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INTRODUCTION

Architectural design is a largely subjective process that is best illustrated using a casebook approach. In this course the case is fire stations. What is a fire station? A fire station, fire house or fire hall is a structure or other area set aside for storage of firefighting apparatus such as fire engines and related vehicles, personal protective equipment, fire hoses and other specialized equipment. It may also have dormitory living facilities and work areas for the use of fire fighters. Living areas are sometimes arranged above the garage bays where personnel without specific station duties during the night shift are allowed to sleep unless a dispatch is called. In that situation, firefighters may have special means to allow entry to the ground floor quickly when a call for help is received, such as sliding down a brass pole called a fireman's pole. This arrangement also allows for a raised area to hang hoses to dry to prevent damage. In a single story station, a tower like structure is sometimes used for hose hanging. An occupied station will usually have a station alarm system for receiving and annunciating an alarm, and indications of where and what caused the alarm. However, sometimes the only "alarm" is a telephone that is rung in case of emergency. In a volunteer fire department where volunteers do not staff the station, the firefighters may be summoned to the fire station by siren, radio or pagers, making a station alarm system superfluous. In a more structured operation, full-time or on-call volunteer or career firefighters staff the station some or all of the time. There may be office space for the officers, a library of reference and other materials, and a "trophy wall" or case where the firefighters display memorabilia. Activities in a fire station include regular inspection and cleaning of the apparatus and equipment, and continuing education in the fire service. Weekly or biweekly routine typically includes various drills in which firefighters practice their skills. Some fire companies also host public activities at the fire station during annual "fire prevention week" or similar, and the facility may also be used for fund-raising by the "firemen's association", "fire buffs", or "fire auxiliary". The approaches to a fire station are often posted with warning signs, and there may be a traffic signal to stop or warn traffic when apparatus are leaving or returning to the station. In larger cities fire stations are often named for the primary fire companies and apparatus housed there, such as "Ladder 49", or the district which they serve. Rural fire stations are usually named for the county, town or village, but may also be named for the independent fire district serving a collective geographic area. Types of Stations Functionally, there are three types of Fire Stations: Structural Stations provide fire protection to facilities, Aircraft Rescue Firefighting (ARFF) Stations provide fire protection to flight lines and aircraft, and Combination Structural/ARFF Stations. Classes of Stations Irrespective of type, there are three classes of Fire Stations: Headquarters (or Main) stations generally house the Fire Chief and most of the general administrative functions, Satellite stations are located throughout the Installation to provide adequate response time coverage, as appropriate, and Large Headquarters stations are very large Combination stations that typically serve an entire Installation (usually without Satellite stations).

Users of Facility Not all of these personnel will be located in every Fire Station, but generally, all of the following individuals will be present in at least one Fire Station per Installation: Fire Chief, Deputy Fire Chief, Assistant Chief/Shift Supervisor, Firefighters, Inspectors, Training Officers (may be located outside of a Fire Station), Fire Prevention Officers (may be located outside of a Fire Station), Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT)/Safety Officer, Logistics Officer, Administrative Assistant, and Reserve Firefighters (Generally, Air Force only.)

DESIGN GUIDELINES
Fire stations present a unique challenge to architects due to the many functions required of a firehouse. Not simply a place to go to work, fire stations must have ample room to house fire trucks and equipment, plus incorporate administrative and residential areas. Departments that provide field medical service keep rescue units at the stations as well. Thoughtful planning is required for fire stations to be operational 24 per day, 365 days per year. Fire station designers must understand

that the process involves a great deal of planning, but that taking the time to do it right initially will result in a building that serves the community well into the future.

GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA


STRUCTURAL DESIGN Single-story structures are preferred for Fire Stations. Site constraints may drive the need for multi-story structures. If a multistory structure is required, ensure the appropriate adjacencies are maintained so that the required response times may be achieved. Where possible, design the structural system to accommodate future expansion requirements without over-designing the initial construction. Foundation The foundation is site specific and must be designed upon known geotechnical considerations by an engineer knowledgeable of the local conditions. Superstructure Clear spans are preferred for the Apparatus Room. Use pre-engineered components for superstructure framing, where feasible. Materials Climate conditions, high humidity, industrial atmosphere, salt water exposure, or other adverse conditions should be considered when selecting the following: The type of cement and admixtures used in concrete, The concrete cover on reinforcing steel in concrete membrane, The coatings on structural members, Expansion joints, The level of corrosion protection, and The structural systems. EXTERIOR DESIGN The building design should comply with Command and Installation architectural standards. Also consider the local geographical and cultural environment. The Fire Station should present a cohesive architectural image. Create an attractive, functional theme that applies to the entire facility design, from the overall exterior architectural statement to the specific interior design elements. Continuity of space should be reinforced by space planning, building form, elevation, materials, and details. Entrance Ensure that the main Fire Station entrance is clearly identifiable to discourage visitors from entering the facility through an open Apparatus Bay door. Provide separate entrances to the Dorm area and the Day Room. Exterior Finishes Exterior finishes should be durable and low-maintenance. INTERIOR DESIGN Construction and finishes (walls, floor, and ceiling) should support the cohesive image and theme of the facility. The living areas of the facility, such as the Day Room and the Dorm Rooms, should reflect a residential, non-institutional character. Durability is extremely important when specifying materials for interior construction and finishes. Fire Stations are occupied 24 hours per day, seven days a week and heavy equipment is regularly handled throughout the facility. These conditions will lead to greater interior damage being incurred compared to many other facility types. Interior Construction Counters, casework, and cabinets should be of high-quality and durable construction. Casework, cabinet doors, and drawer faces should be provided as veneer panel core. Doors, drawers, and casework faces should be plastic laminate at a minimum. Where no water source is present, countertops should be plastic laminate as a minimum with hardwood or solid surface edging. Where a water source is present, countertops should be solid surface/solid composite plastics only. Specify 20-mm (.75-in.) minimum thickness for plywood, plywood backing, and solid wood panels. All interior glass must be tempered safety glass and mirrors must be constructed with break-resistant materials. Finishes

Finishes should take into account the intended uses and be highly durable Fire Protection Design fire protection and life safety to comply. Fire Stations must be completely protected with automatic sprinklers. Electrical Provide electric service and distribution equipment, wiring receptacles and grounding, interior and exterior lighting and control, emergency lighting, telephone, communication systems, fire alarm, and intrusion Lighting. Provide lighting and control systems throughout the facility Emergency Power Provide 100% emergency generator back-up power for HQ/Main and Large HQ stations. For Satellite stations, provide emergency back-up power, at a minimum, for the following spaces/systems: Apparatus Bay lighting and doors, Watch Desk/Dispatch and all associated equipment, IT Room systems related to the Dispatch and communication functions, and Lighting. Consider providing emergency power for additional spaces, such as the Day Room, or providing 100% emergency back-up power for the entire Satellite station. Communications and Data Telephone and data outlets may be independent of each other or combined into a single junction box. If these connections can be combined into a single junction box then the cover plate to that junction box must allow for multiple connections. In some unique situations, the cable television (CATV)/internal video connection can also be combined into a single junction box with the appropriate cover plate. Alarm System. Consider providing an intrusion detection alarm system to protect equipment and assets. Provisions for an alarm system must be justified during the planning/programming process. Firefighter Alert System Provide simultaneous light and audible control for the following spaces when the firefighter alert system is activated: Dorm Room lights (the dedicated alert light), corridor lights from Dorm Rooms to the Apparatus Bay, and the Apparatus Bay lights. SITE WORK Organize the site to be compatible with the site planning and style of adjacent existing structures. Locate the building to reflect local climatic conditions. For example, provide protection from prevailing winds and glare and orient operable windows to take advantage of summer breezes. Locate the building to take advantage of passive solar heating and day lighting. Landscaping The plant selection should be easy to maintain and enhance the visual quality of the facility in all seasons. Indigenous species are preferred. The growth characteristics of selected plant material should be assessed when considering line of sight requirements to either flight pavements or facilities. Firefighting Vehicle Access Drives Ensure that dimensions of access roadways and service entrances accommodate vehicle sizes anticipated for fire station operations. Apparatus ramps should also be designed to support the anticipated vehicle weight. Design the facility and site to permit drive-through Apparatus Bays unless restricted by the site and/or flight line. If the vehicle access drives are sloped, either for drainage or due to the site profile, ensure that the slope angle is low enough to be easily navigated by the firefighting apparatus and that the driver can maintain good visibility of the area around his or her vehicle. Parking and Other Access Drives. Provide adequate parking based on the total positions assigned, including eight- and 24-hour shift positions, reservists (if appropriate), and visitors. If possible, access drives to staff and public parking should not cross the vehicle access drive out of the

