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N A S A CONTRACTOR

REPORT
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-LOAN COPY: RETURN T O AFWL TECHNICAL LrSRARY

KIRTLAND AFB, N. M.

PREDICTION OF SPANLOADING OF STRAIGHT-WING/PROPELLER COMBINATIONS UP TO STALL


M . A. McVeigh, L . Gmy, and E. Kisielowski
Prepared by UNITED TECHNOLOGY, INC. Blue Bell, Pa. 19422
f o r LangleyResearchCenter
. I

. .

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

WASHINGTON, D. C.

0 ,

OCTOBER '1975 . .

17

TECH LIBRARY KAFB. ~. N M


~~

'1.

Report No.

2. Govcmnwnt Accession No.

4. Title andSubtitle

NASA CR-2602 Prediction of span loading of straight-wing/propeller combinations up to stall M A . McVeigh L. Gray E . Kisielowski

October IY13

llnlllmlHlllrlrrnlll~~~~ ObbLSLL

6. Performing organization Coda 8. Performing Organization Report No.

7. A u t h o M

UTR-004
10. Work Unit No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

r12:
.__."

, Inc United Techhology 1777 Walton Road Blue Beil, Pa. 19422
SponsoringAgencyNameandAddress

11.Contract or Grant

No.

NAS1-12238
13. Type of Report andPeriod Covered

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 20546 Washington, D.C.


I

14. SponsoringAgency code

15.

technical representatives were Mr. Robert T . Taylor and M r . Louis P. Tosti. The contributions of the NASA technical personnel to this work are gratefully acknowledged.
NotesThe NAG

16. Abstract

distribution on straight-wing/propeller combinations. The method combines a modified form of the Prandtl wing theory with a real representation of the propeller slipstream distribution. The slipstream analysis permits calculations of the non-uniform axial and rotational slipstream velocity field propeller/nacelle-combinations. of This non-uniform field is then used to calculate the wing lift distribution by means of the modified Prandtl wing theory. The method utilizes non-linear aerodynamic section data for both the wing.and the propeller blade airfoil sections and is of applicable up to stall. The theory is developed for any number non-overlapping propellers, on a wing with partial or full-span fla and is applicable throughout the aspect ratio range from 2.0 and hi The analysis is programmed for use onCDC the 6600 series to calculate digital computer. The computer program is used slipstream characteristics and wing span load distributions for a number of configurations for which experimental data are available. Favorable comparisons are demonstrated between the theoretical predictions and the existing data.

17. Key Words (Suggested

by Author(s)I

18.DistributionStatement

ibution

Propeller Angle Wing Aircraft I Stall


1
.
.. - . . .

Load Twist Taper

distribution of attack ratio


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S U M M A R Y

A method is presented for calculating the spanwise lift distribution on straight-wing/propeller combinations. The method combines a modified form of the Prandtlwing .theory with a realistic representation of the propeller slipstream distribution. The slipstream analysis pennits calculations of the non-uniform axial and rotational slipstream velocity field of propeller/nacelle combinations. This non-uniform field is then used to calculate the wing lift distribution by means ofthe modified Prandtl wingtheory.

The method utilizes non-linear aerodynamic section data for both the wingand the propeller blade airfoil sections and is applicable up to stall. The theory is developed for any number of non-overlapping propellers, on a wing with partial or full-span flaps, and is applicable throughout the aspect ratiorange from 2 .O and higher

The analysis is programmed for use on the CDC 6600 series digital computer. The computer program is used to calculate slipstream characteristics and wing span load distributions for a number of configurations for which experimental data are available. Favorable comparisons are demonstrated between the theoretical predictionsand the existing data.

iii

CONTENTS

SUMMARY................................

Paqe iii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

.................

viii

SECTION 1

INTRODUCTION...........................

1
3

SECTION 2
2.1 2.2 2.3

3 4 6
TiIEORETICAL ANALYSIS...................

SECTION 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 ,' 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 SECTION 4

8 8

PROPELLER SLIPSTREAM ANALYSIS. General Propeller Solution............. I n i t i a l Calculation oI fn f l o w Angle.... Convergence of the I t e r a t i v e P r o p e l l e r S o l u t i o n . . . . o . . . . o . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slipstream V e l o c i t y A n a l y s i sf o r Distributions

.........

