BEB200 Introducing Sustainability

QUT BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND ENGINEERING EWB CHALLENGE TONLE SAP LAKE PROPOSED HOUSING

Lecturer: Prof Laurie Buys Tutors: Yvonne & Mei
Students: Anh Van nguyen N7158866 Leo Freeman N0488399 Alex Redman N5036496 Adam Goodwin N7126905
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Cover page (http://www.btinternet.com/~andy.brouwer/tonlesap1.jpg) Accessed: 1 October 2009

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Flag of Cambodia, depicting the Angkor Wat temple. (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-) Figure 2: View of Village Showing Thatch Floating Houses along River 1938. (http://sirismm.si.edu/naa/97/asia/04606600.jpg) Figure 3: Location of main floating villages on Tonle Sap Lake. (http://www.peaceofangkorweb.com/TSvillages/geckomapTSap.jpg) Figure 4: Water levels in the Tonle Sap River and Great Lake. (http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/T0537E/T0537E07.htm) Accessed: 07 Oct 2009 Figure 5: Map of the Great Lake, Tonle Sap and Mekong Rivers. (Tonle Sap Map.png Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.)). . Retrieved September 19, 2009 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TonleSapMap.png#filelinks) Figure 6: Change of flow direction of the Tonle Sap River throughout the year. (http://www.tsbr-ed.org/english/images/Map_Hydro.jpg) Figure 7: Stilt house with palm-leaf walls and roof, (http://www.lexphoto.co.uk/cambodiascrapbook.htm) Figure 8: Boat-type (http://www.insaat-mimari.com/dinamik/59/resimler/18758.jpg.) Accessed: 1 Oct. 09 Figure 9: Raft-type (From: http://www.instructables.com/ files/deriv/F17/GKPM/FPWWR04U/ F17GKPMFPWWR04U.MEDIUM.jpg.) Accessed: 1 Oct. 09 Figure 10: Modular houseboat platform using wooden boxes, sheathed in ferrocement, as floats. Each 3-box module is 2mx3.5m. Overall platform size is 6mx7m. (Image: Author) Figure 11: Bamboo roof frame using Acrylic Concrete joint wraps. (http://ferrocement.com/bioFiber/y8-1/wrapJoint.2.en.html.) Figure 12: Raft using a combination of oil drums and bamboo bundles for flotation. (http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/8947314.jpg) Accessed: 1 October 2009 Figure 13: Collection of resin from hole in tree. (http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/newmandala/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Baird-1.jpg) Accessed: 1 October 2009

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Figure 14: A fire is lit after collection to stimulate further production. (http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/newmandala/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Baird-2.jpg) Accessed: 1 October 2009 Figure 15: Fire allowed to burn for only 30 seconds before being put out. (http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/newmandala/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Baird-3.jpg) Accessed: 1 October 2009 Figure 16: Fire must be extinguished at the right time to avoid damage to tree. (http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/newmandala/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Baird-4.jpg) Figure 17: Close-up of houseboat substructure. (http://blog.lib.umn.edu/victor/hereandthere/Images/Cambodia-69.jpg) Accessed: 1 October 2009

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Climatologically Information for Phnom Penh – Pochentong – World Weather Information Service - Phnom Penh - Pochentong. (n.d.) Table 2: The Five Seasons of the Tonle Sap (NEEACInfo_Guide_ENGLISH.pdf, (n.d.) Table 3: Performance comparison of Stilt House vs Houseboat Table 4: Possible Materials options for structural components of houseboats. (Data from: Materials Costings 20090525.pdf, 2009)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.......................................................................................................3 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................................................6 TABLE OF CONTENTS.........................................................................................................7 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................8 CAMBODIA OVERVIEW.....................................................................................................10
EVERYDAY LIFE ON TONLE SAP LAKE...................................................................................................................................11 FOOD................................................................................................................................................................................14 LABOUR............................................................................................................................................................................14 WEATHER .........................................................................................................................................................................14 WEATHER AND HYDROLOGY................................................................................................................................................16 CULTURE & RELIGION:.......................................................................................................................................................21 THE TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE:.................................................................................................................................................22 ECONOMIC ISSUES:..............................................................................................................................................................22 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:.....................................................................................................................................................22 SOCIAL ISSUES:..................................................................................................................................................................23

DESIGN SOLUTION FOR LAKE HOME.............................................................................24
DESIGN CONTEXT................................................................................................................................................................24 COMPARISON OF STILTED HOUSES WITH RAFT HOUSEBOATS.......................................................................................................25 Description of Stilted Houses....................................................................................................................................25 Description of Houseboats........................................................................................................................................27 STILT HOUSE VS RAFT HOUSEBOAT – PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS.........................................................................................30 Table 7. Performance comparison of Stilt House vs Houseboat...............................................................................30

MATERIALS.........................................................................................................................31
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TRADITIONAL HOUSING MATERIALS .......................................................................................................................................31 CURRENT MATERIAL OPTIONS..............................................................................................................................................31 Table 8. Possible Materials options for structural components of houseboats. ......................................................31 CHOICE OF MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION TYPE.....................................................................................................................32

PROPOSED DESIGN INCLUDING MATERIALS...............................................................33
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS......................................................................................................................................................33

DESIGN OF PONTOON..........................................................................................................................................................34
DESIGN OF HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE.......................................................................................................................................35 FERROCEMENT FOR FLOTATION DEVICES..................................................................................................................................36

CERAMICRETE....................................................................................................................................................................37 HYBRID RAFT/STILTED DESIGN.............................................................................................................................................38 SUSTAINABLE IMPROVEMENTS TO EXISTING PRACTICES..............................................................................................................39 Use of local resin for waterproofing/preserving timber............................................................................................39 RESIN TAPPING IN CAMBODIA. (N.D.). ...................................................................................................................................39 BAMBOO...........................................................................................................................................................................41

INFRAUSTRUCTURE.........................................................................................................42
ELECTRICAL SUPPLY............................................................................................................................................................42 WATER RESOURCES............................................................................................................................................................42 TRANSPORT........................................................................................................................................................................42 INTERIOR OF HOUSING .........................................................................................................................................................44

CONCULSION.....................................................................................................................45
REFERENCE .......................................................................................................................................................................46

APPENDIX...........................................................................................................................51 APPENDIX 2........................................................................................................................51
INTRODUCTION

Our group aims to design a new form of housing for the Tonle Sap region of Cambodia. This will be achieved by analysing in detail the existing forms of housing in the region and the materials that are currently being used. This new form of housing is intended to be both socially and economically viable to the communities living in the region, therefore an
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analysis of the social and economic needs and impacts of the community will be included in the report. When designing the new form of housing the unique environmental conditions of the region must be taken into account. Therefore this report will also contain a detailed analysis of the environment of the Tonle Sap region including the weather and geography. Social, economic and environmental issues are not the only important issues that need to be covered. This report will also aim to analyse the cultural and religious needs of the communities

