 9.5 Test report. The following shall be reported as results of the test: (a) a full description of the appearance of the surface under examination; (b) if any weld defects are present, a full description of their type and location. The standard of defects permissible as a result of visual examination shall be as specified in the appropriate application standard where this exists or as agreed between the contracting parties.

This distance t o include the heat-affected zone and some

This face polished and etched

v
I

'O!?

Dimension is in millimetres.

Figure 19. Typical test specimen for macro-examination

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BS 709 : 1983

10. Test for hardness across welded joint


10.1 Principle. The hardness gradient across a welded joint is measured for comparison purposes and the maximum hardness in the weld zone i s ascertained. 10.2 Preparation of test specimen. The specimen shall be prepared as described in 9.2 and shall comply with the preparation requirements of the hardness t e s t method specified in BS 427 : Part 1. 10.3 Procedure, Carry out the t e s t described in BS 427 : Part 1.
NOTE. Indentations should be made as shown in figure 20 with intervals as given in table 3.

Table 3. intervals between hardness testing indentations in the heat-affected zone


Vickers hardness load Interval between hardness test indentations, A

10.4 Test report, Every individual hardness value measured with reference to i t s individual position shall be reported as results of the test.
NOTE, An example of such a report is given in appendix B.

2 I s t side
Ist side

Root
2

Root

2nd side
(b)

I s t side

Root
2nd side 2

All dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 20. Location of hardness test indentations

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E S 1 BS*709 83

Lb24bb7 0 0 b 7 4 4 5 L

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BS 709 : 1983

11, Charpy V-notch impact test


11.1 Principle. The energy absorbed is determined a t a specified temperature in breaking by one blow from a pendulum a t e s t specimen notched in the middle and supported a t each end. Because of the likely scatter of results, a t least three specimens are used to assess the joint represented.
NOTE, There i s no overall direct correlation between the results of the standard and subsidiary impact tests. The subject is complex, Reference may be made to the Welding Research Bulletin, August 1978.

Table.4. Dimensions and tolerances of test specimens for the Charpy V-notch impact test
Item Nominal dimension Machining tolerances of test specimens*

Length Width standard test specimen subsidiary t e s t specimen 1 subsidiary test specimen 2 subsidiary t e s t specimen 3 Thickness Root radius of notch Depth below notch measured
a t both ends

mm 55

3. 0.60

11.2 Preparation of t e s t specimen. The number, location


and orientation of the specimens and the orientation of the notches shall be as specified in the appropriate application standard.
NOTE. The normal orientation of the notch is as shown in figure 21,

10 7.5 5 2.5 10

3. 0.1 1

kO.11
3. 0.05

The shape and dimensions of the standard and subsidiary t e s t specimens shall be as shown in table 4 and figure 21. The method of preparation shall be as described in BS 131 : Part 2.

3.0.05
3. 0.1 1
k 0.025

11.3 Procedure. Test the specimen a t the temperature specif ied in the appropriate application standard in accordance with BS 131 : Part 2.

f 0.1 1

11.4 Test report. The following shall be reported for each specimen as results of the test: (a) dimension of t e s t specimen; (b) location and orientation of the notch;
(c) testing temperature (in OC); (d) the energy absorbed (in J); (e) description of the appearance of the fracture surfaces and the type and location of any weld flaws present. (See also BS 131 :Part 5.)

Distance of notch from one end of test specimen

3. 0.42

Angle between plane of symmetry of notch and the longitudinal axis o f t e s t specimen Angle of notch
I

+-2

with BS 131 : Part 2.

Notch detail

rI

I I

I
I I

L-

All dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 21. Charpy V-notch impact test specimen from plate or pipe joint

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BSI B S * i O 83 W L b 2 4 b b 0 0 b 7 4 4 6 3 W
BS 709 : 1983

12. Intercrystalline corrosion test (for austenitic


stainless steel plate or pipe welds) 12.1 Principle. The susceptibility to intergranular attack a t a welded joint is checked under standard conditions (see BS 5903).
NOTE. This accelerated laboratory test is no guarantee of the

square centimetre of test specimen surface area, having the following composition: 100 g copper sulphate (CuSO4 5H2) 184 g (100 mL) sulphuric acid (relative density 1.84) made up to 1 L with distilled water (or water complying with BS 3978).
. specimen through

performance in service of particular joints but may be used to


compare various procedures and consumables.

