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SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES

2011-36-0247

E

**Analysis of the Contact Pressure between Cams and Roller Followers in Assembled Camshafts
**

Philippe de Abreu Duque Mauro Moraes de Souza Juliano Savoy Guilherme Valentina

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so. 2014 06:48:32 AM 2011-36-0247 Analysis of the Contact Pressure between Cams and Roller Followers in Assembled Camshafts Philippe de Abreu Duque Neumayer Tekfor Tech Center Brazil Mauro Moraes de Souza Juliano Savoy Guilherme Valentina Neumayer Tekfor Tech Center Brazil Copyright © 2011 SAE International ABSTRACT This work presents the results of a simulation using the Finite Elements Method (FEM) to study the contact pressure between cams and followers in assembled camshafts. . Camshaft is one component of the internal combustion engine that engineers are always concerned about how to predict and extend the service life. The roller follower is the component of the valvetrain system that is direct in contact with the cam lobe. In contact stress analysis.Downloaded from SAE International by Vellore Inst of Technology. powder metal and forged steel cam lobes. The reason of that was the ongoing search of the fuel economy of the engine. According to [3]. Variables like lift profile and material of the cam. The geometry was chosen based on an iron casting camshaft from a commercial car in order to have a base to ensure that the assembled camshaft is a great solution to increase the performance and to reduce weight. the necessity of reducing costs and weight took the automotive industry to looking for alternatives of manufacturing camshafts over the conventional methods like casting. INTRODUCTION During the last 20 years. the last one can withstand more compressive stresses than the others [7]. High values of stress in the peak of the cam are the main responsible of cam damage according to [5]. Surfaces that are in contact with high levels of contact pressure can increase the wear and reduce the lifetime of the components. valvetrains configuration and manufacturing process are responsible for the fatigue performance of the Figure 1 – Valve and roller follower configuration [8]. the geometry of roller followers dictates a reduction of the contact area which results in high contact pressure in the interface with the cam. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the valvetrain components. the most critical modeling consideration is to choose the ideal meshing. due to its rolling nature. defined an acceptable model to run 3D finite elements analysis and calculated the contact pressure. due to the reduction of friction. Wednesday. camshaft. which takes the analysis of contact stress to an important level to be studied considering the wear mechanisms of the parts [6]. will have submitted the camshaft to over 120 million cyclic revolutions. the demand of high performance engine and the reduction of noise and CO2. Allied to these factors. as a preparatory step we summarized with some simulations. The development of assembled camshafts showed up as an interesting and attractive solution to fill these gaps of performance [2]. the roller follower reduces friction. January 22. Due to the wear mechanisms of these parts. A car after 160.000 kilometers. the choice of the material of the cam lobes must be consider as one of the most important design factors. However. This leads to the necessity of the use of alloy steel for the cam lobes [4]. remembering that between gray cast iron. forging and machining [1]. the automotive industry started to increase the application of the roller followers instead of the use of slider followers in valvetrains.

January 22. 2014 06:48:32 AM .Downloaded from SAE International by Vellore Inst of Technology. Wednesday.