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CAMBODIA OVERVIEW

Figure 1: Flag of Cambodia, depicting the Angkor Wat temple. Image from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/graphics/flags/resize/cblgflag.gif

There is a strong relationship between the people and the natural resources of the Great Lake. It supplies the basis of life to the local people and is one of the largest freshwater fisheries in Asia. The sustainable management of this highly productive ecosystem is necessary to ensure food security and biodiversity conservation for Cambodia. (The Tonle Sap Lake 2009) The Kingdom of Cambodia is now a multiparty democracy with a constitutional monarchy, rebuilding after years of war. It became independent from France in 1953, which colonized the country in the 1860s. In 1975, the Left-Wing extremist group, the Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, seized power. It left a legacy of destruction in keeping with its aim of creating a classless peasant society. The Khmer Rouge was ousted in 1979 by more moderate Communist forces from Vietnam and Cambodia. Socialism ended in Cambodia in 1989 and the monarchy was restored four years later. The national language of Cambodia is Khmer, spoken by as many as 95% of the population. (Marshall Cavendish, 2007, p766) This reflects the ethnic makeup of the nation, comprising Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%. The population of Cambodia is over 14 million. (CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia., n.d)
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The religions of the Cambodian population are: Buddhist 96.4%, Muslim 2.1%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.2% (1998 census) (CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia., n.d.) The dominant religious influence in Cambodian society is from Theravada Buddhism. It was introduced from India in the second century CE, along with many other cultural. Its influence extends into all levels of cultural life, including political, symbolized by the Buddhist temple of Angkor Wat depicted on the national flag.
EVERYDAY LIFE ON TONLE SAP LAKE

“Any illusion that living on boats was a cultural tradition that people cherish and wish to preserve were shattered when the villagers [of Chong Kneas] were consulted about their living conditions. Overwhelmingly they said that they would prefer to live on the land and have access to clean water and sanitation as well as have their children go to proper schools instead of the poorly maintained floating school.” - (Water Actions - Cambodia - ADB.org, 2003)

Figure 12: View of Village Showing Thatch Floating Houses Along River 1938. From: http://sirismm.si.edu/naa/97/asia/04606600.jpg

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MORE THAN 60 SMALL VILLAGES ARE BUILT ON OR NEAR THE TONLE SAP LAKE AND ADJOINING RIVER (FIGURE 13). THEY OPERATE LIKE ORDINARY KHMER VILLAGES, EXCEPT FOR THE FACT THAT MANY OF THE BUILDINGS ARE FLOATING, AND PEOPLE USE ROWBOATS TO GO ABOUT THEIR DAILY LIVES. SOME LARGER SETTLEMENTS BOAST A WIDE ARRAY OF FACILITIES SUCH AS SHOPS, SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES, EVEN AMUSEMENT CENTRES, TO CATER FOR THE FLOURISHING TOURIST TRADE. (hackwriters.com - Tonle Sap Lake with Antonio Graceffo. ,2005)

Figure 13: Location of main floating villages on Tonle Sap Lake. From: http://www.peaceofangkorweb.com/TSvillages/geckomapTSap.jpg

The idyllic appearance, however, hides a history of displacement, poverty, disease and pollution which spans generations.

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The floating villages do not provide a desirable lifestyle option, but rather, it is a situation imposed out of necessity. The people would much prefer to live in permanent land-based villages with proper facilities. However, they need to remain close to the water because they are dependent on fishing as their main means of livelihood, given that the lake is one of the richest areas in the world for freshwater fishing. (Water Actions - Cambodia ADB.org, 2003) Cambodia is so dependent on fish for sustenance that its currency, the riel, is named after a small carp which is a staple food. (NPR Media Player, 2005) Most of the 340,000 people who live in the immediate vicinity of the lake only survive by exploiting the natural resources, such as fish. The vast majority are poor, living in squalid conditions, with 37 percent below the poverty line. Half of all children under the age of 5 suffer from malnutrition, and 70 percent of children will not complete primary schooling. Less than 10 percent of households have access to safe drinking water or a toilet and less than 1 percent has electricity. There is no public sewage treatment system in place in the floating villages, so human and animal excrement and rubbish is dumped straight into the Lake. Therefore, villagers sometimes pay almost one cent per liter for well water from vendors from higher ground. (Munthit, 2006) Diseases, which thrive in wet, unhygienic conditions, such as Malaria, Dengue Fever, Acute Respiratory Infections and Tuberculosis, are endemic. (NEEACInfo_Guide_ENGLISH.pdf, n.d.) Health problems are more prevalent in the dry season when the lower water levels means contaminants such as raw sewage, oil spills and dead fish are concentrated to dangerous levels. The seasonal fluctuations in the Tonle Sap lake level due to the flooding of the Mekong River forces many dwellers of temporary portable huts to move their homes up to seven kilometres and back each year. This move costs a family up to US$14.40 each way, a heavy financial burden on a household whose daily income can be as low as 70 cents. In addition, household items such as clothes and kitchenware must be bought to replace those destroyed by the monsoonal storms. When the lake is at its lowest level, many people live near the middle of the lake. Houseboat dwellers can tow their homes to the most favourable location according to the water level (Tonle Sap an introduction to Cambodia's great lake. (n.d) Traditional houses were normally spread out using forest as protection from the weather. But in the present day, houses tend to group together forming ‘streets’ of throughways for boats lined with houses. At a community level they are classified as ‘villages’ and there may be several villages in a single commune. (Tour scheduale.2009)
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Houseboats tend to stay close to the shoreline as the waters rise (House Boat Photo, Chong Kneas Picture -- National Geographic Photo of the Day. n.d) and are often towed behind motor craft. Tour operators who bring numerous tourists to see the floating villages have been accused of lobbying to prevent relocation of the residents to permanent dwellings, in order to perpetuate the spectacle. (Munthit, 2006). Operators have been known to charge US$6-15 for guided tours of the floating village near the port of Chong Kneas , near Siem Reap, on the northern end of the lake. (McCarthy, 2009) )(Tonle Sap Lake - …- New York Times Travel.2009)
FOOD

Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in Cambodia and is responsible for roughly 37.1% of gross domestic product (GDP) for the country (Socio-Economic Survey of the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia, 2003). The major crop in Cambodia is rice which is not only a major part of the Cambodian people’s diet but also a major export. Fisheries are also a major part of the agricultural sector in Cambodia, as fish are a major part of the Cambodian people’s diet and are important to the economy (Cambodia, 2009). Rice production and fishing in the Tonle Sap region especially are important to Cambodia as together they supply 70% of the protein diet for the entire country (Tonle Sap Information Guide, 2007).

