1

MODULE I
VECTOR ALGEBRA, VECTOR CALCULUS,
COORDINATE SYSTEMS, VECTOR FIELDS
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Syllabus – Module I
Vector analysis:
Vector algebra, Coordinate systems and
transformations-Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical
coordinates. Constant coordinate surfaces. Vector
calculus-Differential length, area and volume. Line,
surface and volume integrals. Del operator. Gradient of a
scalar, Divergence of a vector, Divergence theorem, Curl
of a vector. Stock’s theorem, Laplacian of a scalar.
Classification of vector fields.
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References
Text Books:
1. Mathew N.O. Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford University
Press
2. J ordan and Balmain, Electromagnetic waves and radiating systems,
Pearson Education PHI Ltd.
References:
1. Kraus Fleisch, Electromagnetics with applications, McGraw Hill
2. William.H.Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, TataMcGraw Hill
3. N.Narayana Rao, Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Pearson
Education PHI Ltd.
4. D.GaneshRao, Engineering Electromagnetics, SanguineTechnical
Publishers.
5. J oseph.A.Edminister, Electromagnetics, Schaumseries-McGraw Hill
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Scalars and vectors
A scalar is a quantity that has only magnitude.
Time
Distance
Temperature
Speed
A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and
direction.
Force
Displacement
Velocity
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Unit vector
A vector has both magnitude and direction.
A unit vector along is defined as a vector whose magnitude is
unity and whose direction is along vector . It is denoted by
Vector is completely specified in terms of its magnitude A and
direction
A

Magnitude of A A A = =

A

A

ˆ
A
a
ˆ
A
A A
a
A A
= =

ˆ
A
A A a =

ˆ
A
a
A

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Vectors represented in rectangular
coordinate systems
Any vector in space can be uniquely expressed in terms of x, y and
z coordinates using a rectangular coordinate system.
Y
X
Z
x
A
y
A
z
A
ˆ
x
a
ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
A

ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
A A a A a A a = + +

2
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Vectors represented in rectangular
coordinate systems
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
A A a A a A a = + +

, , , ,
x y z
A A A Components of A in the direction of x y z ⇒
ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
, ,
x y z
a a a Unit vectors specifying the direction
of x y z axes

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Position vector of a point in space
A point P in Cartesian coordinate system may be expressed as its
x,y,z coordinates. The position vector of a point P is the directed
distance from the origin O to the point P.
A point P (3,4,5) has the position vector
Y
X
Z
x
A
y
A
z
A
ˆ
x
a
ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
ˆ ˆ ˆ
p x x y y z z
r OP A a A a A a = = + +

P
ˆ ˆ ˆ 3 4 5
p x y z
r a a a = + +

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Vector addition and subtraction
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
x x y y z z
If A A a A a A a and
B B a B a B a
= + +
= + +

( ) ( ) ( ) ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x x y y y z z z
C A B A B a A B a A B a = + = + + + + +

( ) ( ) ( ) ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x x y y y z z z
D A B A B a A B a A B a = − = − + − + −

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Distance vector
Distance vector is the displacement from one point to another.
If two points A (Ax,Ay,Az) and B (Bx,By,Bz) are given, the distance
vector from A to B is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) ˆ ˆ ˆ
AB x x x y y y z z z
r B A a B A a B A a = − + − + −

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Unit vector in the direction of given
vector
Let be a vector in space given by
A unit vector in the direction of is given by
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
A A a A a A a = + +

A

A

2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ
x x y y z z
A
x y z
A a A a A a
a
A A A
+ +
=
+ +
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Example 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ 10 4 6
x y z
If A a a a and = − +

ˆ ˆ 2
x y
B a a find = +

ˆ ( )
( ) 3
( ) 2
y
i Component of A along a
ii Magnitude of A B
iii A unit vector along A B

+

: Answer
( 4 ) - i
( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) 3 30 12 18 2
x y z x y
ii A B a a a a a − = − + − +

ˆ ˆ ˆ 28 13 18
x y z
a a a = − +
2 2 2
3 28 13 18 35.74 A B − = = + +

3
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Example 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) 2 14 2 6
x y z
iii A B a a a + = − +

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 0.9113 0.1302 0.3906
x y z
c a a a = − +
2
ˆ 2
2
A B
A unit vector c along A B
A B
+
+ =
+



2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ 14 2 6
14 2 6
x y z
a a a − +
=
+ +
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Vector multiplication-dot product
Scalar product or dot product: It is defined as the product of
magnitudes of the two vectors and the cosine of the angle between
them.
Properties:
cos
AB
A B AB θ ⋅ =


AB
is the smaller angle between them θ
( ) : i Commutative Prope ty A B B A r ⋅ = ⋅

( ) ii When two vectors are perpendicular the angle
=90 cos90 0 between them is θ =

cos90 0 A B AB ⋅ = =

, If the dot product of two vectors are zero they are
. perpendicular
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Vector multiplication-dot product
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) , ,
x y z
iii Since a a a are mutually perpendicular
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = 0
x y y z z x
a a a a a a ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
( ) iv When two vectors are parallel the angle between them
0 180 is either or

cos0 A B AB AB or ⋅ = =

cos180 A B AB AB ⋅ = = −

( ) . v The square of a vector is the square of its magnitude
2
cos0 A A AA A ⋅ = =

2 2
A A =

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Vector multiplication-dot product
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
x x y y z z
If A A a A a A a and
B B a B a B a
= + +
= + +

( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ .
x x y y z z x x y y z z
A B A a A a A a B a B a B a = + + ⋅ + +


x x y y z z
A B A B A B = + +
( ) vi Scalar product is equal to the sum of products of their
. corresponding components
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Vector Product or cross product
Vector Product or cross product: Vector product of two vectors
and is denoted as and is defined as
Where is a unit vector perpendicular to and such that
forms a right handed system.
Geometrically the cross product can be defined as a vector whose
magnitude is equal to the area of the parallelogram formed by
and whose direction is in the direction of advance of a
right handed screw as is turned in to through the smaller
angle.
A

B

A B ×

sin ˆ
AB n
A B A B a θ × =

A

B

ˆ
n
a
ˆ ,
n
A B and a

A

B

A and B

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Vector Product or cross product
A

B

θ
A B ×

ˆ
n
a
AB sinθ
AB sinθ
4
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Vector Product or cross product
Properties:
( ) : i Anti commutative A B B A × = − ×

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) : ii Distributive A B C A B A C × + = × + ×

( ) ( )
( ) : iii Not Associative A B C A B C × × ≠ × ×

( ) V . iv ector product of two parallel vectors is zero
ˆ ˆ sin0 sin 0
AB n n
A B A B a A B a θ × = = =

ˆ ( ) sin0 0
n
v A A A A a × = =

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Vector Product or cross product
Properties:
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) 0
x x y y z z
vi a a a a a a × = × = × =
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) 1.1.sin90
x y z z
vii a a a a and × = =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
y z x
a a a × =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z x y
a a a × =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
y x z
a a a × = −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z y x
a a a × = −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x z y
a a a × = −
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Vector Product or cross product
Properties:
ˆ
x
a
ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
ˆ
x
a
ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
ˆ
x
a
ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
ˆ
x
a −
ˆ
y
a −
ˆ
z
a −
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Vector Product or cross product
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
x x y y z z
viii If A A a A a A a and
B B a B a B a
= + +
= + +

ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
x y z
x y z
a a a
A B A A A
B B B
× =

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Projection of a vector on another vector
Scalar component of along is called projection of on
and is given by
A

B

A

B

cos
B AB
A A θ =
ˆ cos
B AB
A a θ =

ˆ
B
A a = ⋅

A

B

AB
θ
cos
AB
A θ
ˆ
B
a
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Projection of a vector on another vector
Vector component of along is the scalar component multiplied
by a unit vector along
A

B

B

( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
B B B B B
A A a A a a = = ⋅

5
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Scalar triple product
Given three vectors the scalar triple product is defined
as
and is represented as
Geometrically the scalar triple product is equal to the volume of a
parallelepiped having as sides
Properties:
( ) ( ) ( )
A B C B C A C A B ⋅ × = ⋅ × = ⋅ ×

, A B and C

A B C ⎡ ⎤
⎣ ⎦

, A B and C

( ) i A B C B C A C A B ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ = =
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

( ) ( ) ( )
. . A B C B i e C A C A B ⋅ × = ⋅ × = ⋅ ×

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Scalar triple product
(ii) A change in the cyclic order of vectors changes the sign of scalar
triple product.
A B C B A C ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ = −
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

ˆ ˆ ˆ ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
x x y y z z
x x y y z z
iii If A A a A a A a and
B B a B a B a
C C a C a C a
= + +
= + +
= + +

x y z
x y z
x y z
A A A
A B C B B B
C C C
⎡ ⎤ =
⎣ ⎦

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Vector triple product
, , For any three vectors A B C

( ) ( ) ( )
A B C B A C C A B × × = ⋅ − ⋅

bac-cab rule
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Cylindrical Coordinate Systems
Any point in space is considered to be at the intersection of three
mutually perpendicular surfaces:
A circular cylinder (ρ=constant)
A vertical plane (Φ=constant)
A horizontal plane (z=constant)
Any point in space is represented by three coordinates P(ρ,Φ,z)
ρ denotes the radius of an imaginary cylinder passing through P, or
the radial distance from z axis to the point P.
Φ denotes azimuthal angle, measured from x axis to a vertical
intersecting plane passing through P.
z denotes distance from xy-plane to a horizontal intersecting plane
passing through P. It is the same as in rectangular coordinate
system.
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Cylindrical Coordinate Systems
P(ρ,Φ,z)
z=constant
ρ=constant
Φ =constant
z
ρ
Φ
X
Y
Z
:0
0 2

Ranges
z
ρ
π
≤ < ∞
≤ Φ <
− ∞ < < ∞
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Cylindrical Coordinate Systems
P(3,45,8)
z=8
ρ=3
Φ=45
X
Y
Z
P(3,45,8)
6
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Cylindrical Coordinate Systems
z
ρ
Φ
X
Y
Z
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ a
Φ
ˆ
z
a
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ a
Φ
ˆ
z
a
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Cylindrical Coordinate Systems
A vector in cylindrical coordinate system may be specified using
three mutually perpendicular unit vectors
form a right handed system because an RH screw when
rotated from
These unit vectors specify directions along ρ,Φ and z axes.
Using these unit vectors any vector A may be expressed as
The magnitude of the vector is given by
ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
z
a a a
ρ Φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z z
A A a A a A a
ρ ρ Φ Φ
= + +

2 2 2
z
A A A A
ρ Φ
= + +

ˆ ˆ ˆ
z
a to a a
ρ Φ
moves towards
ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
z
a a a
ρ Φ
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Cylindrical Coordinate Systems
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 1
z z
a a a a a a
ρ ρ Φ Φ
⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ =
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 0
z z
a a a a a a
ρ ρ Φ Φ
⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z
a a a
ρ Φ
× =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z
a a a
ρ Φ
× =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z
a a a
ρ Φ
× =
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Relationship between cylindrical and
rectangular coordinate systems
X
Y
Z
x
y
z
Φ ρ
sin y ρ = Φ
cos x ρ = Φ
P(ρ,Φ,z) or (x,y,z)
z
2 2
x y ρ = +
1
tan
y
x
− ⎛ ⎞
Φ =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
z z =
cos x ρ = Φ
sin y ρ = Φ
z z =
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ a
Φ
ˆ
z
a
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Relationship between cylindrical and
rectangular coordinate systems
X
Y
Φ
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ a
Φ
ˆ a
Φ

ˆ a
ρ
ˆ
x
a
Φ
ˆ sin a
Φ
− Φ
ˆ cos a
ρ
Φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
x
a a a
ρ Φ
= Φ − Φ
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Relationship between cylindrical and
rectangular coordinate systems
X
Y
Φ
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ a
Φ
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ
y
a
Φ
ˆ sin a
ρ
Φ
ˆ cos a
Φ
Φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
y
a a a
ρ Φ
= Φ + Φ
7
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Relationship between cylindrical and
rectangular coordinate systems
X
Y
Φ
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ
y
a
Φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
x y
a a a
ρ
= Φ + Φ
ˆ
x
a
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Relationship between cylindrical and
rectangular coordinate systems
X
Y
Φ
ˆ
y
a
Φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
y x
a a a
Φ
= Φ − Φ
ˆ
x
a ˆ
x
a −
ˆ a
Φ Φ
ˆ a
ρ
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Relationship between cylindrical and
rectangular coordinate systems
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
x
a a a
ρ Φ
= Φ − Φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
y
a a a
ρ Φ
= Φ + Φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
x y
a a a
ρ
= Φ + Φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
y x
a a a
Φ
= Φ − Φ
ˆ ˆ
z z
a a =
ˆ ˆ
z z
a a =










(2) equations
(3) equations
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Transformation of vectors between cylindrical
and rectangular coordinate systems
Substituting the equations (2) in the general equation for a vector in
rectangular coordinates,
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
A A a A a A a = + +

( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin cos sin
x y z z
A A a a A a a A a
ρ ρ Φ Φ
= Φ − Φ + Φ + Φ +

( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin sin cos
x y x y z z
A A A a A A a A a
ρ Φ
= Φ + Φ + − Φ + Φ +

cos sin
x y
A A A
ρ
= Φ + Φ
sin cos
x y
A A A
Φ
= − Φ + Φ
z z
A A =





(4) equations
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Transformation of vectors between cylindrical
and rectangular coordinate systems
Substituting the equations (3) in the general equation for a vector in
cylindrical coordinates,
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z z
A A a A a A a
ρ Φ
= + +

( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin sin cos
x y x y z z
A A a a A a a A a
ρ Φ
= Φ + Φ + − Φ + Φ +

( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin sin cos
x y z z
A A A a A A a A a
ρ ρ Φ Φ
= Φ − Φ + Φ + Φ +

cos sin
x
A A A
ρ Φ
= Φ − Φ
sin cos
y
A A A
ρ Φ
= Φ + Φ
z z
A A =





(5) equations
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Transformation of vectors between cylindrical
and rectangular coordinate systems
Transformation of a vector expressed in rectangular coordinates
(Ax.Ay,Az) to cylindrical coordinates (Aρ.AΦ,Az) can be achieved
using equations (4). The set of equations (4) can be expressed in
matrix form as
cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1
=
z
x
y
z
A
A
A
A
A
A
ρ
Φ
Φ Φ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥

Φ Φ
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

⎣ ⎦ ⎦



8
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Transformation of vectors between cylindrical
and rectangular coordinate systems
Transformation of a vector expressed in cylindrical coordinates
(Aρ.AΦ,Az) to rectangular coordinates (Ax.Ay,Az) can be achieved
using equations (5). The set of equations (5) can be expressed in
matrix form as
cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1
=
z
x
y
z
A
A
A
A
A A
ρ
Φ
Φ − Φ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
Φ
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥

Φ
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣

⎦ ⎦
⎢ ⎥

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Example-2
Convert the following points expressed in cylindrical coordinates to
rectangular coordinate system.
(i) P(2,5π/6,3)
(ii) Q(4,4π/3,-1)
cos x ρ = Φ
sin y ρ = Φ
z z =
5
2cos 1.7 ( s 3
6
o ) c 2 x i
π
ρ = − = = Φ
5
2si s n in 1
6
y
π
ρ = Φ = =
( 1.732,1,3
5
(2, ,3)
6
) P P
π
− ⇒
4
( ) (4, , 1) ( 2,
3
3.464, 1) i P P i
π
− − − − ⇒
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Example-1
Convert the following point expressed in rectangular coordinate
system to cylindrical coordinates and sketch the location of the
point. P(x=3,y=4,z=5)
2 2
x y ρ = +
1
tan
y
x
− ⎛ ⎞
Φ =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
z z =
2 2 2 2
3 4 5 x y ρ = + + = =
1 1
4
ta t n 53.1 an
3
y
x
− − ⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
Φ =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

(5 ( , 3, 53 4,5) .1,5) P P ⇒

P(5,53.1,5)
ρ=5
Φ=53.1
Y
Z
z=5
X
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Example-3
cos sin 0
= sin cos 0
0 0 1
x
y
z z
A A
A A
A A
ρ
Φ
Φ Φ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
− Φ Φ
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
cos sin 0 4
= sin cos 0 2
0 0 1 4
Φ Φ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
− Φ Φ −
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
− ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
4
z
A = − 4cos 2sin A
ρ
= Φ − Φ 4sin 2cos A
φ
= − Φ − Φ
P(2,3,5) At the point
1 1
3
ta t n 56.3 an
2
y
x
− − ⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
Φ =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

( ) ( ) 4cos56.3 2sin56.3 4sin56.3 2c ˆ ˆ ˆ os56.3 4
z
F a a a
ρ Φ
− − − − = +

ˆ ˆ ˆ 0.556 4.44 4
z
F a a a
ρ Φ
= − −

4cos56.3 2sin56.3 A
ρ
= −

4sin56.3 2cos56.3 A
φ
= − −

4
z
A = −
Convert the vector located at A(2,3,5) in to
cylindrical coordinates.
ˆ ˆ ˆ 4 2 4
x y z
F a a a = − −

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example-4
Express the vector in cylindrical
coordinates.
2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
xy za x yza xyz a + +
sin y ρ = Φ cos x ρ = Φ
cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1
=
z
x
y
z
A
A
A
A
A
A
ρ
Φ
Φ Φ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥

Φ Φ
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

⎣ ⎦ ⎦



2
2
2
cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0
=
0 1
z
xy z
x yz
xy
A
z
A
A
ρ
Φ
⎡ ⎤ Φ Φ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
− Φ Φ
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣




Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example-4 (Contd…)
2
z
A xyz =
2 2
cos sin A xy z x yz
ρ
Φ + = Φ
2 2
sin cos xy z x yz A
Φ
Φ + = − Φ
sin y ρ = Φ cos Put x ρ = Φ
3 2 2 3 2 2
cos sin sin cos z z A
ρ
ρ ρ Φ Φ + Φ = Φ
3 2 2
cos sin 2 z ρ = Φ Φ
3 3 3 3
cos sin cos sin z z A
φ
ρ ρ Φ Φ + Φ = − Φ
2 2
sin cos
z
A z ρ Φ = Φ
9
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Spherical coordinate system
Any point in space is represented as the intersection of three
surfaces:
A sphere of radius r from the origin (r=constant)
A cone centered around the z axis (θ=constant)
A vertical plane (Φ=constant)
Any point in spherical coordinate system is considered to be at the
intersection of the above three planes.
θ
θ=constant
X Y
Z
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Spherical coordinate system
X
Y
Z
r
X
Y
Z
Φ
r=constant
Φ=constant
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Spherical coordinate system
X
Y
Z
θ
Φ
r
P(r, θ, Φ)
:0
0
0 2
Ranges r
θ π
φ π
≤ < ∞
≤ ≤
< <
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Spherical coordinate system
X
Y
Z
θ
Φ
r
ˆ
r
a
ˆ a
θ
ˆ a
Φ
ˆ
r
a
ˆ a
θ
ˆ a
Φ
:0
0
0 2
Ranges r
θ π
φ π
≤ < ∞
≤ ≤
< <
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Spherical coordinate system
Three unit vectors of the spherical coordinate system are shown in
the figure.
Unit vector lies along the radially outward direction to the
spherical surface. It lies on the cone θ=constant and the plane
Φ=constant
The unit vector is normal to the conical surface and lies in
Φ=constant plane and is tangential to the spherical surface.
Unit vector is the same as in cylindrical coordinate system. It is
normal to Φ=constant plane and is tangential to both the cone and
the sphere.
The unit vectors are mutually perpendicular and forms a right
handed set. An RH screw when rotated from will move it
towards direction.
ˆ
r
a
ˆ a
θ
ˆ a
Φ
ˆ ˆ
r
a to a
θ
ˆ a
Φ
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Spherical coordinate system
A vector in spherical coordinate system may be expressed as
Magnitude of the vector is given by
The unit vectors are mutually orthogonal. Thus
A

ˆ ˆ ˆ
r r
A A a A a A a
θ θ φ φ
= + +

ˆ ˆ ˆ , , , ,
r
a a a are unit vectors along r directions
θ φ
θ φ
2 2 2
r
A A A A
θ φ
= + +

ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
r
a a a
θ φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 1
r r
a a a a a a
θ θ φ φ
⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ =
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 0
r r
a a a a a a
θ θ φ φ
⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
r
a a a
θ φ
× =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
r
a a a
θ φ
× =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
r
a a a
φ θ
× =
10
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of variables
X
Y
Z
x
y
Φ ρ
sin y ρ = Φ
cos x ρ = Φ
P(x,y,z) or (ρ,Φ,z) or (r,θ,Φ)
z
θ
r
sin r ρ θ =
cos z r θ =
, , , , in ter r ms f x o y z θ φ
, , , , in term r s f x o y z θ φ
2 2 2
r x y z = + +
2 2
1
tan
x y
z
θ

+
=
1
tan
y
x
φ

=
sin cos x r θ φ =
sin sin y r θ φ =
cos z r θ =
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of variables
2 2 2
r x y z = + +
2 2
1
tan
x y
z
θ

+
=
1
tan
y
x
φ

=
sin cos x r θ φ =
sin sin y r θ φ =
cos z r θ =
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
X
Y
Z
x
y
Φ ρ
sin y ρ = Φ
cos x ρ = Φ
z
θ
r
sin r ρ θ =
cos z r θ =
ˆ
r
a
ˆ a
θ
ˆ a
Φ
90 θ −
θ
θ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos cos cos sin
x r
a a a a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ sin sin cos sin cos
y r
a a a a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
z r
a a a
θ
θ θ = −
ˆ
x
a ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
90 θ −
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
X
Y
Z
x
y
Φ
ρ
sin y ρ = Φ
cos x ρ = Φ
z
θ
r
sin r ρ θ =
cos z r θ =
ˆ
r
a
ˆ a
θ
ˆ a
Φ
90 θ −
θ
θ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos cos cos sin
x r
a a a a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ sin sin cos sin cos
y r
a a a a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
z r
a a a
θ
θ θ = −
ˆ
x
a ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
ˆ a
Φ

ˆ a
Φ

ˆ a
Φ
Φ
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
The unit vectors are to be expressed in terms of unit
vectors in spherical coordinates
consists of the projections of on the x axis.
In order to find this projection, first find the projection on the xy plane
and then on to the required unit vectors.
ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
r
a a a
θ φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
x y z
a a a
ˆ
x
a ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
r
a a a
θ φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos cos cos sin
x r
a a a a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ sin sin cos sin cos
y r
a a a a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin
z r
a a a
θ
θ θ = −







(1) equation
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
X
Y
Z
x
y
Φ ρ
sin y ρ = Φ
cos x ρ = Φ
z
θ
r
sin r ρ θ =
cos z r θ =
ˆ
r
a
ˆ a
θ
ˆ a
Φ
90 θ −
θ
θ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin sin sin cos
r x y z
a a a a φ θ φ θ θ = + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos cos sin cos sin
x y z
a a a a
θ
φ θ φ θ θ = + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos
x y
a a a
φ
φ φ = − +
ˆ
x
a
ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
90 θ −
11
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
X
Y
Z
x
y
Φ
ρ
sin y ρ = Φ
cos x ρ = Φ
z
θ
r
sin r ρ θ =
cos z r θ =
ˆ
r
a
ˆ a
θ
ˆ a
Φ
90 θ −
θ
θ
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin sin sin cos
r x y z
a a a a φ θ φ θ θ = + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos cos sin cos sin
x y z
a a a a
θ
φ θ φ θ θ = + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos
x y
a a a
φ
φ φ = − +
ˆ
x
a ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
ˆ a
Φ

ˆ a
Φ
Φ
ˆ
x
a
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
The unit vectors are to be expressed in terms of unit
vectors in rectangular coordinates
consists of the projections of on the r axis.
In order to find this projection, first find the projection on the
Φ=constant plane and then on to the required unit vectors.
ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
r
a a a
θ φ
ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
x y z
a a a
ˆ
r
a
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos sin sin cos
r x y z
a a a a θ φ θ φ θ = + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos cos cos sin sin
x y z
a a a a
θ
θ φ θ φ θ = + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos
x y
a a a
φ
φ φ = − +
ˆ ˆ ˆ , ,
x y z
a a a







(2) equation
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
Substituting eq(1) in the general equation of a vector in rectangular
coordinates,
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
A A a A a A a = + +

( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos cos cos sin
x r
a a A a A
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + −

( ) ˆ ˆ cos sin
r z
a a A
θ
θ θ − +
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin sin cos sin cos
y r
a A a a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ + + +
( )
ˆ sin cos sin sin cos
x y z r
A A A A a θ φ θ φ θ = + +

( )
ˆ cos cos cos sin sin
x y z
A A A a
θ
θ φ θ φ θ + + −
( )
ˆ sin cos
x y
A A a
φ
φ φ + − +
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
This can be represented in matrix form as
sin cos sin sin cos
r x y z
A A A A θ φ θ φ θ = + +
cos cos cos sin sin
x y z
A A A A
θ
θ φ θ φ θ = + −
sin cos
x y
A A A
φ
φ φ = − +
sin cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin
sin cos 0
x
y
z
r
A
A
A
A
A
A
θ
θ φ θ φ θ
θ φ θ φ θ
φ φ φ
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
=
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎦⎣ ⎦


Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
Substituting eq(2) in the general equation of a vector in spherical
coordinates,
ˆ ˆ ˆ
r r
A A a A a A a
θ θ φ φ
= + +

( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos sin sin cos
r x y z
a a A A a θ φ θ φ θ = + +

( )
ˆ ˆ sin cos
x y
a A a
φ
φ φ + + −
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos cos cos sin sin
x y z
A a a a
θ
θ φ θ φ θ − + +
( )
ˆ sin cos cos cos sin
r x
A A A A a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + −

( )
ˆ sin sin cos sin cos
r y
A A A a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ + + +
( ) ˆ cos sin
r z
A A a
θ
θ θ + −
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Transformation of vectors
This can be represented in matrix form as
sin cos cos cos sin
x r
A A A A
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + −
sin cos cos cos sin
sin sin cos sin cos
cos sin 0
x
y
r
A
A
A A z
A
A
θ
φ
θ φ θ φ φ
θ φ θ φ φ
θ θ


⎡ ⎤
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
=
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
⎣ ⎦
sin sin cos sin cos
y r
A A A A
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = + +
cos sin
z r
A A A
θ
θ θ = −
12
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
Given the point P(-2,6,3)and vector express
P and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates.
ˆ ˆ ( )
x y
A ya x z a = + +

A

: Solution
( -2, 6, 3) At point P x y z = = =
2 2
4 36 6.32 x y ρ + = + = =
1 1
6
tan 108. 3 t 4
2
an
y
x
− − ⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
− ⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
Φ =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

3 z z = =
2 2 2
4 36 9 7 r x y z = + + = + + =
2 2
1 1
40
t ta an 64. 2
3
n 6
x y
z
θ
− −
=
+
= =

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1 (Contd…)
( 2,6,3) (6.32,108.43,3) (7,64.62,108.43) P P P − = =

cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1
=
z
x
y
z
A
A
A
A
A
A
ρ
Φ
Φ Φ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥

Φ Φ
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

⎣ ⎦ ⎦



cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1

0
=
z
A
A
A
y
x z
ρ
Φ
Φ Φ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
− Φ Φ +
⎢ ⎥
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣
⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥


⎣ ⎦
cos , sin . , But x y Substituting ρ φ ρ φ = =
cos sin 0 sin
sin cos 0 cos
0 0 1 0
=
z
z
A
A
A
ρ
ρ φ
ρ φ
Φ
Φ Φ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
− Φ Φ +
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎦
{ } ˆ cos sin ( cos )sin A z a
ρ
ρ φ φ ρ φ φ = + +

{ }
2
ˆ sin ( cos )cos z a
φ
ρ φ ρ φ φ + − + +
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1 (Contd…)
, =6.32, =108.43, z=3 At P ρ φ

cos 0.316 sin 0.9487 φ φ = − =
, Substituting
ˆ ˆ 0.9487 6.008 A a a
ρ φ
= − −

, In the spherical system
sin cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin
sin cos 0
x
y
z
r
A
A
A
A A
A
θ
θ φ θ φ θ
θ φ θ φ θ
φ φ φ
− −

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
=
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1 (Contd…)
sin cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin
sin cos 0 0
r
y
x z
A
A
A
θ
θ φ θ φ θ
θ φ θ φ θ
φ φ φ
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
=
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣
+

− −

sin cos , sin sin , cos . , But x r y r z r Substituting θ φ θ φ θ = = =
sin cos sin sin cos sin sin
cos cos cos sin sin sin cos cos
sin cos 0 0
r
r
r r
A
A
A
θ
θ φ θ φ θ θ φ
θ φ θ φ θ θ φ θ
φ φ φ
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
=
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣
+

− −

{ }
2
sin cos sin (sin cos cos )si ˆ n sin
r
A a r r θ φ φ θ φ θ θ φ = + +

{ } sin cos sin cos (sin cos co ˆ s )cos sin r r a
θ
θ θ φ φ θ φ θ θ φ + + +
{ }
2
sin sin ( ˆ sin cos cos )cos a r r
φ
θ φ θ φ θ φ + − + +
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1 (Contd…)
, =7, =108.43, =64.62 At P r φ θ

cos 0.316 sin 0.9487 φ φ = − =
cos 0.4286 sin 0.903 θ θ = =
, Substituting
ˆ ˆ ˆ 0.8571 0.4066 6.008
r
A a a a
θ φ
= − − −

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2
Express the vector in
Cartesian coordinates. Find
10
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos
r
B a r a a
r
θ φ
θ = + +

( 3,4,0) B −

sin cos cos cos sin
sin sin cos sin cos
cos sin 0
x
y
r
z
A
A
A
A
A
A
θ
φ
θ φ θ φ φ
θ φ θ φ φ
θ θ


⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
=
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦
: Solution
sin cos cos cos sin 10/
sin sin cos sin cos cos
cos sin 0 1
x
y
z
B
B
r
r
B
θ φ θ φ φ
θ φ θ φ φ θ
θ θ
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
=
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎣


⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦
13
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2 (Contd…)
2
10
sin cos sin cos sin
x
B r
r
θ φ θ φ φ = + −
2
10
sin sin cos sin cos
y
B r
r
θ φ θ φ φ = + +
10
cos cos sin
z
B r
r
θ θ θ = −
2 2 2
r x y z = + +
2 2
1
tan
x y
z
θ

+
=
1
tan
y
x
φ

=
sin cos cos cos sin 10/
sin sin cos sin cos cos
cos sin 0 1
x
y
z
B
B
r
r
B
θ φ θ φ φ
θ φ θ φ φ θ
θ θ
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
=
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎣


⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2 (Contd…)
2 2
2 2 2
sin
x y
r
x y z
ρ
θ
+
= =
+ +
2 2 2
cos
z z
r
x y z
θ = =
+ +
2 2
sin
y y
x y
φ
ρ
= =
+
2 2
cos
x x
x y
φ
ρ
= =
+
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
10
x
x y x y z x z x y
x y z x y z
x y x y x
B
y
+ + +
= ⋅ + ⋅ −
+ + + +
+ + +
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
10x xz y
x y z
x y x y z x y
= + −
+ +
+ + + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
10
y
x y x y z y z y y
x y z x y z
x y x y x
B
y
+ + +
= ⋅ + ⋅ −
+ + + +
+ + +
( )( )
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
10y yz x
x y z
x y x y z x y
= + +
+ +
+ + + +
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2 (Contd…)
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
10
z
z x y z
x y z
z
B
x y
+
= −
+ +
+ +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y x y z z
and B a B a B a B = + +

( 3,4,0) 3, 4, 0 At x y z − = − = =
30 4
0
2
2
5 5
x
B = − + = − −
40 3
0
25
1
5
y
B = + − =
0
y
B =
ˆ ˆ , 2
x y
Substituting B a a = − +

ˆ ˆ 2
x y
B a a = − +

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Constant coordinate surfaces
If we keep one of the coordinate variables constant and allow the
other two to vary, constant coordinate surfaces are generated in
rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems.
In the Cartesian system, if we keep x constant and allow y and z to
vary, an infinite plane x=constant is generated.
Thus we can have infinite planes
X=constant
Y=constant
Z=constant
These surfaces are perpendicular to x, y and z axes respectively.
Intersection of two planes is a line. x=constant, y=constant is the line
RPQ parallel to z axis.
Intersection of three planes is a point. x=constant, y=constant,
z=constant is the point P(x,y,z).
Any point P may be defined as the intersection of three orthogonal
planes.
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Constant coordinate surfaces
x=constant
z=constant
y=constant
X
Z
Y
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Constant coordinate surfaces
x=constant
z=constant
y=constant
X
Z
Y
P
Q
R
x=constant
z=constant
y=constant
X
Z
Y
P
Q
R
14
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Constant coordinate surfaces
Orthogonal surfaces in cylindrical coordinate system can be
generated as
ρ=constant
Φ=constant
z=constant
ρ=constant is a circular cylinder, Φ=constant is a semi infinite plane
with its edge along z axis, z=constant is an infinite plane as in the
rectangular system.
The intersection of two surfaces z=constant, ρ=constant is the circle
QPR of radius ρ
The intersection of surfaces z=constant, Φ=constant is a semi
infinite line.
The intersection of three surfaces produces a point. ρ=constant,
Φ=constant, z=constant is the point P(ρ,Φ,z)
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Constant coordinate surfaces
z=constant
ρ=constant
Φ =constant
X
Y
Z
p q
r
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Constant coordinate surfaces
z=constant
ρ=constant
Φ =constant
X
Y
Z
p
q
r
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Constant coordinate surfaces
Orthogonal surfaces in spherical coordinate system can be
generated as
r=constant
θ=constant
Φ=constant
r=constant is a sphere with its centre at the origin, θ =constant is a
circular cone with z axis as its axis and origin at the vertex,
Φ =constant is a semi infinite plane as in the cylindrical system.
The intersection of two surfaces r=constant, Φ =constant is a semi
circle passing through Q an P
The intersection of three surfaces produces a point. r=constant,
θ =constant, Φ=constant is the point P(r,θ, Φ)
Any point P may be defined as the intersection of these orthogonal
planes
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Constant coordinate surfaces
r=constant
Φ=constant
θ=constant
Z
p
q
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Differential elements in rectangular
coordinate systems
X
Y
Z
x
y
z
z
dx
dz
dy
A
B
C
D
P
Q
R
S
ˆ
x
a
ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
figure(1)
15
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Differential length, area and volume in
Cartesian coordinates
Differential displacement is given by
Differential normal area is given by
Differential volume is given by
are vectors where as dv is a scalar.
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
dl dxa dya dza = + +

