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You are on page 1of 18

, Robert Soltys

Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Vysokoskolska 4, Kosice, Slovakia

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Available online xxxx

Dedicated to Professor Zdenek Bittnar on

the occasion of his 70th birthday

Keywords:

Aramid anchor cable vibration

Turbulent wind velocity simulation

Cable relaxation

Nonlinear transient dynamic nite element

analysis

Time-dependent behaviour analysis

Poincar maps

a b s t r a c t

The vibration response of an initially pre-stressed anchor cable made of parallel-lay aramid bres excited

by a measured and articially simulated spatial turbulent wind eld is presented in the paper. Results of

the analyses of in situ measured wind records are described. For selected data set statistical characteris-

tics and power spectral density functions of the measured wind velocity components are calculated. The

wind stochastic velocity uctuation is modelled as a one-variate bi-dimensional random eld. Cross-

power spectral density functions, at different point locations are introduced. The combination of the

weighted amplitude wave superposition method (WAWS) with the ShinozukaDeodatis method is used

for the analyzed problem. A time-dependent behaviour of the synthetic cable is investigated which is

subjected to turbulent wind with large expected oscillations that arise as a result of slackening due to

the relaxation effects. A nonlinear transient dynamic analysis is used in conjunction with the nite ele-

ment method to determine the dynamic response of the cable subjected to turbulent wind at its initially

prestressed state and in the selected times after the relaxation effect. The constitutive equation of the

relaxation of the aramid cable follows an experimentally obtained law of the logarithmic type. To mon-

itor the dependences of the individual quantities of cable vibration in the phase space, attractors and

Poincar maps are created by sampling the cables displacement and velocity at periods of relevant fre-

quencies. Interesting ndings based on the response of the cable with rheological properties to turbulent

wind are presented.

2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Cables are frequently used as fundamental structural members

in tall and large span structures as well as in guyed towers, suspen-

sion or stayed roofs and bridges. Cable structures are in general

lighter and more exible than most other forms of constructions.

They are more sensitive to turbulent wind than conventional

structures. Cables are characterized by high strength and high

resistance, but also by large amplitude oscillations which are

mainly due to turbulent wind effects [1,2].

To include nonlinearities of both structural and aerodynamic

origins, a time-domain analysis for the prediction of the maximum

dynamic response of strongly nonlinear cables and cable structures

subjected to wind loads is recommended [3]. Time-domain ap-

proaches require the generation of input wind histories of multi-

dimensional wind elds which can be simulated numerically.

Wind records have shown that wind velocity can be considered

as a stationary multi-dimensional and multi-variate random pro-

cess. Consequently, the uctuating component of the wind can

be quantied by statistical functions whose spatialtemporal prop-

erties in the frequency domain are expressed by power spectral

density functions.

Large numbers of papers which deal with such problems have

been published over the last decades and signicant progress has

been made in the simulation of wind effects and in the prediction

of the dynamic behaviour of light-weight structures. It is recog-

nized that the application of different turbulence models of wind

often provides different evaluations for the dynamic response of

the structure [4,5]. Kareem [6] summarized a historical perspec-

tive, recent developments and future challenges in the probabilis-

tic numerical simulation of wind effects. Some authors present the

results of measurements in situ or wind tunnel tests while others

investigate the problem in general terms theoretically, compare

various models and data or study specic aspects through numer-

ical experiments [7]. Lazzari et al. [8] studied the modelling and

simulation of wind velocity by considering a stationary, multivar-

iate stochastic process, according to its prescribed cross-spectral

density matrix. Naprstek [9] investigated the stochastic stability

of movement inuenced by parametric noise which is generated

by the interaction of a moving bluff body and an air ow. Hanzlik

et al. [10] presented the methodology for estimating wind effects

based on a database-assisted design approach. Fu et al. [11] devel-

oped two articial neural network approaches (a backpropagation

neural network and a fuzzy neural network) for the prediction of

mean, root-mean-square pressure coefcients and time series of

wind-induced pressures acting on a large roof structure.

0965-9978/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

E-mail address: stanislav.kmet@tuke.sk (S. Kmet).

Advances in Engineering Software xxx (2013) xxxxxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Advances in Engineering Software

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ advengsof t

Please cite this article in press as: Tomko M et al. Vibrations of an aramid anchor cable subjected to turbulent wind. Adv Eng Softw (2013), http://

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

Although considerable research related to linear and nonlinear

cable dynamics subjected to deterministic and stochastic excita-

tions has been performed in recent years, less effort has been de-

voted to the investigation of cables exposed to turbulent wind

when the cable is excited by non-periodic uctuating wind forces

with varying spatial distribution.

Most dynamic analyses of wind-excited stay or suspended

cables are focused on the investigation of basic dynamically

unstable phenomena and the modelling of aerodynamic forces

acting on a cable which may be caused by: buffeting (from turbu-

lence in the air ow), vortex shedding (from von Krmn vortexes

in the wake of the cable), galloping (self induction), wake gallop-

ing (uid-elastic interaction of neighbouring cables) and the

interaction of wind, rain and cable [1214]. Choi and Kim [15]

proposed a design procedure of aerodynamically stabilizing cables

using a FE-based buffeting analysis to stabilize the seesaw-like

motion of a free cantilevered cable-stayed bridge structure during

its construction. The most efcient positions for the hold-down

stabilizing cables were numerically investigated and the required

dimensions and pretensions of cables were also calculated. Won

et al. [16] studied a partially earth-anchored cable system in order

to reduce the dynamic wind response of cable-stayed bridges. The

employment of earth-anchored cables changes the dynamic

characteristics of cable-stayed bridges withstanding wind loads.

Liu et al. [17] compared the results of full-scale measurements

with wind tunnel test results for a long-span roof spatial struc-

ture. The time and frequency domain characteristics of full-scale

wind load measurements were analyzed based on ltered data-

acquisitions.

However, some papers were oriented toward the nonlinear

analysis of cables subjected to turbulent wind. Gattulli et al. [18]

analyzed the cable response to turbulent wind by means of a large

dimensional model by making use of the nite element method

and by applying reduced models for the wind eld and mechanical

system. The ability of reduction techniques, for loading and cable

descriptions, to accurately reproduce the dynamic response of a

suspended cable excited by an articially generated 3D turbulent

wind is discussed. Gattulli et al. [19] presented the ability of a mul-

timodal longitudinal active control to reduce non-linear cable

oscillations through analyticalnumerical models and experimen-

tal prototypes. Carassale and Solari [20] developed an analytic

expression of the proper orthogonal decomposition for a class of

processes, which include models usually adopted to represent

atmospheric turbulence. Di Paola et al. [21] used a time-domain

approach for analyzing nonlinear random vibrations of long-span

suspended cables inuenced by transversal wind. An efcient

Monte Carlo-based technique was proposed to evaluate a stochas-

tic behaviour of the cable. Carassale and Piccardo [22] investigated

the random oscillations of small-sag, small-diameter cables

induced by a turbulent wind through a reduced-order model con-

taining both mechanical and aerodynamic non-linearities. Impollo-

nia et al. [23] proposed a non-linear nite element model of

inclined cables, i.e. cables with non-levelled supports, in large dis-

placement and deformation elds in order to compute the dynamic

response to wind loads which blow in an arbitrary direction. Datta

and Jain [24] investigated the dynamic response of a modelled

articulated tower subjected rst to a random wind force and then

to the combined effect of wind, wave and current forces. Kim et al.

[25] described a geometrically nonlinear buffeting analysis of a

cable-stayed bridge in a time domain.