LABOUR

Labour is essential to the development of all countries, Cambodia is no exception. The vast majority of Cambodia’s labour force is employed in the agriculture sector. According to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the Helsinki University of technology 70% of Cambodia’s population over the age of 15 is working in the agricultural sector (Socio-Economic Survey of the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia, 2003). The major areas of agriculture those are responsible for supplying labour are the fisheries, forestry and rice fields. Refer to appendix ?? For a general list of labour costings.

WEATHER

Cambodia has two distinct seasons -- the wet and the dry Cambodia's wet season comes courtesy of the southwest monsoon which blows from May to October, bringing with it
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some 75% of Cambodia's annual rainfall. Not surprisingly, wet season is characterised by rain, and in the peak of wet season from July to September it can rain as much as two out of every three days. Rainy days tend to have a few hours of heavy rain rather than being all-day downpours. (Cambodia: Weather. 2009) The country is subject to harsh, environmental conditions including droughts, floods and cyclones due to Cambodia’s monsoonal climate. This has a negative impact to the community causing damaged houses and diseases. These storms are occasional in contrast to the surrounding countries. In the monsoon season the lake attains an area of 16 000km2. This is due to the heavy rains from the tropical low-pressure systems. The rain is the source to roughly three quarters of the annual average rainfall. Cambodia's dry season runs from October to April. By April the weather is scorching. The dry season brings low humidity and light winds. From November to March the Tonle Sap River dries and runs into the Mekong River. During this season the lake is approximately 2700km2. November to January is cooler while February to April is hot and dusty. November is the coolest month, April the hottest. (Cambodia: Weather. 2009)

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WEATHER AND HYDROLOGY

The weather of Cambodia and surrounding countries is influenced by monsoons and typhoons. (Marshall Cavendish, 2007, p727). Monsoons are large-scale wind systems that alternately blow in opposite directions due to air temperature differentials between landmasses and adjacent seas. (MSN Encarta. ,n.d.) The Tonle Sap region is always hot, with average temperatures between 20°C and 35°C all year round. There are distinct dry and wet seasons; however they do not correspond directly to the temperature variations, as shown in Table 5:
Table 5 Climatologically Information for Phnom Penh – Pochentong – From: World Weather Information Service - Phnom Penh - Pochentong. (n.d.)

Mean Temperature °C Month Mean Total Rainfall Daily Minimum Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov 21.9 23.0 24.1 25.0 25.3 25.0 24.7 24.6 24.3 23.8 22.7 Daily Maximum 31.5 32.8 34.9 34.9 34.3 33.5 32.5 32.5 32.3 31.1 29.9 25.5 11.5 58.0 101.0 111.6 177.1 195.9 172.0 248.8 318.9 135.0 2.8 2.4 5.2 8.6 16.4 16.6 19.6 21.4 19.8 24.0 11.8 (mm) Mean Number of Rain Days

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Dec

21.7

30.1

80.3

4.8

Incidentally, the water level in the Tonle Sap Lake does not relate directly to the amount of local rainfall, but rather, to the temperature in the Tibetan plateau, which is responsible for causing the snow melts from which the Mekong River is fed. It is more meaningful to express seasonal weather variations in terms of rainfall rather than summer/winter. Table 6 describes the “Five seasons” of the Tonle Sap, and Figure 14 shows a graph of the rise and fall of Tonle Sap Lake throughout the year.
Table 6: The Five Seasons of the Tonle Sap (NEEACInfo_Guide_ENGLISH.pdf, (n.d.)

Mid-late dry season Early monsoon

January – April May – July

Tonle Sap at lowest level in April. Rains arrive. The annual “flood pulse” begins as the Tonle Sap River reverses its flow.

Mid monsoon

August – October

Rains continue and the Tonle Sap lake expands to its maximum size and depth in October.

Late monsoon

October – November

Level of the Mekong River drops and the Tonle Sap River reverses its flow. Floodwaters recede.

Early dry season

November – January

The fall in food waters accelerates.

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Figure 14: Water levels in the Tonle Sap River and Great Lake. (Adapted from: http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/T0537E/T0537E07.htm. Accessed: 07 Oct 2009)

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The main rivers in Central Cambodia are the Mekong, which flows from the Tibetan Plateau in the north into Vietnam and the South China Sea, and the 100 km long Tonle

Sap River, which connects the Tonle Sap Lake to the Mekong at Phnom Penh (see Figure 15). The Tonle Sap River is one of the few rivers in the world which regularly reverses its direction. The first reversal begins in June/July, when the summer snow-melt from the Tibetan Plateau, coupled by monsoonal rains, increases the flow in the Mekong to such an extent that the waters cannot all flow down to the sea. Instead, some of the floodwaters start flowing back up the Tonle Sap River and into the lake, increasing its area by 3 to 5 times. (Marshall Cavendish, 2007, p727) In September/October, the river changes direction again to resume its normal course.

Figure 15: Map of the Great Lake, Tonle Sap and Mekong Rivers. (From File:TonleSapMap.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 19, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TonleSapMap.png#filelinks..)

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Figure 16: Change of flow direction of the Tonle Sap River throughout the year. From: http://www.tsbred.org/english/images/Map_Hydro.jpg

The average water level in the Great Lake is 1 meter in April, and over 9 meters during the peak flood in October. (Lieng, Yim and Van Zalinge, 1995, p256)

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CULTURE & RELIGION:

Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy with the King as the Chief of State and the Prime Minister as the Head of Government, the capital of Cambodia is Phnom Penh and the official language is Khmer (Cambodia, 2009). The official currency of Cambodia is riel (KR) and it is generally accepted that 4000 riel is the equivalent of $1 USD (Labour Costings, 2009).

There are people of many different ethnic backgrounds in Cambodia including the Khmer, Chinese, Vietnamese and Chams (Cambodia Culture, 2009). The people of Khmer ethnicity account for approximately 90% of the Cambodian Population, the Vietnamese 4%, the Chinese 1% and the remaining 5% for the Chams (Cambodia Culture & Flag, 2009). According to the Encyclopedia Britannica the culture of Cambodia has been greatly influenced by Indian and Chinese empires throughout its history. The Encyclopedia Britannica also states that in the past the Cambodian or Khmer empire held dominion over areas that are now part of Laos, Thailand and Vietnam (Cambodia, 2009).