ˆ
x
dS dydza =

ˆ
y
dxdza = ˆ
z
dzdya =
dv dxdydz =
dl and dS

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Differential length, area and volume in
Cartesian coordinates
If we move from P to Q,
If we move from Q to S,
If we move from D to Q,
In general the differential surface area is defined as
where dS is the area of the surface element and is a unit vector
normal to the surface dS.
The different surfaces in figure(1) is described as
ˆ
y
dl dya =

ˆ ˆ
y z
dl dya dza = +

ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
dl dxa dya dza = + +

ˆ
n
dS dsa =

ˆ
n
a
ˆ
x
ABCD dS dydza ⇒ =

ˆ
x
PQRS dS dydza ⇒ = −

ˆ
y
BCRQ dS dydza ⇒ =

ˆ
y
ADSP dS dydza ⇒ = −

ˆ
z
ABQP dS dxdya ⇒ =

ˆ
z
DCRS dS dxdya ⇒ = −

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Differential normal areas in rectangular
coordinate systems
X
Y
Z
z
dy
dz
dx
dz
dy
dx
ˆ
x
a
ˆ
y
a
ˆ
z
a
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Differential elements in cylindrical
coordinate systems
X
Y
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Differential elements in cylindrical coordinate systems
A
B
C
D
P
Q
R
S

dz
d ρ φ
Φ
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ a
φ
ˆ
z
a
X
Y
Z
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Differential normal areas in cylindrical
coordinate systems
Differential displacement is given by
Differential normal area is given by
Differential volume is given by
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z
dl d a d a dza
ρ φ
ρ ρ φ = + +

ˆ dS d dza
ρ
ρ φ =

ˆ d dza
φ
ρ = ˆ
z
d d a ρ φ ρ =
dv d d dz ρ ρ φ =
16
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Differential normal areas in cylindrical
coordinate systems
X
Y
Z
z
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ a
Φ
ˆ
z
a
d ρ Φ
dz
dz

d ρ Φ

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Differential elements in spherical
coordinate systems
X
Y
Z
Φ
θ


dr
rdθ
sin r d θ φ
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Differential elements in spherical
coordinate systems
X
Y
Z
Φ
θ


dr
rdθ
sin r d θ φ
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Differential normal areas in spherical
coordinate systems
X
Y
Z
rdθ
sin r d θ φ
ˆ
r
a
ˆ a
θ
sin r d θ φ
dr
ˆ a
Φ
dr
rdθ
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Differential normal areas in spherical
coordinate systems
Differential displacement is given by
Differential normal area is given by
Differential volume is given by
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin
r
dl dra rd a r d a
θ φ
θ θ φ = + +

2
ˆ sin
r
dS r d d a θ θ φ =

ˆ sin r drd a
φ
θ φ = ˆ rdrd a
φ
θ =
2
sin dv r drd d θ θ φ =
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
For the object shown below calculate:
(i) The distance BC
(ii) The distance CD
(iii) The surface area ABCD
(iv) The surface area ABO
(v) The surface area AOFD
(vi) The volume ABDCFO
A(5,0,0)
B(0,5,0)
C(0,5,10)
D(5,0,10)
O(0,0,0)
F(0,0,10)
17
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Example 1
Solution:
The object has cylindrical symmetry hence it is convenient to solve
the problem using cylindrical coordinates. For this first we have to
convert all the points to cylindrical coordinates.
(5,0,0) (5,0,0) A A ⇒

(0,5,0) 5, ,0
2
B B
π ⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
(0,5,10) 5, ,10
2
C C
π ⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( ) (5,0,10) 5,0,10 D D ⇒

(5,0,0) A

5, ,0
2
B
π ⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
5, ,10
2
C
π ⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( ) 5,0,10 D

F(0,0,10)
O(0,0,0)
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1(Contd….)
( ) , ; i Along BC dl dz hence =
10
0
10 BC dl dz = = =
∫ ∫
( ) , , 5. ii Along CD dl d Hence ρ φ ρ = =
/2
/2
0
0
5 2.5 CD d
π
π
π ρ φ φ = = =

( ) , ; 5. iii For ABCD dS d dz Hence ρ φ ρ = =
/2 10
0 0 z
Area ABCD dS d dz
π
φ
ρ φ
= =
= =
∫ ∫ ∫
/2 10
0 0
5 25 d dz
π
π φ = =
∫ ∫
( ) , ; 0. iv For ABO dS d d z Hence ρ φ ρ = =
/2 5
0 0
Area ABO dS d d
π
φ ρ
ρ φ ρ
= =
= =
∫ ∫ ∫
/2 5
0 0
6.25 d d
π
φ ρ ρ π = =
∫ ∫
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1(Contd….)
( ) , ; 0. v For AOFD dS d dz Hence ρ φ = =
5 10
0 0
50
z
Area AOFD dS d dz
ρ
ρ
= =
= = =
∫ ∫ ∫
( ) , . vi For volume ABDCFO dv d dzd Hence ρ φ ρ =
5 /2 10
0 0 0 z
Volume ABDCFO dv dzd d
π
ρ φ
ρ φ ρ
= = =
= =
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
5 /2 10
0 0 0
62.5
z
d d dz
π
ρ ρ π φ
=
= =
∫ ∫ ∫
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2
The object given below is part of a spherical shell described as
Calculate
(i) The distance DH
(ii) The distance FG
(iii) The surface area AEHD
(iv) The surface area ABDC
(v) The volume of the object
B
A
C
D
E
F
G
H
3 5
60 90
45 60
r
θ
φ
≤ ≤
≤ ≤
≤ ≤


Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2
: Solution
( ) sin ; 3, 90 i Along DH dl r d r θ φ θ = = =

60
45
3sin90 DH dl d
φ
φ
=
= =
∫ ∫
60
45
3sin90 dφ =

3
12
0.785
π
= × =
( ) ; 5, 60, 60 90 ii Along GF dl rd r to θ φ θ = = = ⇒

90
60
5 GF dl d
θ
θ
=
= =
∫ ∫
6 5 . 1
6
2 7
π
= × =
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Example 2 (Contd…)
2
( ) sin ; 3 iii On AEHD dS r d d r θ θ φ = =
60 90 , 45 60 to to θ φ ⇒ ⇒

60 90
45 60
= 9sin Area AEHD dS d d
φ θ
θ θ φ
= =
=
∫ ∫ ∫
60 90
45 60
9 sin d d
φ θ
φ θ θ
= =
=
∫ ∫
[ ]
90
60
9 cos
12
π
θ = × × − 1.178 =
18
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Example 2 (Contd…)
( ) ; 45 iv On ABCD dS rd dr θ φ = =
60 90 , 3 5 to r to θ ⇒ ⇒

5 90
3 60
=
r
Area ABCD dS rd dr
θ
θ
= =
=
∫ ∫ ∫
90 5
60 3
d rdr θ =
∫ ∫
5
2
3
6 2
r π ⎡ ⎤
= ×
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
418
3
6
4
.
π
= =
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2 (Contd…)
2
( ) Volume sin v On ABCDEFGH dv r drd d θ θ φ =
3 5, 60 90 , 45 60 r to to to θ φ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒

5 90 60
2
3 60 45
= sin
r
Volume dv r drd d
θ φ
θ θ φ
= = =
=
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
49
36
4.276
π
= =
5 90 60
2
3 60 45
sin r dr d d θ θ φ =
∫ ∫ ∫
[ ] [ ]
5
3
90 60
60 45
3
cos
3
r
θ φ
⎡ ⎤
= −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
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Line integrals
Line integral is defined as any integral that is to be evaluated along a
line. A line indicates a path along a curve in space.
represents a line integral where each element of length
on the curve is multiplied according to scalar dot product rule by the
local value of and then these products are summed to get the
value of the integral.
Let be a vector field in space and ab a curve from point a to point b.
Let the curve ab is subdivided in to infinitesimally small vector
elements
Let the dot products are taken
where are the value of the vector field at the
junction points of the vector elements
Then the sum of these products along the entire length of the
curve is known as the line integral of along the curve ab.
b
a
A d l ⋅


d l

A

1 2 3 , , ,........, r dl dl dl dl

A

1 2 3
1 2 3
. , . , . ,........, . r
r
A dl A dl A dl A dl

1 2 3
, , ,........,
r
A A A A

1 2 3 , , ,........, r dl dl dl dl

b
r
r
a
A d l ⋅


A

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Line integrals
Y
X
Z
a
b
1 dl

2 dl
3 dl

4 dl

1
A

r dl

2
A

3
A

r
A

b
b
r
r
a
a
A dl A dl ⋅ = ⋅
∑ ∫

A

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Line integrals
a
b
r dl

r
A

θ
A

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Line integrals
As an example if represents the force acting on a moving particle
along a curve ab, then the line integral of over the path
described by the particle represents the work done by the force in
moving the particle from a to b.
The line integral around a closed curve is called closed line integral
F

F

a
b
A dl ⋅

19
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Surface integrals
Consider a vector field continuous in a region of space
containing a smooth surface S.
The surface integral of through S can be defined as
A

A

s
A dS ψ = ⋅


ˆ
n
a
d S
A

Surface S
θ
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Surface integrals
Consider a small incremental surface area on the surface S denoted
by dS. Let be a unit normal to the surface dS.
The magnitude of flux crossing the unit surface normally is given by
Where denote the vector area having magnitude equal to dS
and whose direction is in the direction of the unit normal.
The total flux crossing the surface is obtained by integrating
over the surface of interest.
ˆ
n
a
dS

ˆ
n
S Sa d d =

cos A dS θ

ˆ
n
A a dS = ⋅

ˆ
n
A dSa = ⋅

A dS = ⋅

A dS ⋅

s
A dS ψ = ⋅


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Surface integrals
For a closed surface defining a volume the surface integral becomes
closed surface integral and is denoted by
It represents the net outward flow of flux from surface S
S
A dS ψ = ⋅

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Volume integrals
Let V be a volume bounded by the surface S. Let be a
function of position defined over V. If the volume V is subdivided in
to n elements of volumes
In each part let us choose an arbitrary point
Then the limit of the sum as is
called the volume integral of over V and is denoted by
v
d v ϕ

( , , ) x y z ϕ
1 2 3
, , ,........,
n
dV dV dV dV
( , , )
i i i
x y z ϕ
( , , )
i i i i
x y z dV ϕ

0
i
n and dV →∞ →
( , , ) x y z ϕ
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Scalar and vector fields
Let R be a region of space at each point of which a scalar
Φ = Φ (x,y,z) is given, then Φ is called a scalar point function and R is
called a scalar field.
Examples:
Temperature distribution in a medium
Distribution of atmospheric pressure in space.
Let R be a region of space at each point of which a vector is
given, then is called a vector point function and R is called a
scalar field.
Examples:
The velocity of a moving fluid at any instant
Gravitational force in a region.
( , , ) v v x y z =

v

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DEL Operator
The del operator is the vector differential operator and is denoted
by . In Cartesian coordinates
The vector differential operator is not a vector in itself, but when it
operates on a scalar function the result is a vector.
This operation is useful in defining
The gradient of a scalar
The divergence of a vector
The curl of a vector
The Laplacian of a scalar
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
a a a
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

V ∇

.A ∇

A ∇×

2
V ∇
20
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DEL Operator in cylindrical coordinates
The expression for del operator in other coordinate systems can be
obtained using the transformation equations derived earlier.
2 2
x y ρ = + tan
y
x
φ =
cos x ρ φ =
sin y ρ φ =
sin
cos
x
φ
φ
ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
= −
∂ ∂ ∂
cos
sin
y
φ
φ
ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂ ∂





(1) equation
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
Substituting in a a a
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

sin cos
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin (2)
x y z
a a a
z
φ φ
φ φ
ρ ρ φ ρ ρ φ
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = − + + + − − − −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
DEL Operator in cylindrical coordinates
( )
sin cos
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin (3)
x y x y z
a a a a a
z
φ φ
φ φ
ρ φ ρ ρ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇= + + − + + −−−−
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

ˆ a
ρ
ˆ a
φ
( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos sin s
1
ˆ i s (4 co ) n
x y x y z
a a a
z
a a
ρ ρ
φ φ φ φ
φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇= + + −−− − +

+ −
∂ ∂

1
ˆ ˆ ˆ (5)
z
a a a
z
ρ φ
ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + + − − − −
∂ ∂ ∂

1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z
a a a
z
ρ φ
ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
DEL Operator in spherical coordinates
The expression for del operator in other coordinate systems can be
obtained using the transformation equations derived earlier.
cos cos sin
sin cos
x r r
θ φ φ
θ φ
θ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= + −
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂





(1) equation
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
Substituting in a a a
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

2 2 2
r x y z = + +
2 2
1
tan
x y
z
θ

+
=
1
tan
y
x
φ

=
sin cos x r θ φ =
sin sin y r θ φ =
cos z r θ =
cos sin cos
sin sin
y r r
θ φ φ
θ φ
θ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= + +
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
sin
cos
z r r
θ
θ
θ
∂ ∂ ∂
= −
∂ ∂ ∂
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
DEL Operator in spherical coordinates
cos cos sin
ˆ sin cos
x
a
r r
θ φ φ
θ φ
θ ρ φ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇= + −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

cos sin cos sin
ˆ sin sin cos
z
a
r r r r
θ φ φ θ
θ φ θ
θ ρ φ θ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
+ + + + −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos sin sin cos
x y z
a a a
r
θ φ θ φ θ

∇ = + +

cos cos cos sin sin sin cos
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x z y
a a a
r r r
θ φ θ φ θ φ φ
θ φ ρ ρ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
+ + − + − +
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
DEL Operator in spherical coordinates
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos sin sin cos
x y z
r
a a a θ φ θ φ θ +

∇ =

+

( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ cos cos cos sin sin sin co
1
s
1
x z x y
a a a a
r θ
θ φ
φ
φ φ
ρ
θ θ φ
∂ ∂
− +

+ + +


ˆ
r
a
ˆ a
θ
ˆ a
φ
1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ (5)
r
a a a
r r
θ φ
θ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + + − − − −
∂ ∂ ∂

1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ (6)
sin
r
a a a
r r r
θ φ
θ θ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + + − − − −
∂ ∂ ∂

1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
sin
r
a a a
r r r
θ φ
θ θ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Gradient of a scalar field
Y
X
Z
1
V
2 1
V V V = + Δ
3
V
V Δ
V Δ
1
P
1
P
dl

θ
G

A Level Surface
21
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Gradient of a scalar field
The gradient of a scalar field V is a vector that represents the
magnitude and direction of the maximum space rate of increase of V.
Let V be a scalar field and let V1,V2 and V3 be contours on which V is
constant.
Consider the difference in the field dV between points P1 and P2
V V V
dV dx dy dz
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
= + +
∂ ∂ ∂
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z x y z
V V V
a a a dxa dya dza
x y z
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
= + + ⋅ + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
For c
V V V
a a a onvenienc G Le
x y
e
z
t
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ + =
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

cos Then dV G dl G dl θ = ⋅ =

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Gradient of a scalar field
cos
dV
Then G
dl
θ =
0 . ., dl
dV
is maximum when i e when is in the direction of G
dl
θ =


MAX
dV
G
dl
=
Magnitude of G is equal to the maximum space rate of change of V

Direction of G is along the maximum space rate of change of V

G is defined as the gradient of V and is denoted by grad V

ˆ ˆ ˆ V = V=
x y z
V V V
grad a a a
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂

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Gradient of a scalar field
, For cylindrical coordinates
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ V = V=
z
V V V
grad a a a
z
ρ φ
ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂

, For spherical coordinates
1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ V = V=
sin
r
V V V
grad a a a
r r r
θ φ
θ θ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂

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Gradient of a scalar field-Important Relations
( ) V U V U ∇ + = ∇ + ∇ ∗
( ) VU V U U V ∇ = ∇ + ∇ ∗
2
-

V U V V U
U U
∇ ∇ ⎛ ⎞
∇ =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

1
( )
n n
V nV V

∇ = ∇ ∗
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Gradient of a scalar field-Important Points
1. Magnitude of V is equal to the maximum space rate of change of V ∇

2. Direction of V is along the maximum space rate of change of V ∇

at any point 3. V is perpendicular to the constant V surface that passes ∇

through that point.
, 4. If A V V is called the scalar potential of A = ∇

ˆ ˆ 5. The projection of V in the direction of a given unit vector a is V a ∇ ∇ ⋅

ˆ It is called the directional derivative of V along a
ˆ It indicates the rate of change of V in the direction of a
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Example 1
2 3 2
3 Find grad when x y y z φ φ = −
: Solution
ˆ ˆ ˆ = =
x y z
grad a a a
x y z
φ φ φ
φ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂

2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2
(3 ) (3 ) (3 )
ˆ ˆ ˆ = =
x y z
x y y z x y y z x y y z
grad a a a
x y z
φ φ
∂ − ∂ − ∂ −
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 3
ˆ ˆ ˆ 6 3 3 2
x y z
grad xy a x y z a y z a φ φ = ∇ = + − + −

Find the directional
ˆ ˆ ˆ 3 4 12 (2,-1,0)
x y z
derivative in the direction of a a a at + +
( ) ( ) ˆ ˆ (2,-1,0) 12 12
x y
At a a φ ∇ = − +
( )
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ 3 4 12
ˆ ˆ ˆ 12 12
9 16 144
x y z
x y
a a a
Directional derivative a a a φ
+ +
∇ ⋅ = − +
+ +
( )( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 12 12 0.23 0.31 0.92
x y x y z
a a a a a = − + + +
0.96 =
22
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Example 2
2
V V 10 sin cos Find grad when r θ φ =
: Solution
1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ V = V=
sin
r
V V V
grad a a a
r r r
θ φ
θ θ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂

2
ˆ ˆ ˆ 10sin cos 10sin2 cos 10sin sin
r
V a a a
θ φ
θ φ θ φ θ φ ∇ = + −

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Divergence of a vector
The divergence of a vector quantity at a given point P is the
outward flux per unit volume over a closed incremental surface as
the volume shrinks about P.
A

0
lim
S
v
A dS
divA A
v
δ →

= ∇⋅ =
Δ


S
A dS is the net outflow of flux of a vector field A from ⋅

a closed surface S
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Divergence of a vector in Cartesian coordinates
dx
dy
dz
X
Y
Z
0 0 0
( , , ) P x y z
1
F 2
F
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Divergence of a vector in Cartesian coordinates
0 0 0
( , , ) To evaluate the divergence of a vector field A at point P x y z ♣

first construct a differential volume around point P
The closed surface integral of A is obtained as ♣

( )
S FRONT BACK LEFT RIGHT TOP BOTTOM
A dS ⋅ = + + + + +
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

x
A three dimensional Taylors series expansion of A about P is ♣
0 0 0 0 0 0
( , , ) ( , , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
x x x
x x
P P P
A A A
A x y z A x y z x x y y z z
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
= + − + − + −
∂ ∂ ∂
higher order terms +
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Divergence of a vector in Cartesian coordinates
0
ˆ ˆ , ,
2
x x x
dx
For the front side x x A A a dS dydza = + = =

0 0 0
( , , )
2
x
R NT
P
F
x
O
A
dx A
A x y z dydz higher ord d er terms S
x
⎛ ⎞ ∂
+ +
⎜ ⎟




=


( ) ( )
0
ˆ ˆ , ,
2
x x x
dx
For the back side x x A A a dS dydz a = − = − = −

0 0 0
( , , )
2
x
CK
P
BA
x
A
dx A
A x y z dydz higher or d der ms
x
S ter
⎛ ⎞ ∂
− − +
⎜ ⎟




=



FRONT BACK
x
P
A
dxdydz higher order ter A dS A d ms
x
S

+

⋅ + ⋅ =
∫ ∫

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Divergence of a vector in Cartesian coordinates
Similarly

LEFT RIGHT
y
P
A
dxdydz higher order terms
y
A dS A dS

+

⋅ + ⋅ =
∫ ∫


TOP BOTTOM
z
P
A
dxdydz higher order te A dS A d r s
z
S m

+

⋅ + ⋅ =
∫ ∫


y x z
P P P
S
A A A
dxdydz dxdydz dxdydz higher or A d der terms
x y z
S
∂ ∂ ∂
+ + +
∂ ∂


=

y x z
S
P
A A A
v higher order terms
x y
d
z
A S
∂ ∂ ∂
+ + Δ +



=


0
lim
S
v
A dS
Substituting in
v
δ →

Δ

23
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Divergence of a vector in Cartesian coordinates
0 0
lim lim
y x z
P S
v v
A dS
v
A A A
x y z
v
v
δ δ → →
∂ ∂ ∂
+ +
∂ ∂ ∂

= Δ
Δ Δ

y x z
P
A A A
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
= + +
∂ ∂ ∂
y x z
A A A
A
x y z
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

0 Since higher order terms vanish as v Δ →
0 0 0
( , , ) Divergence of A at P x y z in Cartesian coordinates is

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Divergence of a vector in other coordinates
In cylindrical coordinates
( )
1 1
z
A A
A A
z
φ
ρ
ρ
ρ ρ ρ φ
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

In spherical coordinates
( ) ( )
2
2
1 1 1
sin
sin sin
r
A
A r A A
r r r r
φ
θ
θ
θ θ θ φ
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Divergence of a vector - Physical significance
x δ
y δ
z δ
X
Y
Z
y
v y y
v
δ +
( , , ) P x y z
1
F 2
F
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Divergence of a vector - Physical significance
Consider the motion of a fluid having velocity
at a point P(x,y,z).
Consider a small parallelepiped with edges
parallel to the axes enclosing the point P.
The mass of fluid entering through the face F1 per unit time is given
by velocity x area
The mass of fluid flowing out through face F2 is
By Taylor’s theorem (neglecting higher order terms)
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
V v a v a v a = + +

,
y z
x and δ δ δ
y x z
v δ δ
y y x z
v
δ
δ δ
+
y
y y y
v
v v y
y
δ
δ
+

= +

y
y y y
v
v x z v y x z
y
δ
δ δ δ δ δ
+
∂ ⎛ ⎞
= +
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
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Divergence of a vector - Physical significance
The net decrease in the mass of fluid flowing across these two faces
is
Similarly by considering the other two faces we get the total
decrease in the mass of fluid inside the parallelepiped per unit time
Rate of loss of fluid per unit volume is
The above quantity is defined as the divergence of fluid velocity at
the point P and is denoted by div V or
y
y y
v
v y x z v x z
y
δ δ δ δ δ
∂ ⎛ ⎞
+ −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
y
v
x y z
y
δ δ δ

=

y x z
v v v
x y z
x y z
δ δ δ
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
+ +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
y x z
v v v
x y z
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
+ +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
V ∇⋅

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Divergence of a vector - Physical significance
EXAMPLES
Divergence of the velocity of water in a container after the outlet
has opened is zero because water is an incompressible fluid.
Volume of water entering and leaving different regions of the
closed surface is equal.
When the valve on a steam boiler is opened there is a net
outward flow of steam for each elemental volume. In this case the
divergence has a positive value. It indicates a source of vector
quantity at that point.
When an evacuated glass bulb is broken there is a sudden
inrush of air and there is a net inward flow of air for each
elemental volume. In this case the divergence has a negative
value. It indicates a sink of that vector quantity.
24
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Divergence of a vector - Physical significance
ZERO DIVERGENCE
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Divergence of a vector - Physical significance
POSITIVE DIVERGENCE
SOURCE
NEGATIVE DIVERGENCE
SINK
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Examples
Determine the divergence of the vector fields
2
ˆ ˆ ( )
x z
i P x yza xza = +

2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) sin cos
z
ii Q a za z a
ρ φ
ρ φ ρ φ = + +

y x z
P P P
P
x y z
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
∇ ⋅ = + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠

( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 P x yz xz
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

2 P xyz x ∇⋅ = +

( )
1 1
z
Q Q
Q Q
z
φ
ρ
ρ
ρ ρ ρ φ
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

( )
2 2
1 1
sin ( ) ( cos ) Q z z
z
ρ φ ρ φ
ρ ρ ρ φ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

2sin cos Q φ φ ∇⋅ = +

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Examples
2
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) T cos sin cos cos
r
iii a r a a
r
θ φ
θ θ φ θ = + +

( ) ( )
2
2
1 1 1
sin
sin sin
r
T
T r T T
r r r r
φ
θ
θ
θ θ θ φ
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
1 1 1
cos sin cos cos
sin sin
T r
r r r r
θ θ φ θ
θ θ θ φ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

1
2 sin cos cos
sin
r
r
θ θ φ
θ
=
2cos cos T θ φ ∇⋅ =

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Gauss’s Divergence theorem
The integral of the normal component of any vector field over a
closed surface is equal to the integral of the divergence of this
vector field throughout the volume enclosed by the closed surface.
The total outward flux of a vector field through the closed surface
S is the same as the volume integral of the divergence of
Volume integrals are easier to evaluate than surface integrals.
Using divergence theorem we can convert surface integral to a
volume integral and then easily evaluate it.
A

A

S V
A dS AdV ⋅ = ∇⋅
∫ ∫

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Divergence theorem

y x z
V V V V
A A A
A dV dxdydz dxdydz dxdydz
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫


y x z
V
A A A
A dV dxdydz dxdydz dxdydz
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂
∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫

Proof
y x z
A A A
A
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂


y x z
V V
A A A
A dV dxdydz
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂
∫ ∫

25
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Divergence theorem

x x y y z z
V
A dV A dS A dS A dS ∇⋅ = + +
∫ ∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫

A dS = ⋅
∫∫


S V
A dS A dV ⋅ = ∇⋅
∫ ∫

S V
A dS A dV ⋅ = ∇⋅
∫ ∫

x
x
A
dx A
x

=


y
y
A
dy A
y

=


z
z
A
dz A
z

=



x y z
V
A dV A dydz A dxdz A dxdy ∇⋅ = + +
∫ ∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫

x
dydz dS =
y
dxdy dS =
z
dxdz dS =
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Divergence theorem-Explanation
X
Y
Z
Closed surface S
V
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Divergence theorem-Explanation
Let the volume V bounded by the surface S is subdivided in to a
number of elementary volumes
The flux diverging from each such cell enters or converges on
the adjacent cells unless the cell contains a portion of the outer
surface.
As a result the divergence of the flux density throughout the
volume leads to the same result as determining the net flux
crossing the enclosing surface.
V Δ
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Example 1
X
Y
Z
T
ψ
B
ψ
S
ψ
ˆ ˆ
2 2
ρ
Determine the flux of D = ρ cos a + zsin a
φ
φ φ

over the surface of the cylinder 0 1, 4 z ρ ≤ ≤ =
. Verify divergence theorem
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Example 1
If is the flux through the given surface ψ
+
T B S
ψ ψ ψ ψ = +
ˆ , 1,
T z
For z dS d d a ψ ρ ρ φ = =

( )
4 2
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ 0
2 2
T ρ z
D dS ρ cos a +zsin a d d a
π
φ
ρ φ
ψ φ φ ρ ρ φ
= =
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
∫ ∫ ∫

( ) ( )
4 2
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ 0
2 2
B ρ z
D dS ρ cos a +zsin a d d a
π
φ
ρ φ
ψ φ φ ρ ρ φ
= =
= ⋅ = ⋅ − =
∫ ∫ ∫

( ) ˆ , 0,
B z
For z dS d d a ψ ρ ρ φ = = −

ˆ , 4,
S
For dS d dza
ρ
ψ ρ ρ φ = =

( )
1 2
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ
2 2
S ρ
z
D dS ρ cos a +zsin a d dza
π
φ ρ
φ
ψ φ φ ρ φ
= =
= ⋅ = ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
1 2
0 0
64
2
S
z
cos d dz
π
φ
ψ φ φ
= =
=
∫ ∫
2
0
64
2
cos d
π
φ
φ φ
=
=

2
0
64
2
1+cos2 d
π
φ
φ φ
=
=

2
0
32 64 1d
π
φ
φ π
=
= =

Applying divergence theorem
S V
D dS D dV ⋅ = ∇⋅
∫ ∫

( )
1 1
z
D D D D
z
ρ φ
ρ
ρ ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

( )
3 2
1 1
cos sin z ρ φ φ
ρ ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂
26
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Example 1
2
1
3 cos cos D z ρ φ φ
ρ
∇⋅ = +

4 2 1
2
0 0 0
1
3 cos cos
V z
D dV z d d dz
π
ρ φ
ρ φ φ ρ ρ φ
ρ
= = =
⎛ ⎞
∇⋅ = +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

4
3
2 1
2
0 0
0
3
cos cos
3
z
z d dz
π
φ
ρ
φ ρ φ φ
= =
⎛ ⎞
= +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
∫ ∫
( )
2 1
2
0 0
64cos 4 cos
z
z d dz
π
φ
φ φ φ
= =
= +
∫ ∫
1
2
2
2
0
0
4
64 cos cos
2
z
z d
π
φ
φ φ φ
=
⎛ ⎞
= +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

( )
2
2
0
64cos 2cos d
π
φ
φ φ φ
=
= +

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
2 2
2
0 0
64cos 2cos d d
π π
φ φ
φ φ φ φ
= =
= +
∫ ∫
( )
2
0
64
1 cos2
2
d
π
φ
φ φ
=
= +

2 2
0 0
32 cos2 d d
π π
φ φ
φ φ φ
= =
= +
∫ ∫
2
0
32 64 d
π
φ
φ π
=
= =

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Example 2
Verify divergence theorem for the flux of
for the volume of cube with 1unit for each side. The cube is situated
in the first octant of the coordinate system with one corner on the
origin.
2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
D x a xya yza = + +

X
Y
Z
A
B
C D
E
F
G H
1
1
1
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2
2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
D x a xya yza = + +

S V
D dS D dV ⋅ = ∇⋅
∫ ∫

( )
S FRONT BACK LEFT RIGHT TOP BOTTOM
D dS ⋅ = + + + + +
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

( )
1 1
2
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 1
x y z x
FRONT y z
D dS x a xya yza dydza and x
= =
⋅ = + + ⋅ =
∫ ∫ ∫

1 1
0 0
1 dydz = =
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
1 1
2
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 0
x y z x
BACK y z
D dS x a xya yza dydz a and x
= =
⋅ = + + ⋅ − =
∫ ∫ ∫

0 =
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2
( ) ( )
1 1
2
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 0
x y z y
LEFT z x
D dS x a xya yza dxdz a and y
= =
⋅ = + + ⋅ − =
∫ ∫ ∫

0 =
( )
1 1
2
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 1
x y z y
RIGHT z x
D dS x a xya yza dxdza and y
= =
⋅ = + + ⋅ =
∫ ∫ ∫

1 1
0 0
1

2
xdxdz = =
∫ ∫
( )
1 1
2
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 1
x y z z
TOP y x
D dS x a xya yza dxdya and z
= =
⋅ = + + ⋅ =
∫ ∫ ∫

1 1
0 0
1

2
ydxdy = =
∫ ∫
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2
( ) ( )
1 1
2
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 0
x y z z
BOTTOM y x
D dS x a xya yza dxdy a and z
= =
⋅ = + + ⋅ − =
∫ ∫ ∫

0 =
1 1
1
2
2
2
S
D dS ⋅ = + + =

y x z
D D D
D
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

( ) ( ) ( )
2
3 x xy yz
x y z
x y
∂ ∂ ∂
= + + =
∂ ∂ ∂
+
1 1 1
0 0 0
(3 )
V
DdV x y dxdydz ∇⋅ = +
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

2 =
S V
D dS D dV ⋅ = ∇⋅
∫ ∫

. Thus divergence theorem is verified
27
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Curl of a vector
The curl of a vector is an axial or rotational vector whose
magnitude is the maximum circulation (closed line integral) of per
unit area as the area tends to zero and whose direction is the
normal direction of the area when the area is oriented so as to make
the circulation maximum.
The circulation of a vector field around a closed path L is the
integral
A

A

A

L
A dL ⋅

0
ˆ lim
L
n
S
MAX
A dl
Curl A A a
S
Δ →
⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟ = ∇ × =
Δ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠


Where the area S is bounded by the curve L Δ
ˆ is the unit vector normal to the surface S and is determined by right
n
a Δ
hand rule.
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector
Consider the differential area in the yz plane.
a b
c
d
X
Y
dz
dy
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector
Closed line integral of vector around abcd is obtained as below: A

( )
-------(1)
l ab bc cd da
A dl A dl ⋅ = + + + ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

0
ˆ
2
y
dz
Along ab dl dya and z z = = −

0 0 0
( , , ) -------(a)
2
y
y
ab
P
A dz
A dl A x y z dy
z
∂ ⎡ ⎤
⋅ = −
⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦


0 0 0 0 0 0
( , , ) ( , , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
y y y
y y
P P P
A A A
A x y z A x y z x x y y z z
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
= + − + − + −
∂ ∂ ∂
0 0 0 0 0 0
( , , ) ( , , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
z z z
z z
P P P
A A A
A x y z A x y z x x y y z z
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
= + − + − + −
∂ ∂ ∂
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector
0 0 0
( , , ) -------(b)
2
z
z
bc
P
dy A
A dl A x y z dz
y
⎡ ⎤ ∂
⋅ = +
⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦


0
ˆ
2
y
dz
Along cd dl dya and z z = = +

0 0 0
( , , ) -------(c)
2
y
y
cd
P
A dz
A dl A x y z dy
z
∂ ⎡ ⎤
⋅ = − +
⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦


0
ˆ da y
2
z
dy
Along dl dza and y = = −

0 0 0
( , , ) -----(d)
2
z
z
da
P
dy A
A dl A x y z dz
y
⎡ ⎤ ∂
⋅ = − −
⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦


0
ˆ y
2
z
dy
Along bc dl dza and y = = +

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector
, , (1) Substituting equations a b c and d in
y z
l
A A
A dl dydz dydz
y z
∂ ∂
⋅ = −
∂ ∂

y z l
A dl
A A
S y z

∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂
= −
⎜ ⎟
Δ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

y z
A A
S
y z
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂
= − Δ
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
0
lim
y z l
S
A dl
A A
S y z
Δ →

∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂
= −
⎜ ⎟
Δ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

By definition the above equation represents curl of vector about x axis
( ) ( )
y z
x x
A A
curl A A
y z
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂
= ∇× = −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector
. y and z components of the curl of A can similarly obtained

( ) ( )
x z
y y
A A
curl A A
z x
∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
= ∇× = −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠

( ) ( )
y x
z z
A A
curl A A
x y
∂ ⎛ ⎞ ∂
= ∇× = −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠

The resultant curl will be the sum of component curls about x, y,z axes
ˆ ˆ ˆ
y y z x z x
x y z
A A A A A A
A a a a
y z z x x y
∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
∇× = − + − + −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
x y z
a a a
y
A A
A
x z
A

×
∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ =

28
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector in other coordinates
The expression for curl in cylindrical and spherical coordinates are
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z
z
a a a
z
A A A
A
ρ φ
ρ φ
ρ
ρ φ
ρ

×
∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ =

ˆ ˆ ˆ sin
sin
r
r
a ra r a
r
A rA r A
A
θ φ
θ φ
θ
θ φ
θ

×
∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ =

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector- Some properties
The curl of a vector field is another vector field ♣
The curl of a scalar field does not exist ♣
( )
A B A B ♣ ∇× + = ∇× +∇×

( ) ( ) ( )
A B A B B A ∇× × = ∇⋅ ♣ − ∇⋅

( )
VA V A V A ∇× = ∇× + ∇ × ♣

The divergence of the curl of a vector field vanishes ♣
( )
0 A ∇⋅ ∇× =

. The curl of the gradient of a scalar field vanishes ♣
0 V ∇×∇ =

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector
Y
Z
a b
c
d
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Curl of a vector
Y
Z

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector
Y
Z
a b
c
d
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector
Y
Z

29
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector-Physical interpretation
Y
Z
X
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector-Physical interpretation


∗ ∗ Z
Y
X

Rotation of the
paddle wheel along
x,y and z axes
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Curl of a vector-Physical interpretation
Curl Direction
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
Determine the curl of the following vector fields
2
ˆ ˆ ( )
x z
i P x yza xza = +

2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) sin cos
z
ii Q a za z a
ρ φ
ρ φ ρ φ = + +

2
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) T cos sin cos cos
r
iii a r a a
r
θ φ
θ θ φ θ = + +

: Solution
2
ˆ ˆ ( )
x z
i P x yza xza = +

ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
x y z
a a a
y
P P
P
x z
P

×
∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ =

ˆ ˆ ˆ
y y z x z x
x y z
P P P P P P
a a a
y z z x x y
∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
= − + − + −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
y y z x z x
x y z
P P P P P P
P a a a
y z z x x y
∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
∇× = − + − + −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ 0 0 0
x y z
a x y z a x z a = − + − + −
( ) ( )
2 2
ˆ ˆ
y z
x y z a x z a = − −
2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) sin cos
z
ii Q a za z a
ρ φ
ρ φ ρ φ = + +

ˆ ˆ ˆ
z
z
a a a
z
Q Q Q
Q
ρ φ
ρ φ
ρ
ρ φ
ρ

×
∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ =

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
( )
1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z z
z
Q Q Q Q Q
a Q a Q a
z z
φ ρ ρ
ρ φ φ
ρ
ρ φ ρ ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
− + − + −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝
=

∇ ×

( ) ( )
2 2
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin 0 0 3 cos
z
z
z a a z a
ρ φ
φ ρ ρ φ
ρ ρ
⎛ ⎞ −
= − + − + −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( ) ( )
3
1
ˆ ˆ sin 3 cos
z
z a z a
ρ
φ ρ ρ φ
ρ
= − + + −
2
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) T cos sin cos cos
r
iii a r a a
r
θ φ
θ θ φ θ = + +

ˆ ˆ ˆ sin
sin
r
r
a ra r a
r
T rT r T
T
θ φ
θ φ
θ
θ φ
θ

×
∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ =

30
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
( )
1 1 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( sin ) ( )
sin sin
r r r
T T T a T rT a rT T a
r r r r r
φ θ φ θ θ φ
θ
θ θ φ θ φ θ
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
∇× = − + − + −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

1
ˆ (cos sin ) ( sin cos )
sin
r
r a
r
θ θ θ φ
θ θ φ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
= −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
2
1 1 cos
ˆ ( cos )
sin
r a
r r r
θ
θ
θ
θ φ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
+ −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
( )
2
2
1 cos
ˆ sin cos r a
r r r
φ
θ
θ φ
θ
∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
+ −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
( ) ( )
2
1 1 1 sin
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos2 sin sin 0 cos 2 sin cos
sin
r
r a a r a
r r r r
θ φ
θ
θ θ φ θ θ φ
θ
⎛ ⎞
= + + − + +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
3
cos2 cos 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin 2cos
sin
r
a a a
r r r
θ φ
θ θ
φ φ
θ
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
= + − + +
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Stoke’s theorem
Stokes theorem states that the circulation of a vector field
around a closed path L is equal to the surface integral of the curl of
over the open surface S bounded by L provided that
are continuous on S
A

A

A Aand ∇×

( )
L S
A dl A dS ⋅ = ∇× ⋅
∫ ∫

Surface S
dS

dl

Closed path L
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Stoke’s theorem
The surface S is subdivided in to a large number of cells.
th
k
If the k cell has surface area ΔS and is bounded by the path L
k
k
L
k
L L
k k k
A dl
A dl A dl S
S

⋅ = ⋅ = Δ
Δ

∑ ∑ ∫ ∫




Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Stoke’s theorem
There is cancellation on every interior path. So the sum of line
integrals around L
k
’s is the same as the line integrals around the
bounding curve L.
Taking the limit of the above equation
By definition the quantity inside the brackets is
As
0
lim
k
k
k
L
S
k k
A dl
S
S
Δ →

Δ
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
Δ
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠


A ∇×

th
for the k cell
0 .
k
S Δ → the summation becomes integration over the whole surface
( ).
L S
A dl A dS ⋅ = ∇×
∫ ∫

which is stoke's theorem
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
0 Y
Y
2
2
5
5
60

30

a
b
c
d
S
ˆ ˆ cos sin , If a a evaluate A dl
ρ φ
ρ φ φ + ⋅

. around the path shown below
' Verify Stoke s Theorem
S
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Example 1
b c d a
a b c d L
A dl A dl
⎡ ⎤
⋅ = ⋅
⎢ ⎥

+ +

+
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

ˆ 2 Along ab dl d a
φ
ρ ρ φ = =

30
60
sin
b
a
A dl d
φ
ρ φ φ
=
⋅ =
∫ ∫

[ ] ( )
30
60
2cos 3 1 φ = − = − −
ˆ 30 Along bc dl d a
ρ
φ ρ = =

5
2
cos
c
b
A dl d
ρ
ρ φ ρ
=
⋅ =
∫ ∫

5
2
2
21 3
cos30
2 4
ρ ⎡ ⎤
= =
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
ˆ 5 Along cd dl d a
φ
ρ ρ φ = =

60
30
sin
d
c
A dl d
φ
ρ φ φ
=
⋅ =
∫ ∫

[ ] ( )
60
30
5
5cos 3 1
2
φ = − = −
31
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
ˆ 60 Along da dl d a
ρ
φ ρ = =

2
5
cos
a
d
A dl d
ρ
ρ φ ρ
=
⋅ =
∫ ∫

2
2
5
21
cos60
2 4
ρ ⎡ ⎤
= = −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
( ) ( )
21 3 5 21
3 1 3 1
4 2 4
L
A dl − − + + − − ⋅ =

4.941
L
A dl ⋅ =

( ).
L S
A dl A dS ⋅ = ∇×
∫ ∫

Using stoke's theorem
( )
1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z z
z
A A A A A
a A a A a
z z
φ ρ ρ
ρ φ φ
ρ
ρ φ ρ ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
− + − + −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝
=

∇ ×

ˆ
z
dS d d a ρ φ ρ =

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
( ) ( ) ( )
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ 0 0 0 0 1 sin
z
A a a a
ρ φ
ρ φ
ρ
∇ × = − + − + +

( )
60 5
30 2
1
ˆ ( ). 1 sin
z
S
A dS d d a
φ ρ
ρ φρ φ ρ
ρ
= =
∇× = +
∫ ∫ ∫

( )
1
ˆ 1 sin
z
a ρ φ
ρ
= +
( )
60 5
30 2
sin 1 d d
φ ρ
φ φ ρ ρ
= =
= +
∫ ∫
[ ]
5
2
60
30
2
cos
2
ρ
φ ρ
⎡ ⎤
= − +
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
4.941 =
( ). 4.941
S L
A dS A dl ∇× = = ⋅
∫ ∫

' Stoke s Theorem is thus verified
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Laplacian of a scalar
2
, The Laplacian of a scalar field V written as V is the divergence ∇ ♣
. of the gradient of V It is another scalar field
2
In Cartesian coordinates,Laplacian V= V V ∇⋅ ∇ = ∇

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ =
x y z x y z
V V V
a a a a a a
x y z x y z
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ + ⋅ + +
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
V=
V V V
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂
A scalar field V is said to be harmonic in a given region if its ♣
Laplacian vanishes in that region.
2
V=0 ∇
Laplace's Equation ⇒
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Laplacian of a scalar in other coordinates
2 2
2
2 2 2
1 1
V=
V V V
z
ρ
ρ ρ ρ ρ φ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
V= sin
sin sin
V V V
r
r r r r r
θ
θ θ θ θ φ
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
∇ + +
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
, In cylindrical coordinates
, In spherical coordinates
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Laplacian of a vector
2
Laplacian of a vector A denoted as is defined as A ∇

( ) ( )
2
A A A ∇ = ∇ ∇⋅ − ∇×∇×

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 1
Find the Laplacian of the scalar field given below.
sin2 cosh
z
V e x y

=
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
V=
V V V
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
∂ ∂ ∂
2 2 2
2 2 2
= ( sin2 cosh ) ( sin2 cosh ) ( sin2 cosh )
z z z
e x y e x y e x y
x y z
− − −
∂ ∂ ∂
+ +
∂ ∂ ∂
= (2 cos2 cosh ) ( sin2 sinh ) ( sin2 cosh )
z z z
e x y e x y e x y
x y z
− − −
∂ ∂ ∂
+ + −
∂ ∂ ∂
= 4 sin2 cosh sin2 cosh sin2 cosh
z z z
e x y e x y e x y
− − −
− + +
= 2 sin2 cosh
z
e x y


32
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Example 2
Find the Laplacian of the scalar field given below.
2
cos2 V z ρ φ =
2 2
2
2 2 2
1 1
V=
V V V
z
ρ
ρ ρ ρ ρ φ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇ + +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
1 1
= ( cos2 ) ( cos2 ) ( cos2 ) z z z
z
ρ ρ φ ρ φ ρ φ
ρ ρ ρ ρ φ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ +
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 1
= 2 cos2 2 sin2 z z ρ φ ρ φ
ρ ρ ρ φ
∂ ∂
+ −
∂ ∂
=4 cos2 4 cos2 0 z z φ φ − =
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Classification of vector fields
A vector field is said to be solenoidal or divergenceless if A=0 ∇⋅ ♠

If A 0 =0
V S
A dV A dS ∇⋅ = ⋅ = ∇⋅
∫ ∫

implies that the flux lines of A entering a closed surfa e 0 c
S
A dS ⋅ =

must also leave it.
: E x a m p l e s
1. Incompressible fluids 2. Magnetic fields
The field of curl F for any F is purely solenoidal because ♠

( )
0 F ∇⋅ ∇× =

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Classification of vector fields
A vector field is said to be irrotational or potential field if A=0 ∇× ♠

( )
If A=0 0
S L
A dS A dl ∇× ⋅ = ⋅ = ∇×
∫ ∫

implies that the line integral of A is independent of th 0 e
L
A dl ⋅ =

chosen path.
For this reason an irrotational field is also known as conservative field ♠
: E x a m p l e s
1. Electrostatic field 2. Gravitational field
The field of gradient V for any V is purely irrotational bec e aus ♠
( )
0 V ∇× ∇ =

Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 EC - July 2008
Classification of vector fields
0 0 A A ∇⋅ = ∇× =

0 0 A A ∇⋅ ≠ ∇× =

Solenoidal, Irrotational
Non-solenoidal,
Irrotational
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Classification of vector fields
0 0 A A ∇⋅ = ∇× ≠

0 0 A A ∇⋅ ≠ ∇× ≠

Non-solenoidal,
Rotational
Solenoidal, Rotational
1
MODULE II
ELECTROSTATICS
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Syllabus – Module II
Electrostatics:
Electrostatic fields – Coulomb’s law and field intensity. Electric
fields due to continuous charge distributions, Electric flux
density, Gauss’s law, Applications of Gauss’s law, Electric
potential, Relationship between E and V, Electric dipole,
Energy density in electrostatic fields. Electric fields in material
space – Properties of materials, Convection and conduction
currents, Conductors, Polarization in dielectrics, Dielectric
constant and strength, Linear, isotropic and homogeneous
dielectrics, Continuity equation, Relaxation time, Boundary
conditions. Electrostatic boundary value problems – Poisson’s
and Laplace’s Equations, Uniqueness theorem, Resistance
and capacitance – Parallel plate, coaxial, spherical capacitors.
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
References
Text Books:
1. Mathew N.O. Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford University
Press
2. J ordan and Balmain, Electromagnetic waves and radiating systems,
Pearson Education PHI Ltd.
References:
1. Kraus Fleisch, Electromagnetics with applications, McGraw Hill
2. William.H.Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, TataMcGraw Hill
3. N.Narayana Rao, Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Pearson
Education PHI Ltd.
4. D.GaneshRao, Engineering Electromagnetics, SanguineTechnical
Publishers.
5. J oseph.A.Edminister, Electromagnetics, Schaumseries-McGraw Hill
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
References
References:
1.K.D.Prasad, Electromagnetic fields and waves, SathyaPrakashan
2.Syed Nazar, 2000 solved problems in Electromagnetics, McGraw Hill
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coulombs Law and field intensity
1
Q
2
Q
R
ˆ
R
a
1 2
2
0
4
ˆ
R
Q
F a
Q
R πε
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coulombs Law and field intensity
Coulombs law states that the force F between two point charges Q1
and Q2 separated in a vacuum or free space by a distance which is
large when compared to their size is:
Along the line joining Q1 and Q2
Directly proportional to the product Q1 Q2 of the charges.
Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
1 2
2
Q Q
F k
R
=

1 2
Q ,Q Quantity of positive or negative charges ⇒
1 2
R Separation between charges Q and Q ⇒
k Proportionality constant ⇒
coulombs me When Q is in and R is in the constant k is found to ters be
0
1
4
k
πε
=
2
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coulombs Law and field intensity
Incorporating these values
The force acts along the line joining Q1 and Q2. In order to
incorporate this information we may write
0
1
4
k
πε
=
12
0
8.854 10 / the permitivity of free space which s F m i ε

× ⇒
9
0
1
9 10 /
4
k m F
πε
= = ×
1 2
2
0
4
Q Q
F
R πε
=
1 2
2
0
4
ˆ
R
Q
F a
Q
R πε
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coulombs Law and field intensity
ˆ
R
Where is a unit vector in the direction of the f a orce
1 2
2
0
4
ˆ
R
Q
F a
Q
R πε
=

12 2 1
The force F on Q due to Q is given by
12
1 2
12 2
0
ˆ
4
R
Q Q
F
R
a
πε
=

12 1 2
ˆ
R
Where is a unit vector directed from Q to Q a
1 2
If r and r are the position vectors of the points where

1 2
Q and Q is situated
1 2 12 2 1
R Vector joining Q and Q r r is = −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coulombs Law and field intensity
Origin
1
r

2
r

12
R

12
F

21
F

1
Q
2
Q
12
12
1
1
2
2
ˆ
R
R
a
R
R
R
= =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coulombs Law and field intensity
12
R R =

12
12
1
1
2
2
ˆ
R
R
a
R
R
R
= =

1 2 12
12 2
0
4
Q Q R
Now F
R R πε
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

1 2
12 3
0
4
Q Q
R
R πε
=

1 2
12 12 3
0
4
Q Q
F R
R πε
=

21 21 2 1 2 1 12
ˆ
R
Force F on Q due to Q is given b F y F a =

( )
21 12
1 2 1 2
21 2 2
0 0
ˆ ˆ
4 4
R R
Q Q Q Q
F
R R
a a
πε πε
= − =

( )
1 2 2 1
12 3
0 2 1
4
Q Q r r
F
r r πε

=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coulombs Law and field intensity
If there are N point charges Q1,Q2,……….QN located at points with
position vectors the resultant force on a charge Q
located at point with position vector is the vector sum of the forces
exerted on Q by each of the charges Q1,Q2,……….QN
1, 2,
......
N
r r r

F

r

1 1 2 2
3 3 3
0 1 0 2 0
( ) ( ) ( )
4 4 4
N N
N
QQ r r QQ r r QQ r r
F
r r r r r r πε πε πε
− − −
= + +⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
− − −

3
1 0
1 ( )
4
N
k k
k
k
QQ r r
F
r r πε
=

=


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
A 2mC positive charge is located at P1(3,-2,-4) in vacuum and a
5 μC negative charge is located at P2(1,-4,2). Find the force on the
negative charge.
3
1
2 10 Q C

= + ×
6
2
5 10 Q C

= − ×
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ 3 2 4
x y z
r a a a = − −

2
ˆ ˆ ˆ 4 2
x y z
r a a a = − +

12 2 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ 2 2 6
x y z
R r r a a a = − = − − +

12 12
4 4 36 44 R R = = + + =

: Solution
3
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
( ) ( )
( )
3 6
12 12
2 10 5 10
ˆ ˆ ˆ 0.3 0.3 0.9
4 8.854 10 44
x y z
F a a a
π
− −

× − ×
= − − +
× × ×

( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ 2.043 0.3 0.3 0.9
x y z
a a a = − − − +
12
ˆ ˆ ˆ 0.61 0.61 1.84
x y z
F a a a = + −

12
1 2
12 2
0 12
4
ˆ
R
a
Q Q
F
R πε
=

12
12
12
ˆ ˆ ˆ 2 2 6
ˆ
44
x y z
R
a a a R
a
R
− − +
= =

ˆ ˆ ˆ 0.3 0.3 0.9
x y z
a a a = − − +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity
Electric field intensity at a point is defined as the force on a unit
positive test charge placed at that point.
The direction of electric field intensity is the same as that of the force
and is measured in newtons/coulomb
The electric field intensity at a point with p.v due to a point charge
at a point with p.v is obtained as
F
E
Q
=

r

1
r

2
0
4
ˆ
R
Q
a E
R π ε
=

1
3
0 1
( )
4
Q r r
r r π ε

=



E

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity
If there are N point charges Q1,Q2,……….QN located at points with
position vectors the electric field intensity at point
with position vector is the vector sum of the electric field intensities
produced by charges Q1,Q2,……….QN
1, 2,
......
N
r r r

E

r

1 1 2 2
3 3 3
0 1 0 2 0
( ) ( ) ( )
4 4 4
N N
N
Q r r Q r r Q r r
E
r r r r r r πε πε πε
− − −
= + + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
− − −

3
1 0
1 ( )
4
N
k k
k
k
Q r r
E
r r πε
=

=


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 2
Point charges 1mC and -2mC are located at (3,2,-1) and (-1,-1,4)
respectively. Calculate the electric force on a 10 nC charge located
at (0,3,1) and the electric field intensity at that point.
3
1 0
1 ( )
4
N
k k
k
k
QQ r r
F
r r πε
=

=


: Solution
1 1 2 2
3 3
0 1 2
( ) ( )
4
Q Q r r Q r r
F
r r r r πε
⎛ ⎞
− −
= + ⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
− −
⎝ ⎠

[ ] [ ]
9
3 3
3 3
0
(0,3,1) (3,2, 1) (0,3,1) ( 1, 1,4) 10 10
10 2 10
4 (0,3,1) (3,2, 1) (0,3,1) ( 1, 1,4)
F
πε

− −
⎧ ⎫
− − − − − × ⎪ ⎪
= − ×
⎨ ⎬
− − − − −
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭

( ) ( )
3 9
9 3/2 3/2
10 10 10 ( 3,1,2) 2(1,4, 3)
10
9 1 4 1 16 9
4
36
π
π
− −

⎧ ⎫
× × − − ⎪ ⎪
= −
⎨ ⎬
+ + + +
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 2
2
( 3,1,2) ( 2, 8,6)
9 10
14 14 26 26
F

− − − ⎧ ⎫
= × +
⎨ ⎬
⎩ ⎭

( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ 6.507 3.817 7.506
x y z
F a a a mN = − − +

F
At this point E =
Q

( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ 650.7 381.7 750.6 /
x y z
E a a a KV m = − − +

( )
3
9
ˆ ˆ ˆ 6.507 3.817 7.506 10
10 10
x y z
a a a


− − + ×
=
×
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric fields due to continuous charge distributions
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
POINT
CHARGE
LINE
CHARGE
SURFACE
CHARGE
VOLUME
CHARGE
L
ρ
S
ρ V
ρ
Q
4
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric fields due to continuous charge distributions
A charge may be located on a point, along a line, on a surface or in
a volume. Accordingly we have four types of charge distributions:
Point charges
Line charges
Surface charges
Volume charges.
Point Charge: A charge that is located on a body whose dimensions
are much smaller than other relevant dimensions is called point
charge. A collection of charges on a pinhead may be considered as
a point charge.

i
i
Total Charge Q Q =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Charge distributions
Line Charge: A charge that is distributed along a fine line, as in the
case of a sharp electron beam in a cathode ray tube, is considered
as a line charge distribution.
It is convenient to associate a line charge density with a line
charge distribution.
Surface Charge: A charge that is distributed over a surface is
considered as a surface charge distribution.
It is convenient to associate a surface charge density with a
surface charge distribution.

L
Charge eleme t dQ dl n ρ =
L
ρ

L
L
Total charge Q dl ρ =

S
ρ

S
Charge eleme t dQ dS n ρ =
S
S
Total charge Q dS ρ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Charge distributions
Volume Charge: A charge that is distributed throughout a specified
volume is considered as a volume charge distribution.
It is convenient to associate a volume charge density with a
volume charge distribution.
L
ρ

V
Charge eleme t dQ dV n ρ =
V
V
Total charge Q dV ρ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of Charge distributions
Electric field intensity of a point charge is given by
By replacing the charge Q by charge elements and integrating we
get the electric field intensity of various charge distributions.
2
0
4
ˆ
R
Q
a E
R π ε
=

2
0
ˆ
4
L
R
For line charge distributions,
dl
E
R
a
ρ
πε
=

2
0
4
ˆ
R
S
For surface charge distrib
dS
ution E a s,
R
ρ
πε
=

2
0
4
ˆ
R
V
For volume charge distribu
dV
tions E a ,
R
ρ
πε
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
1
dE

2
dE

dE

L
dQ dz ρ =
dz
dz
L
dQ dz ρ =
/
L
C m ρ
2
L
z = +
2
L
z = −
Z
R
R
z
ρ
ˆ a
ρ
α
α
α
α
P
1
Z
dE

2
Z
dE

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
dz Take two elemental lengths of the line charge that are symmetr ical
about the origin.

L
dz z dQ d ρ = The charge associated with each elemental length is and
can be treated as a point charge.
1 2
dE dE The vertical components of and gets cancelled leaving only the
ˆ a
ρ
radial component along
1 2
dE dE The radial components of and gets added .
φ There is no variation of the field along direction .
ˆ a
ρ
So we need to calculate only the radial component along
Align the line charge along the Z axis symmetrically with respect to the
origin.
5
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
1 2
dE dE dE = + Radial components of ( )
2
0
2 cos
4
ˆ
d Q
R
a
ρ
α
π ε
= ×
cos P u t
R
ρ
α =
3
0
2
4
ˆ
d Q
d E
R
a
ρ
ρ
π ε
= ×
2 2
R= P u t z ρ +
( )
3 2
2 2
0
4
ˆ 2
L
d z
d E
z
a
ρ
ρ ρ
π ε ρ
= ×
+
The electric field intensity at P due to the entire line charge is
( )
/ 2
3 2
2 2
0 0
1
2
4
ˆ
L
L
z
E d z
z
a
ρ
ρ ρ
π ε
ρ =
=
+

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
Using the standard integral
( )
3/ 2
2 2 2 2 2
1 x
d x
a a x a x
=
+ +

/ 2
2 2 2
0
0
2
ˆ
L
L
z
E
z
a
ρ
ρ ρ
π ε
ρ ρ
⎡ ⎤
= × ⎢ ⎥
+ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

2 2 2
0
ˆ
2
4
L
L
a
L
ρ
ρ ρ
π ε
ρ ρ
⎡ ⎤
= × ⎢ ⎥
+ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
2 2
0
2
4
ˆ
L
L
a E
L
ρ
ρ
π ε ρ
ρ
⎡ ⎤
= ⎢ ⎥
+ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
2 2
0
2
4
ˆ
L
L
E For a finite line char a
L
ge
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
ρ
⎡ ⎤
= ⎢ ⎥
+ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

→ ∞ For an infinite line charge, L and
2 2
0
1
l i m
2
4 1
ˆ
L
L
a E
L
ρ
ρ
π ε ρ
ρ
→ ∞
⎡ ⎤
= ⎢ ⎥
+ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

0
ˆ
2
L
E a
ρ
ρ
π ε ρ
=

0
ˆ
2
L
For an infinite line cha E rge a
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of an infinite surface charge


X
Y
Z
α
α
α
α
R
R
P
1
dE

2
dE

dE

2
( / )
S
C m ρ
L S
dz ρ ρ =
'
L S
dz ρ ρ =
d

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of a infinite surface charge
Assume that the infinite sheet charge is located in the x - z plane.
Assume that the infinite sheet charge is composed of line cha rge
/
L S
dz C m ρ ρ = distributions with density
The electric field intensity of an infinite line charge is radially directed
away from the line charge and its magnitude is
0
2
L
d E
R
ρ
π ε
=
0
2
S
d z
R
ρ
π ε
=
'

L
ρ Consider one more line charge symmetrically located with respect to
the origin
1 2
dE dE The vertical components of and gets cancelled leaving only the
ˆ
y
a radial component along
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of a infinite surface charge
1 2
dE dE dE = + y components of ( )
0
ˆ 2 cos
2
S
y
d z
a
R
ρ
α
π ε
= ⋅
cos
d
P u t
R
α =
2
0
ˆ
S
y
d
d E d z a
R
ρ
π ε
=

The electric field intensity at P due to the entire sheet charge is
2
0
0
ˆ
S
y
z
d
E d z a
R
ρ
π ε

=
=

2 2
R= P u t d z +
6
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of a infinite surface charge
( )
2 2
0
0
ˆ
S
y
z
d
E d z a
d z
ρ
π ε

=
=
+

( )
2 2
0
0
1
ˆ
S
y
z
d
d z a
d z
ρ
π ε

=
=
+

Using the standard integral
( )
1
2 2
1 1
tan
z
d x
a a a x
− ⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
+ ⎝ ⎠

1
0 0
1
ˆ tan
S
y
d z
E a
d d
ρ
πε

− ⎡ ⎤
=
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

0
ˆ
2
S
y
a
ρ π
π ε
= ⋅
0
ˆ
2
S
y
a
ρ
ε
=
0
ˆ 0
2
S
y
E y a
ρ
ε
= >

0
0 ˆ
2
S
y
E y a
ρ
ε
= − <

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field intensity of a infinite surface charge
The electric field of a sheet charge is normal to the plane of the
sheet and is independent of the distance between the sheet and the
point of observation.
In a parallel plate capacitor, the electric field existing between two
plates having equal and opposite charges is given by
0
ˆ
2
S
y
E a
ρ
ε
=

( )
0 0
ˆ ˆ
2 2
S S
y y
E a a
ρ ρ
ε ε

= + −

0
ˆ
S
y
a
ρ
ε
=
0
ˆ
S
y
E a
ρ
ε
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric flux
If a positive test charge is brought near another positive charge it
will be repelled in a direction along the line joining the two charges.
If the second charge is moved around the first one, it will be repelled
in radially outward direction at all points.
The lines drawn to trace the force on a test charge is called lines of
force.
Such lines are called electric flux in electrostatics. A charge of Q
Coulombs produces an electric flux of ψ Coulombs.
-Q
+Q
Q ψ =
Q ψ =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric flux density
The electric field around a point charge is given by
If this equation is multiplied by ε
0
, we get
The RHS of the above equation is independent of permittivity ε
0
, and
so ε
0
E is a quantity that is independent of the medium.
is the area of an imaginary sphere around the charge Q.
is then charge per area or surface charge density.
2
0
4
ˆ
R
Q
a E
R π ε
=

0 2
4
ˆ
R
Q
E
R
a ε
π
=

2
4 R π
2
4
Q
R π
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric flux density
Since Q Coulombs of charge produces ψ Coulombs of flux ,
This quantity is represented by and its unit is Coulombs/m
2
In the case of a point charge
All the equations derived for from Coulomb’s law can be used for
calculating by multiplying with
0 2 2

4 4
Q
E
R R
ψ
ε
π π
= =

i s t h e f l u x d e n s i t y
D

0
D E ε =

2
ˆ
4
R
Q
D a
R π
=

E

D

0
ε
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Gauss’s Law
The total electric flux passing through any closed surface is equal to
the total charge enclosed by that surface.
Or, the surface integral of the normal component of the electric flux
density over any closed surface is equal to the charge enclosed.
Consider a cloud of point charges surrounded by a closed surface of
any arbitrary shape as shown below.
dS
S
D

dS

θ
7
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Gauss’s Law
If the total charge inside the surface is Q then Q Coulombs of
electric flux must pass through the surface.
At every point on the surface the electric flux density vector will
have a value
Consider a small element of the surface having area dS.
dS is fully specified only if its magnitude and orientation in space is
specified.
The only unique direction that may be associated with dS is the
direction of the outward normal to the plane which is tangential to
the surface dS.
Let make an angle θ with .
The flux crossing normally is then
D

S
D

S
D

dS

dS

cos
S
d D dS ψ θ = ×
S
D dS = ⋅

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Gauss’s Law
The total flux passing through the closed surface is
The enclosed charge might be point charges, line charge, surface
charge or a volume charge. Accordingly,
, Charge enclosed.
S
S
D dS Q ψ = ⋅ =

The surface integral of the normal component of the
electric flux density over any closed surface is equal to the
charge enclosed.
S
S
Q D dS = ⋅

Point charges
n
Q Q = ⇒

Line charge
l
L
Q dl ρ = ⇒

Surface charge
S
S
Q dS ρ = ⇒

Volume charge
V
V
Q dV ρ = ⇒

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Gauss’s Law
In general,
Applying divergence theorem to to the LHS
Comparing (1) and (2)
This is the first of the four Maxwell’s Equations
(1)
S V
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ = − − − −
∫ ∫

(2)
S s
S V
D dS D dV ⋅ = ∇⋅ − − − − −
∫ ∫

V
D ρ ∇⋅ =

Divergence of the electric flux density is the same as the volume
charge density: First Maxwell’s Equation.
V
D ρ ∇⋅ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Gaussian Surfaces
Gauss’s Law may be applied to evaluate electric field
intensity.
For that we have to assume a Special Gaussian Surface
surrounding the charge distribution.
The closed surface should be selected such that the
electric field has a normal component or tangential
component on these surface.
To evaluate the electric field intensity of a point charge
or spherical charge cloud we may select a spherical
Gaussian surface surrounding it.
The electric field is every where in radial direction and is
normal to the spherical surface, or it is along dS

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Gaussian Surfaces
In order to evaluate the electric field intensity of a line
charge, we may select a cylindrical Gaussian surface.
The electric field is in radial direction on the curved
surface and is in the direction of
The electric field is in tangential direction on the top and
bottom surfaces and is normal to the
dS

E

dS

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 1
Electric field of a point charge.
Let a point charge be placed at the centre of a spherical coordinate
system.
Select a sphere of radius r as the Gaussian surface.
r
S
Q
8
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 1
Electric field of a point charge.
Since has only component,
On a spherical surface
Applying Gauss’s Law
E

r
E

r r
E E a =


r
dS dSa =

S
S
D dS Q ⋅ =

0
ˆ
r r r
S
E a dSa Q ε ⋅ =

0 r
S
E dS Q ε =

0 r
S
E dS Q ε =

2
0
4
r
E r Q ε π =
2
0
4
r
Q
E
r πε
=
r r
E E a =


2
0
ˆ
4
r
Q
E a
r πε
=

2
0
ˆ
4
r
Q
E a
r πε
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
ρ
l
dS

dS

dS

S
D

S
D

S
D

Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 2
Electric field of a long line charge.
Z
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 2
Electric field of a long line charge.
Let a line charge of uniform density ρ
L
C/m
2
be placed along the z
axis.
Place the line charge along z axis of a cylindrical coordinate system
Select a cylinder of radius ρ and length l as the Gaussian surface.
Using Gauss’s Law
S L
S l
D dS dl ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫

S S S L
side top bottom l
D dS D dS D dS dl ρ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ . 0
S z z
top top top
D dS D a dSa D dS a a
ρ ρ ρ ρ
⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ =
∫ ∫ ∫

( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) . ( ) 0
S z z
bottom bottom bottom
D dS D a dS a D dS a a
ρ ρ ρ ρ
⋅ = ⋅ − = ⋅ − =
∫ ∫ ∫

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 2
Electric field of a long line charge.
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ .
S
side side side side
D dS D a dSa D dS a a D dS
ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ
⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ =
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

