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Administration of Police Organization Police - one of the pillars of the criminal justice system that has the specific

responsibility of maintaining law and order and combating crime within the soci ety. - comes from Latin "politia"-civil administration which itself derives from the ancient Greek police "city" Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of objectives and plans and internal operating efficiency. Organization - a group of persons working together for a common goal or objectiv es. Police Organization - a group of trained personnel in the field of public safety administration engaged in the achievement of goals and objectives that promotes the maintenance of peace and order, protection of life and property, enforcemen t of the laws and the prevention of crimes. Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command. Law Enforcement Agency - pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing t he laws. Objectives - refer to the purpose by which the organization was created. Refer t o the goals of the organization. Supervision - means the act of watching over the work or tasks of the members of the organization to ensure that desired results are achieved. Management - the process of directing and facilitating the work of people organi zed in formal groups in order to achieve objectives. Judicious or wise use of re sources (manpower, material,money,equipment, supplies and time). Hierarchy - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates in any given organization. Serves as the framework for the flow of authority dow nward and obedience upward, through the department. Authority - the right to command and control the behavior of employees in lower positions within an organizational hierarchy. Must be viewed in terms of prescri bed roles rather than of individuals. A particular position within the organization. Carries the same regardless of wh o occupies that position. Management/Administrative Functions 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Directing 4. Controlling 5. staffing 6. Reporting 7. Budgeting Principles of efficient Management * Division of work - work specialization can increase efficiency with the same amount of effort. * Authority and Responsibility- authority includes the

right to command and the power to require obedience. One can not have authority without responsibility. * Discipline - necessary for an organization to function effectively, however, the state of the disciplinary process depends upon the quality of its leaders. * Unity of Command - subordinate should receive orders from one superior only. * Scalar Chain - the hierarchy of authority is the order of ranks from the highest to the lowest levels of the organization. Shows the vertical hierarchy of the organization which defines an unbroken chain of units from top to bottom describing explicitly the flow of authority. Organizational Units in the Police Organization 1. Functional Units Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a large department; comprised of several divisions. Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau. Section - functional unit within a division that is necessary for specialization. Unit - functional group within a section or the smallest functional group within an organization. 2. Territorial Units Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty. Route - a length of streets designated for patrol purpose, also called line beat. Beat - an area designed for patrol purposes whether foot or motorized. Sector - an area containing two or more beat, route or post. District - a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes, usually with its own station. Area - a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of designated districts. EVOLUTION OF THE POLICING SYSTEM ORIGIN OF THE WORD POLITEIA POLITIA POLICE

Greek word which means government of the city Roman word which means condition of the state or government

POLICE

French word which was later adopted by the English language

THEORIES OF POLICE SERVICE 1. HOME RULE THEORY - policemen are regarded as servants of the community, who rely for the efficiency of their functions upon the express needs of the people. - policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the preservation of public peace and security. 2. CONTINENTAL THEORY - policemen are regarded as state or servants of the higher authorities - the people have no share or have little participation with the duties nor connection with the police organization. CONCEPTS OF POLICE SERVICE 1. OLD CONCEPT - police service gives the impression of being merely a suppressive machinery - this philosophy advocates that the measurement of police competence is the increasing number of arrests, throwing offenders in detention facilities rather than trying to prevent them from committing crimes 2. MODERN CONCEPT - regards police as the first line of defense of the criminal justice system, an organ of crime prevention - police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number of crimes - broadens police activities to cater to social services and has for its mission the welfare of the individual as well as that of the community in general. EARLY POLICING SYSTEM 1. KIN POLICING - the family of the offended individual was expected to assume responsibility for justice - the family of the victim was allowed to exact vengeance 2. EGYPT - ancient rulers had elite unit to protect them - created the MEDJAYS, a form of police force whose duties include guarding of the tombs and apprehending thieves - introduced the use of dogs as guards and protectors. 3. ROME - created the first organized police force called VIGILES OF ROME, or VIGILES URBANI (watchmen of the city), which had the primary task of firefighting and policing - the Vigiles acted as night watch, apprehendinng thieves, keeping an eye out for burglars and hunting down runaway slaves, and were on occasion used to maintain order in the streets - the Vigiles dealt primarily with petty crimes and looked for disturbances of the peace while they