Historically the official religion of Cambodia was Buddhism, however during the period when the Khmer Rouge ruled Cambodia all religious practices were abolished. In 1993 the abolishment of religion was lifted and once again Buddhism became the predominant religion of Cambodia (Cambodia, 2009). The majority of the Cambodian population is Theravada Buddhists. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica Theravada Buddhists seek to attain enlightenment as a result of their own efforts (Theravada, 2009). Theravada Buddhism is also predominant form of Buddhism in Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Amongst the minority populations there are several smaller religious movements, such as Daoism, Roman Catholics and Muslims (Cambodia, 2009)

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THE TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE: Triple bottom line is a sustainability term that states there are 3 key dimensions of accountability of sustainability; economic, environmental and social. This part of the report will address economic, environmental and social issues with the Tonle Sap Lake.

ECONOMIC ISSUES: The Tonle Sap Lake is an agricultural hub. With yields of approximately 230,000 tons per annum the fisheries in the Tonle Sap region are responsible for producing approximately 60% of Cambodia’s fresh fish supply (Tonle Sap Information Guide, 2007). The production of rice is a major contributor to the Cambodian agriculture sector and the Tonle Sap region is 1 of the major rice production regions in Cambodia, responsible for approximately 12% of Cambodia’s annual harvest (Tonle Sap Information Guide, 2007). Since agriculture is responsible for 37.1% of Cambodia’s GDP (Socio-Economic Survey of the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia, 2003) and the rice industry and the fisheries are two of the major contributors to the Cambodian agricultural sector, then the Tonle Sap region can be considered as a major contributor to the Cambodian economy. As such when considering undertaking any project involving the Tonle Sap region it is imperative that these projects will not have any negative impact on the agricultural sector in particular the production of rice and fresh fish.

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:

The Tonle Sap region is largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia and is home to an extremely large biodiversity (Technical Assistance to the Kingdom of Cambodia for the Participatory Poverty Assessment of the Tonle Sap, 2003). The Tonle Sap has more than 200 plant species, 225 fish species, 42 reptile species and 46 species of mammals. It also has 225 species of birds and is considered to have the largest colony of endangered water birds in Southeast Asia (Tonle Sap Information Guide, 2007). With such a large colony of endangered water birds it is important that the Tonle Sap’s Biodiversity be conserved. This was realised in 1996 when Cambodia acceded to the Ramsar Convention and listed the Tonle Sap Lake as a wetland of significant international importance (Tonle Sap Information Guide, 2007). As such when considering undertaking any project involving the Tonle Sap region it is imperative that these projects will not have any negative impact on
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the environment especially the conservation of the biodiversity in the region. However due to the lack of access to sufficient power and the lack of any economic incentives it is hard for the communities living on the Tonle Sap to effectively play a role in the protection of the lake (Environmental Issues in the Tonle Sap: A Rapid Assessment of Perceptions, 2004).

SOCIAL ISSUES:

There are many social issues in Cambodia including poverty, poor health and education systems and the lack of access to clean drinking water and proper sanitation. These issues are especially bad in rural areas such as that of the Tonle Sap region. According to Live & Learn Environmental Education 37% of people living in the Tonle Sap region live on or below the poverty line (Tonle Sap Information Guide, 2007). The health system for the Tonle Sap region is very poor, having many cases of malaria, dengue fever and tuberculosis recorded every year as well as having half of the children under the age of 5 being malnourished. Having 70% of the children in the area not complete primary school, the education system for the Tonle Sap region is also of a very poor standard (Tonle Sap Information Guide, 2007). 80% of households living on the Tonle Sap do not have access to safe drinking water and less than 10% have access to both clean drinking water and proper sanitation (Tonle Sap Information Guide, 2007). In order to address these social issues the Cambodian Government formed a poverty reduction partnership agreement with the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Through this agreement a Poverty Reduction Fund was formed, that would concentrate on the reduction of poverty in the Tonle Sap region (Technical Assistance to the Kingdom of Cambodia for the Participatory Poverty Assessment of the Tonle Sap, 2003). When considering undertaking any project involving the Tonle Sap region it is imperative that these projects will aim to have a positive impact on the community.

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DESIGN SOLUTION FOR LAKE HOME

DESIGN CONTEXT

As mentioned earlier, the people who live in the floating villages of the Tonle Sap do so out of economic necessity, despite facing many problems, such as pollution and disease. They would much prefer to live on land with proper permanent facilities available. (Water Actions - Cambodia - ADB.org, 2003) It is the assumption of this design exercise that some of the problems faced by the people of Tonle Sap can be alleviated by the provision of more suitable housing. The client for this exercise is the Dara household, which consists of six people, three adults and three children. Da Dara and his wife, Chantel have three children with their eldest son attending high school and their two younger daughters in primary school. They also take care of Chantel’s elderly mother. The family home is moved seasonally with the changing lake levels. Two alternative types of housing which are commonly found on the Lake, stilted houses and raft houseboats, will be evaluated for suitability to the client family. After a preferred house type is selected, certain design modification will be evaluated based on sustainability criteria. The question remains of whether a floating or stilted home, no matter how comfortable it is, can be viewed a sustainable, long-term housing solution for the boat people of Tonle Sap, without profound improvements to the social, economic and environmental situation of the lake, and indeed, the country as a whole. This evaluation and design exercise is therefore undertaken with a survivalist mentality from the outset, based on the pragmatic assumption that the sought-after improvements will not occur within the lifetimes of the current residents. We acknowledge that the design solution we propose will not solve any fundamental problems, but may only make the current situation slightly more tolerable.

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COMPARISON OF STILTED HOUSES WITH RAFT HOUSEBOATS DESCRIPTION OF STILTED HOUSES

Stilt houses (Figure 17) are dwellings raised from the ground on wooden or concrete posts, sometimes up to 6 meters high. This allows them to be built on ground subject to either permanent or seasonal inundation. Because the buildings are fixed to one location, issues of land ownership can arise. In addition, they must be very structurally sound, as they are exposed to strong wind pressures during storms, due to their elevation.

Figure 17: Stilt house with palm-leaf walls and roof, (from: http://www.lexphoto.co.uk/cambodiascrapbook.htm)

In some localities, such as Kampong Phluk, (Tonle Sap Lake.2002), villagers live in permanent stilt houses built above the flood peak, but move out onto the lakebed during the dry season and live in temporary stilt houses.

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Performance evaluation of house types Criterion Stilted House Scor e 1. Accessibility Accessed by ladders, except during height of wet season, when access is by boat. Dangerous for children and the elderly. 2. Aesthetics Extremely tall house bases look grotesque in dry weather. 3. Construction Cost High. Stilts must be driven deep. House bases require long, straight, strong timber members. Requires ownership of land. Use of cheaper materials or construction methods only passes high costs on to maintenance. Added Complexity and Materials, increased costs. 4. Damage resistance Storm or boat-strike can damage house base, need to wait months for dry season before repairs to base can be made. Risk of drowning in deep water as damaged building has no little buoyancy. If water levels rise above stilt heights, house becomes unliveable and can be destroyed. Global warming may make future floods deeper than those previously encountered. 5. Fire safety Depends on construction materials. Very susceptible to fire. Difficult to evacuate. No water available for fire fighting. 6. Maintenance costs Timber in contact with mud/water for much of year, causing decay. Supporting members must be replaced regularly. Need to wait months for dry season before maintenance to base can be 26 made. 7. Practicality for During wet season, stilted house Raft Houseboat Sc ore Accessed from boat at low height.