Apparatus Bay. Locate parking areas so they do not dominate the main entrance and public image of the facility. General Site Lighting. Ensure that parking areas and the facility have adequate lighting for safety, evacuation, and security measures. If the facility is near a flight line, site lighting should not interfere or be a distraction to aircraft movement at night.

Guidelines in Designing a Fire Station


1. Know the main features of a fire station. The fire trucks, rescue units and other fire response vehicles are parked in the apparatus bays. Allow room in the bays for the apparatus bay support, where equipment is cleaned and stored, as well as for service of vehicles with basic maintenance checks. Administrative and training zones allow for the everyday running of the department and training of recruits. The residential sections include the common room, kitchen, showers, sleeping quarters and a fitness room. 2. Find out whether the station will be a new building or a renovation of a previous station or other kind of building. Constructing a completely new building will be much more expensive than renovating unless the current building is in disrepair or very old. Either way, the design and construction of the new station should incorporate as many eco-friendly features as possible to save tax-payers money in the future. 3. Determine the main use of the fire station. A substation will be smaller than a combined station and training facility, and the central command may require large apparatus maintenance capabilities. Design the station for a department's headquarters with administrative offices, equipment storage units and possibly an archival space such as the local fire museum. Include conference or presentation rooms for educational programs for local schools and groups. The types of trucks to be kept at the station dictate the length and height of the parking bays. 4. Research the kind of response calls the station will mostly likely take. Firefighters at a station in a residential area will respond to fires and vehicle accidents. A station near an industrial park requires equipment for handling chemical spills, explosions and other hazardous waste emergencies. A water harbor firehouse will need to accommodate watercraft for the dive unit. Consider whether the station will have a specialized focus such as wildfire or aircraft rescue fire fighting. Allow parking for rescue units or ambulances, plus corresponding paramedic equipment, if the department handles medical calls. 5. Design the space to flow from one area to another without disruption to other fire fighters or equipment. The communal room with the television should be distanced from the study or sleeping areas. Separate the decontamination zone from equipment areas to ensure hazardous material does not mix with supplies. Situate the apparatus bays in between the apparatus support bay and the administrative/living areas to provide quick internal response time while covering vehicle maintenance needs. Design flow must accommodate the guidelines of the BP344 - Enhancing the Mobility of Disabled Persons (Feb 25, 1983 / IRR latest rev. = April 30, 2005) if administrative or public areas are included in the station layout. 6. Promote Occupant Quality of Life. Fire stations are occupied 24 hours a day, seven days a week by personnel in continuous 24-hour shifts. Therefore, ensuring a comfortable living environment for the fire-fighters is paramount: Provide ample natural light. Provide individual dorm rooms, if budget allows. Provide ample recreation areas and separate noisy areas (such as a game room) from quieter areas (such as a television room). Avoid institutional and unnatural finishes, textures, and colors.

