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# Objective

:
1. To demonstrate the adsorption phenomena. 2. To show students how to determine the adsorption parameters.

Theory:
Adhesion of atoms, ions, bimolecules or molecules of gas, liquid or dissolved solids to a surface is called adsorption. In this process creates a film of the adsorbate –the molecules or atoms being accumulated, on the surface of the adsorbent.

Examples:
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This isotherm explains the formation of multilayer. Type III Adsorption Isotherm: Type III Adsorption Isotherm      Type III Adsorption Isotherm also shows large deviation from Langmuir model. There is no flattish portion in the curve which indicates that monolayer formation is missing. Examples of Type III Adsorption Isotherm are Bromine (Br2) at 790°C on silica gel or Iodine (I2) at 790°C on silica gel. Examples of Type-II adsorption are Nitrogen (N2 (g)) adsorbed at -1950°C on Iron (Fe) catalyst and Nitrogen (N2 (g)) adsorbed at -1950°C on silica gel. This explains formation of monolayer followed by multilayer. . In BET equation value if C <<< 1 Type III Adsorption Isotherm obtained. Type IV Adsorption Isotherm: Type IV Adsorption Isotherm  At lower pressure region of graph is quite similar to Type II.

which retained his name. it can be assured that the freundlich adsorption isotherm is satisfied for this system. From this the value of slope equal to 1/n and the value of intercept equal to log k can be obtained. it the graph of log x/m against log p comes out to be a straight line. Irving Langmuir published a new model isotherm for gases adsorbed to solids. It is a semi-empirical isotherm derived from a proposed kinetic mechanism. if a graph of log x/m is plotted against log p. It is based on four assumptions: . This isotherm was based on different assumptions one of which is that dynamic equilibrium exists between adsorbed gaseous molecules and the free gaseous molecules. Over and above. Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm: In 1916. Hence.Taking the logarithms of a first equation. it will be a straight line in the following diagram.

From the titre values. . the concentration of oxalic acid remaining and hence the amount of oxalic acid adsorbed are calculated. In order to test the validity of Freundlich adsorption isotherm plot log (x/m) against log Ce. A linear plot obtained shoe the applicability of the isotherm. Calculate the constants "a" and "b" from the slope and intercept on the ordinate axis.The supernatant liquid of each of the bottles are filtered through a small dry filter paper and the filtrate is collected in properly labeled conical flasks. It is titrated against standardized KMnO4 solution until a pink colour appears. Validity of Langmuir adsorption equation can be tested by plotting Ce/(x/m) Vs Ce. The titration is repeated to get concordant values. The slopes and intercepts of the plot will give 1/n and log k respectively and hence n and K can be calculated.(The initial 5 ml or 10 ml of the filtrate is rejected) 10 ml of the filtrate is pipetted out into a clean conical flask.

Oxalic acid 4. 6. Click the start button. 7. 3. Water Procedure: 1. Burette Stand Reagents: 1. Select the titrant. 2. Note down the end point. Corresponding graphs of Langmuir and Freudlich adsorption isotherm are obtained. Magnetic Stirrer 4. 5. Burette 2. 4.Materials Required: 1. Select the titrate. KMnO4 2. Conical Flask 3. Enter the value in the excel sheet. . Choose the volume of water and oxalic acid. Charcoal 3.

......... Freundlich Adsorption isotherm is verified.......5 2 40 10 10 0..5 2 10 40 10 log log(X/m) Ce/(X/ Ce Results: 1..... The value of constant 4.5 2 30 20 10 0.....1 0..1 0.. 3.. =.. When you enter the lab.5 2 50 0 10 0...... Always wear lab coat and gloves when you are in the lab.. The value of constant =..... 4..... KMnO4. .. switch on the exhaust fan and make sure that all the chemicals and reagents required for the experiment are available... prepare the reagents using the components for reagent preparation......1 0. KMnO4...... Once the experiment completed recap the reagent bottles.Observations and Calculations: Normality Volume Ci X=CiCe X/m Titrate o... Discard the used gloves in a waste bin.. 2...... Switch off the light. The value of constant 5..... If it is not available.......5 2 20 30 10 0... Langmuir Adsorption isotherm is verified. Clean all glass wares with soap and distilled water...... The value of constant 6..... =. 2..... Charcoal. Make sure to calibrate the electronic weigh balance before taking the measurements.. Points to Remember while Performing Experiment in a Real Laboratory: the 1....1 0. Make sure to clean all your working apparatus with chromic acid and distilled water and ensure that all the apparatus are free from water droplets while performing the experiment. 3.V2 Ce=(V2*N2)/V1 H2C2O4 H2C2O4 Water V1 in N2 m in mL mL 0..... =..... 5........1 0.... and exhaust fan before leaving the lab.......