8 13

15
18 21

.........................

WING-IN-SLIPSTREAM ANALYSIS. A n a l y s i sf o r a Wing W i t h noFlaps Deflected Flaps...... 21 o r W i t h Full-Span A n a l y s i s f o r a Wing With Part-Span Deflected F l a p s . . ~ . . . . . . . . . Extensionof. the Wing Analysis t o Small Aspe'ct Ratios....................

. , .

29 39 42

DIGITAL COMPUmR PROGRAM...............

4.1 PROPEZLER SLIP-S'I'REAM COMPUTATIONS. 4 . 1 . 1C o m p u t a t i o n a lP r o c e d u r e sf o rP r o p e l l e r S l i p s t r e a mV e l o c i t yD i s t r i b u t i o n s

.... .....

42 42

.%
,

4.x.2
4.1.3

-. .. .
1

Propeller: B l a d e Section C h a r a c t e r istics......................... Table Look-Up Procedures f o r Propeller A i r f o i l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . .


- ..

......
.... .

48 52 54 54

4.2
,..

4'.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4 . 2 . 4

WING-IN-SLIPSTREAM COMPUTATIONS. C o m p u t a t i o n a l Pracedures f o r Spanw i s e Loading on a Wing With no Flaps o r w i t h Full-Span D e f l e c t e d Flaps.. C o m p u t a t i o n a l Procedures f o r Spanw i s e Loading on a Wing With P a r t Span D e f l e c t e d Flaps

Wing Section Characteristics........ T a b l eL o o k - U p Procedures f o r Wing Section Characteristics.............

................

57
61 61

4.3

DESCRIPTIONOF THE: COMPUTER PROGRAM LOGIC............................... SAMPLE OUTPUT....................... VERIFICATION O F THE DEVELOPED THEORY CORRELATIONS EQR AN ISOLATED PROPELLER........................'...
!

61 65 68

4 . 4
SECTION 5

5.1

68

5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5


SECTION 6 SECTION 7

CORFSLATIONS FOR WING-IN-SLIPSTREAM C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Low A s p e c t R a t i o

77
\

Wings
C o r r e l a t i o n ?or C e n & 3 r a l l y - M o u n t e d Propellers and Jets................. C o r r e l a t i o n f o r Twin Propeller Configurations Effect of Propeller R o t a t i o n . . . . . . . . Effect of Flap Deflection..

78 80 84 88 96 98 99

...................... ......... CONCLUSIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS.. ...


REFERENCES..........................

vi

APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D

PROPELLER T I P LOSS CORRECTION TABLES PROPELLER AIRFOIL TABLES............ PROGRAM USER INSTRUCTI0,NS.

104
108

..

121 146

INTERNAL LISTING O F THE COMPUTER PROGfZIIM.............................

V i i

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Paqe Figure 1 Notation f o r a Propeller Operating i n the Presence of a Wing
Blade

2
3 4

......... Element Velocity Diagram ....

12

A n a l y t i c a l Model f o r S l i p s t r e a m Contraction....................... N o t a t i o n f o r Wing-In-Slipstream Model.............................


Mathematical R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Flap Discontinuity

20
24
30

5
6
7

................
....

Method f o r S u p e r p o s i t i o n of Solutions......................... Computer Program

35

Flow Diagram.

62 64

8
9

LogicDiagramforPropellerSlipstream Subroutine................. C o r r e l a t i o n Between P r e d i c t e d a n d MeasuredElementalThrustandTorque Loadings a t 75 Percent Radius..... 69 C o r r e l a t i o n Between P r e d i c t e d and MeasuredElemental T h r u s t andTorque Loadings a t 52 Percent Radius..... C o r r e l a t i o n Between P r e d i c t e d and MeasuredElementalTnrustandTorque Loadings a t 25 Percent Radius..... ComparisonBetween P r e d i c t e d and M s a s u r e dD i s t r i b u t i o n so fS l i p s t r e a m AxialVelocityand Swirl Angle f o r t h e P-2 P r o p e l l e r o f R e f e r e n c e 17, at J = 0 . 1 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

70

11

71

12

73

viii

, .