7.) Maintain a Safe and Healthy Environment. Due to the continuous occupation of the facility by fire-fighters and the presence of hazardous materials, special attention must be given to designing the facility to accommodate equipment and operational strategies to both protect the occupants and maintain a healthy environment. Consider the following critical elements: Provide a secure facility for both personnel and materials such as controlled medical supplies and hazardous fire suppression agents. Use non-toxic building materials and improved maintenance practices. Ensure good indoor air quality and abundant natural light in the residential and administrative areas. Ensure good ventilation of industrial areas such as the apparatus bay and prevent contamination of clean spaces such as the SCBA maintenance areas. Ensure that equipment, furnishings, and finishes do not contain asbestos or lead. 8. Ensure Flexibility. As fire fighting technology evolves; fire stations need to evolve as well. Consider the following areas: Plan for potential expansion, both in the apparatus bay area and the residential areas. Ensure appropriate product/systems integration. Design for the changing nature of work.

Requirements for a Fire Station


Fire stations are important buildings, serving as the headquarters for local or regional fire departments. Fire stations also store the department's trucks and other equipment. There are several key requirements that need to be considered in designing a new fire station. Location One of the first requirements for a fire station design is a good location. Besides a site where land is available and affordable, a fire station must be centrally located to its area of operation, giving fire-fighters a chance to respond to fires that are their responsibility in a reasonable amount of time. The station must also be positioned on a road that can accommodate large fire trucks and does not have traffic patterns that are likely to delay fire-fighters. Budget Another important requirement of any design is the budget. Fire stations may be built with money from a variety of sources, including funds raised by the fire department, a bond measure approved by voters or state grants. Since all of these sources provide a fixed amount of money, the fire station needs to be built on a level that is both affordable in the near term and sustainable in the long term, since it will require regular maintenance for as long as it is in operation. Layout The layout of a fire station is very different from other public buildings. This is because the fire station serves a series of specific purposes. The center of most fire stations is the apparatus bay, where fire-fighters store their trucks and other equipment. Adjacent to the apparatus bay may be a smaller vehicle maintenance bay. The apparatus needs to be easily accessible from the living space where fire-fighters spend their time and are likely to be located at the time a call comes in. Some fire stations contain a dormitory for overnight shifts, while others may only contain a day room or recreation room. Other spaces that need to be included in the design are an administration area for offices and telephones as well as a lobby for visitors and citizens to come to with fire station business. Some stations may also include an outdoor area for recreation or holding training exercises. Other fire departments own property at another location for more intensive and dangerous training away from the population center where the station is located.

The appropriate layout and adjacencies are illustrated through a bubble diagram and a series of illustrative layout diagrams. In HQ/Main Stations and Large HQ Stations, consider the relationship between the administrative areas and the living areas. There may be a desire to separate these areas to provide a sense of functional identity for each.

PLANNING AND LAYOUT


Size Determinants Several factors determine the size of the facility. General Generally, the size of the station depends on the class of station, the number of companies housed, the number and types of vehicles housed, and any additional spaces required. The class of station will partially drive the number of spaces required. Needs Validation Assessment Conduct a Needs Validation Assessment to determine the class and required capacity in terms of personnel and vehicles of the new or renovated station. Types of Spaces For a complete list of spaces, see Table 1. Fire Station functional spaces fall into three main categories: Maintenance and Apparatus. This includes the Apparatus Room which houses the firefighting vehicles and the supporting maintenance spaces. The maintenance spaces include both vehicle maintenance and storage and equipment maintenance and storage (fire extinguishers, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), protective clothing, hoses, firefighting agents, etc.) Administration and Training. Administrative areas include standard offices and conference and training rooms. The area will also likely include additional specialized spaces such as the chief's office with sleeping and shower facilities and computer training/testing facilities for fire-fighter continuing education. Some stations may include a highly specialized dispatch room for receiving emergency calls from the public. Residential and Living. The day room accommodates kitchen, dining, and living/recreation functions. It is often separated into subspaces for those three functions, but an open design may also be effective to encourage interaction between the spaces. The dining space may also double as training or meeting space and might include provisions for audio-visual equipment. Dorm room design can vary widely from station to station and department to department. Each fire-fighter is provided with a place to sleep, work, and store personal items. Careful consideration should be given to the location and design of the area to ensure response times can be met. Other residential areas include a laundry room, a physical fitness room, bathrooms and showers, and possible additional recreation spaces such as an outdoor patio and game room.