L
side l
D dS dl
ρ
ρ =
∫ ∫
0
2
L
l
E l dl
ρ
ε πρ ρ =

0
2
L
E l l
ρ
ε πρ ρ =
0
2
L
E
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
=
0
ˆ
2
L
E a
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
=

ˆ E E a
ρ ρ
=

0
ˆ
2
L
E a
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 3
Electric field of a uniformly charged sphere.
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Spherical
Charged
Cloud
a
r
Gaussian
Surface
: Case I r a ≥
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 3
Electric field of a uniformly charged sphere.
Consider a spherical charged cloud having volume charge density
ρ
v
C/m
2
radius a
A concentric sphere of radius r may be selected as the Gaussian
surface.
The electric field has got only E
r
component.
Applying Gauss’s Law
ˆ ˆ
r r r V
S V
D a dSa dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
S V
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫

( ) ˆ ˆ
r r r V
S V
D dS a a dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
r V
S V
D dS dV ρ =
∫ ∫
2 3
4
4
3
r V
D r a π ρ π =
3
2
3
V
r
a
D
r
ρ
=
9
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 3
Electric field of a uniformly charged sphere.
3
2
3
V
r
a
D
r
ρ
=
3
0 2
3
V
r
a
E
r
ρ
ε =
3
2
0
3
V
r
a
E
r
ρ
ε
=
ˆ
r r
E E a =

3
2
0
ˆ
3
V
r
a
E a
r
ρ
ε
=

3
2
0
ˆ
3
V
r
a
E a
r
ρ
ε
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 4
Electric field of a uniformly charged sphere.
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Spherical
Charged
Cloud
a
r
Gaussian
Surface
: Case II r a ≤
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 4
Electric field of a uniformly charged sphere.
Consider a spherical charged cloud of having volume charge density
ρ
v
C/m
2
radius a
A concentric sphere of radius r may be selected as the Gaussian
surface.
The electric field has got only E
r
component.
Applying Gauss’s Law
ˆ ˆ
r r r V
S V
D a dSa dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
S V
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫

( ) ˆ ˆ
r r r V
S V
D dS a a dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
r V
S V
D dS dV ρ =
∫ ∫
2 3
4
4
3
r V
D r r π ρ π =
3
2
3
V
r
r
D
r
ρ
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Applications of Gauss’s Law: Example 4
Electric field of a uniformly charged sphere.
3
V
r
r
D
ρ
=
0
3
V
r
r
E
ρ
ε =
0
3
V
r
r
E
ρ
ε
=
ˆ
r r
E E a =

0
ˆ
3
V
r
r
E a
ρ
ε
=

0
ˆ
3
V
r
r
E a
ρ
ε
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field between two conducting spherical
shells
s
ρ −
s
ρ +
a
b
r
S V
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫

ˆ ˆ
r r r S
S S
D a dSa dS ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
( ) ˆ ˆ
r r r S
S S
D dS a a dS ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
r S
S S
D dS dS ρ =
∫ ∫
r S
S S
D dS dS ρ =
∫ ∫
2 2
4 4
r S
D r a π ρ π =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field between two conducting spherical
shells
2
2
S
r
a
D
r
ρ
=
2
0 2
S
r
a
E
r
ρ
ε =
2
2
0
S
r
a
E
r
ρ
ε
=
2
2
0
ˆ
S
r
a
E a
r
ρ
ε
=

2
,
4
S
Q
On the surface of the inner sphere
a
ρ
π
=
2
2 2
0
ˆ
4
r
Q a
E a
a r π ε
= ⋅

2
0
ˆ
4
r
Q
E a
r πε
=

2
0
ˆ
4
r
Q
E a
r πε
=

10
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field between two conducting cylindrical
shells
a
b
ρ
L
ρ +
L
ρ −
S V
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫

ˆ ˆ
L
S L
D a dSa dl
ρ ρ ρ
ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
( )
ˆ ˆ .
L
S L
D dS a a dl
ρ ρ ρ
ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
L
S L
D dS dl
ρ
ρ =
∫ ∫
2
L
L
D l dl
ρ
πρ ρ =

l
2
L
D l l
ρ
πρ ρ =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric field between two conducting
cylindrical shells
2
L
D l l
ρ
πρ ρ =
2
L
D
ρ
ρ
πρ
=
0
2
L
E
ρ
ρ
ε
πρ
=
0
2
L
E
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
=
0
ˆ ˆ
2
L
E E a a
ρ ρ ρ
ρ
πε ρ
= =

0
ˆ
2
L
E a
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
=

L
Q l ρ =
L
Q
l
ρ =
0
ˆ
2
Q
E a
l
ρ
πε ρ
=

0
ˆ
2
Q
E a
l
ρ
πε ρ
=

0
ˆ
2
L
E a
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Work done and Electric Potential
An electric charge produces an electric field and if a test charge is
brought to this region it experiences a force.
If the test charge is moved against this field equal and opposite
forces will have to be exerted by the field and this needs work to be
done or energy to be spent.
If the charge is moved against the field, work done is positive and if
it is moved in the direction of the field work done is negative.
Consider a uniform field in space as shown below E

initial
final
dL
θ
cos dL θ
E

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Work done and Electric Potential
Let a positive test charge is moved through a small distance dL
through electric field in a direction opposite to the field.
The field exerts a force on the charge and some work must be
done to move the charge.
This work is equal to the product of the force and the distance
through which the charge has to be moved in the direction of the
force.
The incremental work dW done in moving the positive charge
through the distance dL is


Force experienced on charge Q by the field E F =Q E


a
Applied Force F = -Q E = -QE
=F cos
a
dW dL θ
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Work done and Electric Potential
The total work required to move the charge from an initial point to a
final point is
=F cos
a
dW dL θ
= QE dL − ⋅

=F
a
dL ⋅

W=
final
initial
QE dL − ⋅


=
final
initial
Q E dL − ⋅


W=
final
initial
Q E dL − ⋅


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric Potential-Potential difference
The work done in moving a unit positive charge from an initial point
to a final point is called the potential difference between these
points.
Work done in moving a charge of Q Coulombs is
Work done in moving a unit positive charge is
If B is the initial point and A is the final point
W=
final
initial
Q E dL − ⋅


W
V= =
final
initial
E dL
Q
− ⋅


Potential difference
V =
A
AB
B
E dL − ⋅


Potential difference
V =
A
AB
B
E dL − ⋅


11
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric Potential-Potential difference
If A and B are the same points, the limits of integration are the same
and
Work done in carrying in carrying a unit positive charge from an
initial point to the same final point is zero, whatever be the path
taken for this travel.
The potential difference around any closed path is zero, irrespective
of the geometry of the path.
V =
A
AB
B
E dL − ⋅


V = 0
A
AB
A
E dL − ⋅ =


0 or E dL ⋅ =

0 E dL ⋅ =

A
E

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric Potential- Absolute potential
The absolute potential of a point or simply potential of a point A is
defined as the work done in moving a unit positive charge from
infinity or from zero potential to that point.
V =V
A
A A
E dL


= − ⋅


V =
A
A
E dL

− ⋅


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Potential Difference between two points in the
field of a point charge
Let a point charge Q be placed at the centre of a spherical
coordinate system.
Let two points in the field of this charge are at radial distances r
A
and
r
B
from the point charge.
A
r
B
r
• •
Q
A B
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Potential Difference between two points in the
field of a point charge
The electric field intensity of a point charge is given by
2
0
ˆ
4
r
Q
E a
r πε
=

V =
A
AB
B
E dL − ⋅


2
0
ˆ ˆ =
4
A
B
r
r r
r
Q
a dra
r πε
− ⋅

ˆ =
r
Since dL dra

2
0
1
=
4
A
B
r
r
Q
dr
r πε


0
1
=
4
A
B
r
r
Q
r πε
⎡ ⎤
− −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
0
1 1
=
4
A B
Q
r r πε
⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
0
1 1
V =
4
AB
A B
Q
r r πε
⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Potential Difference between two points in the
field of a line charge
• •
A
r
B
r
A
B
c/m
L
ρ
Let a line charge distribution having density ρ
L
is placed at the
centre of a cylindrical coordinate system.
Let two points A and B in the field of this charge is at radial
distances r
A
and r
B
from the point charge.
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Potential Difference between two points in the
field of a line charge
The potential difference between A and B is
0
ˆ ˆ =
2
A
B
r
L
r
a d a
ρ ρ
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
− ⋅

V =
A
B
r
AB
r
E dL − ⋅


0
ˆ =
2
A
B
r
L
r
a dL
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
− ⋅


0
1
=
2
A
B
r
L
r
d
ρ
ρ
πε ρ


[ ]
0
= ln ln
2
L
A B
r r
ρ
πε
− −
[ ]
0
= ln ln
2
L
B A
r r
ρ
πε

0
= ln
2
L B
A
r
r
ρ
πε
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
AB
0
V = ln
2
L B
A
r
r
ρ
πε
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
[ ]
0
= ln
2
A
B
r
L
r
ρ
ρ
πε

12
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Potential difference between two conducting
spherical shells
a
b Q + Two spherical shells having
radius a and b carrying
charges +Q and Q on the inner
and outer shells


V =
a
AB
b
E dL − ⋅


2
0
ˆ ˆ =
4
a
r r
b
Q
a dra
r πε
− ⋅

2
0
1
=
4
a
b
Q
dr
r πε


0
1 1
=
4
Q
a b πε
⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
AB
0
1 1
V =
4
Q
a b πε
⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
0
1
=
4
a
b
Q
r πε
⎡ ⎤
− −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
Q −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Potential difference between two conducting
cylindrical shells
Two cylindrical shells carrying
charge density on the inner
shell and having radii a and b
L
ρ
V =
a
AB
b
E dL − ⋅


0
ˆ ˆ =
2
a
L
b
a d a
ρ ρ
ρ
ρ
πε ρ
− ⋅

AB
0
V = ln
2
L
b
a
ρ
πε
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
a
b
/
L
c m ρ
0
1
=
2
a
L
b
d
ρ
ρ
πε ρ


[ ]
0
= ln
2
a
L
b
ρ
ρ
πε

[ ]
0
= ln ln
2
L
a b
ρ
πε
− −
0
= ln
2
L
b
a
ρ
πε
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Absolute potential of a point in the field
of a point charge
If the position vector of the point A is and the charge is located at
point whose position vector is the potential at point A is
For N point charges Q
1
, Q
2
, Q
3
,……. Q
N
, located at points whose
position vectors the potential of the point A
whose position vector is is given by
r

'
r

'
0
4
A
Q
V
r r πε
=


1 2 3
, , ,..........,
N
r r r r

r

1 2
0 1 0 2 0
4 4 4
N
A
N
Q Q Q
V
r r r r r r πε πε πε
= + +⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
− − −

1 0

1
4
N
k
A
k k
Q
V
r r
Or
πε
=
=


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Absolute potential of a point in the field
of charge distributions
For continuous charge distributions, the above equation can be
modified by incorporating appropriate charge distributions and
changing the summation to integration.
'
0

1
4

L
A
L
For line ch
dl
V a
r
r
r
ge
ρ
πε
= ⇒



'
0
1

4
S
A
S
For surface c
dS
V
r r
harge
ρ
πε
= ⇒



'
0
1

4
V
A
V
For v
dV
olume ch rge
r
a V
r
ρ
πε
= ⇒



Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
Two point charges -4μC and 5μC are located at (2,-1,3) and (0,4,-2)
respectively. Find the potential at (1,0,1) assuming zero potential at
infinity.
1 2
0 1 0 2
4 4
A
Q Q
V
r r r r πε πε
= +
− −

1
4 Q C μ = −
2
5 Q C μ =
1
(1,0,1) (2, 1,3) 1,1, 2 6 r r − = − − = − − =

2
(1,0,1) (0,4, 2) 1, 4,3 26 r r − = − − = − =

6 6
0 0
4 10 5 10
4 6 4 26
A
V
πε πε
− −
− × ×
= +
5.872
A
V kV = −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
s
E dS ε = ⋅


Q
C
V
=
l
V E dl = − ⋅


s
l
E ds
C
E dl
ε ⋅
=
− ⋅





Capacitance
CONDUCTOR 1
CONDUCTOR 2
+ + + +
+
+
+ +
+
+








− −
− −


E

Q +
Q −
s
Q D dS = ⋅


s
l
E ds
E dl
ε ⋅
=
− ⋅





s
l
E ds
C
E dl
ε ⋅
=
− ⋅





13
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −
E

X
1
2
Dielectric
Plate area A
Q +
Q −
d
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor
S Δ E

d
A
A
Plate1
Plate2
s
ρ +
s
ρ −
Q +
Q −
/
s
Q A ρ =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor
Each plate of the parallel plate capacitor has an area A and are
separated by a distance d.
The plates 1 and 2 carries charges +Q and -Q uniformly distributed
on them.
The distance between plates is assumed to be very small when
compared to the plate dimensions such that the fringing between
plates is small enough to be ignored.
Applying Gauss’s law on the surface of a small pill box shaped
volume as shown in figure,
Only the bottom face of the cylindrical gaussian surface contributes
towards the electric flux.
Let the electric flux density on the bottom face of the gaussian
cylinder is
encl
Q ψ =
s
S ρ = Δ
D

D S ψ = Δ
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor
Electric field intensity on the bottom face of the gaussian cylinder is
s
D S S ρ Δ = Δ
( ) ˆ
S x
D a ρ = −

D
E
ε
=

ˆ
S
x
a
ρ
ε
= − ˆ
S
x
E a
ρ
ε
= −

S
Q
A
ρ =
ˆ
x
Q
E a
A ε
= −

s
D ρ = ˆ
S x
D a ρ = −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Capacitance
1
2 0
ˆ ˆ
d
x x
Q
V E dL a dxa
A ε
= − ⋅ = − − ⋅
∫ ∫

0
d
Q
dx
A ε
=

Qd
A ε
=
C
Q A
Capacitance
V d
ε
= =
C
A
d
ε
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coaxial capacitor
Dielectric
a
b
L
1
2
1
2
14
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coaxial capacitor
Consider a length of two coaxial conductors of inner radius a and
outer radius b.
The space between the conductors is filled with a homogeneous
dielectric with permittivity ε.
Assume that the conductors 1 and 2 carry +Q and –Q charges
uniformly distributed on them.
By applying Gauss’s law we obtain the electric field between the
cylinders.
ˆ
2
Q
E a
L
ρ
περ
=

1
2
ˆ ˆ
2
a
b
Q
V E dl a d a
L
ρ ρ
ρ
περ
= − ⋅ = − ⋅
∫ ∫

1
2
a
b
Q
d
L
ρ
πε ρ
= −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Coaxial capacitor
[ ] ln
2
a
b
Q
V
L
ρ
πε
= −
ln
2
Q b
L a πε
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
C
Q
Capacitance
V
=
2
ln
L
b
a
πε
=
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
2
l n
L
C
b
a
π ε
=
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Spherical capacitor
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+








a
b
1
2
Dielectric
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Spherical capacitor
Consider the capacitance formed by two spherical shells of radii a
and b as shown in figure.
The spheres are separated by a dielectric medium with permittivity ε.
Charges +Q and –Q are distributed on the inner and outer spheres
respectively.
By applying Gauss’s law we can find out the electric field of such a
system.
The potential difference between the conductors is
2
ˆ
4
r
Q
E a
r πε
=

2
ˆ ˆ
4
a
r r
b
Q
a dra
r πε
= − ⋅

1
2
V E dl = − ⋅


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Spherical capacitor
2
1
4
a
b
Q
V dr
r πε
= −

1 1
4
Q
a b πε
⎛ ⎞
= −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
C
Q
Capacitance
V
=
4
1 1
C
a b
πε
=
⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
4
1 1
C
a b
π ε
=
⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Relationship between E and V
The potential around any closed path is zero
Applying Stokes’ Theorem
Equations (1) and (2) are referred to as Maxwell’s second equation
for static electric fields.
A vector field that satisfies equation (1) or (2) is called a
conservative field or irrotational field
0 -----(1) E dL ⋅ =

( )
0
S
E dL E dS ⋅ = ∇× ⋅ =
∫ ∫

0 ------(2) E ∇× =
0 E ∇× =

0 E dL ⋅ = ⇒

Maxwell's second equation in integral form
0 E ∇× = ⇒

Maxwell's second equation in differential form
15
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Relationship between E and V
The general expression for potential is
Comparing the two expressions
V= E dL − ⋅


dV= E dL − ⋅

dV=
x y z
E dx E dy E dz − − −
V V V
But dV= dx dy dz
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
+ +
∂ ∂ ∂
V
=
x
E
x



V
=
y
E
y



V
=
z
E
z



Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Relationship between E and V
Electric field intensity is the gradient of potential V
The negative sign shows that the direction of is opposite to the
direction in which V increases , it is directed from higher to lower
levels of V .
Also it satisfies the equation
since the curl of the gradient of a scalar is always zero
ˆ ˆ ˆ =
x y z
V V V
E a a a
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
− − −
∂ ∂ ∂

= E V − ∇

= E V − ∇

E

0 E ∇× =

0 V ∇× −∇ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
Given the potential
(a) Find the electric flux density at (2,π/2,0)
(b) Calculate the work done in moving a 10μC charge from the point
B(1,30
0
,120
0
) to A(4,90
0
,60
0
)
2
10
sin cos V
r
θ φ =
: Solution
E V = −∇

1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
sin
r
V V V
E a a a
r r r
θ φ
θ θ φ
⎡ ⎤ ∂ ∂ ∂
= − + +
⎢ ⎥
∂ ∂ ∂
⎣ ⎦

2
10
sin cos V
r
θ φ =
3 3 3
20 10 10
ˆ ˆ ˆ sin cos cos cos sin
r
E a a a
r r r
θ φ
θ φ θ φ φ = − +

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
(2, / 2,0) At π
20
ˆ ˆ ˆ 0 0
8
r
E a a a
θ φ
= − +

20
ˆ
8
r
a =
0 0
20
ˆ
8
r
D E a ε ε = =

2
ˆ 22.1 /
r
D a pC m =

AB
A
B
Work done W Q E dl QV = − ⋅ =


( )
A B
W Q V V = −
6
10 10
10 10 sin90 cos60 sin30 cos120
16 1
o o o o − ⎛ ⎞
= × −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
28.125 J W μ =
(4,90 ,60 )
o o
A (1,30 ,120 )
o o
B
2
10
sin cos V
r
θ φ =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric dipoles: Potential and Electric field
Q +
Q −
d
θ
cos d θ
P
1
r
2
r
r
Z
Y
X
0 1 0 2
4 4
Q Q
V
r r πε πε
= −
2
2 1 1 2
cos , r r d r r r θ −
+Q
-Q
d
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric dipoles: Potential and Electric field
An electric dipole is formed when two point charges of equal
magnitude but opposite sign are separated by a small distance.
Referring to figure (1) the potential at point P is given by
If r>>d we can make the following assumptions
2
2 1 1 2
and cos r r d r r r θ −
2
0
cos

4
Q d
Then V
r
θ
πε
=
0 1 2
1 1
4
Q
V
r r πε
⎡ ⎤
= −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos where
r z r
d d a d da a is a unit vector in r direction θ = ⋅ =

0 1 0 2
4 4
Q Q
V
r r πε πε
= − 2 1
0 1 2
4
Q r r
r r πε
⎡ ⎤ −
=
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
16
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric dipoles: Potential and Electric field
2
0
ˆ

4
r
Qd a
Then V
r πε

=

2
0
ˆ

4
r
p a
V
r πε

=

, By defining Qd p dipole moment =

The magnitude of dipole moment is equal to the product of charge
and distance and its direction is from Q to +Q −
The electric field due to the dipole with centre at the origin is given by
E V = −∇
1
ˆ ˆ
r
V V
a a
r r
θ
θ
∂ ∂ ⎡ ⎤
= − +
⎢ ⎥
∂ ∂ ⎣ ⎦
There is no field variation along direction φ
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric dipoles: Potential and Electric field
2
0
cos

4
Q d
Where V
r
θ
πε
=
1
ˆ ˆ
r
V V
E a a
r r
θ
θ
∂ ∂ ⎡ ⎤
= − +
⎢ ⎥
∂ ∂ ⎣ ⎦

3 3
0 0
cos sin
ˆ ˆ
2 4
r
Qd Qd
E a a
r r
θ
θ θ
πε πε
= +

( )
3
0
ˆ ˆ 2cos sin
4
r
p
a a
r
θ
θ θ
πε
= +
( )
3
0
ˆ ˆ 2cos sin
4
r
p
E a a
r
θ
θ θ
πε
= +

2
0
ˆ

4
r
p a
V
r πε

=

When the dipole centre is at the origin,
'

When the dipole centre is not at the origin, but at r
( )
'
3
'
0

4
p r r
V
r r πε
⋅ −
=



Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric dipoles: Potential and Electric field
2
A point charge is a monopole and its field varies inversely as r ♣
and its potential varies inversely as r
3
The electric field due to a dipole varies inversely as r and its ♣
2
potential varies inversely as r
The electric field due to successive higher order multipoles ♣
4 5 6
, , ,...... varies inversely as r r r while their potential varies
3 4 5
, , ,...... inversely as r r r
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Flux lines and equipotential surfaces
An electric flux line is an imaginary line or path drawn in such a way
that its direction at any point is the direction of the electric field at
that point.
A surface on which the potential is the same throughout is called
equipotential surface.
The intersection of an equipotential surface and a plane results in a
path or line called equipotential line.
No work is done in moving a charge from one point to another along
an equipotential line or surface.
This implies flux lines (direction of E) are always normal to
equipotential surfaces.
0 E dl ⋅ =


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric dipoles and flux lines
+
Flux lines
Equipotential surface
Equipotential surfaces of a point charge
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Electric dipoles and flux lines
Z
Flux lines
Equipotential surface
0 V >
0 V <
Equipotential surfaces of a dipole
17
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Energy density in electrostatic fields
Consider a region free of electric fields. Let there be three point
charges Q1,Q2,Q3 at infinity
To determine the energy present in the assembly of charges, we
have to determine the amount of work necessary to assemble them.
No work is required to transfer Q1 from infinity to P1 because the
space is initially charge free.




1
P
2
P
3
P
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Energy density in electrostatic fields
The work done in transferring Q
2
from infinity to P
2
is equal to the
product of Q
2
and the potential V
21
at P
2
due to Q
1
.
The work done in positioning Q
3
at P
3
is equal to Q
3
(V
32
+V
31
).
The total work in positioning the three charges is
If the charges were positioned in the reverse order
Adding (1) and (2)
1 2 3 E
W W W W = + +
( )
2 21 3 31 32
0 ------(1) Q V Q V V = + + +
3 2 1 E
W W W W = + +
( )
2 23 1 12 13
0 ------(2) Q V Q V V = + + +
( ) ( ) ( )
1 12 13 2 21 23 3 31 32
2
E
W Q V V Q V V Q V V = + + + + +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Energy density in electrostatic fields
If there are n point charges
If the region has a continuous charge distribution, the summation
becomes integration
( )
1 1 2 2 3 3
1

2
E
W QV Q V QV = + +
1 2 3 1 2 3
V ,V ,V Total potentials at P , P and P ⇒
1
1
2
n
E k k
k
W Q V
=
=

1

2
E L
L
W Vdl Line Charge ρ = ⇒

1

2
E S
S
W VdS Surface Charge ρ = ⇒

1

2
E V
V
W VdV Volume Charge ρ = ⇒

1 1 2 2 3 3
2
E
W QV Q V QV = + +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Energy density in electrostatic fields

,
V
Applying D ρ ∇⋅ =

( )
1
2
E
V
W D VdV = ∇⋅


( )
Using the identity A V VA A V ∇⋅ = ∇⋅ − ⋅ ∇

( )
1
2
E
V
W VD D V dV = ∇⋅ − ⋅ ∇


( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
V V
VD dV D V dV = ∇⋅ − ⋅ ∇
∫ ∫

Applying divergence theoremto the first termon the RHS
( )
1 1
2 2
E
S V
W VD dS D V dV = ⋅ − ⋅ ∇
∫ ∫

1
2
E V
V
W VdV ρ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Energy density in electrostatic fields
2 3
1/ 1/ 1/ V varies as r and D as r so that VD varies as r
2
The surface area increases as r
. the surface area goes to infinity
1
The quantity VD dS decreases effectively as
r


, If we allow the volume v to increase to include all space
S The surface integral goes to zero as r and → ∞ → ∞
( )
2
1
2
1
S
E
V
VD dS W D V dV = − ⋅ ⋅ ∇
∫ ∫

0 =
( )
1 1
2 2
E
S V
W VD dS D V dV = ⋅ − ⋅ ∇
∫ ∫

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Energy density in electrostatic fields
2
0
1
2
E ε =
( )
1
2
E
dW D E dV = ⋅

( )
1
2
E
dW
D E
dV
= ⋅

is defined as the energy
E
E
dW
w
dV
=
( )
2
2
0
0
1 1
2 2 2
E
D
w D E E ε
ε
= ⋅ = =

E E
W w dV =

( ) 0
1
2
V
E E dV ε = ⋅


2
0
1
2
V
E dV ε =

( )
1
2
E
V
W D V dV = − ⋅ ∇


2
0
1
2
E dV ε =
Energy density is a quantity
which when integrated on
overall space yields the
total energy
' ' All space is the volume
. containing the entire field
density in electrostatic field
Putting E V = −∇

( )
1
2
E
V
W D E dV = ⋅


E E
W w dV =

18
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
Three point charges -1nC, 4nC,and 3nC are located at (0,0,0),
(0,0,1), and (1,0,0). Find the energy in the system.
3
1
1
2
k k
k
Q V
=
=

1
1
2
n
E k k
k
W Q V
=
=

[ ] 1 1 2 2 3 3
1
2
QV Q V QV = + +
2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1
2 4 (1) 4 (1) 2 4 (1) 2 4 (1) 4 ( 2) 4 ( 2)
Q Q Q Q Q Q
Q Q Q
πε πε πε πε πε πε
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
= + + + + +
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦





• 1nC −
4nC
3nC
4nC
1nC −
3nC
1
1
2
x
z
y
x
z
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
2 3
1 2 1 3
0
1
4 2
Q Q
W QQ QQ
πε
⎛ ⎞
= + +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
0
1 12
4 3
4 2
nJ
πε
⎛ ⎞
= − − +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
13.37nJ =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 2
A charge distribution with spherical symmetry is given by
determine the energy stored in the region r < R
0
0
0
V
r R
r R
ρ
ρ
≤ ≤ ⎧
=

>

R
V
ρ
The electric field of spherical charge distribution is
0
0
ˆ
3
r
r
E or r a F R
ρ
ε
≤ =

( )
1
2
E
V
W D E dV = ⋅


2
0
1
2
V
E dV ε =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 2
0
0
ˆ
3
r
r
E a
ρ
ε
=

0
0
3
r
E
ρ
ε
=
2 2
2 0
2
0
9
r
E
ρ
ε
=
2
0
1
2
E
V
W E dV ε =

2 2
0
2 0
0
9
1
2
V
d
r
V
ρ
ε
ε
=

0
2
2
0 0
2
18
V
r dV
ε ρ
ε
=

0
2
2
0 2
si
8
n
1
V
r r drd d θ
ε
θ
ρ
φ =

2
4
2
0
0 0 0
0
s
18
in
R
r
r drd d
π π
φ θ
θ θ φ
ρ
ε
= = =
=
∫ ∫ ∫
2
4
0 0 0
2
0
0
si
18
n
R
r
d d r dr
π π
φ θ
φ
ρ
ε
θ θ
= = =
=
∫ ∫ ∫
2 5
0
0 0
4
18 5
R
r ρ
π
ε
⎡ ⎤
=
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
2 5
0
0
2
45
R πρ
ε
=
2 5
0
0
2
45
E
R
W
πρ
ε
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conduction and convection currents
The current through a given area is the electric charge passing
through the area per unit time. Its unit is Amperes.
One ampere current is produced if charge is transferred at the rate
of one coulomb per second.
The concept of current density is useful in defining the events
occurring at a point.
If current ΔI flows through a surface ΔS, then current density is
dQ
I
dt
=
n
I
J
S
Δ
=
Δ
n
And Assuming the current density is perpendic Δ u I = J ΔS lar
to the surface.
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conduction and convection currents
If the current density is not normal to the surface
The total current flowing through the surface is
ΔI = Jcos ΔS θ = J ΔS ⋅

S
I = J dS ⋅


S Δ

J

θ
S Δ
19
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Convection currents
Convection current is produced when current flows through an
insulating medium such as liquid, rarefied gas, or a vacuum.
It does not involve conductors and hence does not satisfy Ohm’s
law.
A beam of electrons in a vacuum tube is an example of convection
current.
l Δ
S Δ
V
ρ
u

y
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Convection currents
Consider a beam of electrons with volume charge density ρ
V
flowing
in the y direction with a velocity u
y
.
The current through the filament is
The y directed current density J
y
is given by
In general
ˆ
y y
u u a =

Q
I
t
Δ
Δ =
Δ
( )
V
S l
t
ρ Δ Δ
=
Δ
V
l
S
t
ρ
Δ ⎛ ⎞
= Δ
⎜ ⎟
Δ ⎝ ⎠
V y
Su ρ = Δ
y V y
I
J u
S
ρ
Δ
= =
Δ
V
J u ρ =

V
Convection current density J u ρ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conduction currents
Conduction current requires a conductor as a medium.
A conductor contains a large number of free electrons that provide
conduction current due to an impressed electric field.
When an electric field is applied the force on an electron with
charge –e is
Since the electron is not in free space it will not be accelerated
under the influence of the electric field.
It suffers constant collisions with the atomic lattice and drifts from
one atom to another.
If the electron with mass m is moving in an electric field with an
average drift velocity the average change in momentum of the
free electron must match the applied force.
F eE = −

E

E

u

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conduction currents
According to Newton’s law,
This indicates that the drift velocity is directly proportional to the
applied field.
If there are n electrons per unit volume the electronic charge density
is given by
Convection current density is
mu
eE
τ
= −

e
u E
m
τ
= −

Average time interval τ ⇒
V
ne ρ = −
V
J u ρ =

2
ne
J E
m
τ
=

J E σ =

J E σ =

between collisions
2
is the conduct
n
i ity
e
m
v
τ
σ =
POINT FORM OF
OHM’S LAW
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductors
A conductor contains free electrons which accounts for its
conductivity.
In an isolated conductor, when an external electric field is
applied, the positive charges moves in the same direction as the
applied field.
The negative charges moves in the opposite direction.
These free charges accumulate on the surface of the conductor and
form an induced surface charge.
The induced charges set up an internal induced field which
cancels the externally applied field
e
E

i
E

e
E

Thus a perfect conductor cannot contain an electrostatic
field within it.
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductors
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
e
E

e
E

e
E

i
E

i
E

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0 E =

0
V
ρ =
A perfect conductor cannot contain an electrostatic field within it.
e
E

e
E

e
E

20
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductors
Inside a conductor
Thus a conductor is an equipotential body.
Also, in a conductor, and as per the equation, the
electric field intensity
According to Gauss’s law,
If the charge density
0 0 V=0 E V = −∇ =

and which implies
σ → ∞ J E σ =

0 E →

0
V
ρ =
V
S V
E dS dV ε ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫

0 E =

Inside a perfect conducter
V ab
,E =0, ρ =0, V =0

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductors
When the two ends of the conductor are maintained at a potential
difference V, the electric field is not zero inside the conductor.
In this case there is no static equilibrium, since the applied voltage
prevents the establishment of such equilibrium.
An electric field must exist inside the conductor to sustain the flow of
current.
The opposition to the flow is called resistance.
l
E

V
I
- - - - -
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductors
The magnitude of the electric field is given by
Since the conductor has a uniform cross section,
By Ohm’s law
V
E
l
=
I
J
A
=
J E σ =
I V
E
A l
σ
σ = =
V l
I A σ
=
l l
R
A A
ρ
σ
= =
l
Resistivity ρ
σ
= ⇒
l
R
A
ρ
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductors
Resistance of a conductor having non-uniform cross section is
E dl
V
R
I E dS σ
− ⋅
= =





Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
If calculate the current passing
through
A hemispherical shell of radius 20 cm
A spherical shell of radius 10 cm
3
3
1
ˆ ˆ (2cos sin ) A/m
r
J a a
r
φ
θ θ = +

S
I J dS = ⋅


2
si ˆ n
r
a dS r d d θ θ φ =

3
3
1
ˆ ˆ (2cos sin ) A/m
r
J a a
r
φ
θ θ = +

( ) ( )
2
3
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ 2cos sin sin
r r
S
I a a r d d a
r
φ
θ θ θ θ φ = + ⋅

1
2cos sin
S
I d d
r
θ θ θ φ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
31.4A =
, 0 0.1 In the second case and r θ π ≤ ≤ =
1
2cos sin
S
I d d
r
θ θ θ φ =

2 /2
0 0
1
2sin cos d d
r
π π
φ θ
θ θ θ φ
= =
=
∫ ∫
/2
0
2
2sin cos d
r
π
θ
π
θ θ θ
=
=

/2
0
31.4 2sin cos d
π
θ
θ θ θ
=
=

0
2
2sin cos I d
r
π
θ
π
θ θ θ
=
=
∫ 0
62.8 2sin cos d
π
θ
θ θ θ
=
=

0 =
21
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Continuity equation and relaxation time
dS

J

dS
Bounding Surface S
in
Q
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Continuity equation and relaxation time
Electric charges can be neither created nor destroyed according to
law of conservation of electric charges.
Consider an arbitrary volume V bounded by surfaces S as shown in
figure.
A net charge Q
in
exists within this region.
If a net current I flows across this surface the charge in the volume
must decrease at a rate that equals the current.
If a net current flows across the surface in to the volume, the charge
in the volume must increase at the rate equal to the current.
The current leaving the volume is the total outward flux of the
current density vector through the surface S.
----(1)
in
OUT
S
dQ
I J dS
dt
= ⋅ = −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Continuity equation and relaxation time
Substituting (2) and (3) in (1)
This equation is called continuity of current equation or continuity
equation.
---(2)
S V
Using divergence theorem, J dS = Jdv ⋅ ∇⋅
∫ ∫

