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BREWING

RAW MATERIALS FOR BREWING : Raw materials used for beer brewing section are: Barley malt Barley malt is made by germinating and then kilning the germinated seeds. The enzymes for sacchrification are formed during germination and we preserve them for our process. Malt is brown,black,and pale in colour according to kilning . Black malt is also used for developing desired colour of beer as finished product, roasted malt is also used for beer brewing.

Water water is major part of beer ,more than 90% of beer portion is water. Some salts which degrade the taste of beer are removed from water, such salt is chlorine. Eventually chlorine is abundant in water , available for drinking , so we have to remove chlorine. Also gypsum CaSO4 is added so as to decrease the ph of wort. Calcium and magnesium ions are present in water used for beer production. Water comes from Water Treatment plant where water comes from bore-well. Water is free from bacteria and other micro organisms. Also de aerated water is used to dilute the beer ,produced after fermentation ,so as to maintain alcohol levels.

Sugar sugar is used to add during boiling in brewing process ,we use sugar to make our production economical. A 75% solution of sugar with water at 70-75 oC it induced in wort kettle.

Rice flakes Rice flakes are used as adjunct in brewing section according to recipie of the beer. Rice flakes are added so as to increase starch in wort and thus sugasr content. Moisture of rice flakes allowed is maximum 12% by weight, as high moisture content will decrease the economy of production. Rice flakes require enzymes for their starch conversion such as termamile, ceramics mg,etc. Rice flakes are stored in adjunct bin and are fed to mash tank along milled malt.

Hops (HP-6 , pellets and extract) Hops is plant , a climber, mostly found in Australia . The bitterness contributed by hops balances the sweetness of the malt sugars and provides a refreshing finish . Hops is used to improve aroma of beer as well. Hops pallets are used at wort kettle and hops oil HP 6 is used in fermentation and maturation part for desired bitterness units. The negative aspect of hops is that they are easily perishable. Heat and oxygen can deteriorate hops in a matter of weeks if not stored and handled properly. Hops pellets and oils are be stored at 4oC temperature . Hops also have tendency to act as preservative for beer.Hops inhibit the growth of beer spoiling bacteria, to maintain flavor stability, and to help retain the head (foam) of the beer . Hops oil is volatile in nature so it is induced after boiling (wort kettle) but before filtration to preserve flavor.

SILOS In SAB Miller, the flow of malt upon arrival at the brewery begins by weighing the vehicle on the weigh-bridge and unloading the malt at silos. After unloading, the vehicle is tare-weighted, the difference in weights being the weight of the malt. Once weighed, the malt is conveyed to silos with the help of belt conveying for storage. Silos are constructed of steel,and in silos we need to take care of moisture free environment. The size for silos is 400 MT, large enough to accommodate many trucks of malt.

MILLING The objective of milling is to reduce the malt to particles sizes, which will yield the most economic extract (wort) and will operate satisfactorily under brewhouse conditions and throughout the brewing process. The more extensive the malt is milled, the greater the extract production. However, the fine grind can lead to subsequent wort separation problems and a loss of extract in the spent grains during wort separation. As a result, the brewer needs to consider the equipment used in the brewhouse when determining the particle size when milling the malt. In sab miller the size of particle after milling is 2mm. This section comprises of following steps: Classifier Stored malt from silos is conveyed to hopper, from hopper malt is sent to a height by using bucket conveying for further processing.. The conveyed malt ,at top, enters classifier where all the waste substances are removed . threads , polytthene fragments, long straws of barley,etc. are generally removed by classifier. Magnetic separation The malt from classifier goes to magnetic separation unit where any magnetic material flakes or nails are removed.air aspirator is attached to every machine so as to remove the dust formed during transportation of malt from machine to machine. Destoner When any stones are present in barley it will create problem in hammer mill and other parts of production. Small stone granules are removed from the clarified malt. The malt is now spick and span, thus we can now use it after milling. Weighing Weighing is done to maintain the record of how much malt we use during the process. Fixed amount of malt is used for each brew according to our recipie.weighing is done in 5kilograms. or 10 kilograms per pass. So we have mass flow rate from our weighing machine. Conveying The weighed malt is then conveyed by using bucket conveyer to hammer mill. Vertical conveying of malt by bucket conveyer is done after weighing the malt quantity. Hammer mill The main component of milling section is hammer mill. Hammer mill operates at an rpm of 1400. Hammer mill have capacity of 6000kg/hour. But in working we get an output of 8800kg in upto 90 minutes. The product have 2 mm particle size.