✘ ✘

Well-made houseboats are very picturesque. Cheaper. Timber lengths can be shorter and thinner. No land ownership needed.

✔ ✔

Because houseboat elevation is lower, wind force not as strong. Since houseboat can move, it can yield and survive forces which would break a fixed structure. It can be moved to more sheltered locations before storms. Damaged houseboat can still float, and immediate repairs can be made either on water or land.

Depends on construction materials. Water readily available. Escape to water.

Modular flotation devices can be removed, repaired and replaced individually without affecting rest of house.

Constant need for moving

DESCRIPTION OF HOUSEBOATS

Houseboats generally fall into two main categories: the boat type and the raft type.

Figure 18: Boat-type (From: http://www.insaatmimari.com/dinamik/59/resimler/18758.jpg. Accessed 1 Oct. 09)

Figure 19: Raft-type (From: http://www.instructables.com/ files/deriv/F17/GKPM/FPWWR04U/ F17GKPMFPWWR04U.MEDIUM.jpg. Accessed: 1 Oct. 09)

Boat type houseboats are basically single-hull boats which have been fitted out for permanent living. Since they are originally intended to be vehicles, they require a streamlined shape, making them long and narrow. In addition, because the hull is both the main living space as well as the only flotation compartment, sophisticated boat-building skills are required to make it watertight. Wooden boat building is a skilled craft, and an 8 meter fishing boat can command US$1000, many times the average monthly wage of US$26. (hackwriters.com - Tonle Sap Lake with Antonio Graceffo. 2005) This type of houseboat is used by the poorest fishermen families. (RAP - Tonle Sap 2004.pdf, n.d., p47) In contrast, the raft type houseboat is a floating platform on which a superstructure has been built. This type of houseboat has numerous advantages over the boat type. Firstly, since the raft is not intended to be a navigable ship, it doesn’t need to be streamlined, so a more naturally shaped house can be built on the larger available platform area. Secondly, a raft of numerous smaller flotation devices can be used to support the building platform. The redundancy of the flotation devices makes the raft safer in the event of the failure of one or more of the units. The use of smaller flotation devices can also be
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cheaper as they can be made simpler in form, because the structural integrity of most materials is better for smaller-scale objects. For these and other reasons, we shall focus on the raft-type houseboat for this design exercise. In general, the components of any raft must perform three distinct functions: there must be some floatation device, which has positive buoyancy (jars, drums, logs etc); there must be some sort of structural matrix which holds the flotation devices in place and supports the floor; and there must be a reasonably smooth, level floor platform, or deck, on top. Depending on the design, certain components of a raft may perform overlapping functions. For example, a bamboo log raft can act as flotation device, matrix and deck at the same time, albeit in a crude way. Because of the eclectic nature of the construction techniques used in the Tonle Sap raft houseboats, and the broad spectrum of construction standards applied to any particular feature, it is difficult to identify a houseboat that is truly representative of a standard design. Instead, we will “mix and match” the various components to subjectively produce two distinct “average” houseboat types, which we shall analyse.

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Selection Criteria Structural Component Comment Environmenta l Cost Availability Durability Skill level Life Cycle (Cradle to grave) Flotation Devices Steel Oil Drums Plastic Drums 220litre 220litre Litters lake with rust Neutral US$2-3 ✔ Cracks in sunlight Cement Jars Approx 200litre Waste of Cement US$12 ✔ Cracks easily None Can be repaired with ferrocement sheathing Bamboo poles Various sizes. Must be treated with preservative. Timber box coated with pitch/resin W500x H500x L2000mm Buoy: 450kg Timber box rendered with mortar W500x H500x L2000mm Buoy: 450kg Polluting, high energy, unless Portland cement alternative used. Ferro cement trough W500x H500x L2000mm, buoy:330kg Polluting, high energy, unless Portland cement alternative used. Roofing ~US$40 Concrete materials Available Seem Reap No maintenance . Repairable Low, with Supervision Reuse as water trough, pontoon or canoe ~US$30 Concrete materials Available Siem Reap Repairable. Wood may rot over long period. Medium Cement portion can be reused in new pontoon Good option, if resin is available ? ~US$20 Depends on resin availability Needs recoating Low Decomposes Waste of building material $2/meter ✔ Rots over time Local skills. Decomposes None ✘ US$10 ✔ Rusts in time None ✘

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Corrugated iron 2x0.7 m galvanized High embodied $5 Available Siem Rusts over many years Medium ✘

STILT HOUSE VS RAFT HOUSEBOAT – PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS

Table 7 is a matrix which compares the performance of Stilted Houses against Raft Houseboats. Each of the selection criteria used carries a different weighting according to its relative importance, however, only a pass/fail score will be assigned based on our subjective evaluation. The final total score will decide which of the two dwelling types we will carry forward for further analysis and improvement.
TABLE 7. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF STILT HOUSE VS HOUSEBOAT

The Raft Houseboat emerges a clear preference for this exercise. We shall now evaluate the various components of the houseboat, and the various material options for each, according to a set of selection criteria (Table 8).

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MATERIALS TRADITIONAL HOUSING MATERIALS

There are different type of housing in Cambodia, 47 percent of housing structure is built of permanent material, consisting of wood/plywood, concrete/brick/stone, galvanized iron/aluminum/other metal sheets, asbestos cement sheets and roof and wall tiles. Approximately 27 percent of buildings are made of temporary material, such as bamboo /thatch/grass or plastic/synthetic sheets for the roof and bamboo/thatch/grass /reeds or earth or salvaged/improvised materials for the walls. About 26 percent are built of semipermanent materials that consist of a combination of permanent wall and temporary roof materials or a combination of temporary wall and permanent roof materials (Traditional House in The Country side. 2009.)
CURRENT MATERIAL OPTIONS TABLE 8. POSSIBLE MATERIALS OPTIONS FOR STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF HOUSEBOATS.
(Data from: Materials Costings 20090525.pdf, 2009)

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CHOICE OF MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION TYPE

Rural people’s livelihoods in many provinces have traditionally been closely associated with the forest, especially for firewood, building material and timber. Common materials available to Cambodian residents are local timbers, such as rubber woods and other lightweight timbers, silks and other soft fabrics, which are made in Cambodia and readily available and bamboo which is very popular for boat building as it is so commonly grown and not expensive. Constructively bamboo requires a lot more attention for it to be made into a waterproof boat. (Physiographic: Natural Resources. 2009.) It is clear that there is a wide range of possible building material options. Local materials tend to have poorer performance and higher maintenance requirements; however, they score well in terms of environmental sustainability, cost and availability. High technology materials are costly, harder to source and may take a high environmental toll.

