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8Cte nal 3e od$namic 3nal$sis o# T3T3 Nano Usin) N'me ical 3nal$sis and 2ind T'nnel Tec"ni*'e

Abstract Drag and its coefficient can be calculated by means of


virtual environmental simulation with the help of wind tunnel or through computer software. The use of computer software makes it possible to be in time and cost savings. Numerical methods for doing this can be the fluid flow by a two dimensional or three-dimensional model of the vehicle structure to be resolved. This paper has tried to use the ANSYS !" and the e#uations governing fluid flow combined with standard model solved by using the appropriate boundary conditions. The study results of the aerodynamic analysis of the air flow$ pressure distribution and drag force on the vehicle. !ew design modifications in the form of attachable accessories have been suggested in order to reduce the drag coefficient. These modifications have shown a drag reduction of %&.'() at a speed of *+ km,h with the drag coefficient reduced to +.--* from +.-.'$ thereby reducing the fuel consumption by about appro/imately %&.'()$ which means$ there is a saving of '.%&0 of petrol for every full tank refill. These observations are validated using wind tunnel testing on a %1'2 scaled model using momentum deficit method.

t"e eb$ b in)in) down t"e #'el cons'mption! "ence ma9in) t"e Tata Nano a)ain a #avo' ite amon) t"e Indian masses%

@IT8R3TUR8 R8AI82 B'<Cia 4' and 8 ic T%T% 2on) 8%9 st'died t"e e##ect o# accommodatin) a new ea spoile on a passen)e ve"icle Dca bod$E% T"e a't"o s "ave b o')"t abo't a compa ison #o t"e two desi)n cases viF% wit"o't t"e ea spoile and wit" ea spoile % T"e #low patte n #o bot" cases "as been anal$sed t" o')" 3N&G&% 2it" t"e desi)n modi#ication t"e a't"o s "ave ac"ieved a ed'ction in t"e val'e o# d a) co<e##icient% 3lso t"e imp ovement in #'el econom$ and powe cons'mption "as been epo ted% Nicodem's 7a'l 8'9 st'died t"e ae od$namic be"avio' o# To$ota &e*'oia! one o# t"e la )est spo t 'tilit$ ve"icles in p od'ction toda$% Ca a#te bein) modelled to maCim'm dimension "ad its sim'lation completed t" o')" 3N&G& C-B )ene al p' pose #l'id mec"anics so#twa e% 2it" initial sim'lation t"at es'lted in app oCimatel$ #o' t"o'sand nodes Dcoa se mes"E vecto plot o# velocit$ in t"e wa9e e)ion and t' b'lence 9inetic ene )$ plot was obtained and t"e co< e##icient o# d a) was calc'lated% T"e mes" was e#ined Dapp oCimatel$ +0000 nodesE and t"e same pa amete s we e anal$sed% T"e a't"o a#te compa ison o# t"e obtained es'lts concl'ded t"at d a) coe##icient obtained on t"e #ine mes" is si)ni#icantl$ lowe t"an t"at obtained on t"e coa se mes"% ,'stin .o den 8-9 investi)ated t"e acc' ac$ o# comp'tational #l'id d$namics w"en st'd$in) eCte nal #lows a o'nd open w"eel ace ve"icles! b$ eval'atin) t"e ac"ievable acc' ac$ w"en compa ed to validation eCpe iments% Aalidation was pe #o med a)ainst #'ll scale wind t'nnel es'lts and data collected # om t ac9 testin)% Tests p ovided eno')" in#o mation to dete mine t"e optim'm t' b'lence model in t"is sit'ation to be t"e ;<ome)a model% .% .% Islam and .% .am'n 8&9 st'died t"e ae od$namic be"avio' o# a )ene aliFed ca bod$% 3'to C3D model was impo ted to ?ambit DAe sion 2%3%+=E and a#te mes"in) -l'ent DAe sion =%2%+=E is 'sed to solve t"e eCpo ted p oblem and 9<H t' b'lence model was c"osen% 3i velocit$ and #low patte n we e investi)ated a o'nd t"e di##e ent e)ions o# t"e ca < winds"ield! "ood! b'mpe ! adiato ! oo# etc% &im'lation was done #o di##e ent ai velocit$ and t"e val'e o# d a) #o ce is

