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ARIC Arabic Class Notes

Part 6 (ver. 11)

Topics

Interrogative Or
Having or Possessing
He/It is not


Comparative & Superlative degrees
Numbers 11 20
The Verbal Sentence

Present and Future Tense Verb




Moods of Verbs
Imperative Verb
Visit www.AbdurRahman.org for more resource

Revision History
Date

Ver Author

Revision Comments

Aug. 8, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Initial version.

Aug. 14, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for Interrogative Or and

Aug. 28, 2010 3

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for and

Sep. 26, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for numbers 11-20 and the verbal sentence

Nov. 13, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for Present Tense Verb -

Jan. 8, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for Moods of Verbs

Jan. 16, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Added a slide for Present tense moods + minor corrections

Jan. 22, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for Imperative Verb

Jan. 29, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Updated slides for Imperative Verb

Feb. 26, 2011

10

Zahid Naeem

Updated slides for Present Tense Verb -

Apr. 30, 2011

11

Zahid Naeem

Updated slides for Present Tense Moods

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Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

Particle of Emphasis and Accusative Case )


(
has many meanings, e.g. indeed, verily, truly, surely,

It is only used in a nominal sentence (
)
It is a particle of emphasis
It makes the subject (

) of the sentence accusative (


)

The analysis of the nominal sentence changes as follows, when it


contains


new

The book

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

new

The book

Indeed

) ( with Attached Pronouns

) is ( The pronoun

always
when it is
attached to

Indeed he

doctor

Same analysis
applies to all

Please note the two


different variations for
these two pronouns
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Sisters of (
)
The following words are called Sisters of because grammatically
they act like , i.e. they make the noun following them


easy

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

The examination

I hope

Interrogative Or
means or and is used in an interrogative sentence.
Is this a masjid or a house?
Are you from Germany or France?

This construction requires that nothing comes between and the first
choice and between and the second choice
Choice 2

Choice 1



In a non-interrogative sentence, is used for or
I heard the teacher or the principal
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

Examples from Quran ... ...


As to those who reject Faith, it is the
same to them whether thou warn
them or do not warn them; they will
not believe. (2:6)
Have they feet to walk with? Or hands
to lay hold with? Or eyes to see with?
Or ears to hear with? Say: "Call your
'god-partners', scheme (your worst)
against me, and give me no respite!
(7:195)

Say: "Is that best, or the eternal


garden, promised to the righteous? for
them, that is a reward as well as a goal
(of attainment). (25:15)
Did you mislead these, My servants, or
did they [themselves] stray from the
way? (25:17)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)


:


: ...


:

...
:

He/It is not
is verb

It is an incomplete verb (
complete meaning.

) , because it does not convey the

It requires a predicate ( )to complete its meaning.


It is used in a sentence as follows
new

new

The book

not

The book


new

OR

The book

not

usually takes a , but it can also be without one. In the latter


case, the will be
.

The

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

Conjugation for
Suffix

, the Starting with

gets a

+
Since

, already had

this results in
(the
meeting of the two sukun).
This is not permissible in
is Arabic, so the week letter
dropped

group This applies to the


)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

More on
I

I not

doctor

The book

10

not

I not

doctor

new

not

The book

new

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Examples from Quran

Is not the morning near? (11:81)


Is not Allah most knowing of what is
within the breasts of all creatures?


...
...
:

(29:10)

Is not that [Creator] Able to give life to


the dead? (75:40)
O wives of the Prophet! you are not
like any other of the women; (33:32)
You are not a watcher over them (88:22)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

...
:

...
:

11

Having or Possessing

Hamid

has

(a) beard

These

Aisha

(is a) student

having

(are) doctors

knowledge

12

, so the word following it is is always


form, we will learn the is

and
forms later,

Those

having

wealth

)students (fem.


possess

abundant

manners

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Examples from Quran


and Allah is the possessor of great
bounty (2:105)
And thy Lord is the Forgiver, Owner of
mercy (18:58)
The people of Noah denied before
them, and [the tribe of] 'Aad and
Pharaoh, the owner of stakes (38:12)
Therein is fruit and palm trees having
sheaths [of dates] (55:11)
And there will remain the Face of your
Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor.
(55:27)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

...
: ...