Figure 17: Close-up of houseboat substructure. From: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/victor/hereandthere/Images/Cambodia-69.jpg Accessed: 1 October 2009

Herein lies the dilemma – whether to specify an environmentally damaging material, which satisfies the immediate needs of the people, or rely on environmentally sustainable local products with poorly performing options.

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PROPOSED DESIGN INCLUDING MATERIALS

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Identifying best location for houseboats throughout the wet/dry season cycle, and ability to move accordingly. What happens to the community life when the lake shore recedes, and people have to negotiate a sea of mud in order to access permanent facilities left at the high-water mark, or fishing areas, or toileting areas? Water facilitates personal transport and movement of goods from house to house. If houseboats were left sitting on mud when the water recedes, this convenient transport mode would be lost. However, sometimes houseboats need to be beached and refloated, such as for maintenance. When severe storms hit the area, houseboats are towed to the shelter of flooded forest creeks. The floating houses are sometimes toppled by heavy swells which hit the lake during the wet season. (The Tonle Sap Initiative: Future Solutions Now. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 30, 2009, (http://www.adb.org/Projects/Tonle_Sap/photo-gallery.asp.)

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DESIGN OF PONTOON

A good compromise between the use of high-cost advanced materials and local ones is the use of ferrocement-sheathed wooden box floats. We envisage a pontoon with a modular design (Figure 20). Using modules makes construction easier, avoids the need for very long timbers for floor bearers, and allows easier maintenance. The wooden boxes would be approximately 2 meters long, 500mm wide and deep. This provides a volume of 500 liters, which, after subtracting an estimated weight of 200kg per box, leaves 300kg of buoyancy per trough. Boxes are left open at the top for inspection and ventilation, but must be kept covered with a waterproof fabric to keep out rainwater.

Figure 20: Modular houseboat platform using wooden boxes, sheathed in ferrocement, as floats. Each 3-box module is 2mx3.5m. Overall platform size is 6mx7m. (Image: Author)

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DESIGN OF HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE

A very promising building technology for the houseboat superstructure is described by Versteegde (2009). It consists of a bamboo framework for a traditional pitched-roof structure where the bamboo poles are connected by wrapping the joints in muslin soaked in a cement-acrylic mortar.
(Acrylic Concrete Roofs.pdf, 2003)

Figure 21: Bamboo roof frame using Acrylic Concrete joint wraps. From: http://ferrocement.com/bioFiber/y81/wrapJoint.2.en.html.

Ceramicrete may also be used as the joint mortar. Since only the ferrocement exteriors of the boxes would actually contact the water, the other timber members would avoid rotting due to prolonged saturation.

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Another advantage of this configuration is that the sled-like arrangement of the boxes will reduce drag, and make the houseboat easier to tow. In addition each 2mx3.5m module provides a stable flotation platform should the house ever need to be disassembled.
FERROCEMENT FOR FLOTATION DEVICES

Invented by Joseph Louis Lambot in 1848, it can be described as a sustainable way of using an unsustainable material. Ferrocement is a kind of reinforced concrete, the difference lies more in the construction method than in the finished article. Traditional reinforced concrete is a conglomerate of Portland cement, sand and large aggregate (pebbles), covering a reinforcing network of steel bars. The wet concrete mix is poured over the reinforcement and must be contained in some kind of mould. The mix must be workable enough to flow and fill all cavities within the mould, which means a greater amount of water must be added to the dry ingredients. This excess water reduces the ultimate strength of the concrete, and increases its porosity. This is why building standards require a 40mm minimum coverage for steel bars in footings. Ferrocement construction, on the other hand, uses a higher ratio of cement to sand (approx. 1:2), with the optimum amount of water (0.4 parts by weight). The resulting mortar is too thick to be poured, instead, it is plastered over a wire armature, which is simply a chicken-wire cage in the shape of the finished article. The lower water content of the mortar allows the ferrocement to achieve the highest possible strength and is completely waterproof, even in very thin shells. Thus the advantage of ferrocement over ordinary reinforced concrete is in its economical use of materials. Ferrocement has been used for building boats since 1887. The use of cement as a boatbuilding material is counterintuitive, which explains its low acceptance. However, thousands of ferrocement boats are manufactured each year in the developing world, particularly in China (Ferrocement: applications in Developing Countries - Goggle Books.1973). Ferrocement sheathing (Colin Brookes. n.d.) is one possible way to improve the durability of existing houseboat construction methods. A cheaply constructed wooden box will not float because of the gaps. However, if chicken wire were nailed to the outside, and rendered with mortar, the gaps will be covered, the timber will be protected from the water, and a serviceable and simple-to-make floatation unit will result.

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CERAMICRETE

The negative environmental impacts of Portland cement may be mitigated by the use of a recent development in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The material, Ceramicrete, developed in 1996 by Arun Wagh at the Argonne National Laboratory, is a mixture of two commonly available chemicals; Magnesium Oxide (MgO) and magnesium dihydrogen phosphate dehydrate (WAGH, A. US Patent # 6,776,837), (Argonne National Laboratory. 2003): MgO + Mg(H2PO4 ) 2 ·2H2O + 3H2O → 2MgHPO4 ·3H2O. Ceramicrete is prepared like ordinary cement, as a watery slurry. It is waterproof, sets in an hour, and is stronger than ordinary concrete.

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HYBRID RAFT/STILTED DESIGN

It is sometimes necessary for a houseboat to be beached and be able to function for a period as a house on dry land, and be refloated later. Unless certain design provisions are made, beaching can result in serious structural damage to either the raft or the house superstructure, particularly if the ground underneath is uneven. A common solution is to create a hybrid structure by incorporating supporting elements, such as short stilts, into the matrix of the raft. Here we can see a rigid latticework of timbers, which takes the weight of the house when sitting on dry land, thus taking the load off the fragile concrete flotation jars, which would have otherwise been crushed. Normally, when the raft is floating, the jars would still bear the weight of the house, however they do not crack, since the water distributes the forces evenly and radially over the base of the jar.

