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GR solutions

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1 ir 1. Figure out how the ordinary derivatives Ai j1 js ,k of an arbitrary (r, s) 1 ir tensor Ai j1 js transform under coordinate changes. If you get lost in the indices then can do this for a (2, 2), although the general case is actually easier. Solution: In the coordinates x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 ,

Aj1 js ,k =

i1 ir

i1 ir A s xk j1 j n x xmq l1 lr xip = k n A x x 1pr xlp 1qs xjq m1 ms xmq xn l1 lr xip A = jq xk xn m1 ms lp 1pr x 1q s x xip xmq xn 2 xiu 1 lr + Al m1 ms j k l n l q p u x x x 1ur 1pr x 1q s x + xip lp 1vs 1pr x

p= u

1q s q =v

2. Compute the Christoel symbols of Minkowski space in (a) Cartesian coordinates: (x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (t, x, y, z ). For your sanity and mine, write indices as t, x, y and z rather than 0, 1, 2 and 3. So the metric is gtt = c2 , gxx = gyy = gzz = 1 and all other components are zero. Solution: Every derivative of every metric component is zero, so all the connection coecients are zero. 1

Id:

(b) Spherical Coordinates: (x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 )(t, r, , ). The metric in these coordinates is gtt = c2 , grr = 1, g = r 2 , g = r 2 sin2 and all other components are zero. Solution: The inverse metric is easily computed because the matrix representation of the metric is diagonal in this basis. g tt = c2 g rr = 1 g = r 2 g = r 2 csc2

The non-zero derivatives of the metric components are g,r = 2r Using the formula 1 il i jk = g (gkl,j + gjl,k gjk,l ) 2 we see that, of the 64 entries of the Christoel symbol, the only non-zero ones are r = r 1 rl 1 r = r = r = r r = r = g (gl, + gl, g,l ) 2 g,r = 2r sin2 g, = r 2 cos .

3. Read about raising and lowering of indices in Section 3.1.1 of George Ellis notes. Its fairly simple. Then, (a) Show that g;ij k is zero. Solution: There is no need to deal with Christoel symbols. We already know that the covariant derivative of g with two lower indices is zero. That was part of the denition of the covariant derivative. We also know that the covariant derivative g with an upper and lower index is zero. That was proved in lecture. So,

im im 0 = gli;k = (g imglm );k = g;im k glm + g glm;k = g;k glm .

Contract with g lj ,

ij jl im j 0 = g;im k glm g = g;k gm = g;k .

(b) What do raising and lowering correspond to in the coordinate-free description of tensors? Solution: The metric tensor is a non degenerate quadratic form

Id:

on Tx M . It gives us a isomorphism between Tx M and Tx M as follows. Take a vector in Tx M . Taking the quadratic form applied to this vector and some other vector, we get something linear in the second vector. In other words, we get an element of Tx M. This element depends linearly on the rst vector. So we have a linear map from Tx M to Tx M . The fact that this has zero nullspace follows immediately from non-degeneracy. The vector spaces have the same dimension, so an injective linear function is an isomorphism. Lowering an index corresponds to applying this isomorphism to one of the Tx M factors in the tensor product. Raising an index corresponds to applying its inverse to one of the Tx M factors.

(c) Prove that we get the same result from dierentiating and then raising/lowering as we get from raising/lowering and then dierentiating. Dierentiating here means covariant dierentiation. Solution: There is no need to mention Christoel symbols at all. We raise an index by contracting with g ij and lower by contracting with gij . Applying the Leibnitz rule, we get two terms. The rst is g contracted with the covariant derivative of our tensor. Thats what we want. The second term is zero, because all covariant derivatives of g are zero, whether it has upper or lower indices.

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