:

:

13


Comparative & Superlative degrees

Both comparative and superlative degrees in Arabic use the same word,
which is on the pattern of ( Diptote). It is the same for masculine,
feminine, singular and plural.
Adjective

Comparative
Taller

Beautiful

Good

Better

Tall
Small

Smaller

More
beautiful

is followed by , the
If
latter will be translated as than,
e.g. ( Hamid is taller
than Bilal)
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

Superlative

Tallest

Best


If

Smallest

Most
beautiful

is followed by a noun in

genitive case (
), than is to be
translated as superlative degree, e.g.
( Hamid is the
tallest student in the class)
14


Examples from Quran
And he had fruit, so he said to his
companion while he was conversing
with him, "I am greater than you in
wealth and mightier in [numbers of]
men. (18:34)
Indeed in that is a sign, but most of
them were not to be believers (26:8)
The creation of the heavens and earth
is greater than the creation of
mankind, but most of the people do
not know. (40:57)
You will surely find the most intense of
the people in animosity toward the
believers [to be] the Jews (5:82)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)




:



: ...

15

Numbers 11 19

16

(compound word), is a The


made up of two parts
Both parts of the compound word are
(indeclinable).
. and o Exception to this rule are
In genetive and accusative cases,
. and they become

Part 1

Part 2

is always singular and The


mansub. This is called

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Gender for Numbers 11 19


Numbers 11 - 12

17

Part 2 Part 1

Part 2 Part 1

Both parts of the compound word agree


with the gender of the
Numbers 13 - 19

Part 2 Part 1

Part 2 Part 1

Part 1 of the compound word is opposite


in gender than that of the
Part 2 agrees with the gender of the
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Twenty/Twenty - 20/20

The is on the same pattern as


sound masculine plural (
e.g.

) ,

It has the same form for both


masculine and feminine .

The is always singular and


mansub, i.e. it is

. This is true for

from numbers 11 to 99.


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

18

The Verbal Sentence

Starts with a verb


Contain

Starts with a noun

and

the call to prayer

Hamid

Contains and

Heard

(is) a student

Hamid

is always
is always

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

19

The Subject
is hidden in these two
The

She went

He went

forms of past tense verb



You went

For the other 12 pronouns,


suffixes are added to the to

. For a complete
denote the
list of all suffixes, see next page.
A separate noun in form,

following the , denotes the

. In this case, the hidden is



overridden by the explicit
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

Maryam

went

Hamid

went


20

Conjugation of The Past Tense Verb


He
)They (2
)They (>2
She
)They (2
)They (>2
You
)You (2
)You (>2
You
)You (2

)You (>2
I
We
21

They left
)They (>2

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

The Object
, is not required by certain type of verbs,
called Intransitive Verb ()
Other examples of such verbs include,
A verb which does require a

Hamid went

, is called a Transitive Verb ()

Most verbs fall in this category

A separate noun in
form, following the
, denotes .

attached to the denotes


A
as a pronoun.

Hamid asked Bilal

Hamid asked him

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)


22

vs.

When attached
to a verb,
always denote

23

The part
highlighted in
red, always

denote

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

?Who asked who


Hamid asked him

He asked Hamid

24

He asked him

Hamid asked you

You asked Hamid

You asked them

Hamid asked me

I asked Hamid

I asked you




)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Present & Future Tense Verb


25

Past Tense Verb

Present & Future Tense Verb

He went

He is going or He will go


is derived from
contains both present and future
tense. Optionally a particle of future can be
prefixed to make it future tense only. We will
learn that later.

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Categories of 3 letter verb



All three letter verbs are categorized
by how the vowel sign on the in

changes in as listed below.