----(3)
in v
v
V V
dQ d
= dv =
dt dt t
ρ
ρ

− − −

∫ ∫
=
v
V V
Jdv
t
ρ ∂
∇⋅ −

∫ ∫

=
v
J
t
ρ ∂
∇⋅ −


=
v
J
t
ρ ∂
∇⋅ −


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Continuity equation and relaxation time
It basically states that there can be no accumulation of charge at
any point.
For steady currents and hence
The total current leaving a volume is the same as the total current
entering it.
Kirchhoff’s current law follows from it.
=0
v
t
ρ ∂

=0 J ∇⋅

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Continuity equation and relaxation time
If we introduce charge at some interior point of a given material with
constants σ and ε its effect can be obtained using the continuity
equation.
From Ohm’s law
From Gauss’s law
Substituting in the continuity equation,
= J E σ

v
D ρ ∇⋅ =


v
and hence E
ρ
ε
∇⋅ =

=
v
J
t
ρ ∂
∇⋅ −


=
v
E
t
ρ
σ

∇⋅ −


=
v v
t
σρ ρ
ε



=0
v
v
t
ρ σ
ρ
ε

+

=0
v
v
t
ρ σ
ρ
ε

+

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Continuity equation and relaxation time
This equation is a homogeneous linear ordinary differential
equation.
Separating the variables,
Integrating both sides
=0
v
v
t
ρ σ
ρ
ε

+

/
0
=
r
t T
v v
e ρ ρ


v
v
t
ρ σ
ρ ε

= − ∂
0
ln ln
v v
t σ
ρ ρ
ε
= − +
0
ln
v
ρ Where is a constant of integration
/
0
=
r
t T
v v
e ρ ρ


r
Where T
ε
σ
=
22
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Continuity equation and relaxation time
When we introduce a volume charge density at an interior point in a
material, it decays resulting in a charge movement from the interior
point at which it was introduced to the surface of the material.
The time constant T
r
of this decay is called relaxation time or
rearrangement time.
Relaxation time is the time it takes for a charge placed in the interior
of a material to drop to e
-1
or 36.8 percent of its initial value.
It is very short for good conductors and very long for good
dielectrics.
For a good conductor the relaxation time is so short that most of the
charge will vanish from the interior point and appear at the surface
within a short time.
For a good dielectric the relaxation time is very long that the
introduced charge remains at the same point.
19
1.53 10 Cu s

⇒ ×
51.2 Quartz days ⇒
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Boundary conditions
When the field exists in a medium consisting of two different media,
the conditions the field must satisfy are called boundary conditions.
For the electrostatic field the following boundary conditions are
important.
Dielectric – dielectric interface.
Conductor – dielectric.
Conductor – free space.
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Dielectric-dielectric Boundary conditions
Consider the boundary between two dielectrics with permittivities
1 2
1 0 2 0

r r
ε ε ε ε ε ε = = and
a
b
c
d
W Δ
h Δ
1
ε
2
ε
1t
E

1n
E

1
E

2t
E

2n
E
2
E

1
2
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Dielectric-dielectric Boundary conditions
The fields in the two media can be expressed as
Apply the equation to the path abcda in the figure.
Tangential components of are equal at the boundary.
undergoes no change on the boundary and it is continuous
across the boundary.
1 1 1 t n
E E E = +

2 2 2 t n
E E E = +

0
l
E dl ⋅ =

1 1 2 2 2 1
0
2 2 2 2
t n n t n n
abcda
h h h h
E dl E w E E E w E E
Δ Δ Δ Δ
⋅ = Δ − − − Δ + + =

1 2
0
t t
E w E w Δ − Δ =
1 2 t t
E E =
1 2 t t
E E =
E

t
E

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Dielectric-dielectric Boundary conditions
The tangential component of under goes some change across the
boundary.
So is said to be discontinuous across the boundary.
The boundary conditions for the normal components are obtained by
applying Gauss’s law on a small pill box shaped volume as in the
figure.
1 2 t t
E E =
1 2
1 2
t t
D D
ε ε
=
2 1 1 2 t t
D D ε ε =
D

D

S
D dS Q ⋅ =

1 2 n n S
D S D S Q S ρ Δ − Δ = Δ = Δ
1 2 n n S
D D ρ − =
0 h Δ → Assuming
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Dielectric-dielectric Boundary conditions
h Δ
1
ε
2
ε
1t
D

1n
D

1
D

2t
D

2n
D

2
D

1
2
S Δ
23
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Dielectric-dielectric Boundary conditions
If no free charge exists at the boundary,
Normal components of are equal at the boundary.
undergoes no change on the boundary and it is continuous
across the boundary.
The normal component of under goes some change across the
boundary.
So is said to be discontinuous across the boundary.
1 2 n n S
D D ρ − =
0
S
ρ =
1 2 n n
D D =
1 2 n n S
D D ρ − =
1 2 n n
D D =
D

n
D

1 2 n n
D D =
1 1 2 2 n n
E E ε ε =
1 2
2 1
n
n
E
E
ε
ε
=
D

n
D

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Dielectric-dielectric Boundary conditions
1
θ
1t
D

1n
D

1
D

2t
D

2n
D

2
D

1t
E

1n
E
1
E

2t
E

2n
E

2
E

2
θ
1
ε
2
ε
1
2
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Dielectric-dielectric Boundary conditions
1 2 t t
E E =
1 1 2 2
sin sin -- (1) E E θ θ =
1 2 n n
D D =
1 1 2 2
cos cos D D θ θ =
1 1 1 2 2 2
cos cos - -- (2) E E ε θ ε θ =
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
(2)
co
sin si
s cos
n
) / (1
E
E
E
E
θ θ
ε θ ε θ
⇒ =
2 1 1 2
tan tan ε θ ε θ =
1 1 0 1 1
2 2 0 2 2
tan
tan
r r
r r
θ ε ε ε ε
θ ε ε ε ε
= = =
1 1
2 2
tan
tan
r
r
θ ε
θ ε
=
This is called law of refraction
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductor-Dielectric boundary conditions
a
b
c
d
W Δ
h Δ
0 r
Dielectric ε ε ε =
t
E

n
E

E

0 Conductor E =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductor-Dielectric boundary conditions
0 r
Dielectric ε ε ε =
D

n
D

t
D

0 Conductor E =

h Δ
S Δ
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductor-Dielectric boundary conditions
The interface between a perfect conductor and a dielectric shown in
figure.
Apply the equation to the path abcda in the figure.
The boundary conditions for the normal components are obtained by
applying Gauss’s law on a small pill box shaped volume as in the
figure.
0
l
E dl ⋅ =

0 0 0 0
2 2 2 2
t n n
abcda
h h h h
E dl E w E w E
Δ Δ Δ Δ
⋅ = Δ − − ⋅ − ⋅ Δ + ⋅ + =

0
t
E w Δ =
0
t
E =
S
D dS Q ⋅ =

0
n
D S S Q Δ − ⋅ Δ = Δ 0 h Δ → Assuming
n S
Q
D
S
ρ
Δ
= =
Δ
0 n r n S
D E ε ε ρ = =
0
t
D =
0
0
t r t
D E ε ε = =
0
0
t r t
D E ε ε = =
24
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductor-Dielectric boundary conditions
No electric field exists inside a perfect conductor.
External electric field, if any, is normal to the conductor surface as
given by
n S
D ρ =
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Conductor-Free space boundary conditions
This is a special case of conductor-dielectric conditions.
It can be obtained by replacing in the equation
As in the earlier case
0 n r n S
D E ε ε ρ = =
1
r
ε =
0 n n S
D E ε ρ = =
0
0
t r t
D E ε ε = =
0
0
t t
D E ε = =
0 n n S
D E ε ρ = =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Conductor-Free space boundary conditions
0

r
Free space ε ε ε =
D

n
D

t
D

0 Conductor E =

n
E

t
E
E

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation
Gauss’s law in point form is given by
Substituting in the above equation,
We know that
This equation is known as Poisson’s equation.
V
D ρ ∇⋅ =

D E ε =

V
E ε ρ ∇⋅ =

E V = −∇

( ) V
V ε ρ ∇⋅ − ∇ =

V
V
ρ
ε
∇⋅ ∇ = −

2
. .,
V
i e V
ρ
ε
∇ = −

2

V
V
ρ
ε
∇ = −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z x y z
V V V
V a a a a a a
x y z x y z
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇⋅ ∇ = + + ⋅ + +
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

V V V
x x y y z z
⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
= + +
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦
2 2 2
2 2 2
V V V
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
= + +
∂ ∂ ∂
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
V
V V V
V
x y z
ρ
ε
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + + = −
∂ ∂ ∂

2 2 2
2 2 2
V
V V V
x y z
ρ
ε
∂ ∂ ∂
+ + = −
∂ ∂ ∂
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation
In the case of a charge free region, Poisson’s equation reduces to
Laplace’s equation as given below.
In cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems
2
0 V ∇ =
2 2 2
2 2 2
0
V V V
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
+ + =
∂ ∂ ∂
2 2
2
2 2 2
1 1
0
V V V
V
z
ρ
ρ ρ ρ ρ φ
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + + =
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

2
2 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
sin 0
sin sin
V V V
V r
r r r r r
θ
θ θ θ θ φ
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
∇ = + + =
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

25
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation
Laplace’s equation is very useful in finding out the potential V of a
set of conductors maintained at different potentials as in the case of
capacitor plates.
Electric field can be obtained once we obtain potential V from E

E V = −∇

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
General Procedure for solving Poisson’s and Laplace’s
equations to find capacitance
Solve Laplace’s ( if ρ
v
= 0 ) or Poisson’s equation ) if ( ρ
v
≠ 0 ) using
Direct integration if V is a function of one variable
Separation of variables if v is a function of more than one variable.
The solution at this point is not unique but expressed in terms of unknown
integration constants.
Apply boundary conditions to determine a unique solution for V.
After obtaining V, find using and using
Find the charge induced on a conductor using where
ρ
s
=D
n
and D
n
is the component of normal to the conductor.
If required find the capacitance between the conductors using C=Q/V
E

E V = −∇

D

D E ε =

D
s
Q dS ρ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Uniqueness Theorem
Proof: ( by contradiction ) Proof: ( by contradiction )
Assume that there are two solutions V1 and V2 of Laplace’s
equations both of which satisfies the given boundary conditions.
V1 and V2 must reduce to the same potential along the boundary
If a solution to Laplace’s Equation can be found that satisfies the
boundary conditions, then the solution is unique.
2
1
0 V ∇ =

2
2
0 V ∇ =

( )
2
2 1
0 That is V V ∇ − =

( )
2 1 d
Letting V V V − =
2
0
d
V ∇ =

( )
2 1
0
d
V V V − = =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Uniqueness Theorem
From divergence theorem
The above equation is true for any vector, so let be the vector
V S
AdV A dS ∇⋅ = ⋅
∫ ∫

d d
A V V = ∇

A

( ) ( )
------(1)
d d d
V S
d
V V V V dV dS ∇ ⋅ = ∇ ∇ ⋅
∫ ∫

Using the vector identity ( )
A A A ψ ψ ψ ∇⋅ = ∇⋅ + ⋅ ∇

( ) ( ) ( ) d d d d d d
V V V V V V ∇⋅ ∇ = ∇⋅ ∇ + ∇ ⋅ ∇

2
0
d
Putting V ∇ =

( )
2
2
d d d
V V V = ∇ + ∇

( ) ( )
2
----(2)
d d d
V V V ∇ ⋅ ∇ = ∇

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Uniqueness Theorem
Putting eq (2) in eq (1)
( )
2

d d d
V S
dV dS V V V = ∇ ⋅ ∇
∫ ∫

0
d
Putting V = ( )
2
0
d
V
V dV ∇ =

2
0
d
V
V dV ∇ =


0
d
V ∇ =

( )
2 1
0 V V ∇ − =

2 1
. Which implies V V is a constant every where −
2 1
0 At the boundary we have seen that V V − =
2 1 1 2
0 . So V V or V V everywhere − = =
1 2
. So V and V cannot be different solutions of the same problem
. Uniqueness theorem is proved
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
Using Laplace’s theorem obtain the potential distribution between
two spherical conductors separated by a single dielectric. The inner
spherical conductor of radius a is at a potential V
0
and the outer
conductor of radius b is at potential zero. Also evaluate the electric
field.
0
V
a
b
2
4
sb
Q
b
ρ
π

=
2
4
sa
Q
b
ρ
π
=
26
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
sin 0
sin sin
V V V
V r
r r r r r
θ
θ θ θ θ φ
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
∇ = + + =
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

Laplaces equation in spherical coordinates is
Since V is a function of r only
2 2
2
1
0
V
V r
r r r
∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
∇ = =
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠

2
1
0 Since we get
r

2
0
V
r
r r
∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠
Integrating with respect to r
2
1
V
r K
r

=

2
1
,
V
r That K is
r

=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
Again integrating with respect to r
1
2
K
V K
r
= − +
1 2
Constants K and K are found out by applying boundary
. conditions
0
( ) ,
( ) , 0
i r a V V
ii r b V
= =
= =
1
0 2
K
V K
a
= − +
1
2
0
K
K
b
= − +





1 eqations
1 Solving eqations
1 0
( )
ab
K V
b a
= −

0
2
( )
V a
K
b a

=

0 0
( ( ) )
V ab V a
V
b b
T
r
h
a a
en = −
− −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 1
0 0
( ) ( )
V ab V a
V
b a r b a
= −
− −
E V = −∇

1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
sin
r
V V V
E a a a
r r r
θ φ
θ θ φ
⎡ ⎤ ∂ ∂ ∂
= − + +
⎢ ⎥
∂ ∂ ∂
⎣ ⎦

Since V is a function of r only ˆ
r
V
E a
r

= −

0 0
( ) ( )
ˆ
r
V ab V a
b a r r b
E a
a

⎡ ⎤ ∂
= −




⎣ ⎦

0
2
ˆ
( )
r
V ab
E a
b a r
=

0
2
ˆ
(
V/m
)
r
V ab
E a
b a r
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 2
Find the potential at any point between the plates of a parallel plate
capacitor and electric field.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+











0 y = y d =
z
y
0
V
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 2
Laplace’s equation in rectangular coordinates is
Since V is a function of y only
2
2
0
V
y

=

2 2 2
2 2 2
0
V V V
x y z
∂ ∂ ∂
+ + =
∂ ∂ ∂
Integrating with respect to y
1
V
K
y

=

Again integrating with respect to y
1 2
V K y K = +
1 2
Constants K and K are found out by applying boundary
. conditions
( ) , 0 ii y d V = =
0
( ) y 0, i V V = =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 2
1 2
Substituting in V K y K = +
2 0
K V =
0
1
V
K
d
= −
0
0
V
V y V
d
= − +
E V = −∇

ˆ
y
V
a
y

= −

0
0
ˆ
y
V
y V a
y d
∂ ⎛ ⎞
= − − +
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
0
ˆ
y
V
a
d
=
0
ˆ
y
V
E a
d
=

0
ˆ
y
V
E a
d
=

27
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 3
Find the potential distribution between the conductors, and the
capacitance per unit length.
a
b
0
V
1m
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 3
Laplace’s equation in cylindrical coordinates is
2 2
2
2 2 2
1 1
0
V V V
V
z
ρ
ρ ρ ρ ρ φ
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + + =
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

Since V is a function of only ρ
1
0
V
ρ
ρ ρ ρ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
=
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
1
0 Since we get
ρ

0
V
ρ
ρ ρ
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
=
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
Integrating with respect to ρ
1
V
K ρ
ρ

=

Again integrating with respect to ρ
1 2
ln V K K ρ = +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 3
1 2
Constants K and K are found out by applying boundary
. conditions
0
( ) ,
( ) , 0
i a V V
ii b V
ρ
ρ
= =
= =





(1) eqations
( ) 1 Solving eqations
0 1 2
ln V K a K = +
1 2
0 ln K b K = +
0
1
ln( / )
V
K
b a
= −
0
2
ln
ln( / )
V
K b
b a
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 3
0 0
ln ln
ln( / ) ln( / )
V
V V
b
b a b a
ρ + − =
0
ln( / )
ln( / )
b
V
a b
ρ
=
0
ln( / )
Volts
ln( / )
b
V V
a b
ρ
=
E V = −∇

ˆ
V
a
ρ
ρ

= −

0
ln( / )
ˆ
ln( / )
b
V a
a b
ρ
ρ
ρ
⎛ ⎞ ∂
= −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
0
ˆ
ln( / )
V
a
b a
ρ
ρ
=
0
ˆ V/m
ln( / )
V
E a
b a
ρ
ρ
=

' , Applying gauss s law for the inner conductor
S
D dS Q ⋅ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 Batch July 2008
Example 3
0
2
C=
ln( / )
Q
V b a
πε
=
2
C= F/m
ln / ( ) b a
πε
0
ˆ ˆ
ln( / )
S
V
a d dza Q
b a
ρ ρ
ε ρ φ
ρ
=

0
ln( / )
S
V
d dz Q
b a
ε
φ =

0
ln( / )
S
V
d dz Q
b a
ε
φ =

1 2
0
0 0
ln( / )
V
dz d Q
b a
π
ε
φ =
∫ ∫
0
2
ln( / )
V
Q
b a
πε
=
1
MODULE III
Magnetostatics
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Syllabus
Magnostatics and Maxwell’s equations:
Magnostatic fields - Biot Savart law - Ampere’s circuital law -
Applications of Ampere’s circuital law - Magnetic flux density -
Magnetic scalar and vector potentials. Magnetic forces, materials
and devices - Forces due to magnetic fields - Magnetic torque and
moment - Magnetic dipole - Magnetization in materials -
Classification of magnetic materials - Magnetic boundary conditions
- Inductors and inductances - Magnetic energy - Magnetic circuits -
Faraday’s law - displacement current. Time harmonic fields -
Maxwell’s equations for static fields and time varying fields - word
statement.
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 - July 2008
References
Text Books:
1. Mathew N.O. Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford University
Press
2. Jordan and Balmain, Electromagnetic waves and radiating systems,
Pearson Education PHI Ltd.
References:
1. Kraus Fleisch, Electromagnetics with applications, McGraw Hill
2. William.H.Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, Tata McGraw Hill
3. N.Narayana Rao, Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Pearson
Education PHI Ltd.
4. D.Ganesh Rao, Engineering Electromagnetics, Sanguine Technical
Publishers.
5. Joseph.A.Edminister, Electromagnetics, Schaum series-McGraw Hill
6. K.D. Prasad, Electromagnetic fields and waves, Sathya Prakashan
Compiled by: MKP for CEC S5 - July 2008
Concept of Current element
Direct currents flows only in closed loops.
We can find out the contributions to the magnetic field due to
differential lengths of such current carrying conductors.
A current element is the current I flowing through a differential vector
length of a filamentary conductor.
A filamentary conductor is the limiting case of a cylindrical conductor
of circular cross section as the radius approaches zero.
dL

IdL

I
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Biot-Savart’s Law
Biot-Savart’s law states that the magnetic field intensity dH
produced at a point P by a differential current element Idl is
proportional to the product Idl and the sine of the angle α
between the element and the line joining P to the element
and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance R
between P and the element and its direction can be
obtained by right handed screw rule.
2
sin Idl
dH
R
α

2
sin Idl
dH k
R
α
=
1/ 4 k is a proportionality constant whose value is π
2
sin
4
Idl
dH
R
α
π
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Biot-Savart’s Law
2
sin
4
Idl
dH
R
α
π
=
This equation can be modified by incorporating the direction
of the magnetic field intensity
2
ˆ
4
R
I dl a
dH
R π
×
=

3
4
I dl R
R π
×
=

ˆ and
R
R
R R a
R
= =

Idl Current element ⇒
ˆ
R
a Unit vector directed from current element to P ⇒
R Distance from current element to point P ⇒
dH Magnetic field intensity at P ⇒
2
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Biot-Savart’s Law

α
R
P
I
dl

ˆ
R
a

dH

2
ˆ
4
R
I dl a
dH
R π
×
=

2
sin
4
Idl
dH
R
α
π
=

2
sin
ˆ
4
n
Idl
dH a
R
α
π
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Current elements
I
I dl

KdS

JdV

J

K

Line current Surface current Volume current
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Concept of surface current density
When current flows through a sheet of vanishingly small thickness
we cannot measure current density in amperes per square meter
as it becomes infinite.
In this case surface current density is measured in amperes per
meter width and is designated as
If the surface current density is uniform, the total current in any width
b is I=Kb where the width b is measured perpendicular to the
direction of current flow.
J

K

b
I
K

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Concept of surface current density
For a non-uniform surface current density, we have to integrate K
over the path of interest.
Where dN is a differential element of the path across which the
current is flowing.
Let ΔS be the cross sectional area of the wire. Then
Let dv=dSdh, where dh is the thickness of the surface current. Then
I KdN =

IdL J SdL Jdv = Δ =

( )
Jdv JdSdh Jdh dS KdS = = =

IdL Jdv KdS ⇒ ⇒

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Biot-Savart’s Law
In terms of distributed current sources, the Biot-Savart’s law may be
expressed in the following ways:
2
ˆ

4
R
L
for line current
I dl a
H
R π
×
=

2

ˆ

4
R
S
for sur
KdS a
face cu e t
R
rr n H
π
×
=

2
ˆ

4

R
V
for
Jdv a
vo H
R
lume current
π
×
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a linear conductor
A
R
P
dl

I
α
ρ
z
y
x
2
α
B
0
1
α
z
0,0,z
cot z ρ α =
ˆ a
ρ
ρ
ˆ
z
za
ˆ ˆ
z
R a za
ρ
ρ = −

2 2
R z ρ = +
3
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a linear conductor
dl Small current element in the conductor AB ⇒
P Point where the magnetic field is required. ⇒
Perpendicular distance between the conductor and the point P ρ ⇒
1 2
, Angles subtended by the lower and upper ends of AB. α α ⇒
Let
By Biot - Savart's law the contribution dH at P due to an element
(0,0,z) dl at is

3
4
I dl R
dH
R π
×
=

ˆ ˆ ˆ
z z
But an dl =dza R z d a a
ρ
ρ = −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a linear conductor
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
z z
dl R=dza z a a
ρ
ρ × − ×

ˆ = dza
φ
ρ
3
ˆ
4
I dz
dH a
R
φ
ρ
π
=

3
ˆ
4
I dz
H a
R
φ
ρ
π
=

cot But z = ρ α
2
cosec dz = d ρ α α −
2 2 3/2
ˆ
4 ( )
I dz
a
z
φ
ρ
π ρ
=
+

( )
2
1
2 2
3/2
2 2 2

ˆ
4
I cosec d
H a
+ cot
α
φ
α
ρ α α
π
ρ ρ α
= −

( )
2
1
2 2
3/2
2 2

ˆ
4
I cosec d
a
1+cot
α
φ
α
ρ α α
π
ρ α
= −
⎡ ⎤
⎣ ⎦

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a linear conductor
2
1
2 2
3 3

ˆ
4
I cosec d
a
cosec
α
φ
α
ρ α α
π ρ α
= −

2
1
2 2
3/2
2 2

ˆ
4
cos
I cosec d
H a
ec
α
φ
α
ρ α α
π
ρ α
= −
⎡ ⎤
⎣ ⎦

2
1
ˆ sin
4
I
a d
α
φ
α
α α
πρ
= −

( )
2 1
ˆ cos cos
4
I
a
φ
α α
πρ
= −
( )
2 1
ˆ cos cos
4
I
H a
φ
α α
πρ
= −

ˆ ˆ
l
a a a
φ ρ
= ×
[ ]
2
1
ˆ cos
4
I
a
α
φ
α
α
πρ
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a linear conductor
When the conductor is semi-infinite, so that point a is now at O(0,0,0)
while B is at
When the conductor is of infinite length, point A is at
1 2
(0, 0, ) 90 , 0 α α ∞ = =

and
( ) ˆ cos0 cos90
4
I
H a
φ
πρ
= −

ˆ
4
I
a
φ
πρ
=
ˆ
4
I
H a
φ
πρ
=

1 2
(0, 0, ) 180 , 0 B is at α α ∞ = =

while and
(0, 0, ) −∞
( ) ˆ cos0 cos180
4
I
H a
φ
πρ
= −

ˆ
2
I
a
φ
πρ
=
ˆ
2
I
H a
φ
πρ
=

ˆ ˆ
l
a a a
φ ρ
= ×
ˆ ˆ
l
a a a
φ ρ
= ×
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field at the centre of a circular current loop
90 α = •
I dl

ˆ
R
a
X
Y
Z
O
P
2
sin
4
ˆ
n
Idl
dH
R
a
α
π
=

I
a
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field at the centre of a circular current loop
The magnetic field intensity at O is given by
where is the field intensity at O due to any current element
The direction of at any point P on the circular wire is given by
the tangent at P in the direction of current flow.
The unit vector at P directed towards O is along the radius PO so
that α = 90
o
.
Total field intensity at the centre of the circular wire is obtained by
integrating dH around the circular path.
H dH =

dH

Idl

2
ˆ
4
R
I dl a
dH
R π
×
=

2
sin
4
ˆ
n
Idl
dH
R
a
α
π
=

2
sin90
4
ˆ
n
Idl
a
a
π
=
2
4
ˆ
z
dl
a
I
a π
=
2
ˆ
4
z
I
H d a l
a π
=

Idl

4
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field at the centre of a circular current loop
2
ˆ
4
z
I
H d a l
a π
=

2
ˆ
4
z
I
H d a l
a π
=

2
2 ˆ
4
z
I
a
a a π
π
=
ˆ
2
z
I
a
a =
ˆ
2
z
I
H
a
a =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field at a line through the centre of a circular
current loop
P
X
Y
Z
O

I
R
h
a
φ φ
'
dl

dl

'
dH

'
y
dH

y
dH

dH

'
z
dH

z
dH

dH

• •
R
2 2
sin
a
a h
φ =
+
2 2
R a h = +
φ
ˆ
R
a
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field at a line through the centre of a circular
current loop
Let P be a point at a distance h from the centre of a circular current
loop.
Consider two diametrically opposite elements of the loop dl and dl’.
The field intensity at P distant R from the current element is given by
Since and are perpendicular
2
ˆ
4
R
I dl a
dH
R π
×
=

2
sin
4
ˆ
n
dl
a
I
R
α
π
=
dl

ˆ
R
a
2
4
ˆ
n
Idl
dH
R
a
π
=

ˆ ˆ
n R
a A unit vector perpendicular to the plane containing dl and a ⇒

2
4
Idl
dH
R π
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field at a line through the centre of a circular
current loop
The field is oriented at an angle Ф to the plane of the loop.
The diametrically opposite element dl’ will also produce a field of
magnitude equal to dH.
Its component parallel to the plane of the loop gets cancelled.
The components along the z axis gets added up.
2
4
Idl
dH
R π
=
2
sin
4
z
Idl
dH
R
φ
π
=
2 2 2
2 2
sin
a
But and R a h
a h
φ = = +
+
( )
2 2 2 2
4
z
Idl a
dH
a h a h π
=
+ + ( )
3/2
2 2
4
Ia
dl
a h π
=
+
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field at a line through the centre of a circular
current loop
The resultant field intensity at the point P is given by integrating the
Z components of the field contributions of all the current elements.
( )
3/2
2 2
4
z
Ia
dH dl
a h π
=
+
( )
3/2
2 2
4
z
Ia
H dH dl
a h π
= =
+
∫ ∫
( )
3/2
2 2
4
Ia
dl
a h π
=
+

( )
3/2
2 2
2
4
Ia
a
a h
π
π
=
+ ( )
2
3/2
2 2
2
Ia
a h
=
+
( )
2
3/2
2 2
ˆ
2
z
Ia
H a
a h
=
+

( )
2
3/2
2 2
ˆ
2
z
Ia
H a
a h
=
+

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
Find the magnetic field at (0,0,5) due to side OA and BO of the
triangular loop carrying a current of 10A and lying in the xy plane.
Y
Z
2
1
10A
O
A
B
1
X
5
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Example 1
X X
Z
O
A
2
( )
2 1
ˆ cos cos
4
I
H a
φ
α α
πρ
= −

5
ρ
1
α 2
α
ˆ a
ρ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
l
a a a
φ ρ
= ×
ˆ ˆ
l x
a a =
5 ρ = 1
cos cos90 0 α = =

2
2
cos
29
α =
10 2
ˆ
4 5 29
H a
φ
π
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

10 I =
ˆ 0.059.1a
φ
=
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y
a a a a
φ ρ
= × = −
ˆ 0.059.1
y
H a = −

To find H due to OA

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
Y
Z
2
5
10A
O
A
B
1
2
5 ρ =
27
( )
2 1
ˆ cos cos
4
I
H a
φ
α α
πρ
= −

ˆ ˆ ˆ
l
a a a
φ ρ
= ×
5 ρ =
1
cos cos105.7 0.272 α = = −
2
cos cos90 0 α = =
10 I =
( )
1
1
2
2
5
180 sin
5 2
α

⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
= −
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ +
⎣ ⎦
2
90 α =
1 2
105.7 , 90 α α = =
To find H due to BO

1
α
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
( )
2 1
ˆ cos cos
4
I
H a
φ
α α
πρ
= −

( )
10
ˆ 0 0.272
4 5
H a
φ
π
= +

0.272
ˆ ˆ 0.0433
2
a a
φ φ
π
= =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
l
a a a
φ ρ
= ×
ˆ ˆ ˆ cos45 cos45
l x y
a a a = − − ˆ ˆ 0.707 0.707
x y
a a = − −
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 0.707 0.707
x y z
a a a a
φ
= − − ×
ˆ ˆ
l z
a a = ×
ˆ ˆ 0.707 0.707
y x
a a = −
( )
ˆ ˆ 0.0433 0.707 0.707
y x
H a a = −

ˆ ˆ 0.0306 0.0306
x y
H a a = − +

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 2
A circular loop located on x
2
+y
2
= 9 carries a direct current of 10 A
along . Determine magnetic field at (0,0,4) and (0,0,-4) ˆ a
φ
( )
2
3/2
2 2
ˆ
2
z
Ia
H a
a h
=
+

3 a = 4 h = 10 I =
( )
2
3/2
2 2
10 3
ˆ
2 3 4
z
H a
×
=
+

90
ˆ
250
z
a =
ˆ 0.36
z
a =
(0, 0, 4) at
3 a = 4 h = − 10 I = (0, 0, 4) at −
( ) ( )
2
3/2
2 2
10 3
ˆ
2 3 4
z
H a
×
=
+ −

90
ˆ
250
z
a =
ˆ 0.36
z
a =


(0, 0, 4)
(0, 0, 4) −
3 a =
H ⇑

H ⇑

10 I = 4
Z
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Ampere’s Current law
Ampere’s circuital law states that the line integral of the tangential
component of around a closed path is the same as the net current
enclosed by the path.
Line integral of the magnetic field around a closed path is called
magneto motive force.
So ampere’s law can be stated as : The magneto motive force around a
closed path is equal to the current enclosed by that path.
enc
l
H dl I ⋅ =

H

H

enc
S
But I J dS = ⋅


S l
J dS H dl ⋅ = ⋅
∫ ∫

S l
J dS H dl ⋅ = ⋅
∫ ∫

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Ampere’s Current law
enc
l
H dl I ⋅ =

I
6
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Ampere’s Current law
Applying Stokes theorem to the LHS of the above equation
This is the Ampere’s law in differential form or point form and is the
third of the Maxwell’s equations.
( )
S S
J dS H dS ∇× ⋅ = ⋅
∫ ∫

H J ∇× =

H J ∇× =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of an infinite line current
Z
Y
X
ρ

P
I
O
Amperian Path
dl

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of an infinite line current
Let an infinitely long filamentary current element be placed along the
z axis.
To determine H at a point P we select a closed amperian path that
passes through P.
Since this path encloses the whole current,
enc
l
I H dl = ⋅

ˆ ˆ
l
I H a dla
φ φ φ
=

l
H dl
φ
=

2 H
φ
πρ =
2
I
H
φ
πρ
=
ˆ
2
I
H a
φ
πρ
=

ˆ
2
I
H a
φ
πρ
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
a
b
t
1
L
2
L
3
L
4
L

I − I +
Amperian paths
Z
ρ
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
Consider an infinitely long transmission line consisting of two
concentric cylinders having their axes along the Z axis.
The inner conductor has radius a and carries current I while the
outer conductor has inner radius b and thickness t and carries
return current –I.
The magnetic field is to be evaluated for the four regions
separately.
0 a
a b
b b t
b t
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
≤ ≤
≤ ≤
≤ ≤ +
≥ +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
1
0 ' For the region a apply Ampere s law to path L ρ ≤ ≤
2 enc
I
I J dS d d
a
ρ φ ρ
π
= ⋅ =
∫ ∫∫

Current is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the
sec . cross tion
2
ˆ
z
I
J a
a π
=

ˆ
z
and dS d d a ρ φ ρ =

1
enc
L
H dl I J dS ⋅ = = ⋅
∫ ∫

2
I
d d
a
φ ρ ρ
π
=
∫ ∫
7
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
2
2
2
2
enc
I
I
a
ρ
π
π
= × ×
2
2
I
a
ρ
=
1
2
2
L
H dl
I
a
ρ
= ⋅

1
2
2
ˆ ˆ
L
H a dla
I
a
φ φ φ
ρ
= ⋅

1
2
2
L
H d
a
l
I
φ
ρ
=

2
2
2 H
I
a
φ
πρ
ρ
=
2
2
2
I
a
H
φ
ρ
πρ
=
2
2
I
a
H
φ
ρ
π
=
2
2
I
H
a
φ
ρ
π
= 0 a ρ ≤ ≤
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
2
' For the region a b apply Ampere s law to path L ρ ≤ ≤
2
enc
L
H dl I J dS ⋅ = = ⋅
∫ ∫