patrolled the streets - created a special unit called PRAETORIAN GUARDS, a special force of guards used by Roman Emperors as the Emperors' personal guards - as personal guards of the Emperor, their primary duty was to protect the Emperor from assassination and other forms of attack against the Emperor. 4. ENGLAND a) FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM/MUTUAL PLEDGE SYSTEM - required all males aged 12 and above to join a group of nine to form a TYTHING - members of the tything are called a TYTHINGMEN - a CONSTABLE served as a leader of ten tythings - the primary task of the things was to protect their village from thieves and animals - tythings were later organized into SHIRES - a shire was headed by a leader called SHIRE REEVE, which is the origin of the word sheriff - their duty was to apprehend offenders b) PARISH CONSTABLES - a parish official charged with controlling crimes - appointed to serve for one year - duties included organizing watchmen to guard the gates - during trouble, the watchman would raise a HUE AND CRY , a call to arms where the rest of the parish would stop what they were doing and come to the aid of the constable. MODERN POLICING SYSTEM 1) ENGLAND a. BOWSTREET RUNNERS - a group of men organized to arrest offenders. - organized by Henry Fielding, a magistrate in London,in 1749 in London, England. - the name was adopted from the name of the street where the office of Henry Fielding was located. - when Henry Fielding retired as magistrate, he was replaced by his blind brother, John Fielding b. METROPOLITAN POLICE OF ACT 1829 - the law that created the first modern police force in London England, called the Metropolitan Police Service. - this law was passed through the initiative of Sir Robert Peel, a member of the Parliament - the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service is the Scotland Yard, now known as the New Scotland Yard SIR ROBERT PEEL - recognized as the father of modern policing system. 2. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA a. NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT - created in 1845 in New York, USA - recognized as the first modern style police department in the US. - the largest police force in the world - modeled after the Metropolitan Police Service of London

b. BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT - the oldest police department in the US - the first night watch was established in Boston in 1631. - formally founded in May, 1854. AUGUST VOLLMER - recognized as the Father of Modern Law Enforcement for his cont ributions in the development of the field of criminal justice in the US - author of the book, Police Administration, which served as the basic guide in the administration of the police organization in the US - was the first police chief of Berkeley, California. Important Personalities in the Evolution of Philippine Policing Brig.Gen. Rafael Crame - the first Filipino Chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1917. Col. Antonio Torres - the first Filipino Chief of Police of the Manila Police De partment in 1935. Col. Lambert Javalera - the first chief of police of the Manila Police Departme nt after the Philippine Independence from the United States of America in 1946 Dir.Gen. Cesar Nazareno - the first chief of the Philippine National Police. HIGHLIGHTS OF RA 6975 THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT OF

1990, RA 8551 THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE REFORM AND REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1998 and RA 9708 A. THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (DILG) - formerly Department of Local Government (DLG) - reorganized under RA 6975 ORGANIZATION: - consist of: a) the Department proper b) existing bureaus and offices of the DLG c) local government units (LGU) 1) provincial governors 2) city and municipal mayors d) the National Police Commission e) the Philippine Public Safety College f) Philippine National Police g) Bureau of Fire Protection h) Bureau of Jail Management and Penology - the PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA 6975 - headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the President and who shall serve at the pleasure of the President - the Secretary shall be assisted by two (2) Undersecretaries and three (3) Assistant Secretaries a) Undersecretary for Local Government b) Undersecretary for Peace and Order - No retired or resigned military officer or police official may be appointed as Secretary within one (1) year from date of retirement or resignation