3eywords:

Automotive Aerodynamics4 Drag oefficient4 !uel onsumption4 Numerical Analysis4 Drag pressure4 5ind Tunnel Techni#ues$ 6omentum Deficit 6ethod$ !orce 7alance 6ethod

INTRODUCTION

ata Nano was envisioned in 2003 to become a peoples

ca ! t"at is a##o dable b$ eve $bod$! mainl$ t"e cit$ dwelle s o# India% &ince its deb't in 200(! t"e sales o# Tata Nano "ave )one down t emendo'sl$% In t"e #i st *'a te o# 20+3! n'mbe o# ve"icles sold in t"e mont"s o# ,an'a $! -eb 'a $ and .a c" we e +/00! +/0/ and +/01 'nits! espectivel$% 2"en it was #i st conceived! a ta )et p ice o# +00!000 'pees was establis"ed b't it c ept 'p to abo't +02!000 'pees in ve $ s"o t time d'e to a steep inc ease in p ice o# aw mate ials and inp't costs% 3dded to t"is! t"e soa in) #'el p ices! its no lon)e an easil$ a##o dable ca % &t'dies "ave s"own t"at +/ pe centa)e o# t"e #'el in a ve"icle is 'sed to ove come mec"anical # iction in t"e en)ine! 0/ pe centa)e o# t"e #'el is 'sed to ove come t"e ollin) esistance and d a) is esponsible #o t"e emainin) 00pe centa)e% 3 ca wit" low d a) #o ce enco'nte s lesse # iction t"an a ca wit" "i)"e d a) #o ce% 4ence! a smalle en)ine is e*'i ed to d ive s'c" a ca w"ic" event'all$ lowe s t"e #'el cons'mption% In t"is pape we #oc'ssed on ed'cin) t"e ove all d a) #o ce on t"e ve"icle! and
5 + 6 3sst% 7 o#! Dept% o# 3e ona'tical and 3'tomobile 8n)) .ail: mani9andan%m:manipal%ed'!! 2!3!0 6 &t'dents! .anipal Instit'te o# Tec"nolo)$! .anipal Unive sit$! ;a nata9a</1=+00! India% 0 6 7 o>ect 3ssociate! Indian Instit'te o# Tec"nolo)$! ?and"i Na)a ! India%