This product is stored in grist bin for use in brewing section. Grist is transported to mash tank via belt conveyer. Sometimes adjunct is also added according to beer specifications and recipe of the product. Haywards 5000 recipe use adjunct but Fosters recipe does not include any adjunct. That is the reason why we need not any conversion salts during mashing in case of Fosters.

MASHING Mashing involves mixing milled malt and solid adjuncts (if used) with water , at a specific temperature and volume ratio , to continue the biochemical changes initiated during the malting process. The malt and adjunct particles swell, soluble materials dissolve, and enzymes actively convert the starches to fermentable sugars. There are two major groups of enzymes of concern to a brewer: those that act on starch to break it into simple sugars; and those that act on proteins to break them into simple amino acids.The composition of the wort will vary according to the style of beer and recipe of beer. Each enzyme operates at different optimum temperatures, and the we must control the conditions carefully to harness the natural activity of enzymes during the mashing process. Malt and water ratio are carefully measured and sent mash tank for mashing. Main points about enzyme activity in mashing are: 1. Enzymes are active at different temperatures 2 .The stages of mashing favour different enzymes 3. Controlling the temperature controls the wort composition These conditions include thickness of the mash, pH and, most importantly, temperature. Temperature of mashing typically goes from low to high, with stepwise heating and rests at points where certain enzymes are active. We give rest at 52 oC .The final, hottest stage is often hot enough to deactivate enzymes completely, stopping their activity and permanently setting the profile of the wort and mixed in the mash tank.

Some enzymes are added in mash tank for higher conversion of starch to sugar. Also these enzymes are used we introduce adjuncts such as rice flakes. Some of the enzymes which we use are: Termamyle Ceramix MG Ultraflow

For pH management we add phosphoric acid to mash tank. *Gypsum is also added as additive it helps enzymes during conversion and also helps maintaining pH. More conversion means higher levels of fermentable sugars and lower levels of unfermentable dextrins (sugar chains that are too large for yeast to metabolize), which add body to beer. A good degree of conversion means: 1. specified gravity(generally light), less sweet 2. Higher potential alcohol in the wort. 3 .Lower calories and carbohydrates for a given alcohol level Therefore, the degree conversion is critical to the profile of the beer because it sets the alcohol content and beer profile.The product from mash tank is a slurry of grain husk, fermentable sugar ,amino acids ,spent enzymes ,proteins and water.

Mash filter

The next step in the brewing process involves separating the dissolved extract from the malt husks and other suspended particles and gain wort ,ultimately clarification of wort is done in mash filter. Mash filters are very much like plate and frame filters consisting of a series of grid-type plates alternating with hollow frame plates that are suspended on side rails. Each grid plate of the filter is covered on both sides with a cloth of polymer and a gasket is present on both side of every plate. Filter plates have four circular hollow holes at each corners for collecting the filtered wort. Two holes inside the plate are present to transfer the liquid from plate to plate and fill the filter with mashed wort on both side of every plate. The cloth is cleaned after every mashed wort cleaning by removing the pressure and separating the plates. Mechanical removal of husk from is done to clean the filter clothes. After cleaning filter plates , plates resting on railing are subjected to high hydraulic pres sure. this pressure will make the gasket to come in contact with other plates. Pressure is applied so as to make gasket leak proof when wort flows through the filter plates. Mash filter have 125 plates with polymer cloth on both sides.

Sparging
After mash filtration the wort is collected in wort kettle via equalization tank, but the grain husk (residue) between the filter plates contains wort . for economy of production we need to collect all the wort thus sparging is done . Sparging is the rinsing of hot water at 80oC on grain husk to extract the wort residue from them. Sparging is done for 20-25 minutes. Hot water used here is the water from plate heat exchanger , used for cooling ,which \ was stored in sparging water tank.

Thus the Grain husk collected in the mash filter as residue will be used as animal feed. This filtrate is sent to outside the brew house in a slurry tank where it is loaded in trucks as this filtrate (grains husk) is sold in market.