- the Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the National Police Commission POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE DILG 1. Assist the President in the exercise of general supervision over local governments; 2. Advise the President in the promulgation of policies, rules, regulations and other issuances on the general supervision over local governments and on public order and safety; 3. Establish and prescribe rules, regulations and other issuance's implementing laws on public order and safety, the general supervision over local governments and the promotion of local autonomy and community empowerment and monitor compliance thereof; 4. Provide assistance towards legislation regarding local governments, law enforcement and public safety; Establish and prescribe plans, policies, programs and projects to promote peace and order, ensure public safety and further strengthen the administrative, technical and fiscal capabilities of local government offices and personnel; 5. Formulate plans, policies and programs which will meet local emergencies arising from natural and man-made disasters; Establish a system of coordination and cooperation among the citizenry, local executives and the Department, to ensure effective and efficient delivery of basic services to the public; 6. Organize, train and equip primarily for the performance of police functions, a police force that is national in scope and civilian in character. RELATIONSHIP OF THE DILG WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENSE (DND) - under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) was in charge with external security while the DILG was in charge with internal security - under RA 8551, the Armed Forces of the Philippines is now in charge with both internal and external security with the PNP as support through information gathering and performance of ordinary police functions. NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION - an agency attached to the DILG for policy coordination - shall exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the PNP. VISION OF THE NAPOLCOM "We envision the National Police Commission as a highly dynamic, committed and responsive administering and controlling body, actively and effectively facilitating the evolvement of a highly professional, competent, disciplined, credible and trustworthy PNP" MISSION OF THE NAPOLCOM "To administer and control the Philippine National Police with the end in view of maintaining a highly professional, competent, disciplined, credible and

trustworthy PNP POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NAPOLCOM A. Exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the Philippine National Police (PNP) which shall mean the power to: 1. Develop policies and promulgate a police manual prescribing rules and regulations for efficient organization, administration, and operation, including criteria for manpower allocation distribution and deployment, recruitment, selection, promotion, and retirement of personnel and the conduct of qualifying entrance and promotional examinations for uniformed members; 2. Examine and audit, and thereafter establish standards for such purposes on a continuing basis, the performance,activities, and facilities of all police agencies throughout the country; 3. Establish a system of uniform crime reporting; 4. Conduct annual self-report surveys and compile statistical data for accurate assessment of the crime situation and the proper evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of all police units in the country; 5. Approve or modify plans and programs on education and training, logistical requirements, communications, records,information systems, crime laboratory, crime prevention and crime reporting; 6. Affirm, reverse or modify, through the National Appellate Board, personnel administrative actions involving the demotion or dismissal from the service imposed upon members of the Philippine National Police by the Chief of the Philippine National Police; 7. Exercise appellate jurisdiction through the Regional Appellate Boards, over administrative cases against policemen and over decisions on claims for police benefits; 8. Prescribe minimum standards for arms, equipment, and uniforms and, after consultation with the Philippine Heraldry Commission, for insignia of ranks, awards, medals of honor; 9. Issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum in matters pertaining to the discharge of its own powers and duties,and designate who among its personnel can issue processes and administer oaths in connection therewith; 10. Inspect and assess the compliance of the PNP on the established criteria for manpower allocation, distribution and deployment and their impact on the community and the crime situation, and thereafter formulate appropriate guidelines for maximization of resources and effective utilization of the PNP personnel; 11. Monitor the performance of the local chief executives as deputies of the Commission; and 12. Monitor and investigate police anomalies and irregularities. B. Advise the President on all matters involving police functions and administration;

C. Render to the President and to Congress an annual report of its activities and accomplishments during the thirty (30)days after the end of the calendar year, which shall include an appraisal of the conditions obtaining in the organization and administration of police agencies in the municipalities, cities and provinces throughout the country, and recommendations for appropriate remedial legislations; D. Recommend to the President, through the Secretary, within sixty (60) days before the commencement of each calendar year, a crime prevention program; and E. Perform such other functions necessary to carry out the provisions of R.A. 6975, as amended, other existing laws and Presidential issuance's, and as the President may direct. COMPOSITION OF NAPOLCOM 1. One chairperson 2. Four regular commissioner 3. The Chief PNP as ex officio member Note: * shall serve a term of office of six (6) years without reappointment or extension * three of the four regular commissioners shall come from civilian sector and not former members of the police or military * the fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law enforcement sector either active or retired * at least one (1) of the four regular commissioners shall be a woman * from among the three regular commissioners from the civilian sector, the Vice Chairperson shall be chosen * the Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive Officer of the Commission * refer to the organizational structure of the NAPOLCOM Important dates in the history of modern Philippine Policing 1901 - ACT no. 175 of the Philippine Commission established the Philippine const abulary on august 8, 1901. 1905 - the Philippine constabulary school was established at the sta.lucia barra cks in Intramuros on february 17, 1905. 1908 - the Philippine constabulary school was transferred to Baguio City. 1916 - the Philippine constabulary school was renamed academy for officers of th e Philippine constabulary. 1917 - on December 17, 1917, Brigadier General Rafael Crame from Rizal Province, became the first Filipino chief of the Philippine constabulary. 1926 - the academy for officers of the Philippine constabulary was renamed Phili ppine Constabulary Academy. 1936 - the Philippine Constabulary Academy became the present day Philippine Mil itary Academy. 1938 - The Philippine Constabulary became the existing and organized national po lice force of the country pursuant to commonwealth act no. 343 dated June 23, 19 38 and EO no. 389 dated December 23, 1950. This decree integrated local police f orces into the Philippines constabulary operational and organizational set up.