Vibration reduction in stay cables by means of viscous dampers

is of great interest in preventing cable damage and improving ser-

viceability of cable-stayed structural systems such as bridges,

roofs, towers and masts. Impollonia et al. [26] presented a study

on the effectiveness, as well as the limits, of rotational viscous

dampers and springs inserted at the two ends of a bending-stiff

taut cable. Zuo et al. [27] presented some characteristics of

stay-cable vibrations observed using a long-term full-scale mea-

surement system and interpreted these observations in a three-

dimensional cable-wind context. The similarities and differences

between vortex-induced vibration and rain-wind-induced vibra-

tion were investigated. Tesar and Lago [28] submitted the optimi-

zation for the number of and distance between dampers which

were adopted in high voltage conductor lines subjected to aeolic

and galloping vibrations.

Cluni et al. [29] presented a parametric investigation of the axial

fatigue performance of suspended cables subjected to lateral wind-

induced vibrations. Tesar [30] proposed the solution of a nonlinear

aeroelastic response in the ultimate range of spider-web structures

subjected to wind induced vibrations. Karmazinova et al. [31] pre-

sented some selected failure mechanisms and load-carrying capac-

ities of expansion anchors under static and dynamic tensile forces.

Oskoei and McClure [32] presented a comparison between a de-

tailed nonlinear time domain dynamic analysis and a simplied

frequency domain approach to estimate the maximum probable

response of weakly nonlinear cable roofs. This approach can be

considered as an alternative to a detailed time-domain analysis

in the preliminary design phase, or may be used to validate results

obtained from more elaborated numerical models.

Synthetic ropes are identied as an attractive material for use in

prestressed cable stayed and suspended structures. It is clear that

for these applications a good understanding of rheological proper-

ties of the structural response is highly desirable, as it relates di-

rectly to the reliability of the structural system during its

designed working life [3335].

The vibration response of an initially pre-stressed anchor cable

made of parallel-lay aramid bres excited by a measured and arti-

cially simulated spatial turbulent wind eld and the behaviour of

this cable with large expected oscillations as a result of slackening

due to relaxation effects are investigated and presented in this

paper. The proposed procedure for the nonlinear behaviour analy-

sis and response evaluation of an anchor cable subjected to wind

turbulence can be summarized by applying the following steps:

analyses of in situ measured wind records; generation of numerical

simulations of wind velocity histories; characterization of the an-

chor cable as part of a cable stayed structure; specication of the

relaxation properties of a prestressed aramid cable; denition of

the nite element model suitable for a transient dynamic analysis

subjected to turbulent wind; the assignment of simulated turbu-

lent wind histories and the determination of wind load forces;

and the evaluation of resultant vibration responses of the cable

at investigated times after relaxation effects with reference to

the initial state of the oscillation. Attractors and Poincar maps

are used to monitor the time dependences of the individual quan-

tities of the cables vibration.

2. Generation of measured and simulated wind velocity

histories

Results of the analyses of in situ measured wind records and the

generation of numerical simulations of the wind velocity histories

in the longitudinal, lateral and vertical direction are briey pre-

sented in this section. The purpose of this study is to develop a

3-D wind simulation model which is required for the transient dy-

namic analysis of the time-dependent behaviour of the cable with

rheological properties subjected to turbulent wind effects.

2.1. Measurements of wind velocities in situ

Wind speed records were measured at Bily Kriz station in

Beskydy by the Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology at the

2 M. Tomko et al. / Advances in Engineering Software xxx (2013) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Tomko M et al. Vibrations of an aramid anchor cable subjected to turbulent wind. Adv Eng Softw (2013), http://

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Since a high measure-

ment frequency for research applications was needed, wind

velocity was measured according to the propagation speed of

ultrasound signals. Records were performed by a GILL R3-100

ultrasonic anemometer, which is part of a system for measuring

the exchange of substances between the bark pocket and atmo-

sphere. A view of the mast with the attached anemometer is shown

in Fig. 1. The sampling frequency was 20 Hz and the duration of

records was 1 year.

The records comprised all three components of wind velocity

i.e. in the longitudinal, lateral and vertical direction. The device

was positioned 18 m above the height of the terrain (approxi-

mately 5 m above the pine trees) as is shown in Fig. 2.

From the annual record of wind velocities, the data from 22nd

December 2010 with the duration of 17.5 h were selected for

further statistical processing. This measurement consists of 35 re-

cords of 30 min intervals. The criterion for selecting the chosen

intervals preferably required the highest mean wind velocity for

an entire interval, i.e. approximately the same preferably highest

mean speeds with approximately coincident ow directions for a

longitudinal component of the wind during individual 30 min time

periods.

2.2. Statistical and frequency properties of the measured turbulent

wind data

Fluctuating velocity components of wind were quantied by

statistical functions. The velocity of the wind is considered to con-

sist of a mean wind velocity component and a uctuating velocity

component due to the turbulence or gusting caused by the

grounds roughness. The wind velocity components u(Z, x, t),

v(Z, y, t) and w(Z, z, t) can be expressed as the sum of the mean wind

velocity components uZ; x; vZ; y and wZ; z, and the uctuating

time-dependent velocity components u

0

(Z, x, t), v

0

(Z, y, t) and

w

0

(Z, z, t) in the form

uZ; x; t

vZ; y; t

wZ; z; t

_

_

_

uZ; x

vZ; y

wZ; z

_

_

_

u

0

Z; x; t

v

0

Z; y; t

w

0

Z; z; t

_

_

_

_

1

where x represents the longitudinal direction (the along-wind

direction), y is the lateral direction (the horizontal cross-wind direc-

tion) and z is the vertical direction (the vertical cross-wind direc-

tion) at height Z.

The mean wind velocity is dened as

u

1

T

_

T

0

utdt 2

and the standard deviation r

u

for the longitudinal direction is

r

u

r

2

u

_

1

T

_

T

0

ut u

2

dt

3

where r

2

is the variance of the wind velocity component and T is

the integration time. The longitudinal turbulence intensity is calcu-

lated as

I

u

r

u

100% 4

For the lateral and vertical direction analogous expressions can be

applied.

For further analyses, two shorter records of wind velocity com-

ponents in the longitudinal, lateral and vertical direction with a

duration of 30 min and 60 s were randomly selected from the

experimentally measured 17.5 h record of wind velocity data.

Statistical characteristics for the longitudinal, lateral and verti-

cal component of the measured wind velocities obtained from the

record with a duration of 17.5 h, 30 min and 60 s are presented in

Tables 13.

In order to investigate the frequency characteristics of the wind

velocity, the power spectral density functions (PSD) for the wind

velocity components were calculated using the FlexPro software

[36]. The discrete Fourier transformation was used to transfer the

time domain into the frequency domain representation. The power

spectral density functions were determined using the fast Fourier

transformation.

Fig. 1. View of the mast with attached anemometer.

Fig. 2. View of the anemometer located on the mast at a height Z = 18 m.

Table 1

Statistical characteristics of the measured wind velocity component in the longitu-

dinal direction {u

(1)

(Z

(1)

, x

(1)

, t)} obtained from the record with a duration of 17.5 h,

30 min and 60 s and 60 s simulation at the point P

1

.

Statistical

characteristics

Record

(17.5 h)

Record

(30 min)

Record

(60 s)

Simulation

(60 s)

u

min

(ms

1

) 3.9412 3.9412 1.7837 1.7475

u ms

1

6.7988 8.83 9.5945 9.5967

u

max

(ms

1

) 20.6931 16.8189 16.1748 15.7717

r

2

u

m

2

s

2

5.0215 5.5258 7.7686 7.1745

r

u

(ms

1

) 2.2409 2.3507 2.7872 2.6785

I

u

(%) 32.96 26.62 29.05 27.9106

M. Tomko et al. / Advances in Engineering Software xxx (2013) xxxxxx 3

Please cite this article in press as: Tomko M et al. Vibrations of an aramid anchor cable subjected to turbulent wind. Adv Eng Softw (2013), http://

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

For each of the 35 measured records with 30 min durations,

power spectral density functions and their mean values were cal-

culated for each discrete frequency, separately for the longitudinal,

lateral and vertical component of wind. PSD values have been

smoothed in the frequency domain using the Hanning window.