Paqe F i g u r e 13 ComparisonBetween P r e d i c t e d a n d Measured D i s t t i b u t i o n s . of Slipstream AxialVe.locityand Swirl Angle f o r t h e P-1 Propeller of Reference 17, a t J = 0.26..
..
,

......................

74

14

Comparison Between P r e d i c t e d a n d Measured D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f S l i p s t r e a m Swirl Angle f o r T y p i c a l Test Conditions of Reference 4 2 . . . . . . . . " V e r i f i c a t i o n of Low Aspect R a t i o ~ a l y s i s

76

15

..........................

79

16

ComparisonBetween P r e d i c t e d Spanw i s e Loadingand.Measurementsof Reference 6 f o r a Rectangular Wing With End P l a t e s Subjected t o a Uniform J e t ; Vs/Vo = 1.36......... PredictedVersusMeasuredSpanwise L o a d i n g sf o r the Rectangular Wing of Reference 29 With a C e n t r a l l y Mounted P r o p e l l e r ; AR = 6......... P r e d i c t e d V e r s u s MeasuredSpanwise L o a d i n g sf o r the Rectangular Wing of Reference 29 With a C e n t r a l l y Mounted P r o p e l l e r ; AR = 3..
P r e d i c t e d VersusMeasuredS,panwise Loadings f o r theTwin-Propeller C o n f i g u r a t i o no fR e f e r e n c e 42; AR = 3-01 C T s = o.................

81

17

02

la

.......

83

19

85

20

PredictedVersusMeasured S,panwise LoadingsfortheTwin-Propeller ConfigurationofReference 42; AR = 3.0, C T ~ = 0.36, p 75 = 25O.. Predicted Versus Measured Spanwise Loadings f o r the Twin-Propeller C o n f i g u r a t i o no fR e f e r e n c e 42; AR = 3.0, C T = 0.64, p75 = 25O.o
S

86

21

87

ix

Paqe F i g u r e 22 PredictedVersusMeasuredSpanwise Loadings f o r the Twin-Propeller C o n f i g u r a t i o n of Reference 44; AR = 4.7, c = o................. TS Predicted Versus Measured Spanwise Loadings f o r the Twin-Propeller C o n f i g u r a t i o n of Reference44; AR = 3.26-, C = O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TS

89

23

90

24

PredictedVersusMeasuredSpanwise L o a d i n g sf o r the Twin-Propeller ConfigurationofReference44; AR = 2 . 2 8 , C = O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


TS

91

25

PredictedVersusMeasuredSpanwise Loadings f o r theTwin-Propeller ConfigurationofReference44; AR = 4-07, CT = 0.4...............


S
P r e d i c t e d VersusMeasuredSpanwise

92

24

Loadings f o r theTwin-Propeller ConfigurationofReference44: AR = 3.26, C T = ~ 0.4.............. 93 27


P r e d i c t e d VersusMeasuredSpanwise L o a d i n g sf o r the Twin-Propeller

ConfigurationofReference44;

AR = 2.28, CTs = 0.4..............


28
E f f e c t of P r o p e l l e r R o t a t i o n on Span L o a d i n gf o r the C o n f i g u r a t i o n

94

ofReference42; AR = 3.0, C T = ~ 0.64, 0 = 10 Degrees. 29


P r e d i c t e d SpanwiseLoadings

.......
forthe

95

Twin-Propeller Configuration of Reference44 t o Show the E f f e c t of Flap D e f l e c t i o n ; AR = 4.7, Q = 10 Degrees...

........................

97

30

Assembly of ComputerProgram Data Card Deck.................... 123

Input

LIST OF TABLES

. .

Paqe
49

Table
-

I
I1
.

Typical.Propeller Blade Sections

..

Summary .of Propeller Airfoil Sections Tabulated for use in the Computer P r o g r a m . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.....