2
ˆ ˆ
L
H a dl I a
φ φ φ
⋅ =

2
Since whole current is enclosed by the path L
1
L
H dl I
φ
=

2 H I
φ
πρ =
2
H
I
φ
πρ
=
2
I
H
φ
πρ
=
a b ρ ≤ ≤
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
3
' For the region b b t apply Ampere s law to path L ρ ≤ ≤ +
3
L
H dl I J dS ⋅ = + ⋅
∫ ∫

3
ˆ ˆ
L
H a dla I J dS
φ φ φ
⋅ = + ⋅
∫ ∫

3
L
H dl I J dS
φ
= + ⋅
∫ ∫

2 H I J dS
φ
πρ = + ⋅


The J in this case is the current density of the outer

conductor
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
( )
2 2
ˆ
z
I
J a
b t b π
= −
⎡ ⎤
+ −
⎣ ⎦

2 H I J dS
φ
πρ = + ⋅


( )
2
2
ˆ 2 ˆ
z z
S
I
I a d d a
b t b
H
φ
ρ φ ρ πρ
π
− ⋅
+ −

=
⎡ ⎤


( )
2
2 S
I
I d d
b t b
ρ φ ρ
π
= −
⎡ ⎤
+ −
⎣ ⎦

( )
2
2
2
0 b
I
I d d
b t b
ρ π
ρ
φ ρ ρ
π =
= −
⎡ ⎤
+ −
⎣ ⎦
∫ ∫
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
b
H
I
I
b t b
ρ
φ
πρ
ρ
π
π
⎡ ⎤
⎣ ⎦
− × ×
⎡ ⎤
+ −
⎣ ⎦
=
( )
2 2
2 2 2
2
I b
I
b bt t b
ρ −
= −
⎡ ⎤ + + −
⎣ ⎦
( )
2 2
2
2
I b
I
bt t
ρ −
= −
⎡ ⎤ +
⎣ ⎦
( )
2 2
2
1
2
b
I
t bt
ρ
⎧ ⎫

⎪ ⎪
= −
⎨ ⎬
⎡ ⎤ +
⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭
( )
2 2
2
1
2 2
b
I
H
t bt
φ
ρ
πρ
⎧ ⎫ −
⎪ ⎪
= −
⎨ ⎬
⎡ ⎤ +
⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭
b b t ρ ≤ ≤ +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
4
' For the region b t apply Ampere s law to path L ρ ≥ +
4
0
L
H dl I I ⋅ = − =

2 0 H
φ
πρ =
0 H
φ
=
0 H
φ
=
b t ρ ≥ +
2
0
2
I
a H
a
φ
ρ
ρ
π
= ≤ ≤

2
I
H a b
φ
πρ
ρ = ≤ ≤
( )
2 2
2
1
2 2

b
I
H
t bt
b b t
φ
ρ
πρ
ρ
⎧ ⎫ −
⎪ ⎪
= −
⎨ ⎬
⎡ ⎤
≤ ≤
⎪ ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭
+
+

0 t H b
φ
ρ ≥ + =
8
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field of a coaxial cable
H
φ
0
1
2 a π
1
2 b π
a b b t +
ρ
H Vs
φ
ρ
IMPORTANT:
Outside the co-axial cable
magnetic field is zero. This is
the basic principle behind
electro magnetic shielding
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a toroid
A toroid can be considered as a solenoid “bent” into a circle as
shown. We can apply Ampere’s law along the circular path inside
the toroid.
encl
L
H dl I ⋅ =

encl
I NI =
N is the number of loops in the toroid,
and I is the current in each loop
ˆ
2
NI
B a
φ
μ
πρ
=

encl
L
Hdl I =

encl
L
H dl I =

2
encl
H I πρ =
2 H NI πρ =
ρ
2
NI
H
πρ
=
ˆ
2
NI
H a
φ
πρ
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a solenoid
When the coils of the solenoid are closely spaced, each turn
can be regarded as a circular loop, and the net magnetic field
is the vector sum of the magnetic field for each loop.
This produces a magnetic field that is approximately constant
inside the solenoid, and nearly zero outside the solenoid.
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a solenoid
The ideal solenoid is approached when the coils are very close
together and the length of the solenoid is much greater than its
radius. Then we can approximate the magnetic field as constant
inside and zero outside the solenoid.
H

Apply Ampere’s law for the closed path 1234
N turns in a
length of L
ˆ
x
a
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a solenoid
12 23 34 41
L
H dl H dl H dl H dl H dl ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

encl
L
H dl I ⋅ =

0 0 HL HL = + + =
= Current enclosed by the path is NI
HL NI =
NI
H
L
=
NI
B
L
μ
=
ˆ
x
NI
B a
L
μ
=

times number of turns per unit length
N
B I I
L
μ μ = =
ˆ
x
NI
H a
L
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a long cylindrical conductor
Find the magnetic
field inside and
outside an infinitely
long cylindrical
conductor having
radius R and
carrying a current I
ρ
ρ
ˆ
z
a
9
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a long cylindrical conductor
A long straight wire of radius R carries a steady current I that is
uniformly distributed through the cross-section of the wire.
In region where ρ> R choose a circle of radius ρ centered on the
wire as a path of integration. Along this path, H is again constant in
magnitude and is always parallel to the path.
encl
L
H dl I =

encl
L
H dl I ⋅ =


( ) 2
encl
H I πρ =
2 H I πρ =
2
I
H
πρ
=
ˆ
2
I
H a
φ
πρ
=
ˆ
2
I
B a
φ
μ
πρ
=
ˆ
2
I
H a
φ
πρ
=

ˆ
2
I
B a
φ
μ
πρ
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a long cylindrical conductor
In region where ρ < R choose a circle of radius ρ centered on the
wire as a path of integration. Along this path, H is again constant in
magnitude and is always parallel to the path.
encl
L
H dl I =

encl
L
H dl I ⋅ =


( ) 2
encl
H I πρ =

2
encl
I
H
πρ
=
encl
S
I J dS = ⋅


2
2
I
R
ρ
=
2
ˆ
z
I
J a
R π
=

2
ˆ ˆ
encl z z
S
I
I a dSa
R π
= ⋅

ˆ
z
dS dSa =

2
S
I
dS
R π
=

2
2
I
R
πρ
π
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a long cylindrical conductor
2
2

2
I
H
R
ρ
πρ
=
2

2
I
H
R
ρ
π
=
2

2
I
B
R
μ ρ
π
=
2
ˆ
2
I
B a
R
φ
μ ρ
π
=

2
ˆ
2
I
B a
R
φ
μ ρ
π
=

2
ˆ
2
I
H a
R
φ
ρ
π
=

2
ˆ
2
I
H a
R
φ
ρ
π
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a long cylindrical conductor
H
ρ R
2
ˆ for
2
I
B a R
R
φ
μ ρ
ρ
π
= <
ˆ for
2
I
B a R
φ
μ
ρ
πρ
= ≥
ρ
ρ
2
ˆ for
2
I
H a R
R
φ
ρ
ρ
π
= <
ˆ for
2
I
H a R
φ
ρ
πρ
= ≥
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic flux density
Electric flux density and field intensity is relates as
Similarly we can define magnetic flux density by the relation
Magnetic flux through a surface is obtained by integrating flux
density throughout the surface
0
B H μ =

0
D E ε =

7
0
=4 10 / Permiability of free space H m μ π

⇒ ×
B Magneic flux density ⇒

H Magnetic field intensity ⇒

S
B dS ψ = ⋅


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic flux density
B
B
B
B
I
10
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic flux density
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic flux density
Magnetic flux lines is a path to which is tangential at every point.
The magnetic flux lines due to a long straight conductor is shown in
figure 1.
Each flux line is closed and has no beginning or end.
In an electrostatic field the flux crossing a closed surface is the
same as the charge enclosed.
So it is possible to have an isolated electric charge and the flux lines
produced by it need not be closed.
It is not possible to have an isolated magnetic pole.
As a result, magnetic flux lines always close upon themselves in
contrast to electric flux lines.
B

D dS Q ψ = ⋅ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic flux density

Q +
Q over the closed surface ψ =
Electric flux lines need
not be closed. So it is
possible to have an
isolated electric charge.
D dS Q ψ = ⋅ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic flux density
N S
Magnetic flux lines are always closed. It is not possible
to have an isolated magnetic pole.
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic flux density
N
S
N
S
N
S
N
S S
N
S
N
S
N
N
S
N
S
N
S
N
S
N
S
N
S
N
S
N
S
It is not possible to
isolate the north
and south poles of
a magnet. An
isolated magnetic
pole cannot exist
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Gauss’s Law for magnetostatic fields
The total flux through a closed surface in a magnetic field is zero.
By applying divergence theorem,
This is the Maxwell’s fourth equation. It states that magnetostatic
fields have no sources or sinks.
0 B dS ⋅ =

= 0
V
B dS B dv ⋅ = ∇⋅
∫ ∫

= 0 B ∇⋅

11
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Maxwell’s Equations for static EM fields
V
D ρ ∇⋅ =

0 B ∇⋅ =

0 E ∇× =

H J ∇× =

V
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫

0
S
B dS ⋅ =

0
L
E dl ⋅ =

L S
H dl J dS ⋅ = ⋅
∫ ∫

Differential form Integral form Derived from
' Gauss s Law
Nonexistance of magnetic
Monopole
Conservativeness of
Electrostatic field
' Ampere s Law
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic scalar and vector potentials
In electrostatics electric field intensity and potential are related as
Similar to this we can relate magnetic field intensity with two
magnetic potentials:
1. Magnetic scalar potential
2. Magnetic vector potential
Magnetic scalar potential V
m
is related to by the relation
According to Maxwell’s equation
For any scalar
E V = −∇

H

0 (1)
m
if H V J = −∇ = − − − −

(2) H J ∇× = − − − −

( )
0 (3) φ ∇× ∇ = − − − −

( ) m
H V ∇× = ∇× −∇

( 0 4) − − − − =
0
m
H V if J =−∇ =

(4) 0 Eq is true only if J =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic scalar and vector potentials
The definition of Magnetic scalar potential according to equation (1)
must satisfy equations (2) and (4).
For this, the condition must be satisfied.
V
m
satisfies Laplace’s equation also.
0 J =

2
0 0
m
V if J ∇ = =

2
0 0
m
V if J ∇ = =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic scalar and vector potentials
For a magnetostatic field
For any vector
We can define another potential called magnetic vector potential that
satisfies equations (5) and (6) simultaneously
In many EM problems it is more convenient to first find and then
find from it.
0 (5) B ∇⋅ = − − − −

( )
0 (6) A ∇⋅ ∇× = − − − −

Let B A = ∇×

A is called magnetic vector potential

A

B

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Derivation of Magnetic vector potentials from Biot-Savart’s law
From Biot-Savart’s law,
0
3
4
L
I dl R
B
R
μ
π
×
=

O
( , , ) x y z
( ', ', ') x y z
' dl

r
' r
' R r r = −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Derivation of Magnetic vector potentials from Biot-Savart’s law
Let the source dl’ be located at (x’,y’z’) and let (x,y,z) be the point
where we want to find the magnetic potential.
0
1
(1
4
' )
L
dl
R
B I
μ
π
⎛ ⎞
×∇
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
= − − − −


1/2
2 2 2
' ( ') ( ') ( ') R r r x x y y z z ⎡ ⎤ = − = − + − + −
⎣ ⎦

3/2
2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ') ( ') ( ') 1
( ') ( ') ( ')
x y z
x x a y y a z z a
R
x x y y z z
− + − + −
⎛ ⎞
∇ = −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎡ ⎤ − + − + −
⎣ ⎦
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
a a a
x y z
φ φ φ
φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

3
1 R
R R
⎛ ⎞
= −∇
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

3
R
R
= −

3
1 R
R R
⎛ ⎞
∇ = −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

12
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Derivation of Magnetic vector potentials from Biot-Savart’s law
Using the vector identity ( ) ( )
F F F φ φ φ ∇× = ∇× + ∇ ×

( ) ( ) F F F φ φ φ ∇ × = ∇× − ∇×

1 1 1
' ' ' d d d
R
l
R
l l
R
⎛ ⎞
= ∇× −∇×

⎛ ⎞
× ∇
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

⎝ ⎠

( ) ( ) F F F φ φ φ × ∇ = ∇× − ∇×

. . ( , , ) ' ( ', ', ') operates w r t x y z while dl is a function of x y z ∇

' 0 So dl ∇× =

1 1
' ' (2) dl dl
R R
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
× ∇ = −∇× − − −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

(1) Substituting in
( , , ) ( ', ', ') R is a function of x y z and x y z
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Derivation of Magnetic vector potentials from Biot-Savart’s law
0
'

4
L
I dl
B
R
μ
π
⎛ ⎞
= ∇×
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠



0
'

4
L
I dl
R
μ
π
= ∇×

Comparing with B A = ∇×

'
0

4

S
for sur
KdS
A
R
face current
μ
π
=

0

4
L
I dl
A
R
μ
π
=

Similarly
0
'

4
L
I dl
A
R
μ
π
=

'
0

4

V
for volum
Jdv
A e curren
R
t
μ
π
=

0

4
S
KdS
A
R
μ
π
=

0

4
V
Jdv
A
R
μ
π
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic flux from vector potential
.
S
B dS ψ =


( )
.
S
A dS = ∇×


( )
. '
S L
By Stoke s Theorem A dS A dl ∇× = ⋅
∫ ∫

L
A dl ψ = ⋅


.
S L
B dS A dl ψ = = ⋅
∫ ∫

L
A dl ψ = ⋅


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic force on a charged particle
A magnetic field can exert a force only on a moving charge.
The magnetic force F
m
experienced by a charge Q moving with a
velocity in a magnetic field is given by
An electric field can exert a force on a stationary charge and the
force is given by
For a moving charge Q in the presence of both electric and
magnetic fields the total force on the charge is given by
This is called Lorentz force equation
u

B

m
F Qu B = ×

e
F QE =

( ) e m
F F F Q E u B = + = + ×

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic force on a charged particle
When the mass of the charged particle moving in an
electromagnetic field with velocity is m,
The above equation relates mechanical force to electrical force.
u

( )
du
F m Q E u B
dt
= = + ×

Independent of velocity
It can perform work on the charge
It can change the kinetic energy of the charge

e
Electric force F is
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic force on a charged particle
Dependent of velocity
Force is normal to velocity and magnetic field
It cannot perform work on the charge since the motion of
the particle is at right angles to the force

m
Magnetic force F is
It cannot change the kinetic energy of the charge
13
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic force on a current element
The differential magnetic force that a differential element charge, dQ
moving with a velocity experiences in a magnetic field of flux
density is
The current in a conductor, or in a beam of electrons or ions can be
expressed as charge per unit time.
Where t is the time taken for the charge to move a distance l.
Rewriting the equation for incremental charges and distances and
using vector notation
u

B

-----(1) dF dQu B = ×

Q
I
t
=
. .
Q
I l l
t
= = .
l
Q
t
=Qu
----(2) I dl dQu =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic force on a current element
Equation(2) shows that an elemental charge dQ moving with velocity
. thereby producing convection current element dQ is equivalent
to a conduction current element
Substituting equation(2) in (1)
If the current I is through a closed path L, the force on the whole
loop is
We have the following relations between current elements.
dF I dl B = ×

u

u

I dl

L
F I dl B = ×

I dl KdS Jdv = =


L
F I dl B = ×

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic force on a current element
Using these relations
The total force in these cases is given by
= dF KdS B K BdS = × ×

= dF Jdv B J Bdv = × ×

S
F K BdS = ×


V
F J Bdv = ×


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic force between two current elements
1
dl

2
dl

1
I
2
I
21
R
1
C
2
C
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic force between two current elements
Consider two current loops C1 and C2 with currents I
1
and I
2
.
The loops are divided in to very small vector line segments
The current elements in the loops are denoted by
Consider two current elements in the two loops and
According to Biot-Savart’s law, current elements produce magnetic
fields.
The magnetic field produced by at is
Hence the force on current element due to the field produced
by the current element is
dl

1
Idl

2
Idl

Idl

1
Idl

2
Idl

21
2
0 2
2
2
21
ˆ
4
R
I dl a
dB
R
μ
π
×
=

1
Idl

2 dB

2
Idl

1 1 2
1
dF I dl dB = ×

21
1 2
0 1 2
2
21
ˆ
4
R
I dl I dl a
R
μ
π
⎡ ⎤ × ×
⎣ ⎦
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic force between two current elements
The total force on current loop 1 due to current loop 2 is
Similarly the total force on loop 2 due to magnetic field
produced by loop 1 is obtained by interchanging the subscripts
21
1 2
0 1 2
1
2
21
ˆ
4
R
I dl I dl a
dF
R
μ
π
⎡ ⎤ × ×
⎣ ⎦
=

21
1 2
1 2
0 1 2
1 2
21
ˆ
4
R
l l
dl dl a
I I
F
R
μ
π
⎡ ⎤ × ×
⎣ ⎦
=
∫ ∫

1
F

2
F

1
B

12
1 2
2 1
0 1 2
2 2
12
ˆ
4
R
l l
dl dl a
I I
F
R
μ
π
⎡ ⎤ × ×
⎣ ⎦
=
∫ ∫

14
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
A charged particle of mass 2Kg and charge 3C starts at point(1,-2,0)
with velocity in an electric field
At time t=1s determine its acceleration, velocity, kinetic energy and
position.
Solution
ˆ ˆ 4 3 /
x z
a a m s + ˆ ˆ 12 10 /
x y
a a V m +
F ma QE = =

QE
a
m
=

3
ˆ ˆ 12 10
2
x y
a a a ⎡ ⎤ = +
⎣ ⎦

2
ˆ ˆ 18 15 m/s
x y
a a = +
( )
ˆ ˆ , , 18 15
x y z x y
du d
a u u u a a
dt dt
= = == +

18
x
du
dt
=
1
18
x
u t C = +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
15
y
du
dt
= 2
15
y
u t C = +
0
z
du
dt
=
3 z
u C =
ˆ ˆ 0 4 3
x z
At t u a a = = +

1
18
x
u t C = +
1 1
( 0) 4 4 0 4
x
u t C C = = + ⇒ ⇒ = =
2 2
( 0) 0 0 0 0
y
u t C C = = + ⇒ ⇒ = =
2
15
y
u t C = +
3 z
u C =
3
( 0) 3 3 3
z
u t C ⇒ ⇒ = = =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
, ,
( )
x y z
u u u u =

(18 4,15 , 3) t t = +
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( 1 ) 22 15 3 m/s
x y z
u t s a a a = = + +

2 1

2
Kinetic energy m u =

( )( )
2 2 2
1
2 22 15 3
2
= + +
718J =
( , , )
dl d
u x y z
dt dt
= =

(18 4,15 , 3) t t = +
2
1
18 4 9 4
x
dx
u t x t t C
dt
= = + ⇒ = + +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
2
2
15 7.5
y
dy
u t y t C
dt
= = ⇒ = +
3
3 3
z
dz
u z t C
dt
= = ⇒ = +
t=0, (x,y,z)=(1,-2,0) At
1 1
( 0) 1 1 0 1 x t C C = = = ⇒ + = ⇒
2 2
( 0) 2 2 0 2 y t C C ⇒ ⇒ = = − − = + = −
3 3
( 0) 0 0 0 0 z t C C = = = ⇒ + = ⇒
( )
2 2
( , , ) 9 4 1, 7.5 2, 3 x y z t t t t = + + −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic torque and moment
When a current loop is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a
force tending to rotate it.
The rotating tendency of the loop is expressed in terms of torque.
The torque on the loop is the vector product of the moment arm and
the force.
T r F = ×

F
F
r
α
α

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic torque and moment
w
l
0
F
0
' F
B

I
z
1
2
3
4

w
0
F
0
F
15
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic torque and moment
l
0
F
0
' F
B

I
z
1
2
3
4


w
0
F
0
F
α
T
α
α
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic torque and moment
Let a rectangular loop of length l and width w is placed in a uniform
magnetic field
is parallel to along sides 1-2 and 3-4 of the loop.
So and so the force acting on these sides is zero.
The force acting on lengths 2-3 and 3-4 are
No force is exerted on the loop as a whole.
B

Idl

B

0 Idl B × =

3
0
2
F I dl B = ×


( )
1
4
ˆ
z
I dz a B = − ×


0 0
' F F F = +

= 0 IBl IBl = −
0 0
' F F F = +

1
0
4
' F I dl B = ×


3
2
ˆ
z
I dza B = ×


IBl =
IBl = −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic torque and moment
When the axis of the loop is pivoted at the centre axis, the forces are
acting at different points with reference to the axis, and this creates
a couple.
If the normal to the plane of the loop makes an angle α with
(force makes an angle α with moment arm) the magnitude of the
torque on the loop is
B

0
T F sin w α =

BIl w sinα =
BIS sinα = , Area of the p lw S loo =
ˆ ,
n
Defining as the d m I ipole moment o Sa f the loop =

ˆ
n
Unit vector normal to the plane of a the loop ⇒
T m B = ×

ˆ
n
m ISa =

ˆ
n
T IS a B = ×

IS Bsinα =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic torque and moment
The magnetic dipole moment is the product of current and area of
the loop and its direction is normal to the loop.
Torque direction is the direction of the axis of rotation. In this case it
is along the z direction.
T m B = ×

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic dipole
A bar magnet or a small filamentary current loop is a magnetic
dipole.
While isolated electric charges exists, it is not possible to have an
isolated magnetic pole.
But we can obtain an equivalent effect by considering a long bar
magnet such that the poles have little interaction.
Each pole can, then be treated as isolated poles.
Using this concept the Coulomb’s law of force between magnetic
poles can be written as
is the pole strength expressed as force per unit flux density.
0 1 2
12 2
12
ˆ
4
m m
Q Q
F a
R
μ
π
=

m
Q
m
F
Q
B
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic dipole
Pole strength is unity if the pole experiences a force of 1N when
situated in a field of magnetic flux density 1 Tesla.
An iron bar may be regarded as composed of a large number of very
tiny magnets produced by atomic spin and orbital motion.
A small bar magnet with pole strength Q
m
and length l may be
treated as a magnetic dipole with magnetic moment Q
m
l .
Such a dipole may be compared to a current loop with area S and
carrying a current I.
This loop has a magnetic moment m=IS.
.
m
Q l IS =
16
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic dipole
N
S
Magnet Current Loop
.
m
Q l
IS

s
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic dipole
A bar magnet is composed of a large number of magnetic dipoles.
If A is the area of cross section of the bar magnet and l its length,
the volume of the magnet is Al.
If Q
m
is the pole strength, the dipole moment is Q
m
l.
Net dipole moment per unit volume is
Dipole moment per unit volume is called magnetisation and it is
represented as a vector
Magnetization at any point in the magnetized bar is obtained by
m m
Q l
Al
Q
A
=
ˆ
m
n
Q
M a
A
=

ˆ .
n
Unit vector directed from south to north p a ole ⇒
0
lim ampere/meter
v
m
M
v
Δ →
=
Δ

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic dipole
The magnetization is the net magnetic dipole moment per unit
volume
If there are N atoms in a given volume Δv and the k
th
atom has a
magnetic moment
A medium for which is not zero everywhere is said to be
magnetized.
M

k
m

M

1
0
lim
N
k
k
v
m
M
v
=
Δ →
=
Δ

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetization in materials
Any material is composed of atoms.
Each atom is composed of electrons orbiting about a central positive
nucleus.
The electrons spin about their own axes.
So an internal magnetic field is produced by electrons orbiting
around the nucleus and electrons spinning about their axes.
Both of the electron motion produces internal magnetic field similar
to the one produced by a current loop.
+
-
-
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetization in materials
The equivalent loop has a magnetic moment of
Without an external field applied to the material the sum of the
magnetic moments is zero due to the random orientation of the
moments.
i
B
b
I
ˆ
b n
m I Sa =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetization in materials
When an external magnetic field is applied the magnetic moments of
the electrons align themselves with so that the net magnetic
moment is not zero.
B

B

v Δ
v Δ
17
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic vector potential of a volume distribution of
dipoles
O
( , , ) x y z
( ', ', ') x y z
' m Mdv =

r
' r
' R r r = −

0
2
ˆ
'
4
R
M a
dA dv
R
μ
π
×
=

V
' dv
0
3
'
4
M R
dv
R
μ
π
×
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic vector potential of a volume distribution of
dipoles
For a differential volume dv’, the magnetic moment is
The vector magnetic potential due to is
' dm Mdv =

dm

0
2
ˆ
'
4
R
M a
dA dv
R
μ
π
×
=

0
3
'
4
M R
dv
R
μ
π
×
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic vector potential of a volume distribution of
dipoles
Let the source dv’ be located at (x’,y’z’) and let (x,y,z) be the point
where we want to find the magnetic potential.
1/2
2 2 2
' ( ') ( ') ( ') R r r x x y y z z ⎡ ⎤ = − = − + − + −
⎣ ⎦

3/2
2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ') ( ') ( ') 1
( ') ( ') ( ')
x y z
x x a y y a z z a
R
x x y y z z
− + − + −
⎛ ⎞
∇ = −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎡ ⎤ − + − + −
⎣ ⎦
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
a a a
x y z
φ φ φ
φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

3
1 R
R R
⎛ ⎞
= −∇
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

3
R
R
= −

3
1 R
R R
⎛ ⎞
∇ = −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic vector potential of a volume distribution of
dipoles
1/2
2 2 2
' ( ') ( ') ( ') R r r x x y y z z ⎡ ⎤ = − = − + − + −
⎣ ⎦

3/2
2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ') ( ') ( ') 1
'
( ') ( ') ( ')
x y z
x x a y y a z z a
R
x x y y z z
− + − + −
⎛ ⎞
∇ =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎡ ⎤ − + − + −
⎣ ⎦
ˆ ˆ ˆ '
' ' '
x y z
a a a
x y z
φ φ φ
φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ = + +
∂ ∂ ∂

3
1
'
R
R R
⎛ ⎞
∇ =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

3
R
R
=

3
1
'
R
R R
⎛ ⎞
∇ =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic vector potential of a volume distribution of
dipoles
We know that
3
1
'
R
R R
= ∇

0
1
' '
4
dA M dv
R
μ
π
⎡ ⎤
= ×∇
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

0
1
' '
4
A M dv
R
μ
π
= ×∇



1
' M
R
But ×∇

( ) ( )
F F F φ φ φ ∇ × = ∇ × + ∇ ×

( ) ( )
F F F φ φ φ ∇ × = ∇ × − ∇ ×

( ) ( )
F F F φ φ φ ×∇ = ∇ × − ∇ ×

1 1
' ' M M
R R
= ∇ × −∇ ×

0 0
'
'
4
' '
4
, S
M M
A d ubstituting v dv
R R
μ μ
π π
∇ ×
= − ∇ ×
∫ ∫


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic vector potential of a volume distribution of
dipoles
Applying the following vector identity to the second term we get
( )
' '
V S
F dv F dS ∇ × = − ×
∫ ∫

( )
0 0
' '
ˆ
'
' '
4 4
n
V S
A dv ds
R R
M a
M μ μ
π π
= +
×
∇ ×
∫ ∫

0
'
A=
4
S
KdS
Comparing with
R
μ
π

0
'
A=
4
S
JdV
R
μ
π








b
J M = ∇×

ˆ
b n
K M a = ×

0 0
' '
' '
4 4
V S
b b
J K
A dv ds
R R
μ μ
π π
= +
∫ ∫

18
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Bound surface and volume current densities
ˆ
b n
K M a = ×

b
J M = ∇×


b
Bound volume current J density ⇒

b
Bound surface current den K sity ⇒

Magnetic potential of a magnetic body is due to a volume current
density throughout the body and a surface current density on
the surface of the body
b
K

b
J

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Bound surface and volume current densities
We have seen that the magnetic properties may be derived by
regarding the material as being made up of many small current
loops.
In the interior of the material, incomplete cancellation of currents in
adjacent loops results in a net volume current density.
At the surface of the material, the currents are not cancelled, giving
a net equivalent surface current density.
b
J

b
K

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetization in materials
From Maxwell’s equation
In a material medium
H J ∇× =


f
Free volume current J density ⇒

0
f b
B
J J
μ
⎛ ⎞
∇× = +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

H M = ∇× + ∇×

( )
H M = ∇× +

( ) 0
B H M μ ∇× = ∇× +

( ) 0
(1) B H M μ = + − − −

( )
0
B H M μ = +

f b
J J J = +

0
B
J
μ
⎛ ⎞
∇× =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

b
Bound volume current J density ⇒

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetization in materials
depends linearly on for linear materials. So we can write
Substituting in equation (1)
M

H

m
M H χ =


m
Magnetic Susceptibility of the medium χ ⇒
( ) 0 m
B H H μ χ = +

( )
0
1
m
H μ χ = +

H μ =

( )
0 0
1
r m
μ μ μ χ = +
0 r
H μ μ =

1
r m
μ χ = +
1
r m
μ χ = +

m
Magnetic Susceptibility of the medium χ ⇒

r
Relative Permeability of the medium μ ⇒
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Classification of magnetic materials
Magnetic materials may be classified in to three:
1.Diamagnetic
2. Paramagnetic
3.Ferromagnetic
Magnetic Materials
Linear Non Linear
Diamagnetics Paragnetics Feromagnetics
0, 1
m r
χ μ < < 0, 1
m r
χ μ > > 0, 1
m r
χ μ
1
r m
μ χ = +

m
Magnetic Susceptibility of the medium χ ⇒

r
Relative Permeability of the medium μ ⇒
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Properties of diamagnetic materials
Diamagnetism occurs in materials where the magnetic fields due to
orbital and spin motion of electrons completely cancel.
When placed inside a magnetic field, it gets feebly magnetized in
direction opposite to that of the magnetic field and reduces the net
field.
The magnetic susceptibility is small.
A diamagnetic material is feebly repelled by a magnet.
A rod of the material suspended in a magnetic field gets slowly set
at right angles to the direction of the field.
has a small negative value.
μ
r
is just less than 1
Behaviour is not affected by temperature.
Does not obey Curies law,
M

1/
m
T χ ∝
19
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Properties of paramagnetic materials
Paramagnetism occurs in materials where the magnetic fields
produced by orbital and spin motion of electrons do not completely
cancel.
On application of external magnetic field it gets magnetised along
the direction of the applied field and increases the net field.
When subjected to non uniform magnetic field it moves from weaker
part of the magnetic field to stronger part.
A rod of paramagnetic material suspended in a magnetic field slowly
gets along the direction of external magnetic field.
A paramagnetic material is feebly attracted by a magnet.
has a small positive value.
μ
r
is just less than 1
Susceptibility has a small positive value.
It tends to lose its magnetism if subjected to temperature.
Obeys Curies law,
M

1/
m
T χ ∝
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Properties of ferromagnetic materials
Feromagnetism occurs in materials whose atoms have relatively
large permanent magnetic moment.
On application of external magnetic field it gets strongly magnetised
along the direction of the applied field and retains its magnetism
when removed from the field
They are strongly attracted by a magnet.
On being subjected to non uniform magnetic field it moves from
weaker part of the magnetic field to stronger part.
has a large positive value.
μ
r
is very large.
Value of flux density inside the material is very much greater than in
vacuum.
Susceptibility has a large positive value.
Ferromagnetism decreases with temperature. At a critical
temperature called Curie temperature, ferromagnetic properties
disappears and the material becomes paramagnetic.
M

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetisation curve
For all materials the relationship between can be
expressed as
For a ferromagnetic material, relationship between depends
on previous magnetization.
So it can only be represented by a magnetization curve.
( ) 0
B H M μ = +

B H

and
B H

and
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetisation curve
max
B
r
B
max
B −
r
B −
B

H

max
H c
H
c
H − max
H −
O
P
Q
Initial magnetization
curve
Hysteresis loop
- Typical B H curve
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetization curve
Assume that initially the ferromagnetic material is unmagnetized.
If H is increased by increasing current, from 0 to H
max
, curve OP is
produced.
This curve is the initial magnetization curve.
After reaching saturation at P, if H is decreased, B does not follow
the initial curve but lags behind H.
This phenomenon is called hysteresis.
If H is reduced to zero, B is not reduced to zero but to B
r
, which is
called remnant flux density.
The existence of B
r
is the reason for the formation of permanent
magnets.
If H increases negatively, B becomes zero when H becomes H
c
,
which is known as coercive field intensity.
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetization curve
Further increase of H in the negative direction to reach Q and then
to P gives a closed curve called hysteresis loop.
The shape of hysteresis loops varies from one material to another.
Some ferrites have an almost rectangular hysteresis loop and are
used in digital computers as magnetic memories.
The area of the hysteresis loop gives the energy loss called
hysteresis loss per unit volume per cycle of magnetization.
This energy loss is in the form of heat.
So materials used in magnetic devices must have tall but narrow
hysteresis loops, so that hysteresis losses are minimum.
20
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions
1
Medium 1 ( ) μ
2
Medium 2 ( ) μ
1 n
B
2 n
B
1 t
B
2 t
B
1
B
2
B
1 n
B
2 n
B
ˆ
N
a
S Δ
2
h ⎫ Δ


2
h ⎫ Δ


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions
Consider the boundary between two isotropic homogeneous linear
materials with permeabilities μ
1
and μ
2
.
At the boundary, the magnetic flux density may be decomposed in
to a normal component B
n
and a tangential component B
t
.
Applying Gauss’s law for magnetic field on a small pill box shaped
volume,
0
S
B dS ⋅ =

B

1 2
0
n n
B S B S Δ − Δ =
1 2 n n
B B =
Normal component of B is continuous accross the boundary

. between the two adjacent media
1 2 n n
B B =
( ) 2 1
ˆ . ., 0
N
i e B B a − ⋅ =

( ) 2 1
ˆ 0
N
B B a − ⋅ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions
2 1
B B −

ˆ
N
a
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
.1. s ˆ co
N
B B a B B α − ⋅ = −

