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MASS COMMUNICATION: INTRODUCTION

The dictionary suggests that Mass Communication is a collective term used to describe the academic study of various means of communication by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media. And mass media is that particular medium through which the information is communicated to a large section of the audience. In a nutshell, Mass Communication is the study of mass media and mass media includes all types of medium used to convey the information to the audience. Examples of mass media include newspapers, magazines, cinema films, radio, television, etc. The graduates of Mass Communication programs work in a variety of fields in news media and publishing, public relations and research institutes. DEFINITION Mass communication is the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences. It is a process through which many identical messages reach audiences in masses The process whereby professional communicators use technology to share messages over great distances to influence large audiences.

MASS COMMUNICATION IN INDIA-

The recent past has seen India awaken to the call of media and this fact has led to major developments in the Mass Communication study-sectors across India, which in turn has led to the establishment of various media houses- be it newspaper agencies or TV channels or advertising firms, etc. Today, the media plays a very important role in every individuals life. Initially, common people were not very bothered about what the media was doing and media was strictly restricted to the government and the business houses. But today, every common mans problem is constantly reflected through media. And there is hardly any section of the society or any issues that are not taken up by the media. In fact, media has become a platform where common men can raise their problems and demand justice to any issue that is in circulation. Media has indeed become an integral part of a common mans life.

Motive of Mass Communication Section Media stands as an attractive career prospect to the youth of today. So, we have introduced this section so that an individual can become familiar with the various streams that make up Mass Communication and also become aware of what Mass Communication has to offer him in terms of career. What we have done here is that we have taken up each stream and listed the various colleges across India providing that particular media course, be it journalism or Public

Relations or Cinematography, Advertising, etc.We have tried our best to provide accurate and updated details about the Mass Communication courses and Mass Communication institutes across India. However, if you encounter any discrepancy in the details of the Mass Communication courses and Mass Communication institutes provided here, do write to us. We welcome any kind of feedback that will improve the quality of the site, a site that strives to provide the best information on Mass Communication courses and Mass

Communication institute in India.

MASS MEDIA

Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, masscirculation newspapers and magazines, although mass media (like books and manuscripts) were present centuries before the term became common. The concept of mass media is now complicated by Internet media (like blogs, message boards, podcasts, and video sharing) because individuals now have a means to exposure that is comparable in scale to that previously restricted to a select group of mass media producers.

Definition "Mass media" is a deceptively simple term encompassing a countless array of institutions and individuals who differ in purpose, scope, method, and cultural context. Mass media include all forms of information communicated to large groups of people, from a handmade sign to an international news network. There is no standard for how large the audience needs to be before communication becomes "mass" communication.

There are also no constraints on the type of information being presented. A car advertisement and a U.N. resolution are both examples of mass media. Because "media" is such a broad term, it will be helpful in this discussion to focus on a limited definition. In general usage, the term has been taken to refer to only "the group of corporate entities, publishers, journalists, and others who constitute the communications industry and profession." This definition includes both the entertainment and news industries.

History Types of drama in numerous cultures were probably the first mass-media, going back into the Ancient World. The first dated printed book known is the "Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 AD, although it is clear that books were printed earlier.

Movable clay type was invented in 1041 in China. However, due to the slow spread of literacy to the masses in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the earliest printed mass medium was probably European popular prints from about 1400.

Although these were produced in huge numbers, very few early examples survive, and even most known to be printed before about 1600 have not survived. Johannes Gutenberg printed the first book on a printing press with movable type in 1453. This invention transformed the way the world received printed materials, although books remained too expensive really to be called a mass-medium for at least a century after that.

Newspapers developed around from 1612, with the first example in English in 1620; but they took until the nineteenth century to reach a mass-audience directly.

During the 20th century, the growth of mass media was driven by technology that allowed the massive duplication of material. Physical duplication technologies such as printing, record pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books, newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronic duplication of information for the first time.

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

Mass media in India is that part of Indian media which aims to reach wide audience. Besides the news media, which includes print, radio and television, the internet is playing an increasing role, along with the growth of the Indian blogging community. Compared with many other developing countries, the Indian press is relatively unfettered, except for obstacles in the way of setting up media companies which were part of the pre 1990 licence raj. In 2001, India had 45,974 newspapers, including 5364 daily newspapers published in over 100 languages.