51
66

I11 IV V

Sample'Output for Lift. Distribution on a Wing-In-Slipstre a m . . . . . . . . . . . Sample Output. for Propeller Velocity D i s t r i b u t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . Card Format for Wing Section Airfoil T a b l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

130

xi

L I S T O F . SYMBOLS

AR

wing aspect ratio


. .

lift curve slope for finite aspectratio,


. .

perdegree

speed of sound, m/sec section lift curve slope, per degree

number of blades per

propeller

B ,
b
CD

coefficients in trigonometric series wing span, m total wing drag coefficient section total drag coefficient

cd
CL
C1
CQ

wing lift coefficient

section lift coefficient propeller torque coefficient, Q/,n2 D5 propeller thrust coefficient, T/pn2 D4 propeller thrust coefficient, T/qs
T

CT

R2

wing local chord, m wing root chord,m

CR
D

propeller tip diameter, m edge velocity factor

E F

propeller tip loss factor inclination of the propeller axis to the fuselage centerline, degrees

xii

J 1

propeller advance ratio, Vo/ nD wing section lift, per unit span, N freesteam Mach number, V d a s local Mach number for propeller blade element, V/as rotational speed, rev/sec propeller shaft torque, Nom.
,

4 3
4 7

n
Q

qs

average slipstream dynamic pressure, N/m2 propeller tip radius, D/2, m Reynolds number local radius in propeller disk plane, m local radius in slipstream, m propeller thrust, N axial component of velocity induced by a blade element in the propeller disk plane, m/sec. local velocity, m/sec. component of freestream velocity along the propeller axis, m/sec. component of local slipstream velocity normal to the zero-lift line, m/sec. freestream velocity, m/sec. component of local slipstream velocity parallel to zero-lift line, m/sec. the

R
Re

r
rS
T
u
V

Va Vn

vo
VS

axial component of local velocity in the fully-developed slipstream, m/sec.

XiiP

, _

St
.

momentum-we&gh,ted . . mean . . . a x i a,.l - >veloci$y in,,the fully-:. d e v e l o p e ds l i p s . t r e a m , m/sec. . . . . ~. - . .. . - .. . . .: . ._ . ._ . . ., ... .. . t a n g e n t i a l component of locai.. in, the f u l l y . .veloci.ty . d e v e l o p e ds l i p s t r e a m , m/sec.
,

:
~

. .

... . ,
~

. ~ I, . ;
i

vW

upwash v e l o c i t y component a c t i n g i n the p r o p e l l e r d i s k p l a n e . due . t o , t h. e. .. , .p r e s e n c e , . o f . : a l i f t i n g . w i nm/se,c,.j; g,

Y Y*

s p a n w i s ec o - o r d i n a t eo fl o c a lw i n ge l e m e n t , spanwise co-ordinate of l a p spanwise co-ordiante

m
. .

end, ,m

yP
Q

of p r o p e l l e r . a x i s , . m,,

a n g l e o f attack r e l a t i v e . to. a i r f o i l s e c t i o n chordl i n e ,d e g r e e s


_.
. .,
.

a t 3

a n g l e of attack r e 1 a t i v e t of u s e l a g ec e n t e r l i n e , degrees . . ..
. I

corrected s e c t i o n a n g l e o f
.
.I

a t t a c k , deg-rees
,
. I

. .. . . : .,_
l L ,

effective angle of geometricangleof

a t t a c k ofwing

sectbn, degrees

a t t a c k o f w.ing s e c t i o n , d e g r e e s

inducedangleofattack

.ofwing

section,degrees
a t zero lift,
. ..

a n g l e of a t t a c k o f a i r f o i l s e c t i o n degrees

..