obtained #o eac" velocit$% T"eo etical val'es we e validated b$ wind t'nnel test 'sin) p ess' e tappin)s and pitot t'bes on a +:+/ model o# t"e ve"icle% 3ni9et 3 ;'l9a ni! & A &atis" and A &a avanan 829 3nal$sed t"e #low patte n o# a conve tible #o two desi)ns i%e% wit" oo# closed and wit" oo# open% &edan models we e c eated 'sin) 3'todes9 Invento so#twa e! mes" )ene ation was done 'sin) ?ambit and #inall$ p ocessed in -l'ent 'sin) 9<H t' b'lence model% Aelocit$ conto' and p ess' e conto' we e obtained #o bot" t"e cases and t"e d a) co<e##icient as #o'nd o't% T"e a't"o s epo ted t"at t"e val'e o# d a) co<e##icient #o conve tible wit" oo# open is "i)"e t"an t"at #o t"e conve tible wit" t"e oo# closed% 7 amod Na i ; is"nani 8*9 investi)ated t"e p"enomenon called t"e I&epa ationI o# #l'id #low w"ic" 's'all$ occ' ed at t"e ea o# a ve"icle #o a &UA model% Res'lts we e validated 'sin) 2IJ2I wind t'nnel on a +K+2 scaled model% 8Cte nal device called tail boats we e accommodated% T"e a't"o concl'ded t"at an)le val'e o# +0L is t"e optim'm an)le o# 'ppe and lowe boat tail plate #o ed'cin) d a) o# t"e complete &UA model b$ 9eepin) t"ei len)t"s constant% OM,8CTIA8 To pe #o m eCte nal ae od$namic anal$sis o# Tata Nano 'sin) n'me ical anal$sis N wind t'nnel tec"ni*'e in o de to imp ove t"e ve"icle ae od$namics and ove all pe #o mance o# t"e ve"icle% 4ence ed'ce Coe##icient o# d a) DC dE and imp ove t"e pe #o mance and e##icienc$ o# t"e ve"icle% .8T4OD@O?G T"e p o>ect was ca ied o't into t"e #ollowin) pa ts:< T"e p o#ile o# Tata Nano "as been modelled 'sin) C3D so#twa e Catia A/ D&caled same as t"at o# t"e 7 otot$peE% 3nal$sis 'sin) 3N&G& A+3 s'b>ected to simila bo'nda $ conditions as t"at o# t"e eCpe imental anal$sis o# t"e p otot$pe% 8Cpe imental anal$sis o# ae od$namic p ope ties 'sin) wind t'nnel sim'lation on t"e developed p otot$pe model o# Tata Nano D+:2/ scaleE and eco d t"e val'es o# associated pa amete s% Ae i#$ t"e val'es obtained # om t"e eCpe iment and t"at o# n'me ical anal$sis 'sin) so#twa es wit" ne)li)ible di##e ence% .odi#$ t"e c' ent p o#ile o# Tata Nano 'sin) so#twa e to imp ove ae od$namic p ope ties o# t"e ve"icle% Compa ison o# ae od$namic p ope ties and pe #o mance o# t"e ve"icle was done b$ t"e addition o# spoile s! ai dam! ea sc een and wit"o't t"ese accesso ies% -inall$ mat"ematical sim'lation "as been done ove t"e imp ovement in #'el e##icienc$ and ed'ction in "o sepowe e*'i ement%

NU.8RIC3@ &I.U@3TION In t"e desi)n o# ) o'nd and ae ial ve"icles! an 'nde standin) o# #low be"avio' is c itical% 3 med wit" t"is 9nowled)e! en)inee s can optimiFe t"ei pe #o mance and st eamline t"e bodies to inc ease e##icienc$% T"is in#o mation ma$ be obtained eCpe imentall$! anal$ticall$ o n'me icall$% T" o')" wind t'nnel testin)! en)inee s can obtain ealistic ae od$namic data and t"is "as been dealt in detail in t"e late pa t o# t"e epo t% N'me ical sim'lation! w"ile onl$ an app oCimation! p ovides t"e best comp omise between cost and acc' ac$% 3nal$sis o# t"e #low ove a'tomobiles 'sin) C-D was initiall$ int od'ced in -+ acin) event w"ic" "elped in modi#$in) t"e desi)n o# t"e acin) ca s to )et t"e maCim'm down #o ce and least possible d a)% @ate t"is met"od o# anal$sis was 'sed in di##e ent se)ments o# ca s to optimiFe t"e desi)n! so t"at! imp ovement in t"e #'el<e##icienc$ and ot"e pe #o mance pa amete s was ac"ieved% In a mode n ve"icle! t"e ove all s"ape cont ib'tes to 0/O o# d a) w"ile t"e s"a es o# w"eels! t"ei a an)ement! t"e bottom! and its desi)n details! a e 30O and 2/O! espectivel$ P QQQR% .es" &peci#ication T"e mes"in) was done 'sin) 3N&G& 2o 9benc"% T"e mes" speci#ications a e disc'ssed below% T"e mes" t$pe was tet a"ed al wit" a total o# ++0(S2= tet a"ed al elements% T"e sol'tion was calc'lated 'sin) #ine mes" es'ltin) in 20S01( nodes% T"e domain siFe o# t"e bo'nda $ is ten times t"e siFe o# t"e ca dimensions% -i)' e PR and PR ill'st ate t"e mes" 'sed #o t"e anal$sis Mo'nda $ Conditions T"e wo 9in) #l'id was speci#ied as ai Dideal )asE at 2/ LC and +0/ 7a% &tead$ state #low model was imposed% T"e #low o# ai a o'nd t"e ca is ta9en to be as =0 9mK" D+=%=1 mKsE% T"e t' b'lence intensit$ on t"e inlets was c"osen as medi'm t' b'lence case wit" /O intensit$%