1 2
0
n n
B B = = −
α
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions
The normal components of are not continuous across the
boundary
The normal components becomes continuous only when μ
1
= μ
2
.
In that case there is no boundary between the two materials.
1 2 n n
B B =
1 1 2 2 n n
H H μ μ =
1 2
2 1
n
n
H
H
μ
μ
=
1
2 1
2
n n
H H
μ
μ
=
1
2 1
2
. .,
n n
i e H H
μ
μ
=
H

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions

1
Medium 1 ( ) μ
2
Medium 2 ( ) μ
ˆ
N
a
1 t
H
2 t
H
C
2
h ⎫ Δ


2
h ⎫ Δ


K

l Δ
ˆ
u
a
1 n
H
2 n
H
1 t
H
2 t
H
1
H
2
H
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions
Now construct a closed contour C across the boundary and apply
Ampere’s circuital law for this closed path.
encl
C
H dl I ⋅ =

2 2 1 1 1 2
2 2 2 2
t n n t n n u
h h h h
H l H H H l H H K l
Δ Δ Δ Δ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
Δ + + − Δ − − = Δ
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
2 1 t t u
H l H l K l Δ − Δ = Δ
2 1 t t u
H H K − =
Tangential component of H is discontinuous across the boundary

. between the two adjacent media

u
K Component of K normal to the ⇒

. plane of the closed path
2 1 t t u
H H K − =
21
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions
The above equation may be written in vector notation as
If both the media across the boundary are not conductors, then
2 1 t t u
H H K − =
( ) 2 1
ˆ
N
H H a K − × =

( )
2 1
ˆ
N
H H a K − × =

0 K =

2 1
0
t t
H H − =
2 1 t t
H H =
Tangential component of H is continuous accross the boundary

0 between the two adja i cent med f ia K =

2 1 t t
H H =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions
2 1
H H −

ˆ
N
a
α
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
ˆ .1. ˆ .
N u
H H a H H sin a α = − − ×

( )
2 1
ˆ ˆ
t t u u u
H H a K a K = − = =

ˆ
u
a
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions

2 1
2 1
t t
B B
μ μ
=
2
2 1
1
t t
B B
μ
μ
=
2
2 1
1
t t
B B
μ
μ
=
Tangential component of B is discontinuous accross the boundary

0 between the two adja i cent med f ia K =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic boundary conditions
1
Medium 1 ( ) μ
2
Medium 2 ( ) μ
1 t
B
2 t
B
1
B
2
B
1 n
B
2 n
B
1
θ
2
θ
1 2
----(1)
n n
B B =
2 1 t t
H H =
1 2
1 2
----(2)
t t
B B
μ μ
=
1 2
1 1 2 2
(2) / (1) ----(3)
t t
n n
B B
B B μ μ
⇒ =
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
sin sin
( cos ) ( cos )
B B
B B
θ θ
μ θ μ θ
=
1 2
1 2
tan tan θ θ
μ μ
=
1 1
2 2
tan
tan
θ μ
θ μ
=
1 1
2 2
tan
tan
θ μ
θ μ
=
1 t
B
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Inductance
N
I
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Inductance
A closed loop carrying a current I produces a magnetic field which
causes a flux Ψ according to
If the loop has N turns the total flux linkage λ is defined as
According to Biot-Savart’s law B is proportional to the current I and
hence flux Ψ is proportional to I.
Flux linkage λ is thus proportional to current I.
Here L is a proportionality constant called the inductance of the
circuit.
S
B dS ψ = ⋅


N λ ψ =
I λ ∝ LI λ =
22
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Inductance
Inductance L of an inductor is defined as the ratio of magnetic flux
linkage λ to the current I through the inductor. Its unit is Henry.
The inductance defined thus is the self inductance of the coil since
the flux linkages are produced by the inductor itself.
The magnetic energy stored in an inductor is given by
So inductance may be considered as a measure of the magnetic
energy that can be stored in an inductor.
LI λ = L
I
λ
=
N
L
I I
λ ψ
= =
2
1
2
m
W LI =
2
2
m
W
L
I
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Mutual Inductance
N
I
N
I
1
I
2
I
1
N
2
N 11
ψ
22
ψ
12
ψ
21
ψ
Circuit 1
Circuit 2
12 1 12
N λ ψ =
21 2 21
N λ ψ =
12
12
2
1 12
2
M
I
N
I
λ ψ
= = 21
21
1
2 21
1
M
I
N
I
λ ψ
= =
( )
1 11 2
1
1
1
1
11
L
I
N
I
ψ ψ λ +
= =
( )
2 22 2
2
2
2
2
21
L
I
N
I
ψ ψ λ +
= =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Mutual Inductance
If there are two circuits carrying currents I
1
and I
2
a magnetic
interaction exists between these circuits.
Four component fluxes are produced
If is the field due to I
2
and S
1
is the area of the circuit 1, then
11 1
1 Flux passing through circuit due to current I ψ ⇒
22 2
2 Flux passing through circuit due to current I ψ ⇒
12 2
1 Flux passing through circuit due to current I ψ ⇒
21 1
2 Flux passing through circuit due to current I ψ ⇒
1
12 2
S
B dS ψ = ⋅


2
B

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Mutual Inductance
Mutual inductance M12 is defined as the ratio of the flux linkage
on circuit 1 due to current I
2
.
Similarly
If the medium is linear M
12
=M
21
2
21 1
S
B dS ψ = ⋅


12 1 12
N λ ψ =
12
12
2
1 12
2
M
I
N
I
λ ψ
= =
21
21
1
2 21
1
M
I
N
I
λ ψ
= =
1 12
12
2
N
M
I
ψ
=
2 21
21
1
N
M
I
ψ
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Self Inductance of coupled coils
The self inductances of circuits 1 and 2 are given by
( )
1 11 2
1
1
1
1
11
L
I
N
I
ψ ψ λ +
= =
1 1
1
1
N
L
I
ψ
=
( )
2 22 2
2
2
2
2
21
L
I
N
I
ψ ψ λ +
= =
2 2
2
2
N
L
I
ψ
=
1 11 12
= ψ ψ ψ +
2 21 22
= ψ ψ ψ +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Procedure for calculating Inductance
1. Choose an appropriate coordinate system
2. Assume that the inductor carries a current I
3. Find the magnetic flux density using Ampere’s circuital
law if symmetry exists; otherwise use Biot-Savart’s law.
4. Find the flux linking each turn using
5. Find the inductance using
S
B dS ψ = ⋅


N
L
I
ψ
=
23
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a solenoid
When the coils of the solenoid are closely spaced, each turn
can be regarded as a circular loop, and the net magnetic field
is the vector sum of the magnetic field for each loop.
This produces a magnetic field that is approximately constant
inside the solenoid, and nearly zero outside the solenoid.
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a solenoid
The ideal solenoid is approached when the coils are very close
together and the length of the solenoid is much greater than its
radius. Then we can approximate the magnetic field as constant
inside and zero outside the solenoid.
H

Apply Ampere’s law for the closed path 1234
N turns in a
length of l
ˆ
x
a
l
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic field by a solenoid
12 23 34 41
L
H dl H dl H dl H dl H dl ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

encl
L
H dl I ⋅ =

0 0 Hl Hl = + + =
= Current enclosed by the path is NI
Hl NI =
NI
H
l
=
NI
B
l
μ
=
ˆ
x
NI
B a
l
μ
=

times number of turns per unit length
N
B I I
l
μ μ = =
ˆ
x
NI
H a
l
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Self inductance of a solenoid
Find the self inductance per unit length of an infinitely long solenoid.
S

NI
B per unit length
l
μ =

l
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Self inductance of a solenoid
The magnetic field inside an infinitely long solenoid is
If S is the cross sectional area of the solenoid, then the total flux
through this solenoid is
Hence the inductance per unit length is
NI
B
l
μ =

S
B dS ψ = ⋅


S
B dS =

BS =
NI
S
l
ψ μ =
N
L
I
ψ
=
2
N I
S
lI
μ =
2
N S
l
μ
=
2
L N S μ =
2
L N S μ =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic energy
Consider a differential volume Δv in a magnetic field of flux
density as shown below.
Let the top and bottom faces be covered with thin metal foils that
carry a current ΔI
B

x
y
z
x Δ
y Δ
z Δ
B

I Δ
I Δ
24
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic energy
The inductance of this differential volume is
The energy stored in this elemental inductance is
Substituting (1) in (2)
But
L
I
ψ Δ
Δ =
Δ
B x z
I
Δ Δ
=
Δ
-----(1)
H x z
I
μ Δ Δ
=
Δ
2
1
-----(2)
2
m
W L I Δ = Δ Δ
2

2

1
m
x z
W H I
I
μ
Δ Δ
Δ = Δ
Δ
1

2
H x z I μ = Δ Δ Δ
I H l H y Δ = Δ = Δ
2
1

2
m
W H x y z μ Δ = Δ Δ Δ
2
1

2
m
W H v μ Δ = Δ
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic energy
Magnetic energy density w
m
is defined as
Or
lim
m
m
v
W
w
v
Δ →∞
Δ
=
Δ
2
1
lim
2
m
v
H
w v
v
μ
Δ →∞
= Δ
Δ
2
1
2
H μ =
1
2
m
w HH μ =
1
2
B H = ⋅

( )
2 3
1
/
2
m
w H J m μ =
( )
3
1
/
2
m
w B H J m = ⋅

1
.
2
m
B
w B
μ
=
2
2
B
μ
=
2
3
( / )
2
m
B
w J m
μ
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic energy
The total energy in a magnostatic field is
m m
V
W w dv =

2
1

2
m
V
W H dv μ =

1

2
m
V
W B Hdv = ⋅


2
1

2
m
V
W H dv μ =

1

2
m
V
W B Hdv = ⋅


2
1

2 2
m
V
B
W dv
μ
=

2
1

2 2
m
V
B
W d v
μ
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
Find the self inductance of a coaxial cable of inner radius a and
outer radius b.
a
b
1 l m =
I
I
a
b
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
2
1
2
m
W LI =
2
2
,
m
o
W
L r
I
=
1

2
m
V
W B Hdv = ⋅


2
2
V
B
dv
μ
=

1 2
2
I
B
a
μ ρ
π
=
2
2
I
B
μ
πρ
=
The inductance produced by the flux internal to the conductor
2
1 2
1
in
V
L B dv
I μ
=

2 2 2
2 2 4
1
4
V
I
d d dz
I a
μ ρ
ρ ρ φ
μ π
=

3
2 4
4
V
d d dz
a
μ
ρ ρ φ
π
=

2
3
2 4
0 0 0
4
l a
d dz d
a
π
μ
φ ρ ρ
π
=
∫ ∫ ∫
8
l μ
π
=
8
int
l
L
μ
π
=
2
2
2
2
V
B
L dv
I μ
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
2
2 2
1
ext
V
L B dv
I μ
=

2 2
2 2 2
1
4
V
I
d d dz
I
μ
ρ ρ φ
μ π ρ
=

2
1
4
V
d d dz
μ
ρ φ
π ρ
=

2
2
0 0
1
4
l b
a
dz d d
π
μ
φ ρ
π ρ
=
∫ ∫ ∫
ln
2
l b
a
μ
π
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
ln
2
ext
l b
L
a
μ
π
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
int ext
L L L = +
1
ln
2 4
l b
a
μ
π
⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞
= +
⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦
1
ln
2 4
l b
L
a
μ
π
⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞
= +
⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦
25
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic circuits
Magnetic devices such as toroids, transformers, motors, generators
and relays may be considered as magnetic circuits.
The analysis of such circuits is made simple if an analogy between
magnetic and electric circuits is established.
turns N
I
B
S Δ mmf NI =
F
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic circuits
The electrostatic potential is related to electric field intensity by
Magnetic potential is related to magnetic field intensity by
Ohm’s law in point form for electric circuit has the form
Magnetic flux is analogous to electric current and magnetic flux
density is analogous to current density.
Corresponding to ohm’s law in electric circuits, we have the relation
To find the total current we use
To find the total flux we use
E V = −∇

m
H V = −∇

J E σ =

B H μ =

S
I J dS = ⋅


S
B dS ψ = ⋅


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic circuits
In electric circuits we defined resistance as the ratio of voltage and
current.
Similarly, in magnetic circuits reluctance is the ratio of magneto
motive force and the total flux.
The resistance R is given by
Correspondingly reluctance
The magneto motive force is
V
R
I
=
m
V
ψ
ℜ=
l
R
A σ
=
l
A μ
ℜ=
NI F =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Magnetic circuits
In electric circuits we have
the voltage source is part of the closed path here.
But in magnetic circuits
Here magneto motive force is linked to the magnetic circuit without
becoming part of the closed circuit.
Based on this we can write Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws for
electric and magnetic circuits:
For n magnetic circuits in series
For n magnetic circuits in parallel
0
L
E dl ⋅ =

encl
L
H dl I ⋅ =

L
H dl N or I ⋅ =

0 V IR − =
∑ ∑
0 NI ψ − = ℜ
∑ ∑
0 I =

0 ψ =

1 2 3
......
n
ψ ψ ψ ψ = = = =
1 2 3
......
n
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ = + + + +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
The torroidal core of a coil has a=10cm and a circular cross section
with b=1cm . If the core is made of steel (μ
r
=1000) and has a coil
with 200 turns,calculate the amount of current that will produce a
flux of 0.5mWb in the core.
a
2b
ψ
I
200 turns
NI
ψ

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Example 1
In the analogous magnetic circuit
NI ψ = ℜ
l
NI
A
ψ
μ
=
2
0
2
r
a
b
π
ψ
μ μ π
=
2
0
2
r
a
I
N b
π ψ
μ μ π
=
3
7 2
2 0.2 0.5 10
4 10 1000 200 (0.01)
I
π


× × ×
=
× × × ×
7.96A =
26
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Faraday’s law
Whenever the magnetic flux linking with a closed circuit varies with
time an emf is induced in that circuit and the induced emf is equal to
the time rate of change of the magnetic flux linkage by the circuit.
The negative sign shows that the induced emf acts in such a way as
to oppose the flux producing it. This is called Lenz’s law.
It shows that the direction of current in the circuit is such that the
induced magnetic field produced by the induced current opposes the
original magnetic field.
emf
d
V N
dt
ψ
= −
Number of turns in the c t N ircui ⇒
Flux through each turn ψ ⇒
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Faraday’s law
For a single turn
The variation of flux with time may be produced in the following
ways:
A stationary loop area in time varying magnetic field.
A time varying loop area in a in a static magnetic field.
A time varying loop area in a in a time varying magnetic field
emf
d
V N
dt
ψ
= −
emf
d
V
dt
ψ
= −
S
d
B dS
dt
= − ⋅


emf
L S
d
V E dl B dS
dt
= ⋅ = − ⋅
∫ ∫

=
S
Since B dS ψ ⋅


Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Stationary loop in time varying magnetic field.
( ) Increasing B t

( ) Decreasing B t

I I
' B

' B

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Stationary loop in time varying magnetic field.
In the case of stationary loop and time varying magnetic field, we
can modify the above equation.
This equation is called transformer equation since the induced emf is
due to transformer action.
Applying Stoke’s theorem
This is one of Maxwell’s equations for time varying fields.
emf
L S
d
V E dl B dS
dt
= ⋅ = − ⋅
∫ ∫

emf
L S
B
V E dl dS
t

= ⋅ = − ⋅

∫ ∫

( )
S S
B
E dS dS
t

∇× ⋅ = − ⋅

∫ ∫


B
E
t

∇× = −

B
E
t

∇× = −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Moving loop in a static magnetic field.
When a conducting loop is moving in a static magnetic field, an emf
is induced in the loop.
The force on a charge moving with uniform velocity in a magnetic
field is
Motional electric field is
The emf induced in the moving loop is
This type of emf is called motional emf.
m
F Qu B = ×

m
m
F
E u B
Q
= = ×

m
E

u

B

( )
emf m
L L
V E dl u B dl = ⋅ = × ⋅
∫ ∫

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Moving loop in a static magnetic field.
( ) ( )
( )
m
S S
E dS u B dS ∇× ⋅ = ∇× × ⋅
∫ ∫

' Applying Stoke s theorem
( )
m
E u B ∇× = ∇× ×

( )
m
E u B ∇× = ∇× ×

( )
emf m
L L
V E dl u B dl = ⋅ = × ⋅
∫ ∫

27
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Moving loop in a time varying magnetic field.
In this case both the transformer and motional emf are present .
Applying Stoke’s theorem,
( )
emf
L S L
B
V E dl dS u B dl
t

= ⋅ = − ⋅ + × ⋅

∫ ∫ ∫

( ) ( )
( )
S S S
B
E dS dS u B dS
t

∇× ⋅ = − ⋅ + ∇× × ⋅

∫ ∫ ∫

( )
B
E u B
t

∇× = − + ∇× ×

( )
B
E u B
t

∇× = − + ∇× ×

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Displacement current
Maxwell’s equation for magnetic fields derived from Ampere’s
circuital law is given by
For any vector, divergence of the curl is always zero.
But the continuity equation states that
Equations 1 and 2 are incompatible for time varying conditions. So
we have to modify equation 1 to agree with equation 2.
For this we will add an additional term to equation 1 so that it
becomes
H J ∇× =

( )
0 (1) H J ∇⋅ ∇× = ∇⋅ = − − −

(2)
v
J
t
ρ ∂
∇⋅ = − − − −


(3)
d
H J J ∇× = + − − −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Displacement current
Applying the condition that divergence of the curl is always zero to
the equation 3,
( ) ( )
=0
d
H J J ∇⋅ ∇× = ∇⋅ +

( )
= =0
d d
J J J J ∇⋅ + ∇⋅ ∇⋅ +

v
d
J J
t
ρ ∂
∇⋅ = −∇⋅ =


( )
D
t

=

∇⋅

D
t

⋅ =


d
D
J
t

=

3 Equation is now modified as
(4)
D
H J
t

∇× = + − − −

D
H J
t

∇× = +

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Displacement current
Equation 4 is Maxwell’s equation derived from ampere’s law for a
time varying field.
The term is known as displacement current density.
Based on displacement current density, we can define the
displacement current as
At low frequencies is very small when compared with
At high frequencies the two terms are comparable.
Without the term electromagnetic wave propagation would be
impossible.
/ D t ∂ ∂

d d
I J dS = ⋅

D
dS
t

= ⋅


d
J

J

d
J

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Displacement current
I
1
S
I
2
S
L L
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Displacement current
Displacement current is a result of time varying electric field.
An example is the current through a capacitor, when an alternating
voltage source is applied across its plates.
Consider that we are applying the unmodified form of Maxwell’s
equation to calculate the current through a capacitor considering a
closed path as shown in figure.
In the first case
In the second case
since no conduction current flows through S
2
1
encl
L S
H dl J dS I I ⋅ = ⋅ = =
∫ ∫

2
0
encl
L S
H dl J dS I ⋅ = ⋅ = =
∫ ∫

28
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Displacement current
This anomaly is corrected if we include the displacement current in
the above equation.
( )
2
d
L S
H dl J J dS ⋅ = + ⋅
∫ ∫

2
d
S
J dS = ⋅


2
S
D
dS
t

= ⋅


2
S
d
D dS
dt
= ⋅


dQ
dt
= I =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Maxwell’s Equations in final forms
V
D ρ ∇⋅ =

0 B ∇⋅ =

B
E
t

∇× = −

V
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫

0
S
B dS ⋅ =

L S
d
E dl B dS
dt
⋅ = − ⋅
∫ ∫

L S
D
H dl J dS
t
⎛ ⎞ ∂
⋅ = + ⋅
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
∫ ∫

Differential form Integral form Derived from
' Gauss s Law
Nonexistance of magnetic
Monopole
' Faraday s Law
' Ampere s Law D
H J
t

∇× = +

modified by continuity eqn
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Time-harmonic fields
A time harmonic field is one that varies periodically or sinusoidally
with time.
In most practical applications EM fields are time harmonic.
Also, any wave form can be expressed in terms of sinusoids using
Fourier transform techniques.
Sinusoids are easily expressed in phasors, which are more
convenient to work with.
A phasor z is a complex number that can be written as
Rectangular z o m x r jy f = + ⇒
2 2
, r z x Th y en = = +
( ) cos r j sin φ φ = +
j
z re
φ
=
-1
, a
y
tan
x
nd φ =
Polar o z r f rm φ = ∠ ⇒
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Time-harmonic fields
Addition and subtraction of phasors are better performed in
rectangular form while multiplication and division are better done in
polar form.
Let 1 1 1
z x j y = +
2 2 2
z x j y = +
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2
z z x x j y y + = + + +
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2
z z x x j y y − = − + −
( )
1 2 1 2 1 2
z z r r φ φ = ∠ +
( )
1 1
1 2
2 2
z r
z r
φ φ = ∠ −
( )
1 1 1
/ 2 z r φ = ∠
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Time-harmonic fields
To introduce the time element let
A sinusoidal current equals the real part of
The sinusoidal current equals the imaginary part of
t φ ω θ = +
( )

j j t t j j
Now re re re e
ω ω θ θ φ +
= =
{ } ( ) Re cos
j
re r t
φ
ω θ = +
{ } ( ) Im
j
re rsin t
φ
ω θ = +
( )
0
( ) cos I t I t ω θ = +
0
j j t
I e e
θ ω
( )
0
( ) I t I sin t ω θ = +
0
j j t
I e e
θ ω
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Time-harmonic fields
The complex term which results from dropping the time
factor in I(t) is called the phasor current and is denoted by I
s
.
0
j
I e
θ
j t
e
ω
0 0
j
s
I I e I
θ
θ = = ∠
0
( ) cos( ) I t I t ω θ = + can be expressed as { }
( )
j t
S
I t Re I e
ω
=
29
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Time-harmonic fields
A phasor can be a scalar or a vector.
If a vector is a time harmonic field, the phasor form
of , is
As an example let
Comparing (1) and (2), the phasor form of is
( , , , ) A x y z t

A

( , , )
S
A x y z

{ }
(1)
j t
S
A Re A e
ω
= − − −

0
ˆ cos( )
y
A A t x a ω β = −

{ }
0
ˆ (2)
j x j t
y
A Re A e a e
β ω −
= − − −

A

0
ˆ
j x
S y
A A e a
β −
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Time-harmonic fields
This shows that taking the time derivative of the instantaneous
quantity is equivalent to multiplying its phasor form by jω
Similarly,
{ }
j t
S
A Re A e
ω
=

{ }
j t
S
A
Re A e
t t
ω
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

{ }

j t
S
Re j A e
ω
ω =

S
A
j A
t
ω

=

S
A
A t

∂ =

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Time-harmonic fields
We can apply the concepts of phasors to time varying EM fields.
The following field quantities and their derivatives can be expressed
in phasor form.
Based on these quantities we can rewrite the Maxwell’s equations
for time-harmonic EM fields.
( , , , ) E x y z t

( , , , ) D x y z t

( , , , ) H x y z t

( , , , ) B x y z t

( , , , ) J x y z t

( , , , )
V
x y z t ρ
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch August 2008
Maxwell’s Equations for time harmonic
fields
S VS
D ρ ∇⋅ =

0
S
B ∇⋅ =

S S
E j B ω ∇× = −

S VS
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫

0
S
S
B dS ⋅ =

S S
L S
E dl j B dS ω ⋅ = − ⋅
∫ ∫

( ) S S S
L S
H dl J j D dS ω ⋅ = + ⋅
∫ ∫

Differential form Integral form
S S S
H J j D ω ∇× = +

1
MODULE IV
Electromagnetic
Wave Propagation
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Syllabus
Electromagnetic wave propagation: Electromagnetic waves
- wave propagation in lossy dielectrics - wave equations
from Maxwell’s equations - propagation constant - intrinsic
impedance of the medium - complex permittivity - loss
tangent - plane waves in lossless dielectrics - plane waves
in free space - uniform plane wave - TEM wave - plane
waves in good conductors - skin effect - Poynting vector -
Poynting’s theorem. Reflection of a plane wave at normal
incidence - standing waves - Reflection of plane waves at
oblique incidence - parallel and perpendicular polarization -
Brewster angle. Numerical methods in electromagnetics -
finite difference - finite element and moment method ( only
concept need to be introduced, detailed study not required)
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
References
Text Books:
1. Mathew N.O. Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford University
Press
2. J ordan and Balmain, Electromagnetic waves and radiating systems,
Pearson Education PHI Ltd.
References:
1. Kraus Fleisch, Electromagnetics with applications, McGraw Hill
2. William.H.Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, TataMcGraw Hill
3. N.Narayana Rao, Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Pearson
Education PHI Ltd.
4. D.GaneshRao, Engineering Electromagnetics, SanguineTechnical
Publishers.
5. J oseph.A.Edminister, Electromagnetics, Schaumseries-McGraw Hill
6. K.D. Prasad, Electromagnetic fields and waves, SathyaPrakashan
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Maxwell’s Equations in final forms
V
D ρ ∇⋅ =
, ,
0 B ∇⋅ =
, ,
B
E
t

∇× = −

,
, ,
V
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
¸¸, ,

0
S
B dS ⋅ =

¸¸, ,

L S
d
E dl B dS
dt
⋅ = − ⋅
∫ ∫
¸¸, ¸¸, , ,

L S
D
H dl J dS
t
⎛ ⎞ ∂
⋅ = + ⋅
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
∫ ∫
,
¸¸, ¸¸, , ,

Differential form Integral form Derived from
' Gauss s Law
Nonexistance of magnetic
Monopole
' Faraday s Law
' Ampere s Law D
H J
t

∇× = +

,
, , ,
modified by continuity eqn
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Maxwell’s Equations for lossless or non
conducting medium
0 D ∇⋅ =
, ,
0 B ∇⋅ =
, ,
B
E
t

∇× = −

,
, ,
0
S
D dS ⋅ =

¸¸, ,

0
S
B dS ⋅ =

¸¸, ,

L S
B
E dl dS
t

⋅ = − ⋅

∫ ∫
,
¸¸, ¸¸, ,

L S
D
H dl dS
t

⋅ = ⋅

∫ ∫
,
¸¸, ¸¸, ,

Differential form Integral form
D
H
t

∇× =

,
, ,
In lossless medium, current density J and charge density ρ are zero
and Maxwell’s equations are simplified as below.
Eqn
A
B
C
D
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
medium
Differentiating eq (D) with respect to t
The order of differentiation on the LHS may be changed as the curl
operation itself is a differentiation
Taking the curl of eq (C)
( )
(1)
D
H
t t t
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇× = − − −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
,
, ,
2
0 2
(2)
H E
t t
ε
∂ ∂
∇× = − − −
∂ ∂
, ,
,
B
E
t

∇×∇× = −∇×

,
, , , ,
2
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
medium
Substituting eq (2) in eq (3)
(3)
H
E
t
μ
⎛ ⎞ ∂
∇×∇× = − ∇× − − −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
,
, , , ,
2
2

E
E
t
μ ε
⎛ ⎞ ∂
∇×∇× = −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
,
, , ,
2
2
(4)
E
E
t
με

∇×∇× = − − − −

,
, , ,
( ) ( )
But A B C A C B A B C × × = ⋅ − ⋅
, , , , , , , , ,
( ) ( )
And so E E E ∇×∇× = ∇⋅ ∇− ∇⋅ ∇
, , , , , , , , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
medium
Substituting in eq (4)
Equation (5) represents wave equation in free space in terms of E.
( )
2
E E E ∇×∇× = ∇⋅ ∇−∇
, , , , , , , ,
0 0 0 t E u D E B ε ∇⋅ = ∇ ⇒ = ∇⋅ = ⇒ ⋅
, , , , , ,
2
And so E E ∇×∇× = −∇
, , , , ,
2
2
2

E
E
t
με

−∇ = −

,
, ,
2
2
2
(5)
E
E
t
με

∇ = − − −

,
, ,
2
2
2

E
E
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
medium
Differentiating eq (C) with respect to t
The order of differentiation on the LHS may be changed as the curl
operation itself is a differentiation
Taking the curl of eq (D)
( )
(6)
B
E
t t t
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂
∇× = − − − −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
,
, ,
2
2
(7)
E H
t t
μ
∂ ∂
∇× = − − − −
∂ ∂
, ,
,
D
H
t

∇×∇× = ∇×

,
, , , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
medium
Substituting eq (7) in eq (8)
(8)
E
H
t
ε
⎛ ⎞ ∂
∇×∇× = ∇× − − −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
,
, , , ,
2
2

H
H
t
ε μ
⎛ ⎞ ∂
∇×∇× = −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
,
, , ,
2
2
(9)
H
H
t
με

∇×∇× = − − − −

,
, , ,
( ) ( )
But A B C A C B A B C × × = ⋅ − ⋅
, , , , , , , , ,
( ) ( )
And so H H H ∇×∇× = ∇⋅ ∇− ∇⋅ ∇
, , , , , , , , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
medium
Substituting in eq (9)
Equation (10) represents wave equation in lossless medium in terms
of H.
( )
2
H H H ∇×∇× = ∇⋅ ∇−∇
, , , , , , , ,
0 0 0 t H u B H B μ ∇⋅ = ∇ ⇒ = ∇⋅ = ⇒ ⋅
, , , , , ,
2
And so H H ∇×∇× = −∇
, , , , ,
2
2
2

H
H
t
με

−∇ = −

,
, ,
2
2
2
(10)
H
H
t
με

∇ = − − −

,
, ,
2
2
2

H
H
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
medium
The wave equations for may be obtained by multiplying
the wave equation for
D B
, ,
and
E H ε μ
, ,
by and equation for by
2
2
2

E
E
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
( )
( )
2
2
2

E
E
t
ε
ε με

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
2

D
D
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
2

D
D
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
3
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
medium
2
2
2

H
H
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
( )
( )
2
2
2

H
H
t
μ
μ με

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
2

B
B
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
2
B
B
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
Similarly,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
medium
In rectangular coordinate system, the wave equations assumes the
form of scalar wave equations in terms of its components
2
2
2
x
x
E
E
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
2
y
y
E
E
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
2
z
z
E
E
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,







For E
,
, , For D H B we can obtain
, , ,
similar equations
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
media: sinusoidal time variations
If the electric field intensity is varying harmonically with time
Using these in wave equation for
j t
s
E
j E e
t
j E
ω
ω ω

=

=
,
,
j t
s
E E e
ω
=
,
2
2 2 2
2
j t
s
E
j E e
t
E
ω
ω ω

=

= −
,
,
2
2
2

E
E
t
με

∇ =

,
, ,
E
,
2 2
E E ω με ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
E E ω με ∇ = −
, , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossless or non conducting
media: sinusoidal time variations
Similarly we may obtain the following wave equations for the other
harmonically varying fields
2 2
H H ω με ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
D D ω με ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
B B ω με ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
E E ω με ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
D D ω με ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
H H ω με ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
B B ω με ∇ = −
, , ,
Homogeneous Vector wave
equations in complex time
harmonic form for free space
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for free space
2 2
0 0
E E ω μ ε ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
0 0
D D ω μ ε ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
0 0
H H ω μ ε ∇ = −
, , ,
2 2
0 0
B B ω μ ε ∇ = −
, , ,
2
2
0 0 2

B
B
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
0 0 2

D
D
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
0 0 2

H
H
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
0 0 2

E
E
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
GENERAL SINUSOIDAL TIME VARIATIONS
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Maxwell’s Equations for conducting
medium
D ρ ∇⋅ =
, ,
0 B ∇⋅ =
, ,
B
E
t

∇× = −

,
, ,
V
S V
D dS dV ρ ⋅ =
∫ ∫
¸¸, ,

0
S
B dS ⋅ =

¸¸, ,

L S
B
E dl dS
t

⋅ = − ⋅

∫ ∫
,
¸¸, ¸¸, ,

L S
D
H dl J dS
t
⎛ ⎞ ∂
⋅ = + ⋅
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
∫ ∫
,
¸¸, ¸¸, , ,

Differential form Integral form
D
H J
t

∇× = +

,
, , ,
In a conducting medium with conductivity σ and charge density ρ and
Maxwell’s equations are as given below below.
Eqn
A
B
C
D
4
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossy or conducting medium
From equation (D)
D
H J
t

∇× = +

,
, , ,
( ) H E E
t
σ ε

∇× = +

, , , ,
(1)
E
H E
t
σ ε

∇× = + − − −

,
, , ,
( )
2
2
E E
H
t t t
σ ε
∂ ∂ ∂
∇× = +
∂ ∂ ∂
, ,
, ,
2
2
(2)
H E E
t t t
σ ε
∂ ∂ ∂
∇× = + − − −
∂ ∂ ∂
, , ,
,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossy or conducting medium
From equation (C)
Taking curl of this equation
Putting eq (2) in (3)
B
E
t

∇× = −

,
, ,
H
E
t
μ

∇× = −

,
, ,
(3)
H
E
t
μ
⎛ ⎞ ∂
∇×∇× = − ∇× − − −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
,
, , , ,
2
2
(4)
E E
E
t t
μ σ ε
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
∇×∇× = − + − − −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
, ,
, , ,
( )
2
(5) But E E E ∇×∇× = ∇ ∇⋅ −∇ − − −
, , , , , , , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossy or conducting medium
Using eq (5) in (4)
But from equation (A) we have
Putting in equation (6)
( )
2
2
2
(6)
E E
E E
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = ∇ ∇⋅ + + − − −
∂ ∂
, ,
, , , , ,
( )
2
2
2
(4)
E E
E E
t t
μ σ ε
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
∇ ∇⋅ −∇ = − + − − −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
, ,
, , , , ,
D ρ ∇⋅ =
, ,
E
ρ
ε
∇⋅ =
, ,
2
2
2
(7)
E E
E
t t
ρ
μσ με
ε
∂ ∂ ⎛ ⎞
∇ = ∇ + + − − −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠
, ,
, , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossy or conducting medium
There is no charge within a conductor, although it may be there on
the surface, the charge density ρ=0. So we can rewrite equation (7)
as below.
This is the wave equation for conducting medium in terms of E
2
2
2
E E
E
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = +
∂ ∂
, ,
, ,
2
2
2
E E
E
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = +
∂ ∂
, ,
, ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossy or conducting medium
From equation (D)
Taking the curl of this equation
D
H J
t