The largest number of newspapers were published in Hindi (20,589), followed by English (7,596), Marathi (2,943), Urdu (2,906), Bengali (2,741), Gujarati (2,215), Tamil (2,119), Kannada (1,816), Malayalam (1,505) and Telugu (*1,289). The Hindi daily press has a of over 23 million copies, followed by English with over 8 million copies.

There are several major publishing groups in India, the most prominent among them being the Times of India Group, the Indian Express Group, the Hindustan Times Group, The Hindu group, the Indian Express group, the Hindustan Group, the Malayala Manorama Group, the Mathrubhumi group, the Kerala Kaunmudi group, the Sahara group, the Bhaskar group, and the Dainik Jagran group. India has more than 40 domestic news agencies. The

Express News Service, the Press Trust of India, and the united News of India are among the major news agencies.

OBJECTIVES OF MASS MEDIA


Exposing audiences to concepts. Creating awareness and knowledge Altering outdated or incorrect knowledge Enhancing audience recall of particular advertisements or public service announcements (PSAs), promotions, or program names. All of the earlier ones, as well as changes in attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of social norms. All of the earlier tasks, plus focused restructuring of perceived social norms, and maintenance of behavior change. Evidence of achieving these three tiers of objectives is useful in evaluating the effectiveness of mass media.

Function of mass media As education tools, media not only impart knowledge, but can be part of larger efforts (e.g., social marketing) to promote actions having social utility.

As public relations tools, media assist organizations in achieving credibility and respect among public health opinion leaders,

stakeholders, and other gatekeepers. Finally, as advocacy tools, mass media assist leaders in setting a policy agenda, shaping debates about controversial issues, and gaining support for particular viewpoints.

Informing functions of mass media

News We hear about both local and global news through mass media We access all sorts of information through the Internet We learn everything that is not in our immediate environments via mass media

Entertaining functions of mass media Movies Television Magazines Videogames The Internet

Persuading functions of mass media The advertising and public relations industries We from our opinions from information and interpretation that is disseminated by mass media Mass media function in the formulation of public opinions through persuasion

Binding functions of mass media Mass media bind people together by giving messages that become a shared experience. Mass media help to create a common identity Mass media provide role and gender models They reproduce collective identities such as nationality, gender, sports fanaticism etc.

TYPES OF MASS MEDIA - DESCRIPTIONS AND COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES

Different Types of Mass Media Mass media are media, which can be used to communicate and interact with a large number of audiences. Be it the pictorial messages of the early ages, or the high-technology media that are available today, one thing that we all agree upon, is that mass media are an inseparable part of our lives. Entertainment

and media always go hand in hand, but in addition to the entertainment, mass media also remain to be an effective medium for communication, dissemination of information, advertising, marketing and in general, for expressing and sharing views, opinions and ideas. Mass media is a doubleedged sword which means that there are positive effects of media as well as negative influences of media. Here are some of the different types of mass media:

Print Media: The print media includes newspapers, magazines, brochures, newsletters, books and even leaflets and pamphlets. Visual media like photography can also be mentioned under this sub-head, since photography is an important mass media, which communicates via visual representations. Although, it is said that the electronic or new media have replaced the print media, there exists a majority of audiences who prefer the print media for various communication purposes. Public speaking and event organizing can also be considered as a form of mass media.

NEWSPAPERS Display advertising is the #1 use of small business marketing dollars. Local access and near-universal coverage. Best placement - front, right side, above the fold! Repetition is more important than size but buy the biggest you can afford to run often. Newspapers provide good days to buy based on inserts and themes.

Advantages: Selected Geographical Coverage - They are geared to a specific geographical region, and they reach potential customers across all demographic classes. They usually provide broad coverage across a business' trading area. Flexibility - Newspaper ads can be changed readily on very short notice. You can usually select the size and location of the ad in the paper as well as the days that you want it to run. Timeliness - You can usually submit ads within hours of the time that a particular edition of the paper is printed. Communication Potential - Newspaper ads can convey a great deal of information by employing attractive graphics and copy. Ads can be very effective in attracting attention and persuading consumers to buy. Low Costs - Newspapers normally offer advertising space at low absolute cost and, because of the blanket coverage of a geographic area, the cost per reader is very low (relative cost). Prompt Responses - Newspaper ads normally produce relative quick consumer responses. They may generate sale within hours of their publication.