Mean values of power spectral densities were approximated by

the following non-dimensional normalized power spectral density

functions

longitudinal direction

n PSD

u

u

2

297:2 f

1 73:127 f

5=3

5

transversal direction

n PSD

v

u

2

250 f

1 65 f

5=3

6

vertical direction

n PSD

w

u

2

9:137 f

1 38:331 f

5=3

7

where f Z; n nZ= uZ is a non-dimensional frequency determined

by the frequency n, the height Z above the terrain and by the mean

wind velocity uZ; u

uZK= lnZ=z

0

r

u

K is the friction veloc-

ity, where K is the von Krmns constant and z

0

= 0.3 m is the

roughness length. For the investigated area with regular forest cov-

er the height Z above the terrain, representing the vertical distance

from ground level to the position of the anemometer, is replaced

with an effective height of Z = 5.0 m. This represents the distance

between the height of the anemometer and the top of the trees.

Normalized non-dimensional average power spectral density

functions of wind velocities in the individual longitudinal, trans-

versal and vertical direction calculated from 35 measured records

with a duration of 30 min and their approximated functions in

the forms of Eqs. (5)(7) are shown in Fig. 3.

In order to compare the frequency characteristics of the wind

velocity components the approximated power spectral density

functions calculated from expressions Eqs. (5)(7) for the

experimentally measured records were compared with those

determined according to the analytical expressions proposed by

several authors.

For illustration purposes, a comparison of the mean power

spectral density function obtained from the measurement of the

wind velocity component in the longitudinal direction with those

obtained by the analytical expressions proposed by other authors

is shown in Fig. 4. From the gure it can be seen that global courses

of individual power spectral density functions are similar and

quantitative differences can be caused e.g. by the terrains proper-

ties, orography and parameters for the site of measurement. The

corresponding analytical expressions of the mean power spectral

Table 2

Statistical characteristics of the measured wind velocity component in the lateral

direction {v

(1)

(Z

(1)

, y

(1)

, t)} obtained from the record with a duration of 17.5 h, 30 min

and 60 s and 60 s simulation at the point P

1

.

Statistical

characteristics

Record

(17.5 h)

Record

(30 min)

Record

(60 s)

Simulation

(60 s)

v

min

(ms

1

) 12.1888 10.9679 5.38 8.6147

v ms

1

0.4462 0.9125 0.0144 0.0135

v

max

(ms

1

) 9.8004 9.2338 5.8121 5.9186

r

2

v

m

2

s

2

3.719 4.2348 4.5928 6.9105

r

v

(ms

1

) 1.9285 2.0579 2.1431 2.6288

I

v

(%) 23.14 23.31 22.34 27.3927

Table 3

Statistical characteristics of the measured wind velocity component in the vertical

direction {w

(1)

(Z

(1)

, z

(1)

, t)} obtained from the record with a duration of 17.5 h, 30 min

and 60 s and 60 s simulation at the point P

1

.

Statistical

characteristics

Record

(17.5 h)

Record

(30 min)

Record

(60 s)

Simulation

(60 s)

w

min

(ms

1

) 6.7436 4.1477 2.1691 2.1353

w ms

1

1.5353 2.0497 2.1245 2.1237

w

max

(ms

1

) 9.9584 8.9152 6.5567 6.8957

r

2

w

m

2

s

2

1.1835 1.492 1.3821 2.2222

r

w

(ms

1

) 1.0879 1.2215 1.1756 1.4907

I

w

(%) 16.0 13.83 12.25 15.5369

Fig. 3. Normalized non-dimensional average power spectral density functions of

wind velocities calculated from 35 measured records with a duration of 30 min and

their approximated functions in (a) the longitudinal, (b) transversal and (c) vertical

direction.

Fig. 4. A comparison of the mean power spectral density function obtained from

the measurement of the wind velocity component in the longitudinal direction with

those obtained by analytical expressions proposed by other authors.

4 M. Tomko et al. / Advances in Engineering Software xxx (2013) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Tomko M et al. Vibrations of an aramid anchor cable subjected to turbulent wind. Adv Eng Softw (2013), http://

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

density functions of the wind velocity component in the longitudi-

nal direction proposed by the various authors are presented in

Table 4.

Obtained statistical and frequency properties of the longitudi-

nal, lateral and vertical component of the measured turbulent wind

can nd a wider use in the analysis and design of structures in sim-

ilar areas.

2.3. Stochastic turbulent wind modelling

The wind turbulence is usually modelled as a zero-mean,

Gaussian, stationary random eld that depends on time. If P

1

and

P

2

denote two points located at {X

1

} = {x

1

, y

1

, z

1

} and

{X

2

} = {x

2

, y

2

, z

2

}, then, from a probabilistic aspect, the complete

characterization of the atmospheric turbulence is ensured by the

knowledge of the correlation function R

u

k

u

l

fX

1

g; fX

2

g; s for every

pair of turbulence components u

k

, u

l

, where s being a time lag [44].

Assuming, that the atmospheric turbulence is ergodic, the correla-

tion function is given by the Fourier transform of the cross power

spectral density function S

u

k

u

l

fX

1

g; fX

2

g; x between turbulence

components u

k

and u

l

, where x is the circular frequency.

For simulation purposes in this study, a spatial domain is dis-

cretized into 5 points (point locations) which represent signicant

nodes of the cable (Fig. 14a). The position of nodes of the simula-

tion domain is identied by the vector

fXg fx

1

; y

1

; z

1

; x

2

; y

2

; z

2

; . . . ; x

5

; y

5

; z

5

g

fx

1

; 0; z

1

; x

2

; 0; z

2

; . . . ; x

5

; 0; z

5

g 8

The velocity at a given point can be regarded either as a one-

variate four-dimensional (1V-4D) random eld or a time-depen-

dent one-variate three-dimensional (1V-3D) random eld process.

In order to simplify the concept, the wind velocity uctuation can

be characterized in a plane. Then the time-dependent one-variate

two-dimensional (1V-2D) stochastic eld process can be exam-

ined. Thus the discrete wind velocity elds can be written as the

sum of the mean velocity vectors and the time-dependent turbu-

lence vectors in the form

fu

k

Z

k

; x

k

; tg f u

k

Z

k

; x

k

g fu

0k

Z

k

; x

k

; tg 9

fv

k

Z

k

; y

k

; tg f v

k

Z

k

; y

k

g fv

0k

Z

k

; y

k

; tg 10

where k = 1, 2, . . ., 5 denotes the position of the kth node of the cable.

The mean velocity can be expressed as

uZ; x

u

K

ln

Z

z

0

_ _

11

where K is the von Krmns constant, u

the height above the ground and z

0

is the roughness length.

The WindSimul computational software was created in the

Matlab numerical computing environment to simulate the wind

velocity components in all directions [45]. The graphical user envi-

ronment of the developed WindSimul program is shown in Fig. 5.

Wind velocity elds in the longitudinal {u

(k)

(Z

(k)

, x

(k)

, t)} and lat-

eral direction {v

(k)

(Z

(k)

, y

(k)

, t)} at the individual heights are shown

in Fig. 6.

The time-dependent random turbulent elds {u

0

(Z, x, t)} and

{v

0

(Z, y, t)} are transformed into stationary random processes

fu

0k

tg and fv

0k

tg. The complete characterization of the pro-

cess is given by its power spectral density matrix [44,46]

S

fu

0k

gfu

0l

g

x

S

fu

01

gfu

01

g

x S

fu

01

gfu

02

g

x . . . S

fu

01

gfu

05

g

x

S

fu

02

gfu

01

g

x S

fu

02

gfu

02

g

x . . . S

fu

02

gfu

05

g

x

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

S

fu

05

gfu

01

g

x S

fu

05

gfu

02

g

x . . . S

fu

05

gfu

05

g

x

_

_

_

_

12

The matrix (12) contains power spectral density functions and cross

power spectral density functions between turbulent velocities. For

the lateral direction an analogous expression can be applied. Cross

power spectral density functions in Eq. (12) are obtained as

S

u

0k

u

0l

S

u

0k

u

0k xS

u

0l

u

0l x

_

expf

kl

x 13

where

f

kl

x

jxj

C

2

z

z

k

z

l

2

_

2p uz

k

uz

l

14

and C

z

= 10 is the attenuation coefcient [47].