Type *

) (

) (

) (

* Additional types are shows on the next slide

The on the

in always
changes to in
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

The on the

in always
in
changes to
26

Categories of 3 letter verb


27

Type

( )
( )
( )

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Moods of Verbs

The Past Tense Verb is fixed

The Present Tense Verb is declinable


(It has three kinds of moods)


)) (
) (
)
)) (

1. Nominative
2. Accusative
3. Majzum

Note, it is

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

not

28


29

on is always

. the vowel sign on the

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Anatomy of the Present Tense Verb





30

in Sometimes
these two cases is
not hidden. Well
learn this later,
inshaAllah

in Notice the
these two cases is
not



)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

( Three Moods of
)


31

1
) (5 in your pocket
X 2
1



2



1
2
2
) goes comes(
X 3

2



2
2

(mabni) 3
2


3
1



1
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

( Three Moods of
)


32

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

Imperative Verb

Go

He is going /
He will go

He went

) signifies a command or a request


It is derived from
is only used for 2nd person ()
Imperative Verb (

To command or request 3rd person or 1st person plural,


used. We will learn it later, insha Allah.

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

is

33

How to Construct

Start with the appropriate second person

Remove the

Make the verb . Keep in mind the 3 categories


1) 5 in your pocket, 2)

comes goes, 3)

The resulting word cannot be pronounced as it starts


.
with a

to the verb. The


vowel sign on the is determined based on the
vowel sign of the , as follows.
To overcome this, prefix a

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11)

2
3



34

Examples of

35

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11


36

Conjugation of

is only used for


( 2nd person
)

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 6 (ver. 11

ARIC Arabic Class Notes


Part 7

Topics
Uses of

The Verbal Noun

The Interpreted Original

Negation in Verbs Part 1


Moods for
Weak Letter Verb

Revision History
Date

Ver Author

Revision Comments

Mar. 20, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Initial version.

Apr. 2, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for negation in verbs and moods for

Apr. 30, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Added weak letter verb

May 15, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Added additional slides for weak letter verb

May 28, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Added additional slides for weak letter verb

Jun. 11, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for weak letter verb analysis and

There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah

Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6)

Uses of
Used for negation in
nominal as well as verbal
sentences

Means what for the


purpose of asking a
question

Means what or that


which as a conjunctive
noun

There are other uses of


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6)


Negative


Interrogative

Relative

, which will be described later, inshaAllah

Examples from Quran


Your Lord has not taken leave
of you, [O Muhammad], nor
has He detested [you]. (93:3)
And the Qur'an is not the word
of a devil, expelled [from the
heavens]. (81:25)
"What has brought you into
hell-fire?" (74:42)

:
:

What is [the matter] with you


that you do not attribute to
Allah [due] grandeur. (71:13)

A soul will [then] know what it


has brought [with it] (81:14)

O you who have believed, why


do you say what you do not
do? (61:2)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6)

The Verbal Noun


1 The action

An Arabic verb contains three pieces of


information
1. The action
2. The actor
3. The time (past, present or future)

He Entered -
2 The actor

The verbal noun ( )is a noun which


originates from the verb. It contains the action
but has no actor or time information.
Since it is a noun:
It declines like a noun
It gets the tanwin, when it is indefinite
It gets the definite article , when it is definite

3 The time

1 The action
Entry -

The actor

The time

It is also called the Original, the Infinitive or


the Gerund
Sometimes there are multiple verbal nouns for
a given verb

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6)

More on The Verbal Noun


For three letter verbs, there is no single pattern to create a verbal noun
from a verb. Here are some examples

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

The Interpreted Original


I want to go


is a compound structure,
containing followed by a

can be used instead of . So the above sentence can


also be written as:

I want to go

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6)

Examples of
We want to go
I forgot to write my homework
I request that you allow me to leave
I want that you sit, O brothers
I request that you wash my
handkerchief, O Zainab

I request that you memorize Surat-arRahmaan, O my daughters


I want that you go to your room, O
Hamid and Aba Bakr

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6)

Negation in Verbs Part 1


To negate an action in the past

I did not go to the market

To negate an action for present time only

We are not listening to the news (right now)

To negate an action in continuum

We do not listen to the news

Command/request to not do something

Do not sit here

To negate an action in future

I will not go to the market tomorrow


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6)


)(


)(


)(


)(

) ( Three Moods of
( )

10

1
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
2
2
2
3
1
1

( )