12.2 Preparation of test specimen. If the material does not


exceed 13 mm, the test specimen shall be the full thickness of the material a t the welded joint. I f the material exceeds 13 mm, two specimens shall be cut to include the inner and outer surfaces. The excess weld metal and penetration bead shall be left intact except for those applications where the weld represented is dressed. 12.3 Procedure, Completely immerse the t e s t specimen and approximately 50 g of copper turnings or filings, such that the test specimen is in contact with the copper, for a period of 24 h in a boiling solution of sufficient volume to provide a minimum of 8 mL of solution per

After the completion of the boiling period, cold bend the 90 o around a former of diameter 2t, where t is the thickness of the test specimen, with the weld surface under investigation in tension a t the crown of the bend. 12.4 Test report. The following shall be reported as results of the test: (a) width and thickness of specimen; (b) any heat treatment applied after welding;
(c) period of immersion;

(d) angle of bend;


(e) appearance of specimen after bending, e.g. any cracking on outer convex surface.

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BS 709 : 1983

13. Fracture toughness test (KlcICTOD test)


13.1 Principle. The resistance of a material to fracture i s determined in order to evaluate i t s defect tolerance under service conditions. In order to have the necessary confidence in t e s t results, a minimum of three specimens i s tested under the specified conditions. The acceptibility of this minimum depends on the particular fracture regime in which the material fails. In a complex piece, such as a weldment, such groups of tests are conducted a t various areas within the weldment. 13.2 Preparation of test specimens. The number, location and orientation of the t e s t specimens shall be as specified in any appropriate application standard. The specimen thickness shall be the full thickness of the plate.
NOTE 1. The plane strain fracture toughness, K I , is a material property independent of specimen geometry and size, although minimum size requirements are necessary to ensure failure under plane strain. It i s therefore necessary to test specimens of full plate thickness. CTOD data i s relevant where plastic deformation prevails outside the limitations of LEFM and the resultant value of this parameter i s specimen thickness dependent. It i s therefore necessary to test specimens of full plate thickness. NOTE 2. The fracture initiating crack is grown by fatigue from a notch machined prior t o testing. For specimens with through thickness notches into multipass weldments in the as-welded condition, unacceptable fatigue crack growth may be experienced unless special fatigue cracking techniques are employed. One suitable technique to avoid this potential problem is local compression. Reference may be made t o the Welding Journal, December 1976, pp. 1052-1057.

13.3 Procedure. Test the prepared specimen in three point bending, as shown schematically in figure 22, a t the temperature specified in the appropriate application standard and in accordance with the appropriate test standard. Fit a clip gauge across the notch during testing to indicate the extent of crack opening prior to the onset of unstable fracture. 13.4 Test report. Test results shall be reported in accordance with the appropriate test standard, .e. BS 5447 or BS 5762, and shall include the Location and orientation of the initiating crack.
NOTE. Using the information obtained from the t e s t together with the material properties and the proposed service loading, the defect tolerances of the material can be evaluated for the particular test temperature (see PD 6493).

The dimensions of the t e s t pieces and detailed methods of preparation shall be in accordance with BS 5447 : 1977 (KI, tests) or BS 5762 : 1979 (CTOD testing).

Clip gauge,

Connection o f clip gauge t o instrumentafion

Machined notch

Fatigue crack

------Y

Ar
19

Figure 22. K,,ICTOD test configuration

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BSI BS*7O

BS 709 : 1983

Appendix A Suggested methods of preparing etched specimens


A.l General. The methods of preparing etched specimens given in this appendix are suggested for convenience and are not requirements of this standard. A.2 Preparation of surface for etching. After preliminary preparation, the smooth surface should be polished with successively finer grades of waterproof silicon carbide paper (see BS 871), e.g. P280, P320, P400, P500, the direction of polishing being a t right angles to the marks made by the previous paper in each case, polishing being continued until the scratches of the previous paper have been removed before proceeding to the next finer grade. A.3 Etching for macro-examination. In general for steel a P400 grade finish will be smooth enough for a satisfactory etch to be obtained for macro-examination. Suitable etching solutions are as follows. (a) For ferritic steels: 10 mL to 15 mL nitric acid (70 % m / m ) (16N) 85 mL to 90 mL alcohol (industrial spirit") NOTE. Great care should be exercised in the preparation of
this solution as the mixing of concentrated nitric acid and alcohol can be extremely dangerous. The acid should be added slowly to the alcohol and the mixture should be constantly stirred. The solution should be stored in a stoppered container to avoid concentration by evaporation.