TABLE 1 - FIRE STATION PROGRAM SPACES


SPACE MAINTENANCE AND APPARATUS Apparatus room/ bays NOTES Made up of bays- either single- or double-length bays. Sized according to truck modules: See Table 2.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) One per station. Gear Storage Hose Storage One per station. SCBA Compressor Room At least one per department.

SCBA Maintenance Protective Clothing Laundry Equipment Wash/ Disinfection Work Room/ Equipment Maintenance Vehicle Maintenance Equipment Storage EMT Storage (basic first aid supplies)

One One One One

per per per per

department. station. station. station.

One per station. Tools and minor parts

One per station. One per station. Lockable. This may be Medical Storage Cabinet/ Locker combined with or a sub-space of the (drugs, needles, etc) EMT Storage Room One per department. (CBRNE= Chemical, Biological, Radiological, HAZMAT/ CBRNE equipment Storage Nuclear, Explosive.) (HAZMAT= Hazardous Materials) Agent Storage At least one per department. Spare Gear Storage At least one per department. Fire Extinguisher Maintenance and At least one per department. Storage Flight line Fire Extinguisher One per department. Maintenance and Storage Vehicle Maintenance Bay Addition to Apparatus Room. Vehicle Maintenance Office If Vehicle Maintenance Bay is approved. Reserve and Active Duty Mobility/ Deployment Gear Storage ADMINISTRATION AND TRAINING Station Officer Office One per station. One per station only if no Dispatch in Watch Desk station and then made part of Station Officer Office. Fire Chief Office One per department. One per department. Maybe part of Fire Chiefs Conference Room Chiefs office The requirement for a Deputy Chief is Deputy Chief Office driven by the size of the department. Provided only in conjunction with Chief Administrative Assistant and Deputy Chief. Generally provided only in conjunction Lobby Area with Chief and Deputy Chief. Assistant Chief/Shift Supervisor One per department Assistant Chief of Fire Prevention One per department Several workstations per department Inspector(s) Offices may be located in several stations. Space for EMS to complete confidential EMS Office paperwork. HAZMAT/Safety Office One per department. Logistics Office One workstation per department. At least one per department (in HQ Department Training Room station). May be provided in other stations. Training Officer Office One per department. One per station. Separate room or Computer Training/testing Area alcove. General Admin Storage One per station. One per department; provided only if no requirement for Consolidated Dispatch. Fire-only Dispatch Dispatch receives emergency calls from the public. Provided in lieu of Fire-only Dispatch. Consolidated Dispatch Combines fire, security, and medical

Dispatch Supervisor Dispatch Bathroom Dispatch Kitchenette Information Technology (IT) Room Generator Space Residential and Living Day/Training Room

dispatch functions. Provided in conjunction with Consolidated Dispatch. Dedicated facilities close to Dispatch. Dedicated facilities close to Dispatch. One per station. Consider presence/size of dispatch and/or watch room in size and location of room. One per station. May need to be located inside as a security concern. One per station. Includes kitchen, training/dining, and lounge areas. The station training area is incorporated as part of the dining portion of the Day Room. Per station. Quantity depends on number of crews. Male and female facilities per station. One per station. One per station. Addition to Fitness Room. Addition to Day Room for noisier activities such as games. One per station.

Dorm Rooms Bathrooms/shower/changing Fitness Room Laundry Room Physical Therapy/sauna Recreation Room Covered Outdoor Patio