2.4. Generation and numerical simulation of wind velocity histories

Several techniques were proposed in order to simulate stochas-

tic wind velocity elds to be employed in structural analyses.

Among those, the classic weighted amplitude wave superposition

method (WAWS), based on the pioneering work of Shinozuka

and Jan [48] and then modied by Deodatis [49] (in such a way

to achieve ergodic realizations and to be efciently implemented

through fast Fourier transform algorithms), has demonstrated to

guarantee the best quality of the obtained results [50]. However,

such a procedure requires the Cholesky factorization of the spectral

matrix. This leads to high computational expenses. On the other

hand, an accurate wind simulation is fundamental for the wind-in-

duced response and behaviour prediction of exible cables and

cable structures. Less demanding, however approximate, tech-

niques may be obtained by exploiting the properties of the proper

orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the spectral matrix [51,52].

The ShinozukaDeodatis method [48,49] is used in this study

and consequently, the following expression is applied

u

0

k

t

Dx

p

5

k1

Nx

j1

T

kj

x

kj

cosx

kj

t u

kj

15

where x

kj

= x

j

+ rDx/3N, T

kj

(x

kj

) are the elements of matrix

[T(x

kj

)] and u

kj

are independent phases uniformly distributed in

the interval h0, 2pi. [T(x

kj

)] is a deterministic matrix obtained

through a frequency-dependent decomposition of the power spec-

tral density matrix. In this method the Cholesky factorization algo-

rithm is adopted which provides [T(x

kj

)] in the following lower

triangular form

Tx

kj

T

11

x 0 . . . 0

T

21

x T

22

x . . . 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

T

51

x T

52

x . . . T

55

x

_

_

_

_

16

Table 4

Analytical expressions of the mean power spectral density functions of the wind

velocity component in the longitudinal direction proposed by various authors.

Author Ref. nPSDuz; n=u

2

Hino [37]

0:475k

2

x

2

=1 x

2

2

5=6

Kaimal and Simiu [38,39]

200f =1 50f

5

3

Kareem [40]

335f =1 71f

5

3

Solari [41]

2:21b

2:5

u

f =1 3:31b

2:5

u

f

5=3

Solari [42]

6:868fL

s

=z=1 10:302fL

s

=z

5=3

Teunissen [43] 105f/(0.44 + 33f)

5/3

Note: x

2

250nz

0:42

= u; b

u

r

2

u

=u

2

Ls 300z=200

0:670:05lnz0

.

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Power spectral density functions given by Eqs. (5)(7) were

used for the simulation of the wind velocity component in the lon-

gitudinal, lateral and vertical direction by the developed program.

Eq. (15) was used analogously for the simulation of wind velocity

components in the lateral and vertical direction.

On the basis of the random selected records from experimen-

tally measured wind velocities with durations of 60 s, numerical

simulations of the measured wind velocity component in the lon-

gitudinal, lateral and vertical direction were determined using the

created program. For the best portrayal of the experimental

Fig. 5. The graphical user environment of the developed WindSimul program.

Fig. 6. Wind velocity elds: (a) in the longitudinal {u

(k)

(Z

(k)

, x

(k)

, t)} and (b) lateral direction {v

(k)

(Z

(k)

, y

(k)

, t)} at the individual heights.

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measurements by simulations the following inputs were chosen in

accordance with the measured record: the duration of the record

t = 60 s, the mean wind velocity component in the longitudinal

direction u 9:5945 ms

1

, in the lateral direction v 0:0144

ms

1

and in the vertical direction w 2:1245 ms

1

, an effective

height above the zero level Z = 5.0 m, the terrain category III

according to EN 1991-1-4 [14] with the corresponding roughness

length z

0

= 0.3 m, the frequency of the recording 20 Hz and the fre-

quency range from 0 to 10 Hz (n

max

= 10 Hz). From these input data

the number of recorded time steps s = 1200 and the number of dis-

crete frequencies N

x

= 600 were considered for the simulations.

The simulation with a duration of 60 s represents one period.

For the number of discrete frequencies N to be chosen with re-

spect to zero mean velocity of the uctuating wind component, a

random function must consequently include one period. To achieve

one period of the uctuating component, the number of discrete

frequencies is N

x

= tn

max

.

Time courses of the wind velocity components in the longitudi-

nal, lateral and vertical direction of the randomly selected mea-

sured record with a duration of 60 s and their simulations at the

point P

1

are shown in Figs. 7 and 8.

Statistical characteristics of the measured and simulated wind

velocity components in the longitudinal, lateral and vertical direc-

tion are introduced in Tables 13. The relative rate of the appear-

ance of the measured and simulated wind ow direction is

shown through a wind rosette in Fig. 9.

Relative rates and distribution functions of the occurrence of

the measured and simulated wind velocity components in the lon-

gitudinal direction at the point P

1

and the corresponding power

spectral density functions are shown in Fig. 10.

A comparison of the results obtained from the measured and

simulated data was presented. These results conrmed the

required correctness of the simulated uctuating wind velocity

histories and the possibility of their further use in dynamic analy-

ses. The physical importance of the mathematical approach and

the functionality of the developed program were demonstrated

and proved.

Longitudinal and lateral wind velocity power spectra such as

power spectral density functions at the points P

1

and P

5

, and cross

power spectral density functions between the points P

1

and P

5

,

and/or P

3

and P

5

are shown in Figs. 11 and 12.

3. Description of an investigated anchor cable

The vibration response of an anchor cable for a television tower

with a height of 200.0 m is analyzed in this study. A global axono-

metric view of the tower with the anchor cables, detail of the

spatial steel structure and a section of the structure with the deno-

tation of the analyzed anchor cable are shown in Fig. 13. The tower

is anchored by means of three cables at each of the four nodes sit-

uated in the same level. The cables are anchored to massive

unmovable concrete foundations at the other end.

Anchor cables are made of synthetic aramid bres with a high-

strength and high-modulus. The parallel-lay aramid cables have

several advantages including low weight and therefore also less

initial sag compared to traditional steel ropes and in addition,

can achieve better fatigue properties. Earlier works [33] indicated

that a stress rupture of aramid bres can be described using a

linear relationship between the tensile load and the logarithm of

Fig. 7. Time course of the experimentally measured and simulated wind velocity components in the longitudinal {u

(1)

(Z

(1)

, x

(1)

, t)} and lateral direction {v

(1)

(Z

(1)

, y

(1)

, t)} at the

point P

1

.

Fig. 8. Time course of the experimentally measured and simulated wind velocity component in the vertical direction {w

(1)

(Z

(1)

, z

(1)

, t)} at the point P

1

.

Fig. 9. Rosette of the relative rate of the occurrence of a wind ow direction

obtained from the measurement and simulation with durations of 60 s at the point

P

1

.

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time to breaking point; especially when subjected to loading forces

equivalent to 50% of the nominal breaking strength, resulting in a

material lifetime of up to a 100 years.

Optimization studies and static analyses of the complex spatial

tower structure with anchor cables, under relevant load combina-

tions, using the mean wind velocity components were performed

to stipulate the appropriate initial pre-stressing forces in the

cables. The initial pre-stressing force of P(s

0

) = 285 kN of the an-

chor cable at initial time s

0

is considered and the cable cross sec-

tion is such as to operate in the subcritical range.

One of the cables of the cable stayed tower structure was se-

lected which was then further analyzed. A scheme of the investi-

gated anchor cable and wind load directions is shown in Fig. 14.