1966 - congress enacted RA no. 4864, the police act of 1966. This law also creat ed the Police Commission (POLCOM). 1972 - The POLCOM was reorganized as the National Police Commission. 1975 - PD 765 was enacted. This law is called the Police Integration Law of 197 5. The Integrated National Police was established with the Philippine Constabula ry as nucleus under the Department of national Defense. The NAPOLCOM, originally under the office of the President was transferred to the Ministry of National d efense. 1985 - The National Police Commission was returned to the office of the Presiden t pursuant to E.O 1040. 1989 - Executive order 379 placed the Integrated national Police directly under the command, supervision and control of the President. This order vested the NAP OLCOM with the powers of administrative control and supervision over the Integra ted National Police. 1990 - RA 6975 was passed on December 13, 1990 establishing the Philippine Natio nal Police under a reorganized Department of the Interior and Local Government ( DILG). A new National Police Commission was created under the DILG. 1998 - congress passed into law RA no. 8551 on February 25, 1998, otherwise know n as the Philippine National Police reform and reorganization act of 1998. This act strengthened and expanded NAPOLCOM,s authority over the PNP to include admin istration of police entrance examination and conduct pre-charge investigation ag ainst police anomalies and irregularities and summary dismissal of erring police members. FUNCTIONS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION 1. PRIMARY OR LINE FUNCTIONS - functions that carry out the major purposes of the organization, delivering the services and dealing directly with the public - the backbone of the police department - examples of the line functions of the police are patrolling, traffic duties, crime investigation 2. STAFF/ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS - functions that are designed to support the line functions and assist in the performance of the line functions - examples of the staff functions of the police are planning, research, budgeting and legal advice 3. AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS - functions involving the logistical operations of the organization - examples are training, communication, maintenance, records management, supplies and equipment management ORGANIC UNITS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION 1. OPERATIONAL UNITS - those that perform primary or line functions - examples are patrol, traffic, investigation and vice control, 2. ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS - those that perform the administrative functions examples are personnel, finance, planning and training. 3. SERVICE UNITS - those that perform auxiliary functions - examples are communication, records

management,supplies. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE - the systematic arrangement of the relationship of the members, positions,dep artments and functions or work of the organization - it is comprised of functions, relationships, responsibilities and authorities of individuals within the organization KINDS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES 1. LINE - the oldest and simplest kind; also called military - defined by its clear chain of command from the highest to the lowest and vice versa - depicts the line functions of the organization - orders or commands must come from the higher l level of authority before it can be carried out - involves few departments 2. FUNCTIONAL - structure according to functions and specialized units - depicts staff functions of the organization - responsibilities are divided among authorities who are all accountable to the authority above. 3. LINE AND STAFF - a combination of the line and functional kind - combines the flow of information from the line structure with the staff departments that service, advise, and support them - generally more formal in nature and has many departments ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOUR PRIMAL CONDITIONS OF AN ORGANIZATION 1. AUTHORITY - the supreme source of government for any particular organization - the right to exercise, to decide and to command by virtue of rank and position 2. MUTUAL COOPERATION - an organization exists because it serves a purpose. 3. DOCTRINE - provides for the organization s objectives - provides the various actions, hence, policies, procedures, rules and regulations of the org. are based on the statement of doctrines 4. DISCIPLINE - comprising behavioral regulations ELEMENTS OF POLICE ORGANIZATION 1. UNITY OF COMMAND - dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding the unit to ensure uniformity in the execution of orders