Due to the type and shape of both surfaces. FINITE ELEMENTS SIMULATION The type. So. we have a rounding radius at end of the cylinder. As shown in the detailed view of Figure 3. In all previous examples the equations obtained by the Hertz’s theory are only valid in regions far from the faces of the cylinders. because it offers greater versatility in the simulations of contact between two bodies. More accurate results have to be obtained by using FEM (Finite Elements Methods). size and order of the element must be defined in advance to perform simulations of mechanical contact with finite element models. January 22. the equations obtained by the Hertz’s theory are only valid if we analyze the regions far from the faces of the cylinders. .allows to use elements with shape function of order higher than quadratic. However. the geometric singularity is removed by rounding radius so that there is a gradual relief in stress in this region. with a simplified model of a cylinder and a flat surface. as shown in Figure 6-d). For this analysis. which can be compared to the case “C” of the Figure 2.improved numerical conditioning and numerical accuracy. It is also possible to check that the distribution of pressure found in our finite element simulation. . cases “A” and “B”. First we did an experiment. we choose the set “surface-to-surface” in our finite element software. to find a good combination of factors related to the finite elements settings. Similar approach was done by [12] and [13]. that when we have a finite cylinder. Figure 4 – Finite element model with mesh refinement in the contact region [16].represents glued surfaces. Instead. this relief will only be noticed for a rounding radius much larger than the width of the contact area. . called DOE (Design of Experiments). and their levels (+ or -) and numbers of runs are described in Figure 5 (where HEXA = Hexahedral finite element and TETRA = Tetrahedral finite element).Downloaded from SAE International by Vellore Inst of Technology. For example “C”. . that will be shown in the sequence. it was only to have a good initial approach of the settings and then acceptable results compared with the theory of Hertz. that will be in contact during the analysis. Figure 5 – Design Matrix of the DOE [16]. Figure 3 – Model of a cylinder and flat plane [16].no restriction to geometric surfaces. Among these stand out: .allows the use of coarse meshes without loss of accuracy. and Figure 4 shows the finite element model with a refined mesh in the region of the contact analysis. The factors A. is compatible with the distribution of pressure described in Figure 2 case “C”. We had already mentioned in the section “Contact Analysis”. rough and initial penetration without increasing the numerical complexity of the problem. and then we compared with the theory of Hertz. to compare with the results of the Hertz’s theory. Figure 3 shows the model of a cylinder and a flat surface that was used in the experiment. This set uses the same principle described in case "C" of Figure 2. we separated only a small region between the faces of the cylinders. The aim of this experiment was not to have a full statistical understanding of all factors. Wednesday. we have to be careful to choose the appropriate settings that will define a reasonable discretization of the model and to reduce the computational effort of the calculation in the finite element software that will be used. for the results of the finite elements simulation. 2014 06:48:32 AM in Figure 2. . B. there is a stress concentration at the edges of the cylinders and the cylinder at the edge of the shortest length respectively due to a geometric singularity. C and D of the Design Matrix are related to the contact region of the cylinder and the flat surface. shown in Figure 6-c).

as mentioned in Figure 5. that has a great interface and give us fast results and an useful graphic of the contact area. While a mesh size of 0. Figure 9 – Evolution of the appearance contact pressure [16]. Wednesday. as shown in Figure 7.Downloaded from SAE International by Vellore Inst of Technology. we ran an analysis using the same configuration of a cylinder. the data for material and geometry were the same as used for the calculations using the Hertz’s theory. and secondly because of its appearance that is closer to the result of the Hertz’s theory and its contact width. radius of the flat surface = infinite radius. we used the Hertz Contact Calculator. described in [9].05mm generates stress deviation of 7. January 22. .01mm. The results were plotted in the Figure 8 in a sequence from the lowest to the highest value of contact pressure. 2014 06:48:32 AM firstly because of the value of the contact pressure. Young’s Modulus = 210 GPa and Poison’s ratio = 0.30 of the both parts. The Figure 9 shows the evolution of the appearance of the contact pressure resulting from a finite element analysis and then compared to the result of theory.30 for the roller followers in both analyses. with two different designs of camshaft.0% and a regular approximation of the theoretical contact pressure area. Sixteen different configurations of parameters in the contact region were run. CAM LOBE AND ROLLER FOLLOWER This last simulation aims to focus in the analysis of the contact pressure between a cam lobe and a roller follower. Figure 7 – Hertz’s theory results [17]. and the load applied on the top of the cylinder = 100N/mm.29. Based in these results of the experiment.01mm generates a stress deviation of 1. and for the tube and the cam of the assembled camshaft. Also for both analyses the load applied on the top of the cylinder was 1000N.15mm.05mm. The result of the Run 15 (R15) was chosen as the best result. the mesh size of 0. the size of the elements used in the contact region of the cam lobe and the roller follower was 0. There we inserted our data: radius of cylinder = 5mm. an online calculator from the Tribology Laboratory of the University of Florida [17]. First we have the cast iron camshaft as shown in Figure 10 and then the assembled camshaft as shown in Figure 11. not shown in the figure. plan surface and element type.7% and a good approximation of the theoretical contact pressure area. Figure 8 – Summary of the results from the experiment [16]. but with different sizes of mesh. Rather than to calculate the equations of the Hertz’s theory. Figure 6 – Detail of the finite element analysis result [16]. but the value found was 0. The properties of the materials used: Young’s Modulus = 210 GPa and Poison’s ratio = 0. and also to facilitate our discussion. by hands. and then got the results immediately. and for the cast iron camshaft Young’s Modulus = 105 GPa and Poison’s ratio = 0. Although the analysis with a cylinder in contact with a flat surface resulted in a best case the element size of 0.

