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Parallel operation of transformers Most transformers installed in parallel have the same kVA, turn ratios, and impedances,

which can make it difficult for power engineers in industrial and commercial facilities to understand circulating currents and load sharing. As systems change over time, and transformers are replaced or added, users need to know the impact of paralleling transformers using different parameters. .The need for operation of two or more transformers in parallel often arises due to: - Load growth, which exceeds the capactiy of an existing transformer - ack of space !height" for one large transformer - A measure of security !the pro#a#ility of two transformers failing at the same time is very small" - The adoption of a standard si$e of transformer throughout an installation Total power (kVA) The total power !kVA" availa#le when two or more transformers of the same kVA rating are connected in parallel, is e%ual to the sum of the individual ratings, providing that the percentage impedances are all e%ual and the voltage ratios are identical. Transformers of une%ual kVA ratings will share a load practically !#ut not exactly" in proportion to their ratings, providing that the voltage ratios are identical and the percentage impedances !at their own kVA rating" are identical, or very nearly so. &n these cases, a total of more than '() of the sum of the two ratings is normally availa#le. &t is recommended that transformers, the kVA ratings of which differ #y more than *:+, should not #e operated permanently in parallel. Conditions necessary for parallel operation All paralleled units must #e supplied from the same network. The inevita#le circulating currents exchanged #etween the secondary circuits of paralleled transformers will #e negligi#ly small providing that:

,econdary ca#ling from the transformers to the point of paralleling have approximately e%ual lengths and characteristics The transformer manufacturer is fully informed of the duty intended for the transformers, so that: - The winding configurations !star, delta, $ig$ag star" of the several transformers have the same phase change #etween primary and secondary voltages - The short-circuit impedances are e%ual, or differ #y less than +() - Voltage differences #etween corresponding phases must not exceed (.-) - All possi#le information on the conditions of use, expected load cycles, etc. should #e given to the manufacturer with a view to optimi$ing load and no-load losses

Common winding arrangements

.ig. /*+ : 0hase change through a 1yn ++ transformer As descri#ed in 4.4 lectrical characteristics!winding config"rations# the relationships #etween primary, secondary, and tertiary windings depend on:

Type of windings !delta, star, $ig$ag" 2onnection of the phase windings

1epending on which ends of the windings form the star point !for example", a star winding will produce voltages which are +3(4 displaced with respect to those produced if the opposite ends had #een 5oined to form the star point. ,imilar +3(4 changes occur in the two possi#le ways of connecting phase-to-phase coils to form delta windings, while four different com#inations of $ig$ag connections are possi#le.

The phase displacement of the secondary phase voltages with respect to the corresponding primary phase voltages.

As previously noted, this displacement !if not $ero" will always #e a multiple of 6(4 and will depend on the two factors mentioned a#ove, vi$ type of windings and connection !i.e. polarity" of the phase windings. By far the most common type of distribution transformer winding configuration is the Dyn 11 connection (see Fig. B21).