Easy-To-Test - Timeliness and easy of production make it easy to test different headlines and ad contents. Coupons are also useful tracking devices.

Easy To Repurpose - You can reuse a good ad as a flyer, circular, direct mailer, interior sign or insert in a press kit.

Disadvantages: Wasted Readership - Because a newspaper reaches such a variety of people, at least a portion of an ad's coverage will be wasted on those who are not potential customers. Reproduction Limitations - The quality of reproduction in newspapers is limited, especially when compared to magazines and direct mail. Lack of Prominence - They often carry so many ads that a small business' message might be lost. Colour, size, placement, graphics and headlines can help to overcome this. Declining Readership - Daily newspaper circulation has declined as a percentage of total households during the past 20 years MAGAZINES Thousands of nontrade magazines are printed andcirculated across the United States. Magazine ads breed consumer confidence through familiarity and credibility. Expensive, compared to newsprint, repetition is still the key!

Magazines have a wide reach; nearly 9 out of 10 adults read an average of seven (7) different magazines per month. The average magazine attracts 6 hours and 3 minutes of total adult reading time, and studies show that the reader is exposed to 89 percent of the ads in the average copy. Most magazines printed today are special interest publications.

Magazine circulation growth has outstripped adult population growth. Since 1950, adult population has grown by 53 percent, while magazine circulations have grown by 95 percent.

Advantages

Long Life Spans - Magazines have a long reading life because readers tend to keep them longer than other printed media. People usually read magazines during several reading intervals instead of the entire magazine at one time.

Multiple Readerships - The average magazine has a readership of 3.9 adult readers, and each reader spends about one hour and 33 minutes with each copy. Many magazines have a high pass-along rate.

Target Marketing - By selecting the appropriate special interest periodical, the small business owner can reach those customers with a high degree of interest in the goods or services.

Ad Quality - Magazine ads are usually of very high quality. Photos and drawings can be reproduced very effectively, and colour ads are readily available.

Credibility - Well produced ads give small businesses more credibility than any other mass medium according to GM: 48.

Split Runs - Some magazines offer 'split run' opportunities to test how well a particular ad "pulls" when compared to another version of the ad.

Regional/National - Regional versions of nationally distributed ads can provide a cost-effective way to get prestigious visibility.

Disadvantages

Costs - Magazines can be either local or national in their coverage. National magazines are usually too expensive for small businesses. Keep in mind that ad rates are based on circulation. The higher the circulation rate, the more expensive the advertising.

Long Closing Times - Closing times for submission of advertising may be several weeks prior to the publication date.

Lack of Prominence - Magazines may contain many ads which may take away from the prominence of any one ad. Therefore, placement and positioning of the ad is critical to capturing readership.

PRINT MEDIA: DETAILS


Current size: Rs 10,900 crore Projected size by 2010: Rs 19,500 crore CAGR: 12% A booming Indian economy, growing need for content and government initiatives that have opened up the sector to foreign investment are driving growth in the print media. With the literate population on the rise, more people in rural and urban areas are reading newspapers and magazines today. Also, there is more interest in India amongst the global investor community. This leads to demand for more content from India. Foreign media too is evincing interest in investing in Indian publications. And the internet today offers a new avenue to generate more advertising revenue.

Electronic Media : For many people, it is impossible to imagine a life without their television sets, be it the daily news dose or even the soap operas. This mass media includes television and radio. This category also includes electronic media like movies, CDs and DVDs as well as the new hottest electronic gadgets.

RADIO
Radio permits the business advertiser to appeal to a specific audience over a broader region. By choosing the appropriate station, program, and time for the radio ad, the small business firm can reach virtually any market it targets. Radio is the most "lively" of all media. Live remote broadcasts are the ideal energy and visibility generator for special events, grand openings and sales. "Come on down" from a local radio personality will draw people in! Radio provides access to "affordable personality.Nothing can create a sense of urgency like radio. Radio folks are more receptive to bartering than other media

professionals. Remnant space is particularly easy to negotiate if you make buy some good time slots.

Radio works well with other forms of media. It is particularly useful in reinforcing a direct mail or telemarketing campaign. An easy to remember 800, 888 or 900 numbers is a good addition to a radio spot.

Program sponsorship (e.g. news, fishing report, NPR program) is an excellent relationship marketing strategy.