Figure 12: Raft using a combination of oil drums and bamboo bundles for flotation. From: http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/8947314.jpg (Accessed: 1 October 2009)

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SUSTAINABLE IMPROVEMENTS TO EXISTING PRACTICES

USE OF LOCAL RESIN FOR WATERPROOFING/PRESERVING TIMBER

In order to extend the life of timber which is in contact with water, it can be coated in natural tree resin. A profitable and sustainable resin tapping industry already exists in Cambodia. Resin produced here is used in the wooden boat-building industry throughout South East Asia. The resin is obtained mainly from the Dipterocarpus alatus tree, a widespread species in forested areas, and one of the most common species to be logged. The procedure of resin extraction, if properly done, does not kill the tree, and the mere presence of resin tapping trees can help protect the forest from logging and farm clearing, as the trees are protected by custom (Cambodia: Resin tapping incomes at odds with logging. ,n.d.) The tapping process involves cutting a wedge shaped hole near the base of the tree (see Figure ), and lighting a fire inside. The fire is quickly extinguished, and a few days later, the resin accumulates in the hole, and is then scraped out, and the process can be repeated indefinitely.
RESIN TAPPING IN CAMBODIA. (N.D.).

Figure 13: Collection of resin from hole in tree. http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/newmandala/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Baird1.jpg

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Figure 14: A fire is lit after collection to stimulate further production. http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/newmandala/wpcontent/uploads/2009/08/Baird-2.jpg

Figure 15: Fire allowed to burn for only 30 seconds before being put out. http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/newmandala/wpcontent/uploads/2009/08/Baird-3.jpg

Figure 226: Fire must be extinguished at the right time to avoid damage to tree. http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/newmandala/wpcontent/uploads/2009/08/Baird-4.jpg

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BAMBOO

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INFRAUSTRUCTURE

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY

Out of the total population in Cambodia 85% lives in the rural areas, there is importance on the development of local energy resources to increase the living standard of the country’s population. Renewable energy sources have been recognized as one of the most significant sources of local energy, not only elevating the living circumstances of rural villages, but to develop local industries to encourage economic growth. Energy supply in Cambodia is mostly by isolated systems such as diesel generators. In Cambodia 96% of the population use wood fuel for households cooking, the wood fuel originates from the forestry area which provide for 90% of the rural energy. During the evening people rely on kerosene lantern lighting.

WATER RESOURCES

There are three main water sources rainfall, ground water and irrigation. Most of the rainfalls happen during the monsoon season. This is when the Tonle Sap Lake increases it mass by 15,000sq km. Cambodia has ample shallow groundwater reserve existing around the Tonle Sap Lake. This venue prove great importance to the local farmers by installing cheap shallow tube wells to water up to 2 hectares of crops. Most crop rely on the rainwater but the unpredictable weather and rainfall patterns leaves crop sometimes threaten by drought. This is when irrigation plays an important role in farming and cultivation by using canals or pumps directly from it source.
TRANSPORT

It’s estimated that four million people live in the tonal sap lake providence and getting from town to town is essential. There are many different modes of transport, road, waterway, rails and air; one of the most common is the waterway as dwelling during the monsoonal seasons is only accessible by boat. Water transport is depended on highly for the tonal sap community. During the dry season the lake can be as shallow as 0.8-1m deep making small boats with hauls a popular form of transportation, they are commonly made from planks of timber with arched roof for shelter, or lightweight hollowed out trees to create a canoe. There are two main boats that are used in the Lake, rowboats and motorboats due to the cost and expenses of a motorboat most residents opt for a rowboat. On land the
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roads are slowly dwindling around the lake making versatile motorbikes a popular land transportation to journey between districts, some other transportation is motorbikes, peddle bikes, remoque moto and tuk tuk’s, it is believed that wealthier people can afford to own a motor bike.

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INTERIOR OF HOUSING

Due to the exterior appearance one can only make assumptions on what could be inside. The rear veranda is a common cooking area with wood fuels; the housing in the Tonle Sap Lake has natural ventilation and good air circulation due to the pitched roofing and the hopper windows and doors. The interior would have minimal furniture with perhaps a television and a big communal space acting as different functions though different times of the day. The front veranda or the rear deck is usually where the cooking and washing the clothes is done, and washing hung on the veranda. During meal times the residents would be seated on floor mat creating a meal area, for a wealthier household they might have a low wooden table. During the nighttime the space would be turned into a shared sleeping area.

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CONCULSION

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REFERENCE

http://deltas.usgs.gov/Conferences/cambodia_2009/Apsara_tour_schedule.pdf(accessed 26 August 2009). Cambodia: Weather. 2009. http://www.travelfish.org/cambodia-weather.php (14sept 2009) 4000 BC-2009. 2009. http://www.google.com.au/search? q=history+of+the+tonle+sap&hl=en&tbs=tl:1&tbo=u&ei=MMmtSpO2FtOLkAWSrMCFCQ& sa=X&oi=timeline_result&ct=title&resnum=11 (accessed 19 September 2009) Floodplain. 2009. http://www.cambodiaatlas.com/map (accessed 26 August 2009 The Tonle Sap lake. 2009. http://jinja.apsara.org/gecko/tonlesap. (accessed 26 August 2009 Kingdom of Cambodia. 2009. www.radoshow.com/Cambodia.html(accessed 26 August 2009) Traditional House in The Country side. 2009. http://www.travelpod.com/travelphoto/bassalleckj/se_asia_0708/1197397800/countryside_x_sugar_palms_006.jpg/tpod.htmlTraditional house in the countryside - Tonle Sap, Cambodia (accessed 26 August 2009) Physiographic: Natural Resources. 2009. http://www.foodsecurityatlas.org/khm/country/assets/physiographic Cambodia: Resin tapping incomes at odds with logging. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.wrm.org.uy/bulletin/48/Cambodia.html. Cambodia: Villagers defend their resin trees. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.wrm.org.uy/bulletin/54/Cambodia.html CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia., (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2009, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cb.html. EWB L&L Report - Floating House Dimensions 080509.pdf (application/pdf Object). (2009). Retrieved September 20, 2009, from http://www.ewb.org.au/ewbchallenge/files/EWB%20L&L%20Report%20-%20Floating %20House%20Dimensions%20080509.pdf.