. 2

s e c t i o na n g l e 0.f a t t a c k fortwo-dimensional f o i l , degrees . . . . .

air-

p r o p e l l e r a x i s a n g l e o f , a t t a c k , d e g ~. rees

x iv

g e o m e t r i ca n g l e inclination of path, d e g r e e s

of a t t a c ko f . w i n gr o o t ,d e g r e e s
the slipstream a x i s to t h e f l i g h t

-.

pitch a n g l e f o r p r o p e l l e r b l a d e e l e m e n t , d e g r e e s

multiplierforinducedangleofattack,degrees magnitudeofdiscontinuityinabsoluteandinduced a n g l e s of a t t a c k , d e g r e e s g e o m e t r i c t w i s t a t a n yw i n gs e c t i o n ,d e g r e e s circulation about any wing section, wing t a p e r r a t i o blade speed ratio for propeller
blade t i p speed r a t i o
blade element

m2/sec.

kinematicviscosity,

m2/sec.

inflowangleforpropellerbladeelement,degrees
blade e l e m e n t , e x c l u d i n g inflow angle for propeller c o n t r i b u t i o n f r o mi n d u c e dv e l o c i t yi n disk plane, degrees

ambient density

, kg/m3
blade element
COS"(

solidity for propeller wingspanwisecoordinate, s p a n w i s ec o - o r d i n a t ef o r r o t a t i o n as l p e e d2 , an

2y/b)

f l a p end , cos" ( y l b ) radians/sec.

by a blade element behind a n g u l a rv e l o c i t yi n d u c e d the p r o p e l l e r d i s k p l a n e , r a d i a n s / s e c . factor t o a c c o u n t f o r low aspect r a t i o e f f e c t s

xv

P R E D I C T I O N OF SPAN LOADING O F STRAIGHT-WING/PROPELLER COMBINATIONS UP To STALL

M . A.

McVeigh, L. Gray, and


UNITED TECHNOLOGY, SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION

E. K i s i e l o w s k i
INC

The p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m e x e r t s a n i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e onwingloaddistribution,whichinturnaffectsthe.aircraft s t a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .T h i se f f e c t i s introduced through an i n c r e a s ei nl o c a lv e l o c i t yo v e rt h es l i p s t r e a m - i m m e r s e d p o r t i o n o f t h e wingand a changeofwing local angle of attack due t o s l i p s t r e a m r o t a t i o n . While t h ei n c r e a s e dv e l o c i t y tends to stabilize the flowover t h a t wing p o r t i o n , t h e s l i p s t r e a m r o t a t i o n may g i v e r i s e t o a n a s y m m e t r i c stall conditiondue t o i n c r e a s e d l o c a l a n g l e s o f a t t a c k of the wing s e c t i o n s b e h i n d the up-going p r o p e l l e r b l a d e s , a n d reduced a n g l e s of a t t a c k o f t h e wing s e c t i o n s b e h i n d t h e down-going blades

A reviewoftheavailabletechnical l i t e r a t u r e indicates t h a t there a r e no r e l i a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l o r s e m i - e m p i r i c a l methods which can adequately predict the e f f e c t s of a p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m on t h e s p a n w i s e l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a n e n t i r e wing. Many o f the e x i s t i n g methods a r e s u i t a b l e o n l y f o r computing t o t a l wing forces s i n c e t h e y a r e o f t e n b a s e d on g r o s s s i m p l i fyingassumptions.Thus,forexample,anassumption t h a t the s l i p s t r e a m - i m m e r s e d p o r t i o n s of the wingcan be t r e a t e d a s i s o l a t e dp l a n f o r m sn e g l e c t st h es t r o n gi n f l u e n c eo f the s l i p s t r e a mo na d j a c e n t wing r e g i o n s .O t h e rt h e o r e t i c a lm e t h o d s are g e n e r a l l y classed a s rigorous mathematical approaches which are usually very complex and are frequently not in sufficient agreement with experimental data t o w a r r a n t t h e i r use a s a designtool.Furthermore,mostof the a b o v et h e o r i e su s e l i n e a r l i f t c u r v e s and a s a r e s u l t c a n n o t be expected t o y i e l d satisfactory agreement w i t h t e s t data n e a r wing s t a l l .