The distance between the supporting nodes of the analyzed anchor

cable is l

s

= 73.55 m. The selected diameter of the cable is

d = 80 mm, with a cross sectional area of A = 5026.55 mm

2

, having

a modulus of elasticity of E = 126500 MPa and a weight per unit

length of g = 0.04734 N mm

1

.

4. Prediction of the stress relaxation of the cable

In order to study a time-dependent dynamic behaviour of the

aramid anchor cable subjected to a turbulent wind eld due to

its rheological properties, our main attention in this section is fo-

cused on the time-dependent losses of the cables initial prestress

as a consequence of stress relaxation.

The relaxation tests of aramid-based composite cables con-

rmed [53] that the relaxation versus log(s) curve is a straight line

and therefore the following expression can be written for the stress

losses Dr(s)

Drs Alogs B 17

where Dr(s) = r(s

0

) r(s), r(s

0

) is the initial stress due to the ini-

tial prestressing force P(s

0

) at time s

0

, r(s) is the stress at time s

and A and B are constants. The relaxation behaviour of the aramid

bres follows an experimental law of the logarithmic type and its

rate follows a hyperbolic law. At the end of eight hours the losses

had already reached 3/4 of their maximum values.

The relaxation percentage p

Dr

(s) at time s can be expressed in

the form

Fig. 10. Comparisons of (a) relative rates and (b) distribution functions of the

occurrence of the measured and simulated wind velocity components in the

longitudinal direction and (c) the corresponding power spectral density functions at

the point P

1

.

Fig. 11. Longitudinal wind velocity power spectra: (a) power spectral density functions at (a) the point P

1

, (b) the point P

5

, and cross power spectral density functions

between the points (c) P

1

and P

5

, and (d) P

3

and P

5

.

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p

Dr

s

Drs

rs

0

100% 18

In our case, the initial stress r(s

0

) in the anchor cable due to the ini-

tial prestressing force, self weight and stress acting under the mean

wind load is less than 10% (r(s

0

) = 56.69 MPa at the initial pre-

stressing force P(s

0

) = 285.10

3

N) of the ultimate strength of the

cable r

ult

:

2200 MPa so that the following expression for the

relaxation can be used Dr(s) = 6.6log(s) + 13.3. This expression also

includes additional elongations of the cable after installation which

can inuence the stress relaxation due to the setting of attach-

ments, deformation after initial loading by wind actuating on the

whole structure of the tower and others. The relaxation quantities

(relaxation percentage), for this illustrative example, at the end of

the two selected characteristic times s

1

= 3.8 min and

s

2

= 3801.6 min (s

2

= 2.64 day) obtained, according to Eq. (18), the

following values p

Dr

(s

1

) = (17.2/56.69)100% = 30.34% and p

Dr

(s

2

) =

(37.2/56.69)100% = 65.62%, respectively.

For the time-dependent rheological analysis of the cable

behaviour, the time domain was divided into a discrete number

of times s

0

, s

1

, s

2

, . . .. At each time, the cable was analyzed acting

under the applied turbulent wind load with the imposed current

geometry and prestress state originating from the previous

relaxation effect. The current geometry of the cable corresponding

to the actual prestress state was determined by nonlinear static

analysis. In this approach, the dynamic response of the cable with

the initial geometry and prestressing force was taken as the refer-

ence state.

Fig. 12. Lateral wind velocity power spectra: (a) power spectral density functions at (a) the point P

1

, (b) the point P

5

, and cross power spectral density functions between the

points (c) P

1

and P

5

, and (d) P

3

and P

5

.

Fig. 13. The tower with anchor cables: (a) global axonometric view, (b) detail of the spatial steel structure and (c) a section of the structure with the denotation of the

analyzed anchor cable.

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In an effort to assess the inuence that the decreased initial pre-

stressing force of the cable has on its dynamic behaviour, numeri-

cal solutions were performed for the following three states: an

initial state with a cable prestressing force of P(s

0

) = 285 kN, a state

at time s

1

= 3.8 min with a prestressing force of P(s

1

) = 189 kN and

a state at time s

2

= 3801.6 min with a prestressing force of

P(s

2

) = 93.3 kN.

The initial equilibriumof the anchor cable, assumed as the static

initial conguration acting under its self-weight and the current

prestressing force at the individual states was dened by a static

nonlinear nite element analysis. Consequently, the corresponding

sags in the middle of the cable span at the individual states

s(s

0

) = 33.0 mm, s(s

1

) = 52.1 mm and s(s

2

) = 105.2 mm were ob-

tained by means of a static nonlinear analysis. All remaining cable

parameters were kept constant such as were described in Section 3.

5. Finite element model

The nite element method is applied to simulate the behaviour

of the investigated cable subjected to dynamic effects of turbulent

wind [54,55]. Finite element ANSYS software was used for its non-

linear transient dynamic analysis in the time domain [56].

5.1. Finite elements

The spatial element marked as SOLID 186 in the ANSYS 12

Classic library was used for the geometrically nonlinear analysis

of the anchor cable. SOLID186 is a higher order 3-D 20-node solid

element that exhibits a quadratic displacement behaviour. The

element is dened by 20 nodes having three degrees of freedom

per node: translations in the nodal x, y and z directions. SOLID

186 is used for the three dimensional modelling of the cable. The

element supports plasticity, hyper-elasticity, creep, stress stiffen-

ing, large deection, and large strain capabilities.

5.2. Finite element mesh generation

SOLID 186 elements were applied for the structural discretiza-

tion of the investigated cable. Convergence studies were conducted

to decide on an appropriate mesh density, with the aim of achiev-

ing suitably accurate results whilst minimizing computational

time. The model of the anchor cable consists of 210 nite elements

and 1108 nodes. Elements with a length of 350 mm were used for

the analysis.

5.3. Boundary conditions

Boundary conditions were set for the end supporting nodes of

the anchor cable. The hinged ends at the places of supports were

considered. These supporting nodes are xed in all directions

(displacements in the direction of x, y and z-axis are restrained)

but can rotate in all directions. The degrees of freedom of the

supporting nodes of the cable nite element models were dened

according to the prescribed boundary conditions.

5.4. Material properties

The results obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of aramid bres

showed that the stressstrain relationship is linear up to rupture

[53]. Consequently, the material model of the cable is character-

ized by a linear relation between stresses and strains and only

the elastic region of the cable behaviour is considered. Hence,

Hookes law is valid for its behaviour in the elastic range. Displace-

ments are supposed to be large, therefore a geometrically nonlin-

ear behaviour of the cable is assumed.

6. Nonlinear transient dynamic analysis

A transient dynamic analysis (sometimes called a time-history

analysis) is used to determine the dynamic vibration response of

an anchor cable made of aramid bres subjected to a turbulent

wind load. As a starting point, vibration characteristics such as nat-

ural frequencies and mode shapes of the anchor cable were deter-

mined by modal analysis. The rst natural frequencies of the cable

obtained at individual states of prestress at times s

0

, s

1

and s

2

are

f

1

(s

0

) = 1.71 Hz, f

1

(s

1

) = 1.41 Hz and f

1

(s

2

) = 1.02 Hz, respectively.

6.1. Description of basic equations and applied techniques

The basic equation of motion solved by a transient dynamic

analysis at time t is

Mtf wtg Ctf _ wtg K

T

tfwtg fF

appl

tg 19

where [K

T

(t)] = [K

E

(t)] + [K

G

(t)] is the tangential stiffness matrix,

[C(t)] is the damping matrix, [M(t)] is the mass matrix, {w(t)} is the

nodal displacement vector, f _ wtg is the nodal velocity vector,

f wtg is the nodal acceleration vector and {F

appl

(t)} is the applied

load vector. To solve these equations at discrete time points the

Newmark time integration method including an improved Hilber,

Hughes and Taylor algorithm called HHT [57] for controlling

numerical damping of high-frequency oscillations is applied. The

adopted procedure is described in Appendix A.