APPARATUS BAYS
The apparatus bays are sized based on the class of truck to be housed. See Table-2 for a list of common truck types. These types have been classified as follows in order to standardize the size criteria: Large. These typically include structural aerial (ladder) trucks or large tanker trucks with lengths greater than 11.58 m (38 ft.). The standardized footprint (floor space occupied by the truck, not considering the space around it) is 3.05 m by 15.24 m (10 ft. by 50 ft.). Medium. This class covers a wide range of vehicles from structural pumper trucks and smaller tanker trucks to rescue and HAZMAT trucks. Small. These typically include ambulances, small rescue or HAZMAT trucks, small brush units, and command vehicles. Small trucks have lengths less than 9.14 m (30 ft.). A separate vehicle bay size class is not designated for these trucks. Depending on the actual size of the Small class truck, it may be housed in 8 its own bay or in a bay with another truck. For example, two 6.10-m- (20-ft.) long vehicles may be housed in a Large bay, either Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting (ARFF) or not. Large ARFF (wide). All ARFF trucks are distinguished by their generally greater width and may include heavy rescue or very large tankers. Large ARFF trucks have lengths greater than 11.58 m (38 ft.). The standardized footprint is 3.66 m by 13.72 m (12 ft. by 50 ft.). Medium ARFF (wide). Medium ARFF trucks are also distinguished by their generally greater width. They can vary in length from about 7.01 m (23 ft.) up to 11.58 m (38 ft.), but the standardized footprint is 3.66 m by 11.58 m (12 ft. by 38 ft.). However, this area must be carefully reviewed by the planning team to ensure it provides the correct space, accounting for the actual length of the Small vehicles anticipated and the space that may be available in other bays. In addition to the truck footprint, the space program takes into account the space around the parked truck. This space varies depending on whether the truck is parked next to a wall or another truck. The space program uses the middle-sized bay for each truck class to calculate an average sized bay for the given vehicle.

The key driver behind the size and configuration of the Apparatus Bays are the truck sizes and the required area around the vehicle footprint. The diagrams in Figures D-3.1 through D-3.4 illustrate the required space around each vehicle size class. Each diagram has three possible configurations: a truck parked between two walls, a truck parked between a wall and another truck, and a truck parked between two other trucks. This is due to the different set-off distances for a wall versus another vehicle.

DISPATCH ROOM

DAY ROOM The Day Room illustrated in here is sized for one staffed vehicle (company). It will grow in modules of this size in direct relationship to the number of companies housed in the station. The dining portion of the space will double as a training area in smaller stations.

DORM ROOM The bed is shared between the two shiftswith linens stripped after each shiftbut each shift firefighter has his or her own locker/wardrobe.

BATHROOMS/SHOWERS/CHANGING.

FITNESS ROOM

LAYOUT AND ADJACENCIES


As with the location determinants, the key internal adjacencies are driven by response time. The location of the residential and living areas must accommodate quick and clear access to the Apparatus Room for response in the event of an alarm. The appropriate layout and adjacencies are illustrated through a bubble diagram and a series of illustrative layout diagrams. In HQ/Main Stations and Large HQ Stations, consider the relationship between the administrative areas and the living areas. There may be a desire to separate these areas to provide a sense of functional identity for each.

FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BUBBLE DIAGRAM


The bubble diagram in Figure 1 indicates the acceptable relative adjacencies of the functional spaces. Some of these key adjacencies may be accommodated through a hallway rather than a direct entrance/exit from one space to another. This is particularly true with the Apparatus Room and the Day Room as many facility spaces need an adjacency with these two spaces. Note that the Apparatus Bay Support area indicated in the diagrams includes the following spaces, some of which may not be included in every station, depending upon Installation mission requirements: SCBA Maintenance SCBA Compressor Room Work Room/Equipment Maintenance Equipment Wash/Disinfection Protective Clothing Laundry EMT Storage HAZMAT/CBRNE Equipment Storage Spare PPE Gear Storage Fire Extinguisher Inspection Fire Extinguisher Maintenance & Storage Flight line Fire Extinguisher Maintenance

FIGURE 1- FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BUBBLE DIAGRAM

ILLUSTRATIVE DIAGRAMS

EXAMPLE OF SPACE PROGRAM DATA MAINTENANCE AND APPARATUS

ADMINISTRATIVE AND TRAINING

RESIDENTIAL AND LIVING

OTHER SPACES

Reference: UFC (UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERA). Whole Building Design Guide web site http://dod.wbdg.org/