TELEVISION
In advertising dollars spent, television ranks second in popularity of all media. Although the cost of national TV ads precludes their use by most small businesses, local spots can be an extremely effective means of broadcasting the small advertiser's message. A 30 second local advertising spot on a cable station may sell for as little as $200. Remnant space on a specialty channel at an "odd" hour can be as low as $100 and get you the valued "As seen on TV" corner comment on print advertising. TV content distribution industry in India in a state of flux With great change comes great opportunity. And the Indian TV content distribution industry today, with its heady mix of gargantuan size, steep growth and a rapidly changing dynamic presents just that. Before we dive into the giant soap opera that is the television industry in India, lets just look at a few facts that establish the size and growth prospects of the industry: Current size of Indian television media industry: INR 191 billion (USD 4.7 billion) Expected CAGR over next 5 years: 22%

Total no of households in India: 187 million Total no of TV households: 112 million (60% penetration) Total no of pay TV households: 70 million Total no of cable households: 68 million Total no of DTH households: 2 million Projected CAGR in cable households over next 5 years.

OUTDOOR ADVERTISING

Outdoor advertising has two big advantages: the medium forces advertisers to be focused and drivers are a "captive audience".

Billboards are an excellent and affordable medium for seasonal businesses.

Sold based on ratings (Daily Effective Circulation or Annual Average Daily Traffic) of the number of viewers per day) some billboards are much better than others. Intersections, as you might guess are prime space.

NEW-AGE MEDIA:
With the advent of new technologies like Internet, we are now enjoying the benefits of high technology mass media, which is not only faster than the oldschool mass media, but also has a widespread range. Mobile phones, computers and Internet are often referred to as the new-age media. Internet has opened up several new opportunities for mass communication which include email, websites, blogging, Internet TV and many other mass media which are booming today. The Internet means nine changes for the mass media 1. A common delivery technology 2. Reduced distribution costs 3. Altered patterns of consumption 4. Erosion of advantages of place

5. Removal of advantages of time 6. Completion for revenue streams 7. Disaggregation of editorial and advertising 8. Direct relations between advertisers and consumers 9. Weakened boundaries between editorial, advertising and transactional material

DIFFUSION OF INTERNET INTO MASSES


For quite sometime term Information Technology has been used as

synonymous to computers. However, with the rapid advancement towards convergence of various information delivery systems such as Radio, TV, Telephone, Newspapers, Fax and of course computers and computer networks, it has now become feasible to offer IT services using conventional forms of information delivery systems. The last five years have seen phenomenal growth in the country with regard to spread of cable-TV network and mobile phones. Their integration with Internet has been a major facilitator of empowering people with information. Internet over mobile phones and cable TV networks has ensured that the power of information delivered to people through Internet is available even in the remotest places in the country and that too without necessarily requiring computers which have all along been the only devices to access Internet.

With regard to term Masses, there are extreme variations in classes based on economic status of the people in the country. While 40% of nations population on one hand continues to live below the poverty line, only about 20% belong to higher and rich classes in the country. The remaining 40% form a large middle class in the country. Irrespective of such class based divisions in society, there are sections of people such as women and senior citizens across all classes who are not able to actively participate in economic activities of the country. While the needs of higher middle and rich sections of the society can be taken care of by emerging markets, there is an urgent need to examine catalytic and enabling role to be played by the government to ensure that while on one hand 400 million strong middle class people, who provide a very large domestic market for IT products and services, get the benefits of IT in their day to day lives, on the other hand for 40% of the people who are living below poverty line, government has to take steps so that IT could provide new opportunities for these people to be able to move above the poverty line.

Internet advertising: Current size: Rs 100 crore Projected size by 2010: Rs 750 crore CAGR: 50% An estimated 28 million Indians are currently hooked on to the internet. And this rising number is leading to the growth of internet advertising, which today stands at approximately Rs 100 crore. The internet is being used for a variety

of reasons, besides work, such as chatting, leisure, doing transactions, writing blogs etc. This offers a huge opportunity to marketers to sell their products. And with broadband becoming increasingly popular, this segment is expected to grow by leaps and bounds. Commenting on the future of the industry, Deepak Kapoor said, Convergence will play a crucial role in the development of the Indian entertainment and media industry where consumers will

increasingly be calling the shots in a converged media world. Broadband access and Internet Protocol (IP) will be the technology enablers that will evolve this new breed of consumers, as opportunities for them to access and manipulate content and services will be overflowing, while their time and attention will be limited. Established approaches of pushing exclusive content through nonlinear-channels or networks to mass or segmented audiences will no longer guarantee competitive advantage.