Geometric nonlinear behaviour with a large displacement range

was assumed in the analysis. Incremental and NewtonRaphson

iterative solution strategies with the updated Lagrangian formula-

tion were used to solve the geometrically non-linear problem.

Within an increment of load, the geometry and stress update were

performed once the iterative process had converged. The conver-

gence was veried with the displacements and forces criteria for-

mulated independently. Computational time can be signicantly

shortened by applying parallel computations [58].

6.2. Modelling of turbulent wind loading

The investigated anchor cable was loaded by the experimentally

measured and theoretically simulated components of turbulent

wind velocities in the longitudinal and lateral directions. The

Fig. 14. Scheme of the anchor cable: (a) geometry with a location of points P

1

P

5

and (b) directions of the wind load.

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orientation of the anchor cable is nearly vertical (due to the large

inclination of the cable) and hence the vertical component of the

wind load was neglected.

The analyzed aramid anchor cable was loaded by the measured

and simulated wind velocity in the longitudinal u(t) and lateral v(t)

direction as is shown in Fig. 7. Wind velocities u(t) and v(t) were

transformed into wind load forces F

appl

u

t and F

appl

v

t (in a general

form) by means of the following relationships

F

appl

u

t

1

2

qcu

2

tA

F

appl

v

t

1

2

qcv

2

tA 20

where q is the air density, A is the reference area of the struc-

tural component and c = 0.8 is the aerodynamic coefcient. Wind

load forces were applied during the period of 60 s with a step of

0.05 s.

Fig. 15. The trajectories of the motion of the midpoint of the cable loaded by (a) the measured and (b) simulated wind velocities at the initial state (at initial time s

0

without

the inuence of relaxation) and trajectories obtained by the simulated wind velocities (c) at time s

1

= 3.8 min and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min (states after the relaxation process).

Fig. 16. Responses of the midpoint of the anchor cable under (a) the measured and (b) simulated turbulent wind at the initial state (at time s

0

) and simulated responses (c) at

time s

1

= 3.8 min and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min where both displacement components in the longitudinal (x-displacement) and lateral (y-displacement) direction are presented.

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7. Analysis of resultant vibration responses at the investigated

states and discussion

A nonlinear transient dynamic analysis of the anchor cable sub-

jected to turbulent wind at initial time s

0

, and at the times

s

1

= 3.8 min and s

2

= 3801.6 min after the relaxation process, was

performed in order to compare the time-dependent dynamic

behaviour of the initially pre-stressed anchor cable and the behav-

iour of the cable after slackening due to the relaxation effect. The

starting conditions of the cable at the individual times differ in

value of the actual prestressing force due to relaxation and in the

current geometry dened by the sag in the mid-span of the cable.

The goal is to point out the differences in the cables behaviour and

in its response to turbulent wind at the individual times due to the

relaxation effects.

In all analyses, the vibration response of the cable during 60 s

time intervals was investigated. The cables behaviour is described

through the displacement components in the longitudinal (along-

wind) and lateral (across-wind) local reference axes that coincide

in the investigated cases with horizontal and transversal global ref-

erence axes x and y (see Fig. 14).

The trajectories of motion for the midpoint of the cable loaded

by the measured and simulated wind velocities during the time

interval of 60 s at the initial state (results of the analysis at the ini-

tial time s

0

without the inuence of relaxation) and trajectories ob-

tained by the simulated turbulent wind velocities at the times

s

1

= 3.8 min and s

2

= 3801.6 min (states after the relaxation pro-

cess) are shown in Fig. 15.

Fig. 16 shows the response of the midpoint of the anchor cable

subjected to the measured and simulated turbulent wind at the ini-

tial state (at time s

0

) and at the times s

1

= 3.8 min and

s

2

= 3801.6 min where both displacement components in the lon-

gitudinal (displacement x) and lateral (displacement y) direction

are present. In this respect a good agreement is found between

the cable responses to the measured and articially simulated tur-

bulent wind at initial time s

0

(Fig. 16a and b). The sizes of the two

components are quite different and as expected the longitudinal

displacement component is prevailing. The changes of the initial

response of the mid-point of the cable acting under the simulated

turbulent wind due to relaxation at the investigated times s

1

and

s

2

are shown in Fig. 16c and d.

The cables response to the simulated turbulent wind effects

was compared at individual states of the prestressing force. Exam-

ination of the direct comparison of the time histories (trajectories)

shown in Fig. 16 it is clearly visible that the overall aspect and

amplitudes of the cable motion are different at the individual

investigated times. Amplitudes increase over a time due to the

stress relaxation. The most signicant differences and increments

are in the displacements of the cable subjected to wind turbulence

in the longitudinal (along-wind) direction as is shown in Fig. 16.

Results conrmed that the relation between the dynamic

behaviour of the cable at the initial state and the next states is

strongly nonlinear.

Dependency between the displacement and velocity of the mid-

point of the cable in the longitudinal and lateral direction of the

measured and simulated wind turbulence at the initial state and

at the investigated times after relaxation are shown in Figs. 17

and 18. Figs. 17 and 18 demonstrate that the relaxation effect pro-

duces important nonlinear redistributions of anchor cable dis-

placements and introduces additional deformations to the

system. The maximum amplitudes of the response depend on the

orientation of cable vibration, and consequently signicant oscilla-

tions of the cable occur in the longitudinal direction. Fig. 17a and b

demonstrate that the results of the eld data analysis show consis-

tent similarities with the simulated values.

Indeed, signicant differences are observed amongst the simu-

lated cable responses to turbulent wind elds at different levels of

prestressing. To explain these differences it may be useful to eval-

uate a power spectral density function of the displacement re-

sponse associated to each state.

Power spectral density functions for the displacement of the

midpoint of the cable loaded by simulated wind velocities in the

longitudinal x direction at the initial state and at the investigated

times after relaxation are shown in Fig. 19. This gure describes

how the power of the displacement is distributed with the fre-

quency at individual prestressing forces of the anchor cable. From

the comparison shown in Fig. 19, it is clear that this power is in-

creased when the prestressing forces are decreased.

Courses of the reaction components in the x- and y-direction at

the supporting node of the cable acting under measured and sim-

ulated turbulent wind at the initial state s

0

and the changes in the

courses of the reaction components acting under the simulated

Fig. 17. Dependences of the displacement versus velocity of the midpoint of the cable in the longitudinal direction of (a) the measured and (b) simulated wind turbulence at

the initial state (at initial time s

0

without the inuence of relaxation with the prestressing force P(s

0

) = 285 kN) and simulated dependences (c) at the investigated time

s

1

= 3.8 min with the prestressing force P(s

1

) = 189 kN and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min with the prestressing force P(s

2

) = 93.3 kN after relaxation.

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wind due to relaxation at the investigated times s

1

= 3.8 min and

s

2

= 3801.6 min are shown in Figs. 20 and 21.

Several parameters that may inuence the cables vibration

under turbulent wind include amplitude, frequency and direction

of external excitation, current properties of the structure, current

level of cable prestressing forces, etc. DTAttractor (Data Transfor-

mation to the Attractor) software has been created to monitor

the dependences of individual quantities of the cables vibration

in the multidimensional phase space and to describe a system to-

ward which the system tends to evolve over time. Attractors and

Poincar maps were created by sampling the displacement and

velocity of the cables midpoint at periods of relevant excitation

frequencies. Each representation of the Poincar map for former

vibrations is simply one xed point coherent with one-period mo-

tions as is shown in the following gures. All Poincar sections

were constructed with a phase that captured amplitudes of the

cables oscillation at the investigated states.

Poincar maps are used to analyse the numerical results. The

Poincar map is a sequence of points (displacements at the mid-

point of the cable) which characterize the dynamic response of

the cable subjected to turbulent wind actions. Poincar maps allow

one to look at the time-dependent vibration behaviour of the cable

in a straightforward manner. They show how displacements can

lead to sparse arrays at individual times due to slackening of the

cable after the relaxation process.

