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General Musical Elements 1.

Melodies A different melodies in the piece from each period is base on each composer such as in the classic period usually use a major scale in the piece because it cover all the sound in range and has a clearlysimpler sound. Compare with the romantic period, it uses a stretch melodies and has the same pattern like the sound of the singing. In the 20th century period, it doesn't has certain melodies and often use dissonant sound. In Poulence' piece Nocturne no.1 has a sweetly melodies like the romantic period but doesn't has a violent emotional. The melodies look like the new fashion piece compare with Nocturne op.9 no.2 by Chopin , it has a different in the expression of emotional. As the listener, Chopin's melodies will make we feel dreamy while Poulence's look like a floating. 2.Chords Chord using in the classic period has a same pattern in the chord progression such as in the cadence must use Tonic to Subdominant to Dominant or Dominant seventh and the go to Tonic at the end. In the romantic period, it has a development of this pattern from classic period. In this period, it use a chromatic scale and modulation technique. Compare with both period with the 20th century , in this period usually use a seventh chord and doesn't has any pattern of chord progression. In the Sonata four hands by Poulence has no pattern in chord progression. In the first movement, it uses Tonic to be a main chord in the whole piece and the harmony has a dissonant sound different from Sonata four hands first movement by Mozart that has chord progression in the way of the classic period so it has the consonant harmony that completely different from Poulence's piece. 3.Rhythms The rhythm in the classic period usually strict with the main beat. It different from the romantic period that although it on the main beat but sometime it will stretch out for the mood of the piece. In the 20th century period, the rhythm usually use a syncopation, upbeat and doesn't has the same pattern. The rhythm in Poulence's piece doesn't has a complicated pattern as we see in Nocturne no.1 that look like a simple piece but it also has a little rhythm changes in the final cadence. It has a acceleration of the tempo but the audience won't know that. And in the four hands sonata, in the final it has some phrase that left player must play the eighth notes in his left hand and the punctuation of eighth and sixteenth notes in his right hand. The left hand will play in the syncopation rhythm oppose with the right hand. In this technique, it seem like an easier to play but it is a difficult one because the downbeat come with the sub beat. 4.Forms It has the using of Allegro form in both classic and romantic period but the different is, in the romantic period it will stretch the phrase longer than the classic period. In the 20th century it has so many form that use in the plenty way but it most use with the free form.

Poulence use various form in his piece such as in Nocturne no.1 and Humoresque. He uses a Rondo form that has a repeat of the main theme but in the Piano four hands it is a sonata form that has 3 movement : fast-slow-fast like the normal form in the classic period. in this sonata four hands, the first movement is in the binary form, the second is free form and the third is rondo form. The use of form doesn't has any different from the other periods. Psychological 1.Emotional (or Dynamic?) Emotional? in the classic period in the comparative with romantic period, it has less emotional? than the other one. In the romantic, it has emotional? from ppp to FFF and has a plenty mood more than the classic period. In the 20th century, it doesn't change so much like the romantic but it has some instruction for describe about the quality of mood and sound. In the piece of Poulence also has the instruction describe in French. It tell the player to know the mood of the piece in any movement. The example is, in the piece Nocturne no.1, it has some instruction such as "tres estompe " that means "very misty" but in the meaning of the piece may be the player need to play without release the peddle while playing notes to make overlapping sound or the word" tres precis" in the piece Humoresque that means "precisely clear" but in the meaning of the piece may be to play with precisely and clear sound. 2.Moods The mood in classic period has a less expression and limited in the range. It noticeable from the use of dynamics that different from romantic period which has a fully expression. In the 20th century, the mood of the piece is give the feels lightly and dreamy. The piece of Poulence has a various moods such as in the Nocturne no.1 which has a popular mood, sweetly and dreamy or in the Humoresque which has a joyful mood and in the sonata four hands which has 3 different mood in each 3 part : strongly-sweetly-strongly. In the comparative with Poulence and Chopin pieces Nocturne no.1 and op.9 no.2, they also have a sweetly mood but in Poulence the sound is lighter than Chopin because it uses pedal while playing. In Chopin piece, it also uses pedal but use in the shorter length of notes to make a sound not too clouded like Poulence's piece