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Ker Munthit. (2006, July 22). Moving is seasonal misery for community in Cambodia. Prince George Citizen, 46. Lieng, S., Yim, C., & Van Zalinge, N. P. (1995). Freshwater fisheries of Cambodia, I: the bagnet (Dai) fishery in the Tonle Sap River. Asian Fisheries Science, 8, 255–262. Marshall Cavendish Production 2007, World and its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, Marshall Cavendish, Singapore, accessed 19 September, 2009, http://books.google.com.au/books?id=kte14XIoOCkC&printsec=frontcover. Materials Costings 20090525.pdf (application/pdf Object). (2009). Retrieved September 19, 2009, from http://www.ewb.org.au/ewbchallenge/files/Materials%20Costings %2020090525.pdf. monsoon definition - Dictionary - . . Retrieved September 19, 2009, from http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861631098/monsoon.html. NEEACInfo_Guide_ENGLISH.pdf (application/pdf Object). (n.d.). . Retrieved September 20, 2009, from http://www.livelearn.org/resources/manuals/NEEACInfo_Guide_ENGLISH.pdf. RAP - Tonle Sap 2004.pdf (application/pdf Object). (n.d.). . Retrieved September 20, 2009, from http://www.livelearn.org/research/RAP%20-%20Tonle%20Sap%202004.pdf. Resin tapping in Cambodia. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/newmandala/2009/08/27/resin-tapping-in-cambodia/. World Weather Information Service - Phnom Penh - Pochentong. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 19, 2009, from http://www.worldweather.org/145/c00348.htm. McCarthy, M. (2009, May 1). Cambodia's floating villages; Tonle Sap largest freshwater lake in Asia. Vancouver Courier, 24. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www2.canada.com/topics/travel/story.html?id=1620884 Tonle Sap an introduction to Cambodia's great lake. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2009, from http://www.peaceofangkorweb.com/TonleSap.htm. hackwriters.com - Tonle Sap Lake with Antonio Graceffo. (2005). Retrieved September 28, 2009, from http://www.hackwriters.com/cambodia4.htm. Water Actions - Cambodia - ADB.org. (2003). Retrieved September 28, 2009, from http://www.adb.org/Water/Actions/CAM/floating-villages.asp.

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Tonle Sap Lake - Reviews and Ratings of Sights in Siem Reap - New York Times Travel. (2009). Retrieved September 28, 2009, from http://travel.nytimes.com/travel/guides/asia/cambodia/siem-reap/34106/tonle-saplake/attraction-detail.html. The Tonle Sap Initiative: Future Solutions Now. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 30, 2009, from http://www.adb.org/Projects/Tonle_Sap/photo-gallery.asp. Tonle Sap. (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/599316/Tonle-Sap House Boat Photo, Chong Kneas Picture -- National Geographic Photo of the Day. (n.d.). . Retrieved October 1, 2009, from http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/enlarge/houseboat-chongkneas.html. NPR Media Player. (2005). Retrieved October 1, 2009, from http://www.npr.org/templates/player/mediaPlayer.html? action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=5039980&m=5044039. Argonne National Laboratory. (2003). Ceramicrete. Retrieved October 4, from http://www.anl.gov/techtransfer/Available_Technologies/Material_Science/Ceramicrete/ind ex.html Acrylic Concrete Roofs.pdf (application/pdf Object). (n.d.). . Retrieved October 2, 2009, from http://ceae.colorado.edu/mc-edc/pdf/Acrylic%20Concrete%20Roofs.pdf. 25_Lake_Tonle_Sap_27February2006.pdf (application/pdf Object). (n.d.). . Retrieved October 8, 2009, from http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/pdf/25_Lake_Tonle_Sap_27February2006.pdf. Tonle Sap Lake. (2002). Retrieved October 9, 2009, from http://www.mandalayinn.com/tour_tonle.html. National Academy of Sciences, Washinton,D.C. (1973). Ferrocement: applications in Developing Countries - Google Books. Retrieved October 11, 2009, from http://books.google.com.au/books. Brookes, C. (n.d.). Sheathing. Retrieved October 11, 2009, from http://www.ferrocement.org/sheath.html.

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Versteegde, A. (2009). Bamboo Skeleton House. Ferrocement.com. Retrieved October 11, 2009, from http://ferrocement.com/Antoon_Versteegde/Antoon_Versteegde-1.en.html. Wagh, Arun S.,Jeong, Seung-young . (2004). Formation of chemically bonded ceramics with magnesium dihydrogen phosphate binder. Retrieved from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6776837.html. Acrylic Concrete Roofs.pdf (application/pdf Object). (2003). Retrieved October 2, 2009, from http://ceae.colorado.edu/mc-edc/pdf/Acrylic%20Concrete%20Roofs.pdf. ADB (Asian Development Bank) Technical Assistance to the Kingdom of Cambodia for the Participatory Poverty Assessment of the Tonle Sap 2003. http://www.adb.org/documents/tars/cam/tar_cam_37250.pdf accessed 07 October 2009. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Helsinki University of Technology) Socio-Economic Survey of the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia 2003. http://www.tsbr-ed.org/english/online_catalogue/download.asp?fn=Socioeconomic %20Survey%20of%20Tonle%20Sap%20Lake.pdf&clgid=137 accessed 12 October 2009. Encyclopedia Britannica (Encyclopedia Britannica Online) Cambodia. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90520/Cambodia accessed 08 October 2009. Encyclopedia Britannica (Encyclopedia Britannica Online) Theravada. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/591236/Theravada accessed 08 October 2009. EWB (Engineers Without Borders Australia) Labour Costings. http://www.ewb.org.au/ewbchallenge/files/Labour%20Cost.pdf accessed 11 October 2009. Live & Learn (Live & Learn Environmental Education) Environmental Issues in the Tonle Sap: A Rapid Assessment of Perceptions 2004. http://www.livelearn.org/research/RAP%20-%20Tonle%20Sap%202004.pdf accessed 10 October 2009. Live & Learn (Live & Learn Environmental Education) Tonle Sap Information Guide 2007. http://www.livelearn.org/resources/reports.asp accessed 06 October 2009. Maps of World (Maps of World) Cambodia Culture & Flag. http://www.mapsofworld.com/country-profile/cambodia1.html accessed 08 October 2009.

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W66 (World66) Cambodia Culture.

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APPENDIX
Available Materials and costings Data from: Materials Costings 20090525.pdf (application/pdf Object), n.d.

Cambodia riel (4000 riels = US$1.00) Conventional: readymade containers: Sealed plastic Drum Description: sealed at both ends with small circular opening (maybe 7cm) at one end. Size Cost (USD) 220L $2 Blue and Black Description: Blue container with black screw on lid quite tough, used to bring in chemicals/glues Size Cost (USD) 220L $3 Oil Drums Description: round about 220L, 2nd hand and in poor condition Size Cost (USD) 220L $10 Stainless Steel Rainwater tanks Description: made Vietnam Size Cost (USD) 100L $52

Rope Description: A variety of ropes are available in Cambodia Type Size Cost (riel) Nylon 0.5cm thickness 300 riels/m Natural twine 0.5cm thickness 100 riels/m 1cm thickness 200 riels/m

APPENDIX 2
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EWB (Engineers Without Borders Australia) Labour Costings. http://www.ewb.org.au/ewbchallenge/files/Labour%20Cost.pdf accessed 11 October 2009.

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