T"is desi)n es'lted in a mo e st eamlined #low o# ai 'nde neat" t"e ve"icle! b't it inc eased t"e d a) #o ce to +=0%3/+ N% 3not"e con>ect' e d awn was t"at t"e ma>o it$ o# t"e d a) #o ce on t"e ve"icle wo'ld be d'e to t"e wa9e e)ion be"ind t"e ca and not mainl$ d'e to # ontal ai impact% Rea spoile D a) is ai p's"in) a)ainst t"e ve"icle as it moves% T"e #aste t"e ve"icle moves! t"e mo e d a)! w"ic" e*'i es mo e powe and #'el to maintain t"e speed% 3 spoile s p' pose is to ed'ce d a)% 3n$ added s' #ace in ai #low adds to t"e d a)% 4oweve ! )ood spoile desi)ns can ed'ce t"e ove all d a) o# $o' ve"icle% 4ence! t"e p' pose o# an a'tomotive spoile is to dis 'pt! o spoil! t"e ai #low ove t"e ca to imp ove pe #o mance% T"is desi)n ed'ced t"e d a) #o ce to +00%322N

I.7ROAI&3TION T"e va io's desi)n modi#ications t"at we e anal$Fed a e as below 3i dam 3n ai dam ed'ces t"e ai <#low below t"e ve"icle w"ile c eatin) an additional down #o ce at t"e top% 3 well<desi)ned # ont ai dam will 9eep t"e nose stead$ and pointed at t"e ) o'nd in "i)" speed d ivin)% T"is wo'ld )ive t"e d ive mo e con#idence to cont ol t"e ve"icle in s'stained "i)" speed d ivin) envi onments% In t"e wo ld o# acin)! an inc ement o# a di##e ence in ae od$namic t'nin) can spell t"e di##e ence between victo $ and de#eat% Rea p ot 'sion 3 ea p ot 'sion was desi)ned as s"own in t"e #i)' e PQQQR

Rea sc een T"e best desi)n modi#ication came in t"e #o m o# a ea sc een% T"e sc een was /mm in t"ic9ness and di##e ent distances # om t"e ca ea we e anal$Fed%

.odel II

0%33=

+0%2SO

Conside in) t"e #act t"at as m'c" as =/ O o# t"e powe e*'i ed #o ) o'nd ve"icles to t avel on a "i)"wa$ at =0 9mK" is cons'med to ove come t"e ae od$namic d a)! t"e powe cons'mption is )iven b$

-d

C U 3 A3 A = d 0%=/ +%3

T"e elation between t"e powe and #'el econom$ is

;.@ =

+%3 M&-C C d U 3 A 2

-'el econom$ is t"e distance t avelled pe 'nit vol'me o# #'el 'sed and 'nit is 9ilomet es pe lit e D9mK@E% M&-C is an indeC o# #'el e##icienc$% T"e "i)"e t"e val'e! t"e mo e economical t"e ve"icle is% -o bot" t"e cases as t"e ca 'ns at constant speed D=0 9mK" E and ass'min) stead$ #low! eCp ession D0%2E can be app oCimated to