which will be kept in mind in the analysis. . January 22. even if the simulation was led with 0.01mm was so high that no computation resources were available for this analysis. Figure 11 – Finite elements model of an assembled camshaft and roller follower [16]. The result of the contact pressure from cast iron camshaft was lower than the value for the assembled camshaft.Downloaded from SAE International by Vellore Inst of Technology. In the cam lobe case. the steel cam lobe would withstand the applied loads. [16] Figure 12 – Result of contact analysis of the cast iron camshaft [16]. Assuming +7. The maximal stress level resulting in the cast iron cam lobe amounts 997 MPa.05mm for the element size in the contact region leads to expected results deviating approximately 7% from the theoretical expected values. one can conclude that while cast iron would fail. Here. this leads to 1070 MPa of maximum value for application of this material. In the steel cam lobe amounts 1270 MPa or 1359MPa if ones considers +7.0% stress variation. Wednesday. the refinement using a 0. there was a numerical and computational issue to be reported.0% of variation. respectively. Using 0.05mm element size. as expected due to the proprieties of the materials. This is something not unusual in daily tasks when dealing with finite element simulation that requires some attitude from the design engineer. 2014 06:48:32 AM Figure 10 – Finite elements model of a cast iron camshaft and roller follower. Comparing these data with typical contact pressure values for different materials shown in Figure 14. These results are shown in Figure 12 and 13. Figure 13 – Result of contact analysis of the assembled camshaft [16].

.the Hertz’s theory for this case can only consider a cylinder contacting an infinite flat plane. So. One can ask how the comparison of these finite elements results. with the Hertz’s theory would be. What kind of issues related to the Contact Pressure can we have when changing from a cast iron camshaft to an assembled camshaft? For a roller follower. The profile of the roller follower has a decisive influence on the maximum contact pressure [14]. the camshaft should be made of steel composite or steel. stiffness and boundary conditions. . FINAL REMARKS The lower the maximum contact pressure can be held. finite elements models allow one to assess situations that are outside the scope of the theory of Hertz in order to make a better judgment of real cases.contribution of the mesh characteristics – here the best configuration from previous analysis was adopted. most often with induction hardened cams Figure 16 – Detail of the finite element analysis of cast iron material [16]. The deviation between the finite elements results and the Hertz’s theory is now 10. Figure 18 – Detail of the finite element analysis of steel material [16]. These models fall outside the scope of Hertz’s theory due to the geometry. January 22. 2014 06:48:32 AM Figure 14 – Contact pressure / cam lobe material [16]. even if the simulated region shows a similar configuration as in the Hertz’s model. The conclusions that will be presented here do not differ from previous results presented in this work for the cylinder/flat plane model.6% for the cast iron material and 11. the less wear can be expected. Figure 15 – Hertz’s theory result for Cast Iron material [17]. as discussed before in the section “Contact Analysis”. Wednesday. Figure 17 – Hertz’s theory result for steel material [17]. where we also separated only a small region far from the edges of the contact area to compare then with the Hertz’s theory of Figures 15 and 17. Two main effects are to be considered to explain the higher deviation of results when compared with the cylinder/flat plane model: . while the finite element model take under consideration the influence of the geometry and the stiffness of the whole component.Downloaded from SAE International by Vellore Inst of Technology.8% for the steel material. Figures 16 and 18 show the finite elements results of the cast iron material and steel material.

January 22. Wednesday.Downloaded from SAE International by Vellore Inst of Technology. 2014 06:48:32 AM .

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Analysis of the Contact Pressure Between Cams and Roller

Analysis of the Contact Pressure Between Cams and Roller

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