(b) For austenitic steels:


40 mL hydrochloric acid (36 % m/m) (1 1 N ) 30 mL nitric acid (70 % m/m) ( 1 6 ~ ) 30 m L water

During etching the reagent should be continuously moved over the specimen surface and this may be achieved by swabbing if desired. When the etching process is completed the specimens should be washed thoroughly with swabbing usually in water and then carefully dried, for example by the application of acetone in a fine jet followed by evaporation in a stream of hot air. A.4 Etching for micro-examination.Where some critical examination is required (e.g. for micro-cracking)the specimen should be finished by fine polishing using diamond pastes. Suitable etching solutions are as follows. (a) For ferritic steels: 1 mL to 5 mL nitric acid (70 % m / m ) ( 1 6 ~ ) 100 mL alcohol (b) For austenitic steels: 1 g picric acid 5 mL hydrochloric acid (36 % m/m) (1 I N ) 100 mL alcohol Alternatively, the following reagent may be used for electrolytic polishing/etching of austenitics after wet pre-grinding up to grade P00 silicon carbide paper: 10 g oxalic acid 1O0 m L water The etching process, whether chemical or electrolytic, is applied for the length of time found by experience to be sujtable for the particular steel. The specimen should then be thoroughly washed in water followed by alcohol and dried in a stream of hot air.

Appendix B Vickers hardness test report for welded joints


The following is a specimen test report.
Testing by row of indentations Parent metal: Welding process: Form of joint: Thickness of material: Filler metal: Post-weldheat treatment:

Test load:
Index of the row of indentations: Interval A between indentations in the heat affected zone:

(continued on inside back cover)


*It should be noted that the use of industrial methylated spirits i s governed by The Methylated Spirits Regulations, 1952 (S.I. 1952,

No. 2230).

7
20

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BS 709 : 1983

Appendix B (concluded)

Picture or sketch giving index of the rows of indentations

Publications referred to
BS 18

O
Weid centre
___F

Distance from weld centre (mml

BS 131
BS 427
BS 499

BS 639 BS 871 BS 3978 BS 5447 BS 5762 BS 5903

PD 6493

Methods for tensile testing of metals Part 2 Steel (general) Part 3 Steel sheet and strip (less than 3 mm and not less than 0.5 mm thick) Part 4 Steel tubes Methods for notched bar tests Part 2 The Charpy V-notch impact test on metals Part 5 Determination of crystallinity Method for Vickers hardness test Part 1 Testing of metals Welding terms and symbols Part 1 Welding, brazing and thermal cutting glossary Covered electrodes for the manual metal-arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels Specification for abrasive papers and cloths Water for laboratory use Methods of test for plane strain fracture toughness (KI,) of metallic materiais Methods for crack opening displacement (COD) testing Method for determination of resistance to intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steels: copper sulphatesulphuric acid method (Moneypenny Strauss test) Guidance on some methods for the derivation of acceptance levels for defects in fusion welded joints

For information about BSI services relating to third party certificationto suitable British Standard product specifications, schemes for the registration of firms of assessed capability, testing and inspection facilities and Technical Help to Exporters, please contact the Director, Quality Assurance Division, BSI, Maylands Avenue, Hemel Hempstead, Herts HP2 4SQ Tel. Hemel Hempstead3111.

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BSI B S * O 7 8 3

Lb24b b 00b7450 5 --_


--_

BS 709 : I983
This British Standard, having been prepared under the direction of the Welding Standards Committee, was published under the authority of the Board of BSI and comes into effect on 31 March 1983. the standard, of necessary details such as symbols and size, type or grade designations. Enquiries should be addressed to the Publications Manager, British Standards Instit.ution, Linford Wood, Milton Keynes MK14 6LE. The number for telephone enquiries Is 01-837 8801 and for telex 23218. Contract requirements A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application. Revision of British Standards British Standards are revised, when necessary, by the issue either of amendments or of revised editions. It is important t h a t users of British Standardsshould ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or editions. Information on a l l BSI publications is in the BS Yearbook, supplemented each month by BSI News which is available to subscribing members of the Institution and gives details of new publications, revisions, amendments and withdrawn standards, Any person who, when making use of a British Standard, encounters an inaccuracy or ambiguity, is requested to notify BSI without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken. The following BSI references relate t o the work on this standard: Committee reference WEE/2 Draft for comment 81/75096 DC

O British Standards Institution, 1983


First published November 1936 First revision May 1940 Second revision July 1964 Third revision October 1971 Fourth revision March 1983 ISBN O 580 13153 X British Standards institution incorporated by Royal Charter, ES1 is the independent national body for the preparation of British Standards. It is the UK member of the International Organization for Standardization and UK sponsor of the British National Committee of the International Electrotechnical Commission, Copyright Users of British Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all BSI publications, No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the prior permission in writing of BSI. This does not preclude the free use, in the course of implementing

Committees responsible for this British Standard


This British Standard was published under the direction of the Welding Standards Committee WEE/-. I t s preparation was entrusted to Technical Committee WEE/2 upon which the following bodies were represented: Aluminium Federation Associated Offices Technical Committee British Compressed Gases Association British Constructional Steelwork Association British Railways Board British Steel Industry Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales Health and Safety Executive Institution of Structural Engineers Ministry of Defence Water-tube Boilermakers' Association Welding Manufacturers' Association

Amendments issued since publication


Amd. No.
Date of issue

Text affected

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