;.@

+%3 Cd

3s pe t"e above app oCimation t"e #ollowin) val'es as p esented in Table we e obtained #o t"e #'el econom$ #o t"e two cases! wit" a ed'ction o# +0%2SO% .odel T"e eCpected e##ect o# ae od$namic d a) ed'cin) is ac"ieved #o t"e sa9e o# vo teC t"at o i)inates between ve"icle models ea wall and sc eenT t"e vo teC enables no<sepa ation #low o# eCte nal ai #l'C% T"is es'lts in bottom t ace na owin) and t"'s ed'cin) o# base d a) #o t"e sa9e o# p ess' e inc ease% R8&U@T& 3ND DI&CU&&ION Re$nolds 3ve a)ed Navie <sto9es e*'ations "ave been emplo$ed #o n'me ical sim'lations to estimate t"e va iation in d a) data on di##e ent desi)n o# t"e ve"icle% T"e n'me ical sim'lation epo ts t"e d a) val'e o# +01%3S N% -inall$ t"e d a) co<e##icient is calc'lated as 0%3(2% In t"is pape t"e comp'tational es'lts #o t"e two o# t"e below mentioned cases a e p esented: Case I: es'lts #o t"e ca model wit"o't t"e ea sc een Case II: es'lts #o t"e ca model wit" t"e ea sc een% D a) co<e##icient #o t"e above two cases and t"e ed'ction ate a e p esented in t"e table below: Case I Case II 7owe Cons'mption D92E 3%11= 3%231 CONC@U&ION Comp'tation o# d a) #o ce ove t"e s' #ace o# t"e envelope at di##e ent velocities as well as aspect atios and t"e #l'id #low a o'nd envelope 'sin) n'me ical sim'lation a e ca ied o't% - om t"e n'me ical sim'lations! it was obse ved t"at t"e s9in< # iction d a)! p ess' e d a) and total d a) co<e##icient a e st on)l$ )ove ned b$ t"e aspect atio as well as Re$nolds n'mbe %
R8-8R8NC8&

;.@ 3%3+= 3%S=(

P+R R%V% &a)deev et al%! WOve view o# A8?3 Aen's Malloon in sit' .eteo olo)ical .eas' ementsX! Science! 23+! pp +0++<+0+0! +(S=% P2R A%A%! ;e F"anovic"! D%! C isp! R% 3%! 7 eston! @%2%! 8sposito! 3%7%! In)e soll! R%8%! Go'n)! ,%8%! Mlamont! A%.%! @in9in ! WAen's &t atosp"e ic &o'nde : -i st In sit' .eas' ements in Uppe Clo'd Re)ionX! 7ape p esented to IA I33 Inte national Con#e ence on @ow<Cost 7laneta $ .issions! .a$ 2</! 2000% P3R WAen's ?oals! Ob>ectives and Investi)ationsX! w"ite pape ! s'bmitted to NRC Decadal &' ve$ Inne 7lanets &'bpanel! 3')'st 20++%

Red'ction ate o# d a) co<e##icient wit" imp ovisation


Case .odel I D a) Co<e##icient 0%3(2 Red'ction Rate

P0R ColoFFa! 3%,%! W3i s"ips #o 7laneta $ 8Cplo ation , N3&3KCR< 2000<2+330/! Novembe 2000% P/R ColoFFa! 3nt"on$! &ola 7owe ed -li)"t on Aen's, N3&3KCR 2000<2+30/2! 3p il 2000% P=R .ic"ael No dest)aa d! @ac"lan Ravensc o#t! Nic"olas Ma tel! WDesi)n and M'ild a &mall 3e obotX P1R ColoFFa! 3%,%! Initial -easibilit$ 3ssessment o# a 4i)" 3ltit'de @on) 8nd' ance 3i s"ip, N3&3KCR<2003<2+2120! Novembe 2000% PSR ;'sa)a$a! T%! ;o>ima! 4% and -'>ii! 4%3%! 8stimation o# -l$able Re)ions #o 7laneta $ 3e obots, 3I33 ,% o# 3i c a#t! 03D200=E! pp%++11<++S+% P(R V'b in! R% et al%! WRepo t on t"e 3nal$sis! Desi)n! Const 'ction and Testin) o# a 7 otot$pe .a s .ic o Malloon 7 obe!X .a s .ic o Malloon 7 obe D..M7E #inal epo t #o cont act N3&S<(S+=(! D+((SE%