WORT KETTLE
Although the wort separation and sparging processes are normally conducted at high temperatures (76-80C), wort entering the kettle contains large number of microorganisms- yeast, molds, and bacteria-which can result in off-flavors and numerous other problems.thus we need to boil wort for quality purposes. Wort is boiled here at 100oC to kill these bacterias and micro-organisms or we can say purpose of wort boiling is to stabilize the wort and sterilize it. There are many other purposes too for boiling of wort such as: Removal of Volatile Components Boiling of wort drives off volatile wort compounds, including dimethyl sulfide, aldehydes, and hydrocarbon components of the hop oils. The principal malt derived volatile lost during boiling is dimethyl sulfide or DMS which is rapidly lost through evaporation. Concentration of Wort and achieve gravity The wort must be concentrated by evaporation since the water used in mashing and sparging has produced wort lower in specific gravity than the target gravity. Enzyme Inactivation Boiling fixes the carbohydrate composition of the wort by inactivating residual enzymes that are responsible for carbohydrate and protein degradation and that may have survived during sparging. Protein Precipitation During the boiling process, it is necessary to decrease the level of high molecular weight nitrogen found in the malt. Protein precipitation occurs as the wort loses its turbidity during boiling, and material breaks out of suspension and precipitates as proteins coagulate. Color Development During boiling, the color of the wort becomes darker so we need boiling to make the desired colour of beer.

Addition of substances in wort kettle : Sugar syrup Syrups and sugars can be added to the kettle in either dry or liquid forms. They are called "wort extenders" since they increase the extract without adding any money investment in brewhouse vessels. Sugar is used to add during boiling in brewing process we use sugar to make our production economical .

Hops Hops is the flavoring agent used in beer production. Hops also produce hoppy aroma in beer .hops is induced by hops dosing tank, wort comes in tank and hops is injected in wort , this wort goes back to wort kettle and then diffuse in all of it. Hop acids isomerize and add bitterness to the beer Hops are injected from time to time according to recipe.

*The length of the boil also can help determine color and flavor characteristics. The boil develops important flavors and removes other off-flavors. Main points about wort kettle: Boiling is done for one hour in wort kettle with addition of above states substances. The temperature at which boiling is done is 100oC. The size of wort kettle is 625 HL.

Formation of Trub But during boiling of wort some wastes are formed due to coagulation of particles and hops pellet wastes. Also proteins combine with present tannins from malt and hops to produce flakes.this mixture of impurities is called trub.

WHIRLPOOL
-Hot wort enters the whirlpool in a tangential entry that creates the whirlpool motion. -The whirlpool motion draws the trub in center of the tank and form vortex. -This circular motion will help to suppress the flakes and suspended particles to settle at bottom of the whirlpool. -Whirlpool have a temperature of 98oC , some heat is lost during transportation of wort to whirlpool. -Wort is processed in whirlpool for 20-25 minutes. -The trub is removed and collected in trub tank. -This trub is sent Effluent Treatment Plant of SAB Miller and treated there.

Plate Heat Exchanger(PHE) Hot wort ,after removal of trub ,from whirlpool is now subjected to PHE. Before moving on to fermentation, the brew must be cooled and prepared for the addition of yeast Because we have to achieve a temperature suitable for yeast pitching. Thus temperature is lowered sufficiently upto 10oC. The wort is at 95-98oC from whirpool and in plate heat exchanger its temperature will drop to 10oC. Chilled water is the cold media in heat exchange process here. All the wort from 625 HL whirlpool is cooled by PHE and transported to fermentation vessel in nearly 60 minutes. FERMENTATION Fermentation is the process by which fermentable carbohydrates are converted by yeast into alcohol, carbon dioxide, and numerous other byproducts.
ANAEROBIC

WORT +

YEAST

ETHANOL + CO2

Everything that occurred in the malthouse and the brewhouse involved careful preparation of the yeast nutrients and other substances that yeast could eat and produce alcohol and CO2 and make the taste of the beer. Everything that will occurs after fermentation primarily preserves the beer flavour established by fermentation. During transport of wort from PHE to fermentation vessel , we inject yeast added. The blending of yeast in the wort stream is a process called pitching. Cooled wort must injected with sterile air or oxygen after cooling to provide a proper environment for vigorous yeast growth.

After this growth is achieved yeast had utilized all the oxygen we supplied. Now they will have to live on the wort. Yeast during this anaerobic conditions starts eating sugar and produce alcohol and carbon di oxide. The most critical factor for fermentation is the yeast strain itself. The fermentation is the result of the growth and natural activity of millions of copies of yeast itself. Yeast strains behave differently and add different flavors to beer depending on temperatures, concentrations, levels of oxygen and in different worts st strain we use Saccharomyces Uvarum. after eating its food goes down due to the difference in gravity. Fermentation vessel will shut off for fermentation for upto 56 hours. Yeast is drained from them time to time from bottom. The beer formed after 56 hours in fermentation vessel is called young beer , this beer have yeast suspended in it, which also have many off flavours.

