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The radioactivity

Radioactivity is defined as the ability to physically unstable elements have to emit energy in the form of particles or electromagnetic radiation. Radioactivity was discovered in the nineteenth century . Up to this point the idea prevailed that atoms were the smallest particles of matter. With the discovery of radiation , scientists have found that there is still smaller than the atom , such as proton, neutron, electron. Let's review some of this story ? - In 1896 , the French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel ( 1852-1908 ) noted that a salt of uranium had the ability to sensitize a photographic film , covered by a thin sheet of metal. - In 1897 , the Polish scientist Marie Sklodowska Curie ( 1867-1934 ) proved that the radiation intensity is always proportional to the amount of uranium used in the sample , concluding that radioactivity was an atomic phenomenon . Years passed and science has evolved to be possible to produce radioactivity in the laboratory . See the difference between natural and artificial radiation : natural or spontaneous radioactivity : is manifested in radioactive elements and isotopes found in nature . Artificial or induced radioactivity : is that produced by artificial nuclear transformations . Radioactivity usually comes from isotopes such as uranium -235 , cesium- 137 , cobalt - 60 , thorium -232 , which are physically unstable and radioactive , having a steady and slow disintegration. Such isotopes release energy through electromagnetic waves ( gamma rays ) or subatomic particles at high speed : it is what we call radiation. The contact of radiation with living beings is not what we call a good relationship . Radiation effects can be long-term , short-term problems or the descendants of the infected person ( children, grandchildren ) . The individual receiving radiation suffer genetic alteration that can be transmitted during pregnancy . The rays affect atoms that are present in cells , causing changes in its structure. The result ? Serious health problems such as loss of the characteristic properties of the muscles and the ability to perform the synthesis necessary for survival. Radioactivity can provide benefits to man and so is used in different areas . In medicine , it is used in the treatment of cancerous tumors , the industry is used to obtain nuclear energy and science aims to promote the study of atomic and molecular organization of other elements .

History of organic chemistry

The chemical believed that compounds obtained from living organisms were too complex to be synthesized. According to the concept of vitalism , organic matter was endowed with a " vital force " . These compounds were named as " organic " and investigations were directed primarily to inorganic materials that seemed more easily be studied . During the first half of the nineteenth century, scientists discovered that organic compounds could be synthesized in the laboratory. Around 1816 Michel Chevreul prepared soaps made using fats and alkalis . In 1828 Friedrich Whler produced urea , a constituent of urine , from the inorganic salt ammonium cyanate , NH4CNO , this preparation being now called the Whler synthesis. Although Whler was always cautious about the claim that would have refuted the theory of vital force , this event has often been seen as a milestone for the establishment of organic chemistry . In 1856 , William Henry Perkin while trying to manufacture quinine , accidentally manufactured the organic dye known as mauvena . Due to the great financial success of this discovery , interest in studies in organic chemistry increased significantly 2. The concept of chemical structure was crucial to the development of theories in organic chemistry and were worked simultaneously and independently by Friedrich August Kekule and Archibald Scott Couper Both in 1858.3 suggested that tetravalent carbon atoms (which are four links ) could bind to one another to form a network of carbon atoms , and the patterns of these links could be discerned by appropriate interpretation of chemical reactions that had occurred . The history of organic chemistry continued with the discovery of petroleum and its separation into fractions according to the difference in boiling point of the components . Already the pharmaceutical industry began in the last decade of the 19th century , with the manufacture of acetylsalicylic acid (more commonly known by as aspirin) by Bayer in Alemanha.4 Although early examples of organic reactions and applications were often random , the second half of the nineteenth century witnessed highly systematic studies of organic compounds . The total synthesis of natural compounds started with urea and increased complexity in obtaining glucose and terpineol. In 1907, camphor obtained by total synthesis was commercialized the first time by Gustaf Komppa with camphor . From the twentieth century , progress of organic chemistry allowed the synthesis of highly complex molecules . At the same time , polymers and enzymes were recognized as large organic molecules and proved oil of biological origin .