Category


(5 in your
pocket) 1


comes(
goes) 2


(mabni) 3

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for


11

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for


12




)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for



()



()


13


)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for


14




)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for


15




)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for


16



)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for


17



)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for





()


18



()
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for


19



)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

( The Verb with One Weak Letter

()
( )
()

()
()
()

()
()
()

()
()

These do not undergo


any change
20

(Original) Changed

These undergo various


changes, as described in the
next sections
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Understanding Changes in

Explanation of how the following pages


describe the changes in weak letter verbs

5
1 3

Number label represent a certain change


that
the verb
has
undergone.
change This


is then described by the same number
label
on
the left
hand
side

2 4


attached that
Indicates

to the verb is











Small circle with the same color as the numbered


the verb
has
undergone
the same
change

label, shows
21

, the
is changed to get a
, the For verbs NOT in
,
Indicates
is changed
to get a

For verbs in

resulting in weak letter


to be dropped



Original

Changed

6

5

No

is needed

is not because

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

( )


22

Ex: ( )

* Changes in

No

is needed because
is not
2

* These changes are for

does only. Its counterpart


not undergo any change.

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

( ) Ex: (


23

1 3


2 4

) Changes in

is , the
changed to get a
, the For verbs NOT in
is changed to get a

For verbs in



4
+

5


6

No

is needed because
is not
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

( ) Ex: (


24

3




4





) Changes in

is , the
changed to get a
, the For verbs NOT in
is changed to get a

For verbs in



4


5


6

No

is needed because
is not
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

( ) Ex: (


25

) Changes in

is , the
changed to get a
, the For verbs NOT in
is changed to get a

For verbs in

No

is needed because
is not
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

1 of 2 ( ) Ex: (


26

1
2
3
4

5

6

) Changes in

reappears

The original

is dropped

The original

is dropped

4
5

on the The

++
is dropped

The original

7 8 9

See next page

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

2 of 2 ( ) Ex: (


27

1
2
3
4

5

6

) Changes in

1 2 3 4 5 6
See previous page

++

The original
is dropped

Cannot have

, so it followed by
is changed to

The

is dropped to make the

verb

The

is dropped to make the

verb

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

1 of 2 ( ) Ex: (


28

1
2
3
4

) Changes in

reappears

The original

is dropped

The original

is dropped on the The



6

++

Cannot have
The original

, so it is dropped followed by
is changed to

7 8 9

See next page

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

2 of 2 ( ) Ex: (


29

1
2
3
4

) Changes in
1 2 3 4 5 6
See previous page

++
is dropped

The original

The

is dropped to make the

verb

The

is dropped to make the

verb

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

1 of 2 ( ) Ex: (


30

1
2
3
4

5
6
7

) Changes in

reappears

10

The original

on the The
is dropped

The original

is dropped

is The

changed to

+ +

reappears

The original

7 8 9 10

See next page

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

2 of 2 ( ) Ex: (


31

1
2
3
4

5
6
7

) Changes in
1 2 3 4 5 6
See previous page

++
is dropped

The

. does not get

10

The

The

is dropped to make the

verb

10

The

is dropped to make the

verb

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

1 of 2 ( ) Ex: (


32

2
3
4

) Changes in

is not Notice the original weak letter,

. has

, when the changed to

+
is The
dropped

Cannot have

, so it is followed by
changed to

on the The
is dropped

is The

changed to

+ +

reappears

The original

++
is dropped

The

5 6 7

See next page

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

2 of 2 ( ) Ex: (


33

2
3
4

) Changes in
1 2 3 4
See previous page

does not get

The

The

is dropped to make the

verb

The

is dropped to make the

verb

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

vs. Regular Verbs Analysis of


Regular

34

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

) ( Three Moods of


35

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for

36

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for


37




)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for



()


38



()
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6

Moods for


39



)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6


40

( ) Ex: Changes in

The vowel
sign on
is dropped

and The
combine
to make

gets the vowel


which sign from
is dropped from

and The
combine
to make

Since both letters are strong, the

to remove gets a

Since both letters are strong, the

to remove gets a

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 7 (ver. 6