∇× = +

,
, , ,
( ) H E E
t
σ ε

∇× = +

, , , ,
(1)
E
H E
t
σ ε

∇× = + − − −

,
, , ,
( )
(2)
E
H E
t
σ ε
⎛ ⎞ ∂
∇×∇× = ∇× + ∇× − − −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
,
, , , , , ,
( )
2
(3) But H H H ∇×∇× = ∇ ∇⋅ −∇ − − −
, , , , , , , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossy or conducting medium
Using eq (3) in (2)
From equation (C)
Putting in (5) and (6) in (4)
( ) ( )
2
(4)
E
H H E
t
σ ε
⎛ ⎞ ∂
∇ ∇⋅ −∇ = ∇× + ∇× − − −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
,
, , , , , , , ,
(5)
B
E
t

∇× = − − − −

,
, ,
( )
2
2
2
(7)
B B
H H
t t
σ ε
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
∇ ∇⋅ −∇ = − + − − − −
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
, ,
, , , , ,
( )
2
2
B
E
t t
∂ ∂
∇× = −
∂ ∂
,
, ,
2
2
(6)
E B
t t
∂ ∂
∇× = − − − −
∂ ∂
, ,
,
5
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossy or conducting
medium
This is the wave equation for conducting medium in terms of H
( )
2
2
2
(8)
H H
H H
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ ∇⋅ −∇ = − − − − −
∂ ∂
, ,
, , , , ,
( )
2
2
2
(9)
H H
H H
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = ∇ ∇⋅ + + − − −
∂ ∂
, ,
, , , , ,
0 0 But B H ⋅ = = ⇒ ∇ ∇⋅
, , , ,
2
2
2

H H
H
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = +
∂ ∂
, ,
, , 2
2
2

H H
H
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = +
∂ ∂
, ,
, ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossy or conducting
medium
2
2
2
E E
E
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = +
∂ ∂
, ,
, ,
2
2
2

H H
H
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = +
∂ ∂
, ,
, ,
2
2
2
D D
D
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = +
∂ ∂
, ,
, ,
2
2
2

B B
B
t t
μσ με
∂ ∂
∇ = +
∂ ∂
, ,
, ,
2
2
0 0 2
E
E
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
0 0 2

H
H
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
0 0 2
D
D
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
2
2
0 0 2

B
B
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,




0 0
0, , σ ε ε μ μ = = =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for lossy or conducting
medium – time harmonic form
2 2
E j E E ωμσ ω με ∇ = −
, , , ,
2 2
H j H H ωμσ ω με ∇ = −
, , , ,
2 2
D j D D ωμσ ω με ∇ = −
, , , ,
2 2
B j B B ωμσ ω με ∇ = −
, , , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave
An electromagnetic wave originates from a point in free space,
spreads out uniformly in all directions, and it forms a spherical wave
front.
An observer at a large distance from the source is able to observe
only a small part of the wave and the wave appears to him as a
plane wave.
For such a wave the electric field and the magnetic field are
perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation.
A uniform plane wave is one in which lie in a plane and
have the same value everywhere in that plane at any fixed instant.
E
,
H
,
E H
, ,
and
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave
E
,
E
,
E
,
H
,
H
,
H
,
O
Y
X
Z
6
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave
For a uniform plane wave travelling in the z direction, the space
variations of are zero over a z=constant plane.
This implies the fields have neither x nor y dependence.
A plane wave is transverse in nature, that is are both
perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
So they are called transverse electromagnetic waves (TEM waves)
E H
, ,
and
0
x y
∂ ∂
= =
∂ ∂
E H
, ,
and
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for uniform plane wave
traveling in z direction in free space
Consider a uniform plane wave propagating in z direction.
It will have E
x
and E
y
components but no E
z
component. E
z
= 0
There is no variation of the field components along x and y direction
Wave equations for free space is given by
0
E E
x y
∂ ∂
= =
∂ ∂
, ,
2
2
0 0 2
E
E
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x x y y z z
E a E a E a
x y z x y z x y z
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ + + + + + + +
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
( )
2
0 0 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ (1)
x x y y z z
E a E a E a
t
μ ε

= + + − − −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for uniform plane wave traveling in z
direction in free space
0; 0
y x
z
E E
But E
x y
∂ ∂
= = =
∂ ∂
2 2
2 2
0
y x
E E
x y
∂ ∂
= =
∂ ∂
( )
2 2
2 2
2
0 0 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
y x
x y x x y y
E E
a a E a E a
t z z
μ ε

= +

∂ ∂
+
∂ ∂
(1) Putting in eq
Hence
2
0
2
2 0 2
x x
E
t
E
z
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2
0
2
2 0 2
y y
E
t
E
z
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
Similarly for H we can obtain
,
2
0
2
2 0 2
x x
H
t
H
z
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2
0
2
2 0 2
y y
H
t
H
z
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for uniform plane wave in free
space traveling in z direction
2
0
2
2 0 2
x x
E
t
E
z
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2
0
2
2 0 2
y y
E
t
E
z
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2
0
2
2 0 2
x x
H
t
H
z
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2
0
2
2 0 2
y y
H
t
H
z
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for uniform plane wave traveling in z
direction in free space – sinusoidal time variations
2 2
0 0 2 2
x x
E E
z t
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2 2
0 0 2 2
y y
E E
z t
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2 2
0 0 2 2
x x
H H
z t
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2 2
0 0 2 2
y y
H H
z t
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2
2
0 0 2
x
x
E
E
z
ω μ ε

= −

2
2
0 0 2
y
y
E
E
z
ω μ ε

= −

2
2
0 0 2
y
y
H
H
z
ω μ ε

= −

2
2
0 0 2
x
x
H
H
z
ω μ ε

= −





Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for uniform plane wave
traveling in z direction in conducting medium
2 2
2 2
x x x
E E E
z t t
μσ με
∂ ∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂ ∂
2 2
2 2
y y y
E E E
z t t
μσ με
∂ ∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂ ∂
2 2
2 2
x x x
H H H
z t t
μσ με
∂ ∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂ ∂
2 2
2 2
y y y
H H H
z t t
μσ με
∂ ∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂ ∂
7
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave equations for uniform plane wave traveling in z
direction in conducting medium – sinusoidal time
variations
2
2
2
x
x x
E
j E E
z
ωμσ ω με

= −

2
2
2
y
y y
E
j E E
z
ωμσ ω με

= −

2
2
2
x
x x
H
j H H
z
ωμσ ω με

= −

2
2
2
y
y y
H
j H H
z
ωμσ ω με

= −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Solution of wave equations
Standard partial difference equation for wave motion frequently
encountered in engineering has the form
Comparing with the EM wave equation
2
2
2 2
1 X
X
v t

∇ =

,
, ,
v Velocity of the wave ⇒
2
2
0 0 2

E
E
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
( ) 0 0
2
2
2 2
1

1/
E
E
t
μ ε

∇ =

,
, ,
v Velocity of the wave ⇒ =
0 0
1
μ ε
7
0
4 10 / Putting F m μ π

= ×
12
0
8.854 10 / and H m ε

= ×
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Solution of wave equations
This is the velocity of light and when referred to electromagnetic
wave it is denoted by c.
8
0 0
1
3 10 / v m s
μ ε
= = ×
8
0 0
1
3 10 / v c m s
μ ε
= = = ×
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Solution of wave equation:
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in free space
In this case the wave equations in E are
The general solution of such a differential equation has the form
2 2
0 0 2 2
x x
E E
z t
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2 2
0 0 2 2
y y
E E
z t
μ ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2 2
2 2 2
1
x x
E E
z c t
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
2 2
2 2 2
1
y y
E E
z c t
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
8
0 0
1
3 10 / Where c m s
μ ε
= = ×
1 2
( ) ( ) E f z ct f z ct = − + +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in free space
Here f
1
and f
2
are any arbitrary functions of (z-ct) and (z+ct)
The functions of (z-ct) and (z+ct) may assume any form as,
The first function represents a wave traveling in positive z direction
while the second term represents a wave traveling in negative z
direction.
( ) Trigonometrical A sin z ct β ⇒ −
( )

z ct
Exponential A e
β −

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Solution of wave equation:
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossless or non
conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
In this case the wave equations in E are
2
2
2
x
x
E
E
z
ω με

= −

2
2
2
y
y
E
E
z
ω με

= −

2
2
2
0
y
y
E
E
z
ω με

+ =

2 2
0
y y
D E E ω με + =
2
2
2
Putting D
z



( )
2 2
0
y
D E ω με + =
Characteristic equation is
( )
2 2
0 m ω με + =
8
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossless or non
conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
( )
2 2
0 m ω με + =
2 2
m ω με = −
m jω με = ±
jβ = ±
Where β ω με =
Hence the solution is
1 2
j z j z
y m m
E E e E e
β β −
= +
2
and are arbitrary constants
m m1
E E
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossless
or non conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
The above equation is the phasor form of the electric field. To find
the time domain form we multiply the phasor form by and then
take the real part of it.
1 2
j z j z
y m m
E E e E e
β β −
= +
j t
e
ω
( ) { } 1 2
( , )
j z j z
y m
t
m
j
E z t Re E e E e e
β β ω −
= +
{ }
1 2
j z j j z
m
t j t
m
Re e E e E e e
ω β β ω −
= +
{ }
( ) ( )
1 2
j t z j t z
m m
Re E e E e
ω β ω β − +
= +
1 2
( ) ( )
m m
E cos t z E cos t z ω β ω β = − + +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossless
or non conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
1 2
( ) ( )
y m m
E E cos t z E cos t z ω β ω β = − + +

¸¸_¸¸

¸¸_¸¸
Forward traveling
wave
Backward traveling
wave
β ω με =
1
c
ω
β με
= =
c
ω
β
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossless
or non conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
For the phase of the forward traveling wave to remain constant,
As t increases z must also increase. This means that the wave
travels in the z direction with a constant phase.
Similarly for the backward traveling component
As t increases z must decrease in order to keep the phase constant.
This means that the wave travels in the –z direction with a constant
phase.
1 2
( ) ( )
y m m
E E cos t z E cos t z ω β ω β = − + +
= t z A constant ω β −
t z A constant ω β + =
1 2
( ) ( ) ,
m m y
E sin t O z sin t z r E E ω β ω β = − + +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave motion
z
λ λ −
t
T T −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Phase velocity
Due to the variation of E with both time and space we may plot E as
a function of t by keeping z constant or vice versa.
The plots of E(t,z=constant) and E(z,t=constant) are shown in figure.
The wave takes distance λ to repeats itself, and hence λ is called
the wave length.
Also the wave takes time T to repeat itself, and hence T is called the
period of the wave.
Since it takes time T for the wave to travel a distance λ at the speed
v, λ=vT
Since T=1/f we may write v f λ =
2 f ω π =
1 2
T
f
π
ω
= =
v
ω
β =
2
, Substituting
π
β
λ
=
9
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Phase velocity
For every wavelength of distance traveled, the wave undergoes a
phase change of 2π radians.
Now consider the forward wave
To prove that this wave travels with a velocity v in the z direction,
consider a fixed point P on the wave.
Sketch the above wave equation at times t=T/4 and t=T/2 as in
figure.
As the wave advances with time, point P moves along the z
direction.
Point P is a point of constant phase,
2

π
β
λ
=
1
( )
y m
E E sin t z ω β = −
= t z A constant ω β −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Phase velocity
This proves that the wave is traveling in the z direction with velocity v
= t z A constant ω β −
dz
v
dt
ω
β
= =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave motion
E
,
z λ 2λ
E
,
t T 2T
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave motion
E
,
z λ 2λ
E
,
t T 2T
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Phase velocity
E
,
E
,
E
,
z β
z β
z β
0 t =
/ 4 t T =
/ 2 t T =
P
P
P
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Relationship between E and H and
Intrinsic impedance in perfect dielectric
Maxwell’s equation derived from Faraday’s law is
B
E
t

∇× = −

,
, ,
. .,
H
i e E
t
μ

∇× = −

,
, ,
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y z
x x y y z z
x y z
a a a
H a H a H a
x y z t
E E E
μ
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎡ ⎤ = − + +
⎣ ⎦
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
10
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Relationship between E and H and
Intrinsic impedance in perfect dielectric
For a uniform plane wave traveling in the z direction,
0
x y
∂ ∂
= =
∂ ∂
0
z
H =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ 0 0 0
0
x y z
x x y y
x y
a a a
H a H a
z t
E E
μ
∂ ∂
⎡ ⎤ = − + +
⎣ ⎦
∂ ∂
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (1)
y x
y x x y x y
H H
E a E a a a
z t t
μ μ
∂ ∂ ∂
⎡ ⎤ − − = − − − −
⎣ ⎦
∂ ∂ ∂
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Relationship between E and H and
Intrinsic impedance in perfect dielectric
From equation (1) we have
From Maxwell’s curl equation for H
By proceeding in a similar way as we did for the first curl equation
we get
( )
y x
E H
a
z t
μ
∂ ∂
= − − −
∂ ∂
( )
y x
H E
b
z t
μ
∂ ∂
= − − − −
∂ ∂
D
H
t

∇× = −

,
, ,
. .,
E
i e H
t
ε

∇× =

,
, ,
( )
y x
H E
c
z t
ε
∂ ∂
= − − − −
∂ ∂
( )
y x
E H
d
z t
ε
∂ ∂
= − − −
∂ ∂
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Relationship between E and H and
Intrinsic impedance in perfect dielectric
Let the equation of the plane wave be
Differentiating the above equation wrt t
From equation (d)
1
1
( )
y
E f z ct where c
με
= − =
1
'( ) ( )
y
E
f z ct z ct
t t
∂ ∂
= − −
∂ ∂
1
'( ) c f z ct = − −
y x
E H
z t
ε
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
1
'( )
x
c f z ct
H
z
ε − −

=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Relationship between E and H and
Intrinsic impedance in perfect dielectric
Integrating both sides,
1
( )
x
H c f z ct k ε = − − +

y
c E k ε = − +
1
y
E ε
με
= −

y
E
μ
ε
= −
y
x
E
H
μ
ε
= −
The constant k is taken to be zero
as it forms only a static part of the
the solution which is not important
here
y
x
E
H
μ
ε
= −
y x
E H
μ
ε
= −
x y
H E
ε
μ
= −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Relationship between E and H and
Intrinsic impedance in perfect dielectric
Similarly let the equation of the plane wave be
Differentiating the above equation wrt t
From equation (c)
1
1
( )
x
E f z ct where c
με
= − =
1
'( ) ( )
x
E
f z ct z ct
t t
∂ ∂
= − −
∂ ∂
1
'( ) c f z ct = − −
y x
H E
z t
ε
∂ ∂
= −
∂ ∂
1
'( )
y
c f ct
H
z
z ε −

=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Relationship between E and H and
Intrinsic impedance in perfect dielectric
Integrating both sides,
1
( )
y
H c f z ct k ε = − +
x
c E k ε = +
1
x
E ε
με
=

x
E
μ
ε
=
x
y
E
H
μ
ε
=
The constant k is taken to be zero
as it forms only a static part of the
the solution which is not important
here
x
y
E
H
μ
ε
=
x y
E H
μ
ε
=
y x
H E
ε
μ
=
11
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Relationship between E and H and
Intrinsic impedance in perfect dielectric
2 2

x y
E E E = +
2 2

y x
E H H
μ μ
ε ε
= +
2 2

x y
E H H
μ
ε
= + H
μ
ε
=

x y
E H
μ
ε
=

y x
H E
ε
μ
=

y x
E H
μ
ε
= −

x y
H E
ε
μ
= −
E Total electric field ⇒
H Total magnetic field ⇒

E
H
μ
η
ε
= =

E
H
μ
η
ε
= =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Relationship between E and H and
Intrinsic impedance in perfect dielectric
This equation is similar to ohms law R=V/I by the analogy
So it is called intrinsic impedance or characteristic impedance of the
medium.
For free space, intrinsic impedance is
For any other medium
E
H
μ
η
ε
= =
V E ⇔ H I ⇔
0
0
0
=377
μ
η
ε
= Ω
0
0
r
r
μ μ
η
ε ε
= 377
r
r
μ
η
ε
= Ω
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Solution of wave equation:
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossy or
conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
In this case the wave equations in E are
The wave equation for E
y
may be written as
2
2
2
x
x x
E
j E E
z
ωμσ ω με

= −

2
2
2
y
y y
E
j E E
z
ωμσ ω με

= −

( )
2
2
y
y
E
j j E
z
ωμ σ ωε

= +

2
2
2
y
y
E
E
z
γ

=

( ) j Where j γ ωμ σ ωε = +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossy or
conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
Here is defined as the propagation constant.
It is a complex number and can be represented as
It has a real part α called attenuation constant and an imaginary part
β called phase shift constant.
( ) j j γ ωμ σ ωε = +
j γ α β = +
2
2
2
y
y
E
E
z
γ

=

2 2
0
y y
D E E γ − =
( )
2 2
0
y
D E γ − =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossy or
conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
Characteristic equation is
Hence the solution of the partial differential equation is
2 2
0 m γ − =
2 2
m γ =
m γ = ±
1 2
z z
y m m
E E e E e
γ γ − +
= +
( ) ( )
1 2
j z j z
m m
E e E e
α β α β − + + +
= +
1 2
z z z z
m m
E e e E e e
α β α β − −
= +
1 2
z z z z
y m m
E E e e E e e
α β α β − −
= +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossy or
conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
Similarly by taking the wave equation in terms of H
x
and then
proceeding we get
The terms are the amplitudes of the forward-
traveling and backward-traveling waves.
The terms cause the amplitudes of the forward and backward
waves to decay as they propagate through the medium. Hence α is
termed as the attenuation constant.
1 2
z z z z
x m m
H H e e H e e
α β α β − −
= +
z
e
α ±
1 2
z z
m m
E e and E e
α α −
12
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Uniform plane wave traveling in z direction in lossy or
conducting medium- sinusoidal time variations
The time domain fields are obtained by multiplying E
y
by e
jωt
and
taking the real part of the result.
( )
1 2
( , )
z z z z j t
y m m
E x t Re E e e E e e e
α β α β ω − −
= +
1 2
cos( ) cos( )
z z
m m
E e t z E e t z
α α
ω β ω β

= − + +
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in lossy or conducting medium:
Expression for α and β
We know that
Equating (1) and (2)
Equating the real and imaginary parts of (3)
( ) j j γ ωμ σ ωε = +
2 2
(1) j γ ωμσ ω με = − − − −
j α β = +
( )
2
2
j γ α β = +
2 2
2 (2) j α β αβ = − + − − −
2 (5) ωμσ αβ = − − −
2 2 2
= (4) α β ω με − − − − −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in lossy or conducting medium:
Expression for α and β
From eq(5) we have
Putting eq (7) in (4)
(6)
2
ωμσ
α
β
= − − −
(7)
2
ωμσ
β
α
= − − −
2
2 2
= (8)
2
ωμσ
ω με α
α
⎛ ⎞
− − − − −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( )
2
2 2
2
=
4
ωμσ
ω με α
α
− −
2 2 4 2 2 2
4 =4 ω με α α ω μ σ − −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in lossy or conducting medium:
Expression for α and β
( )
2
2 2 4
4 =4 ω με α α ωμσ − −
( )
2
4 2 2
4 4 0 α ω με α ωμσ + − =
2
4 2 2
0
2
ωμσ
α ω με α
⎛ ⎞
+ − =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
2
P t p u α =
2
2 2
0 (9)
2
p p
ωμσ
ω με
⎛ ⎞
+ − = − − −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
(9 ) Solving the quadratic equation for p we get
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in lossy or conducting medium:
Expression for α and β
Similarly by putting eq (6) in (4) we get another quadratic equation in β
2
,
solving which we get





Taking the positive root only
2
2
1 1 (11)
2
ω με σ
α
ωε
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪ ⎛ ⎞
= ± + − − − −
⎨ ⎬ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
2
2
1 1
2
p
ω με σ
ωε
⎛ ⎞
= + −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
2
2
1 1 (12)
2
ω με σ
β
ωε
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪ ⎛ ⎞
= ± + + − − −
⎨ ⎬ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in lossy or conducting medium:
Expression for α and β
2
2
1 1
2
Attenuation Constant
ω με σ
α
ωε
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪ ⎛ ⎞
= ± + −
⎨ ⎬ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
2
2
1 1
2
Phase shift Constant
ω με σ
β
ωε
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪ ⎛ ⎞
= ± + +
⎨ ⎬ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
13
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in lossy or conducting medium:
Expression for v
p
and λ
Phase velocity

p
v
ω
β
=
2
2
1 1
2

p
v
ω
ω με σ
ωε
=
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪ ⎛ ⎞
+ +
⎨ ⎬ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
2
1

1 1
2
p
v
με σ
ωε
=
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪ ⎛ ⎞
+ +
⎨ ⎬ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in lossy or conducting medium:
Expression for v
p
and λ
Wave length

λ
β
=
2
2
2
1 1
2
π
λ
ω με σ
ωε
=
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪ ⎛ ⎞
+ +
⎨ ⎬ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Intrinsic impedance of lossy dielectric
The phasor equation for a wave travelling in z direction in a loosy
dielectric is
Since the fields vary sinusoidally with time
Putting the above values in
1
z z
y m
E E e e
α β − −
=
1
z
m
E e
γ −
=
1
y z
m
E
E e
z
γ
γ


= −

y
E γ = −
( )
y x
E H
a
z t
μ
∂ ∂
= − − −
∂ ∂
j
t
ω

=

y x
E j H γ ωμ − = −
y
x
E j
H
ωμ
η
γ
= =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Intrinsic impedance of lossy dielectric
jωμ
η
γ
=
( ) But j j γ ωμ σ ωε = +
( )
j
j j
ωμ
η
ωμ σ ωε
=
+
j
j
ωμ
σ ωε
=
+
j
j
ωμ
η
σ ωε
=
+
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Conductors and dielectrics
Electromagnetic materials are roughly classified as conductors and
dielectrics.
Maxwell’s curl equation for sinusoidally varying quantities is given by
H E j E σ ωε ∇× = +
, , , ,
C D
H J J ∇× = +
, , , ,

C
Conduction c J urrent density ⇒
,

D
J Displacement current density ⇒
,
C
D
J E
J j E
σ
ω
σ
ωε ε
= =
, ,
, ,

C
D
determines the nat
J
The rat ure of materi io
J
al
σ
ωε
=
,
,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Conductors and dielectrics
. 1 1
D C
J J Good dielectrics
σ
ωε σ
ωε
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
, ,
< > >
2. 1
D C
Semi conductor J J
σ
ωε σ
ωε
≅ ≅ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ≅
, ,
. 3 1
D C
Good conductor J J
σ
ωε σ
ωε
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
, ,
> < <
When the displacement current is much greater than conduction current
the medium behaves like a dielectric.
σ If = 0 the medium is a perfect or lossless dielectric.
σ ≠ If 0 the medium is a lossy dielectric.
14
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Conductors and dielectrics
When the displacement current is much smaller than conduction current
the medium behaves like a conductor.
σ ωε > If the medium is a good conductor.
When the displacement current is comparable to conduction current
the medium behaves like a semi conductor.
σ
ωε
The term is called loss tangent
D
J j E ωε =
, ,
C
J E σ =
, ,
C D
J J J = +
, , ,
( ) j E σ ωε = +
,
θ
Loss ta tangen n t
σ
ωε
θ = ⇒
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good dielectrics
This can be considered as a special case of the wave motion in
lossy or conducting medium.
All the equations derived for this case is applicable in the case of
good dielectrics with appropriate modification of parameters.
For a good dielectric σ/ωε<<1 so that we can approximate the value
of α and β as follows
( ) j j γ ωμ σ ωε = +
( )
2
j j γ ωμ σ ωε = +
2
1 j j
j
σ
γ ωμ ωε
ωε
⎛ ⎞
= ⋅ +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
2 2 2
1 j j
σ
γ ω με
ωε
⎛ ⎞
= −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good dielectrics
1 j j
σ
γ ω με
ωε
= −
Expanding the second radical using Binomial theorem
( )
2 3
( 1) ( 1)( 2)
1 1
2 3
n n n n n n
x nx x x
− − −
− = − + − +⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
1/2 2
1 1
1
1 2 2
1 1
2 2
j j
j
σ σ σ
ωε ωε ωε
⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎝ ⎠
− = − + +⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
2
1
1
2 8
jσ σ
ωε ωε
⎛ ⎞
= − + +⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good dielectrics
2
1
1
2 8
j
j
σ
γ ω μ
ωε ω
ε
σ
ε
⎡ ⎤
⎛ ⎞
− + +⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎢
=

⎣ ⎦
j α β = +
Equating the real and imaginary parts
2
j
j
σ
α ω με
ωε
= ⋅ −
2
σ
ω με
ωε
= ⋅
2
σ μ
ε
=
2
σ μ
α
ε
=
2
1
1
8
j j β ω
ε
με
σ
ω
⎡ ⎤
⎛ ⎞
+
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good dielectrics
2
1
1
8
σ
ω
β ω με
ε
⎡ ⎤
⎛ ⎞
+
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎢
⎣ ⎦
=

β ω με = 1 Since
σ
ωε
<
β ω με =
, ,
2
For a perfect dielectric
σ μ
α β ω με
ε
= =
2
=
1
1
8
p
Velocity of propagation v
ω ω
σ
ω με
β
ωε
⎡ ⎤
⎛ ⎞
+
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎢
⎣ ⎦
=

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good dielectrics
2
1
=
1
1
8

p
Velocity of propagation v
σ
με
ωε
⎡ ⎤
⎛ ⎞
+
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
1 2
z z z z
y m m
E E e e E e e
α β α β − −
= +
1 2
( , ) cos( ) cos( )
z z
y m m
E z t E e t z E e t z
α α
ω β ω β

= − + +
: And the wave equations are
15
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good conductors
This can be considered as a special case of the wave motion in
lossy or conducting medium.
All the equations derived for this case is applicable in the case of
good dielectrics with appropriate modification of parameters.
For a good conductor σ/ωε>>1 so that we can approximate the
value of α and β as follows
( ) j j γ ωμ σ ωε = +
1
j
j
ωε
ωμσ
σ
⎛ ⎞
= +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
1 Since or
σ
σ ωε
ωε
> > jωμσ =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good conductors
j γ ωμσ =
1 2 1
2
j
γ ωμσ
+ − ⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( )
2
1
2
j
ωμσ
= +
( ) 1
2
j
ωμσ
= +
j α β = +
Equating the real and imaginary parts
2
ωμσ
α β = =
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good conductors
The wave equation in this case is of the form
When we consider the forward traveling wave only
A high frequency uniform plane wave suffers attenuation as it
passes through a lossy medium.
Its amplitude gets multiplied by the factor, e
-αx
where α is the
attenuation constant.
1 2
or
z z z z
y m m
E E e e E e e
α β α β − −
= +
1 2
( , ) cos( ) cos( )
z z
y m m
E z t E e t z E e t z
α α
ω β ω β

= − + +
1
( , ) cos( )
z
y m
E z t E e t z
α
ω β

= −
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good conductors
z
e
α −
z
1 m
E
y
E
y
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good conductors
Skin depth is defined as the distance the wave must travel to have
its amplitude reduced by a factor of e
-1
.
The exponential multiplying factor is unity at z=0 and decreases to
1/e when z=1/α
So skin depth is
Thus we see that the skin depth decreases with an increase in
frequency.
The intrinsic impedance of a medium may be expressed in terms of
skin depth.
1
= Skin depth δ
α

2
= δ
ωμσ
1
=
f π μσ
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good conductors
=
j
j
ωμ
η
σ ωε +
for a conducto
j
r
ωμ
η
σ

45
ωμ
σ
= ∠

1
But, =
2
ωμσ
δ
2
2
45

ωμσ
= ∠

2 2
2
45
σ δ
= ∠

2
45
δσ
= ∠

( )
1
1 j
δσ
= + Ω
( )
1
1 j η
δσ
= + Ω
16
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Wave propagation in good conductors
The phenomenon by which field intensity in a conductor rapidly
decreases with increase in frequency is called skin effect.
At high frequencies the fields and the associated currents are
confined to a very thin layer of the conductor surface.
1
= Skin depth δ
α
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem
The vector product at any point is a measure of the rate
of energy flow per unit area at that point ; the direction of energy
flow is perpendicular to E and H in the direction of the vector
P E H = ×
, , ,
E H ×
, ,
2
/ P E H Watts m = ×
, , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem- Proof
Maxwell’s first curl equation states that
This equation can be rewritten as
Pre dotting the equation (2) with we get,
We have the vector identity
D
H J
t

∇ × = +

,
, , ,

D E
J H H
t t
ε
∂ ∂
= ∇ × − = ∇ × −
∂ ∂
, ,
, , , , ,
E
,
-
( )
(1)
D E E
E J E H E E H
t t
ε
∂ ∂
= ∇ × − = ∇ × − −−−
∂ ∂
, , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
-
- - - -
( ) ( ) ( )
(2) E H H E E H ⋅ ∇ × = ⋅ ∇ × − ∇ ⋅ × − − −
, , , , , , , , ,
( ) ( ) ( )
E H H E E H ∇⋅ × = ⋅ ∇ × − ⋅ ∇ ×
, , , , , , , , ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem - Proof
Putting eq (2) in (1)
( ) ( )
E
E J H E E H E
t
ε

= ⋅ ∇ × − ∇⋅ × −

,
, , , , , , ,
- -
( )
B E
E J H E H E
t t
ε
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
= ⋅ − − ∇⋅ × −
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
, ,
, , , , , ,
- -
( )
H E
H E H E
t t
μ ε
∂ ∂
= ⋅ − − ∇⋅ × −
∂ ∂
, ,
, , , ,
-
( ) (3)
H E
H E E H
t t
μ ε
∂ ∂
= − ⋅ − −∇⋅ × − − −
∂ ∂
, ,
, , , ,
-
2 2
1 1
(4)
2 2
H E
But H H and E E
t t t t
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⋅ = ⋅ = − − −
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
, ,
, ,
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem - Proof
Substituting equation (4) in equation (3), we get
Integrating both sides of equation (5) over a volume V, we get
( )
2 2
1 1
2 2
E J H E E H
t t
μ ε
∂ ∂
= − − − ∇⋅ ×
∂ ∂
, , , ,
-
( )
2 2
2 2
H E
E H
t t
μ ε ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂
= − − − ∇⋅ ×
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
, ,
( )
2 2
(5)
2 2
H E
E H
t
μ ε ⎛ ⎞ ∂
= − + − ∇⋅ × − − −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
, ,
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
v v
H E
E J d d E H d
t
ν
μ ε
ν ν ν
⎛ ⎞ ∂
= − + − ∇⋅ ×
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
∫ ∫ ∫
, , , ,
-
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem - Proof
We apply divergence theorem to the last term on the LHS, convert
the volume integral into a surface integral and get
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
v S
H E
E J d d E H dS
t
ν
μ ε
ν ν
⎛ ⎞ ∂
= − + − ×
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
∫ ∫ ∫
, , , ,
-

( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
S v
H E
E H dS E J d d
t
ν
μ ε
ν ν
⎛ ⎞ ∂
− × = + +
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
∫ ∫ ∫
, , , ,
-

( ) ( )
2 2
S v
B H E D
E H dS E J d d
t
ν
ν ν
⎛ ⎞ ∂ ⋅ ⋅
− × = + +
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
∫ ∫ ∫
, , , ,
, , , ,
-

17
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem
Term 1 Term 2
Term 3
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
S v
E E
H E
d
t
d H dS J
ν
μ ε
ν ν
⎛ ⎞ ∂
+
⎜ ⎟
× +
⎝ ⎠
− =

∫ ∫ ∫
, , ,
-
,

Ingoing power flux
over the surface S
Total dissipated power
within the volume V at
any instant due to ohmic
losses
Rate of decrease due
to total electromagnetic
energy stored within
the volume V
Magnetic energy
stored within the
volume V
Electrostatic energy
stored within the
volume V
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem - Interpretation
2
2
E
d
ν
ε
ν

Stored electrical energy
Stored magnetic energy
Ohmic losses
Power out
Power in
( )
S
E H dS ×

, ,

( )
v
E J dν

, ,
-
2
2
H
d
ν
μ
ν

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem - Interpretation
The first term represents the rate of flow of energy
inward through the surface of the volume or ingoing power flux over
the surface S
The second term represents total dissipated power
within the volume V at any instant.
For a conductor of cross sectional area A carrying a current I and
having a voltage drop E per unit length, the power loss is EI watts
per unit length.
The power dissipated per unit volume is
Total power dissipated in a volume is
( )
S
E H dS − ×

, ,

( )
v
E J dν

, ,
-
( )
v
E J dν

, ,
-
.
EI
EJ watts per unit volume
A
=
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem - Interpretation
The first part of the third term is the stored electric energy
per unit volume ( electrostatic energy density ) of the electric field.
The second part of the third term is the stored magnetic
energy stored per unit volume ( magnetic energy density ) of the
magnetic field
The volume integral of the sum represents total electromagnetic
energy stored within the volume V
2
1
2
E ε
2
1
2
H μ
Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting theorem - Interpretation
The net inward power flux supplied by the field over the surface S
must equal the time rate of increase of electromagnetic energy
inside the volume V plus the total losses in volume V, assuming the
volume contains no generators.
If represent the total ingoing instantaneous power
flux, then represents the total power flowing out of the
volume.
( )
S
E H dS − ×

, ,

( )
S
E H dS ×

, ,

Compiled by MKP for CEC S5 batch September 2008
Poynting vector
From Poynting theorem it can be seen that the vector product of
electric field intensity and magnetic field intensity is another
vector which is denoted by
The vector P is called Poynting vector.
It measures the rate of flow of energy, and its direction is the
direction of power flow and it is perpendicular to the plane
containing vectors.
P is the energy per unit area passing per unit time through the
surface of the volume v in watts/meter square.
For plane waves the direction of energy flow is the direction of
propagation.
The Poynting vector offers a useful coordinate free way of specifying
the direction of propagation of plane waves.
2
/ P E H Watts m = ×
, , ,
E H
, ,
and
E
,
H
,