Fig. 18. Dependences of the displacement versus velocity of the midpoint of the cable in the lateral direction of (a) the measured and (b) simulated wind turbulence at the

initial state (at initial time s

0

without the inuence of relaxation with the prestressing force P(s

0

) = 285 kN) and simulated dependences (c) at the investigated time

s

1

= 3.8 min with the prestressing force P(s

1

) = 189 kN and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min with the prestressing force P(s

2

) = 93.3 kN after relaxation.

Fig. 19. Power spectral densities (PSD) of the midpoint displacement of the cable

loaded by the simulated wind velocities in the longitudinal x-direction at the initial

state (at initial time s

0

with a prestressing force P(s

0

) = 285 kN without the

inuence of relaxation) and at the investigated times s

1

= 3.8 min (P(s

1

) = 189 kN)

and s

2

= 3801.6 min (P(s

2

) = 93.3 kN) after relaxation.

Fig. 20. Courses of the reaction components in the x-direction at the supporting node of the cable under (a) the measured and (b) simulated turbulent wind at initial state s

0

and the changes in the courses of the reaction components under the simulated wind due to relaxation at investigated times (c) s

1

= 3.8 min and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min.

M. Tomko et al. / Advances in Engineering Software xxx (2013) xxxxxx 13

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dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

The attractor represents a geometrical object toward which the

trajectory of a dynamical system, represented by a curve in a phase

space, converges in the course of time. The vibration response of

the cable as a dynamical system can be described geometrically

as a rotational motion on an attractor. Displacements of the cables

midpoint in the longitudinal and lateral direction at selected peri-

ods and relevant velocities are transformed to the rotational mo-

tions expressed in the polar coordinate system for the 3-

dimensional space. Mutual comparisons of the attractors at indi-

vidual times show changes in the vibration response of the cable

before and after the relaxation process. When the non-linearity

of the system becomes more important, more complicated attrac-

tors may appear. The nal trajectory in which the system settles

may have a very irregular shape, without any apparent periodicity.

Dependence between the displacement and velocity of the mid-

point of the cable in the longitudinal direction of the measured and

simulated wind turbulence is studied at the initial states using

attractors as is shown in Fig. 22a and b. The time axis is cycled

at a period T

1

(s

0

) with a frequency of 1.71 Hz (T

1

(s

0

) = 1/

1.71 = 0.58 s), which corresponds to the rst natural frequency

f

1

(s

0

), of the cable vibration at initial time s

0

and enables the

displacements of the cable under the unilateral oscillation to be

Fig. 21. Courses of the reaction components in the y-direction at the supporting node of the cable under (a) the measured and (b) simulated turbulent wind at initial state s

0

and the changes in the courses of the reaction components under the simulated wind due to relaxation at investigated times (c) s

1

= 3.8 min and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min.

Fig. 22. Attractors of the dependence of the displacement and velocity of the midpoint of the cable in the longitudinal direction for (a) the measured and (b) simulated wind

turbulence at initial state s

0

and the simulated dependences at the times (c) s

1

= 3.8 min and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min after relaxation (the time axes are cycled at periods T

1

(s

1

)

and T

1

(s

2

) with frequencies of 1.41 Hz and 1.02 Hz (T

1

(s

1

) = 1/1.41 = 0.71 s and T

1

(s

2

) = 1/1.02 = 0.98 s), which correspond to the rst natural frequencies f

1

(s

1

) and f

1

(s

2

) of

the cable vibration at the times s

1

= 3.8 min and s

2

= 3801.6 min after relaxation, respectively.

14 M. Tomko et al. / Advances in Engineering Software xxx (2013) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Tomko M et al. Vibrations of an aramid anchor cable subjected to turbulent wind. Adv Eng Softw (2013), http://

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

Fig. 23. Poincar maps of the dependence of the displacement and velocity of the midpoint of the cable in the longitudinal direction for (a) the measured and (b) simulated

wind turbulence at the initial state s

0

and the simulated dependences at the times (c) s

1

= 3.8 min and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min after relaxation (the time axes are cycled at periods

T

1

(s

1

) and T

1

(s

2

) with frequencies of 1.41 Hz and 1.02 Hz (T

1

(s

1

) = 1/1.41 = 0.71 s and T

1

(s

2

) = 1/1.02 = 0.98 s), which correspond to the rst natural frequencies f

1

(s

1

) and

f

1

(s

2

) of the cable vibration at the times s

1

= 3.8 min and s

2

= 3801.6 min after relaxation, respectively).

Fig. 24. Attractors of the dependence of the displacement and velocity of the midpoint of the cable in the longitudinal direction for (a) the measured and (b) simulated wind

turbulence at initial state s

0

and the simulated dependences at times (c) s

1

= 3.8 min and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min after relaxation (the time axes are cycled at half periods T

2

(s

0

),

T

2

(s

1

) and T

2

(s

2

) with frequencies of 3.42 Hz, 2.82 Hz and 2.04 Hz (T

2

(s

0

)=1/3.42 = 0.29 s = 0.5T

1

(s

0

) and analogously for the other periods T

2

(s

1

) = 0.5T

1

(s

1

) and

T

2

(s

2

) = 0.5T

1

(s

2

)), which correspond to the rst natural double frequencies f

1

(s

0

), f

1

(s

1

) and f

1

(s

2

) of the cable vibration at the initial state (at time s

0

) and at the times

s

1

= 3.8 min and s

2

= 3801.6 min after relaxation, respectively).

M. Tomko et al. / Advances in Engineering Software xxx (2013) xxxxxx 15

Please cite this article in press as: Tomko M et al. Vibrations of an aramid anchor cable subjected to turbulent wind. Adv Eng Softw (2013), http://

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

captured. Intersections of the Poincar section with the trajectory

in the attractors are marked by points at the areas with the ex-

pected amplitudes of displacements. These corresponding Poincar

sections are shown separately in Fig. 23a and b.

Attractors for the dependence of the displacement and velocity

of the midpoint of the cable in the longitudinal direction of the

simulated wind turbulence at the investigated times after relaxa-

tion are shown in Fig. 22c and d, and the corresponding Poincar

sections at the same times are shown in Fig. 23c and d.

Attractors for the rst natural double frequency of the cables

vibration of dependence between the displacement and velocity

of the midpoint of the cable in the longitudinal direction of the

experimentally measured and theoretically simulated wind turbu-

lence at the initial state (results of the analysis at initial time s

0

without the inuence of relaxation) and at the investigated times

s

1

= 3.8 min and s

2

= 3801.6 min after the relaxation are shown

in Fig. 24. The corresponding Poincar sections at the same times

are shown in Fig. 25. The time axes are cycled at half periods. Thus,

the selected periods allow the bilateral displacements at the mid-

point of the anchor cable to be captured. A colour spectrum for the

differentiation of the time dependence of monitored variables in

the Poincar sections is used (see the time axis on the right side

of the gures). Consequently, the blue points correspond to the

beginning of the time interval with a duration of 60 s. Figs. 23d

and 25d show that a lower density of points is seen at the times

after the relaxation process, which corresponds to larger displace-

ments at these states. Vibrations in a variety of modes and high-le-

vel dynamic responses of the cable to random excitations can

occur. The overall characteristics of damping are different at the

individual times, and are inuenced by the current properties of

the cable. From a dynamic perspective, the properties of the cables

are modied by the initial value of prestress.

Poincar maps at the individually investigated times show that

the displacements of the cable due to turbulent wind are more

dispersed after relaxation when the initial prestressing force is suc-

cessively decreased in comparison with those at the initial state. In

this state when the cable is prestressed by the required prestress-

ing force, at the end of the monitored time section, the displace-

ments begin to become more clustered in comparison with those

at the states after relaxation. This clustering can be attributed to

the consolidation of the oscillation in certain limits due to a suf-

cient level of prestressing. In further investigations, it would be

useful to monitor vibration during a longer time interval.