MATURATION After fermentation of wort , the "green" or young beer is far from the finished beer because it contains suspended particles, lacks sufficient carbonation, lacks taste and aroma, and it is physically and microbiologically unstable. Maturation reduces the levels of these undesirable compounds, off flavors and yeast cells, to produce a more finished beer. The process of transportation of green beer from fermentation vessel(FV) to storage vessels (SV)for maturation is called racking. For maturation temperature must be reduced for so as to inactive the yeast present in young beer. The yeast present in young beer will settle at the lower conical head of the storage vessel and removed time to time. More time the beer stand in SV the more will off -flavors reduces

For coagulation of suspended yeast and settling of them at bottom silica is dosed along with green beer while racking. Silica is positively charged and yeasts are negatively charged that is why yeast cells get stuck with silica and coagulates thus settle down at bottom and removed . For maintaining the bitterness and desired flavor of final beer hops oil(HP -6) dosing is done with a calculated value. Hops oil, which provide aroma to beer, have many volatile substances so it is induced in SV as temperature is low here and afterwards.

Some points about fermentation section: The size of cellars for FV is 2500 HL. 12 cellars are used for fermentation and 8 are used for maturation. Temperature of fermentation vessel is 12oC . Temperature of storage vessels is 0-2oC. Off flavors are removed by maturation taste and aroma is made by adding HP-6. FILTRATION After maturation, beer filtration is done to remove suspended particles of yeast, protein and silica gel, resulting in a clear, finished beer. This beer is the final beer as all the impurities , suspended solids, suspended yeast are removed that ultimately removes haze and make bright coloured and fit for consumption . Diatomaceous Earth (DE) Powder The fossilized remains of single-cell organisms called diatoms is scrapped off from the rocks under seas and oceans, and a uniform particles size is achieved by processing these fossil remains. This powder is used in kieselguhr filter for filtration and known as diatomaceous earth. This powder is silicated to use for filtration purposes. Three different type of powder is used in SAB Miller: Hyflo Cel -577 Cel -512 These are basically same DE , the difference is that they have different particle size of diatomaceous earth. Hyflo have coarse particles and Cel -512 have smallest particle size. Silica is also mixed with DE so as it will attract yeast by electrostatic force . Filter powder is used according to the recipe of beer, Fosters and Haywards 5000 have different styles of filtration.

Kieselguhr Filter
This filter made up of steel with conical bottom head. It consists of 314 candles which are containing a number of rings that are perforated at size of 0.2mm and are hung from a rigid horizontal plate which is connected to a pipe at top of vessel. Used filter powder removed from candles after beer filtration is sent to ETP.

The steps to do filtration are: Slurring A man will empty the filter powder from the bags into the slurry tank,adjacent to the filters, carefully. Slurry tank have an agitator inside which mixes the powder to form slurry . silica is harmful if inhaled so mask is need to cover nose. Pre-coating In order to form a stable filter bed structure, it is first necessary to pre-coat the candles with DE layers of sequentially finer grades. The pre-coat is built up by circulating the DE through the filter along with water until the emerging liquid is clear. This signals that the first layer is rightly made. Beer feed along with DE After coating is done, beer feed is given for filtration. is also fed along with beer flow so that next layer is made for further filtration. Conditions when to change the filter bed from candles : Pressure drops across the bed attains critical pressure for filtration. Change in brand of beer to be filtered. Candles touch other candles . Maximum allowable quantity of powder is attained i.e 18 bags of powder. To clean the filter bed high air pressure is induced from the top of bed , air comes out from candles so the adhered filter powder got detach from candle. Beer is present in the filter vessel so powder forms slurry and due to pressure this slurry is transported in waste tank. Post Filtration processes: Carbonation CO2 is added to to the filtered beer to preserve its taste and give tongue a soft taste. Carbon di oxide is injected to the beer by carefully metered valve. For proper mixing of beer and gas a turbulent flow and high pressure drop is needed. This is done by providing ,the further path of beer flow, curves and bending. Now beer is clean, clear and carbonated for drinking use. Storage(BBT) Beer is transported to bright beer tanks for storage and further packing section. Temperature of beer is maintained 2oC for storage. De aerated water is used dilute beer and match the desired specifications according to prescribed recipe.

Some points about filtration section: Temperature is lowered upto 0oC so as to remove proteins present in beer. Proteins produce haze when beer is chilled thus we need to remove these proteins for the bright colour of beer. Beer have foam due to proteins so some quantity is preserved for foam stabilization. Beer stabilizer Lucilite is added before filtration by silica dosing tank. Pre buffer tank will give some time for Lucilite to adhere suspended yeasts on it , this will help in filtration.