2. SPAN OF CONTROL - the maximum number of subordinates that a superior can effectively supervise Factors affecting the span of control: a) Leadership qualities of the supervisors b) Nature of the job and work conditions c) Complexity of task d) Education and skill of the employees 3. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY - conferring of an amount of authority by a superior position to a lower-level position. 4. HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY - the relationship between superiors and subordinates - serves as the framework for the flow of authority downward and obedience upward through the department HIERARCHY - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates in any given organization 5. SPECIALIZATION - the assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS (AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION) - the designation of certain activities or tasks as ones that must be performed in a highly. technological,scientific or precise manner - areas of police specialization include undercover works, crime scene operations, legal advising, computer work, SWAT operations and others SPECIALIZATION OF PEOPLE (SPECIALISTS) - the designation of particular persons as having expertise in a specific area of work - signifies the adaptation of an individual to the requirements through extensive training 6. CHAIN OF COMMAND - the arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the basis of rank or position and authority. 7. COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY - dictates that immediate commanders shall be responsible for the effective supervision and control. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE POLICING SYSTEM The institution of police in the Philippines formally started during the Spanish period. The establishment of the police force was not entirely intended for crime prevention nor peacekeeping. Rather, it was created as an extension of the colonial military establishment. Ancient Roots

The forerunner of the contemporary police system was the practice of barangay ch ieftains to select able-bodied young men to protect their barangay during the night and were not required to work in the fields during daytime.Among the duties of those selected were to protect the properties of the people in the barangay and protect their crops and livestock from wild animals. Spanish Period Carabineros de Seguridad Publica organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying t he regulations of the Department of State; this was armed and considered as the mounted police; years after, this kind of police organizat ion discharged the duties of a port, harbor and river police. Guardrilleros/Cuardillo this was a body of rural police by the Royal Decree of 1 8 January 1836, this decree provided that 5% of the able-bodied male inhabitants of each province were to be enlisted in this police organization for three years Guardia Civil this was created by a Royal Decree issued by the Crown on 12 Febru ary 1852 to partially relieve the Spanish Peninsular troops of their work in policing towns,it consisted of a body of Filipino policemen organized originally in each of the provincial capitals of the central provinces of Luzon under the Alcalde Mayor American Period The Americans established the United States Philippine Commission headed by General Howard Taft as its first governor-general. On January 9, 1901, the Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was organized pursuant to Act No 70of the Taft Commission . This has become the basis for the celebration of the anniversary of the Manila s Finest every January 9th. ACT NO 175 entitled An Act Providing for the Organization and Government of an Insular Constabulary ,enacted on July 18, 1901. Henry T. Allen - Captain of the 6th US cavalry, a graduate of West Point class 1 882. Father of the Philippine Constabulary.The first chief of the Philippine Con stabulary in 1901. ACT NO 183 - created the Manila Police Department, enacted on July 31, 1901. CAPT GEORGE CURRY - the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department in 1901. Act No 255 the act that renamed the Insular Constabulary into Philippine Constab ulary, enacted on October 3, 1901 Executive Order 389 ordered that the Philippine Constabulary be one of the four services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, enacted on December 23, 1940.

Post-American Period RA 4864 otherwise known as the Police Professionalization Act of 1966, enacted o n September 8, 1966; created the Police Commission (POLCOM) as a supervisory agency to oversee the training and professionalization of the local police forces under the Office of the President; later POLCOM was renamed into N ational Police Commission (NAPOLCOM). Martial Law Period PD 765 otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975,enacted on August 8, 1975; established the Integrated National Police (INP) composed of the Philippine Constabulary (PC) as the nucleus and the integrated local police forces as components, under the Ministry of National Defense - transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the President to the Ministry of National Defense Post Martial Law Regime Executive Order No 1012 transferred to the city and municipal government the ope rational supervision and direction over all INP units assigned within their locality; iss ued on July 10, 1985 Executive Order No 1040 transferred the administrative control and supervision o f the INP from the Ministry of National Defense to the National Police Commission RA 6975 otherwise known as the Department of the Interior and Local Government A ct of 1990, enacted on December 13,1990; reorganized the DILG and established the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety College. RA 8551 otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganizat ion Act of 1998, enacted on February 25, 1998; this law amended certain provisions of RA 6975. RA 9708 - law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 on the minimum educ ational qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system; approved on 12 August 2009. - An Act extending for five (5) years the reglementary period for complying wit h the minimum educational qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system thereof,amending for the purpose pertinent provisions of R A 6975 and RA 8551 and for other purposes.