Results of the time-dependent response analysis of the anchor

cable loaded by the experimentally measured and simulated tur-

bulent wind velocities at the initially prestressed state and at the

states after slackening due to the relaxation effects were presented.

The inuence of the level of actual prestressing force on the cable

response was evaluated. The performed comparisons between

cable vibration responses at individual states conrmed that the

level of cable prestress has a signicant effect on its excited modes

namely from both quantitative and qualitative aspects.

8. Conclusions

The vibration response of the initially pre-stressed anchor cable

made of parallel-lay aramid bres excited by a measured and arti-

cially simulated spatial turbulent wind eld and the behaviour of

this cable with large expected oscillations after slackening due to

the relaxation effects were investigated and presented in the

paper.

Synthetic aramid ropes have been identied as an attractive

material for use in prestressed cable stayed and suspended struc-

tures. It is clear that for these applications a good understanding

of the rheological properties of the structural response is highly

desirable, as it relates directly to the reliability of the structural

system during its design working life.

Fig. 25. Poincar maps of the dependence of the displacement and velocity of the midpoint of the cable in the longitudinal direction for (a) the measured and (b) simulated

wind turbulence at initial state s

0

and the simulated dependences at times (c) s

1

= 3.8 min and (d) s

2

= 3801.6 min after relaxation (the time axes are cycled at half periods

T

2

(s

0

), T

2

(s

1

) and T

2

(s

2

) with frequencies of 3.42 Hz, 2.82 Hz and 2.04 Hz (T

2

(s

0

) = 1/3.42 = 0.29 s = 0.5T

1

(s

0

) and analogously for the other periods T

2

(s

1

) = 0.5T

1

(s

1

) and

T

2

(s

2

) = 0.5T

1

(s

2

)), which correspond to the rst natural double frequencies f

1

(s

0

), f

1

(s

1

) and f

1

(s

2

) of the cable vibration at the initial state (at time s

0

) and at the times

s

1

= 3.8 min and s

2

= 3801.6 min after relaxation, respectively).

16 M. Tomko et al. / Advances in Engineering Software xxx (2013) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Tomko M et al. Vibrations of an aramid anchor cable subjected to turbulent wind. Adv Eng Softw (2013), http://

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

Vibrations of aramid anchor cables, their stresses and deforma-

tions can be signicantly inuenced by time-dependent processes

such as creep and relaxation. Since the stresses in the anchor cables

in service conditions are limited to approximately 45% of their ulti-

mate tensile strengths (UTS) the effect of the relaxation phenome-

non can be reduced. The considerable relaxation effects occur for

stresses higher than 50% of UTS. In these cases, the dynamic re-

sponse along the lifespan of the structure should be evaluated by

taking time dependent effects into account. However, time effects

always introduce a signicant redistribution of forces from the an-

chor cables to the main structure (tower).

The relaxation effect produces important nonlinear redistribu-

tions of anchor cable forces and displacements as well as introduc-

ing additional deformations to the main system. The nonlinear

dynamic analysis of the aramid cable evidenced, in particular, the

sensitivity of the structure to relaxation effects.

If proper attention is not devoted to these effects, structural

reliability in terms of serviceability and, in some instances, of ulti-

mate safety may be adversely affected. An appropriate evaluation

of such effects for designing durable and safe structures requires

the establishment of reliable methods for predicting stress relax-

ations of cables (a material properties problem), and for determin-

ing the consequent time-dependent response of cable structures

with an adequate degree of accuracy (a structural analysis prob-

lem). The proposed approach can be used for these purposes since

it provides time-dependent control of the dynamic behaviour of

the polymer cable structures. The procedure provides the designer

with effective ways of guiding the evolution of the dynamic system

by an appropriate and rational choice of its initial parameters.

Further investigations, aimed at a deeper comprehension of the

nonlinear dynamic response of wind-excited aramid cables, should

consider a uidsolid coupled simulation of the cable interaction

with an environment under the turbulent wind eld and represent

a future task for the authors.

Acknowledgements

This work is part of Research Projects No. 1/0321/12 and No.

APVV-0179-10, partially founded by the Scientic Grant Agency

and The Slovak Research and Development Agency of the Ministry

of Education, Science, Research and Sport of Slovak Republic and

the Slovak Academy of Sciences. The present research has been car-

ried out within the project Centre of excellent integrated research

for progressive building structures, materials and technologies,

supported by European Union Structural funds. Special thanks be-

longs to the staff of the Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology

from Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic for providing

the measured wind records.

Appendix A. The Newmark method

The Newmark method uses nite difference expansions in the

time interval Dt = t

n+1

t

n

, in which it is assumed that

f _ w

n1

g f _ w

n

g 1 df w

n

g df w

n1

gDt A:1

fw

n1

g fw

n

g Dtf _ w

n

g

1

2

a

_ _

f w

n

g af w

n1

g

_ _

Dt

2

A:2

where a = 0.25(1 + c)

2

and d = 0.5 + c are the Newmark integration

parameters and c is the amplitude decay factor. The Newmark

method becomes the constant average acceleration method when

c = 0 which consequently in turns means a = 0.25 and d = 0.5. Re-

sults from the constant acceleration method do not show any

numerical damping in terms of displacement amplitude errors. If

other sources of damping are not present (an anchor cable without

damping devices) the lack of numerical damping can be undesirable

in that the higher frequencies of the cable structure can produce

unacceptable levels of numerical noise. A certain level of numerical

damping is usually desirable and is achieved by degrading the New-

mark approximation by setting c > 0. In order to obtain a stable

solution, the length of the time step Dt = 0.01 s was selected.

In particular, it is desirable to have controllable numerical

damping in the higher frequency modes, since using nite

elements to discretize the spatial domain results of these higher

frequency modes are less accurate. However, the addition of high

frequency numerical damping should not incur a loss of accuracy

nor introduce excessive numerical damping in important low

frequency modes. In the full transient analysis, the HHT time inte-

gration method has the desired property for the numerical damp-

ing. The basic form of the HHT method is given by

Mf w

n1am

g Cf _ w

n1a

f

g K

T

fw

n1a

f

g fF

appl

n1a

f

g A:3

where a

m

and a

f

are the two extra integration parameters for the

interpolation of the acceleration and the displacement, velocity

and loads.

Introducing the Newmark assumption as given in Eqs. (A.1) and

(A.2) into Eq. (A.3), the displacement {w

n+1

} at time step n + 1 can

be obtained as

a

0

M a

1

C 1 a

f

K

T

fw

n1

g

1 a

f

fF

appl

n1

g a

f

fF

appl

n

g a

f

fF

int

n

g Ma

0

fw

n

g

a

2

f _ w

n

g a

3

f w

n

g Ca

1

fw

n

g a

4

f _ w

n

g a

5

f w

n

g A:4

where a

0

, a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

and a

5

are the coefcients that depend on the

four parameters a, d, a

f

and a

m

used in the HHT method. These

parameters are related to the input as follows: a = 0.25(1 + c)

2

,

d = 0.5 + c, a

f

= c and a

m

= 0. Numerical damping stabilizes the

numerical integration scheme by damping out the unwanted high

frequency modes. For the Newmark method, numerical damping

also affects the lower modes and reduces the accuracy of the

integration scheme from second order to rst order. For the HHT

method, numerical damping affects only the higher modes and

always maintains second-order accuracy.

For the nonlinear vibration analysis of cables, it is often difcult

to accurately determine the appropriate value of numerical

damping. With very small damping values, numerical instability

appeared in the computation and the dominant frequency of

oscillation of the anchor cable was 13.3 Hz.

With regard to the nature of the load and the natural frequency

of the cable, it was assumed that the dominant frequency of the

vibration response will be the rst natural frequencies of the cable.

For this reason, the numerical value of damping in the analysis was

set to c = 0.025. This value ensured the reduction of vibrations in

the unstable area of the cable. The dominant frequency became

the rst natural frequency and the higher frequencies appeared

in a negligible measure.

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dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.08.004

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