INFLUENCES AND EFFECTS:


Mass Media Influence In the last 50 years the media influence has grown exponentially with the advance of technology, first there was the telegraph, then the radio, the newspaper, magazines, television and now the internet. We live in a society that depends on information and communication to keep moving in the right direction and do our daily activities like work, entertainment, health care, education, personal relationships, travelling and anything else that we have to do. A common person in the city usually wakes up checks the TV news or

newspaper, goes to work, makes a few phone calls, eats with their family when possible and makes his decisions based on the information that he has either from their co workers, news, TV, friends, family, financial reports, etc. What we need to be aware is that most of our decisions, beliefs and values are based on what we know for a fact, our assumptions and our own experience. In our work we usually know what we have to do base on our experience and studies, however on our daily lives we rely on the media to get the current news and facts about what is important and what we should be aware. We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us news, entertainment and education. However, the influence of mass media on our kids, teenagers and society is so big that we should know how it really works.

Media effects Decades of studies on the consequences of mass media exposure demonstrate that effects are varied and reciprocalthe media impact audiences and audiences also impact media by the intensity and frequency of their usage. The results of mass media for promoting social change, especially in developing countries, have become important. Identified three effects, or functions, of media: (1) The knowledge gap The impact of mass media on audience knowledge gaps is influenced by such factors as the extent to which the content is appealing, the degree to which information channels are accessible and desirable, and the

amount of social conflict and diversity there is in a community. (2) Agenda setting, The selective nature of what members of the media choose for public consumption influences how people think about issues, and what they think about them The extent to which the media set the public's perception Where mass media can be especially valuable is in the framing of issues. "Framing" means taking a leadership role in the organization of public discourse about an issue. Media, of course, are influenced by pressures to offer balance in coverage, and these pressures may come from persons and groups with particular political action and advocacy positions. Groups, institutions, and advocates compete to identify problems, to move them onto the public agenda, and to define the issues symbolically" (3) Cultivation of shared public perceptions. Cultivation is the extent to which media exposure, over time, shapes audience perceptions. Television is a common experience, and serves as what a "homogenizing agent." However, the effect is often based on several conditions, particularly socioeconomic factors.

Prolonged exposure to TV or movie violence may affect the extent to which people think community violence is a problem, though that belief is likely moderated by where they live.

However, the actual determinants of people's impressions of violence are complex, and consensus in this area is lacking.

Various debates about the mass media have recurred since the beginning of the twentieth century.

Most of the U.S. population learned to read with the spread of public schooling.

At that point, newspapers divided between those appealing to the middle and ruling classes (today's broadsheets) and the working class (today's tabloids).

Ever since, there has been controversy about appeals to popular tastes versus educational ones (that the press will print, and people will prefer rap versus opera and sex crime versus foreign policy).

This division is thought to exacerbate distinctions between people who have power and knowledge and other groups.

CONCLUSION:
After the study of this topic it is crystal clear that mass media is as important for every one as food and water for life of human being .it is a continuous process through different media to educate the human being and enhancing their knowledge, cultural and social and living standards. Technological advancement gives the mass communication a futuristic approach. Through media world become a global village where the everything available on just single click on button and it is also as a sharing bridge for the people. It is very important for implementation and shaping of cultural & social norms. Besides all the good thing about mass media it is also true that mass media create many kind of problem which are heart anyone intentionally, unitensionlly and may be cause for any kind of miss happenings in their life, but it is mostly depend on the perception of every one. In the end from the Indian prospective it is smiling that Indian mass communication and mass media industry take a high growth since last decade and future expectations from this industry is very high. It will be seen that future development of this industry is on the horse ride. There are many new institutes are open in this field for education of this particular industry and many are still to open and it

remove the problem of unemployment to some extent in India.the future of this industry is extremely bright.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Webindia123.com www.mikimediafoundation.org www.icmrindia.org www.topnew.in www.matie.org www.indiainfo.com www.beyondindiaability.org www.managementparadise.com www.toostep.com www.ficci.com www.wisegeek.com www.simc.com