the u s e of l i n e a r l i f t c u r v e s removed i n t h e work r e p o r t e d i n Reference 1. This r e f e r e n c ep r e s e n t s a computerized method for predictingspanwiseloaddistributions of s t r a i g h t - w i n g / f u s e l a g ec o m b i n a t i o n s a t a n g l e s of attack up t o stall. This method, which i s based on the P r a n d t l wing o r " l i f t i n g l i n e ' ! t h e o r y a s f o r m u l a t e d by S i v e l l si nR e f e r e n c e 2, p r o v i d e s a r e l i a b l e a n a l y t i c a l tool for p r e d i c t i n g w i n g s t a l l i n g characteristics of g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n t y p e aircraft, but is only a p p l i c a b l e t o power-off f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s , s u c h a s might be e n c o u n t e r e dd u r i n gl a n d i n g .
f d r the wing has b e e ns u c c e s s f u l l y

The l i m - i t a t i o n imposedby

The c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n e x t e n d s the a n a l y s i s o f Reference 1 to p e r m i t c a l c u l a t i o n s of s p a n l o a d i n g a n d s t a l l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under power-on c o n d i t i o n s( e . g . take-off) f o r wings w i t h o r w i t h o u t f l a p s a n d h a v i n g a n y . number o f nono v e r l a p p i n gp r o p e l l e r s . The p r e s e n t method i s basedon employing non-linear airfoil section characteristics 'for both the p r o p e l l e r a n d the wing. The b a s i c a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h of this method i s t o r e t a i n the i n h e r e n t s i m p l i c i t y o f the P r a n d t l wing theory, modify the t h e o r y as r e q u i r e dt oa c c e p t non-uniform slipstream velocities, and effectively combine this modified l i f t i n g l i n e t h e o r y w i t h a realistic propeller theory to form a unified analytical tool.
I

A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s a n a l y t i c a l m e t h o d , t o g e t h e r w i t h the s p e c i a l l y d e v e l o p e d d i g i t a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m i s p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g p a g e s .

SECTION 2

GENERAL REVIEW OF THE ANALYTICAL METHODS

The prime o b j e c t i v e of the c u r r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t i s t o p r o v i d e a . practical a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the l i f t distribution and stalling characteristics ofwings p a r t i a l l y o r t o t a l l y immersed i n a p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m . I:n order t o depict some of the h i g h l i g h t s o f the c u r r e n t work relative to other approaches, this section presents a brief r e v i e w of the e x i s t i n g a n a l y t i c a l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t a t t e m p t s o l u t i o n s of the w i n g / p r o p e l l e r problem
2.1
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The basic l i m i t a t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g r e l i a b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the wing/propeller problem i s r e l a t e ' d t o a lack of complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f l o w f i e l d g e n e r a t e d ''by the w i n g / p r o p e l l e r i n t e r a c t i o nu n d e rp r a c t i c a lo p e r a t i n gc o n d i t i o n s . The problem i s further compounded by the d i f f i c u l t y ok developing realistic analytical representations of this complexflow f i e l d environment so a s t o a c c o u n t f o r the m a j o r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s a c t i n g .on a wing/propellercombination. A c o m p l e t es o l u t i o n t o the problem m u s t t h e r e f o r e a c c o u n t f o r a l l these e f f e c t s , which a s a minimum s h o u l d i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g
(a)
(b)

Local wing angle-of-attackchangesdue t o the mean inclination and rotation of t h e s l i p s t r e a m f l o w .

Non-uniform s , p n w i s ed i s t r i b u t i o no fv e l o c i t yo v e r those p o r t i o n s of the wing w i t h i n the s l i p s t r e a m . Non-uniform v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of v e l o c i t y w i t h i n the slipstream-immersed regions of the wing. Viscous mixing between the s l i p s t r e a ma n d f l o w a l o n g the s l i p s t r e a m b o u n d a r y .

(c)
(d)

freestream

I n viewof the r e a l f l u i d f l o w e f f e c t s involved it i s u n l i k e l y t h a t e v e r y a s p e c t of the problemcan be treated a d e q u a t e l y , u s i n g the established a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the approach has been t o i n t r o d u c e a series of simplifyingassumptionsin order t o a r r i v e a t a s o l u t i o n . These approaches are discussed below.
3

2 . 2

REVIEW O F EXISTING SOLUTIONS

The e a r l i e s t t r e a t m e n t of the p r o p e l l e r slipstream problem i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p i o n e e r i n g work of Koning (Reference 3 ) who treated the, s i m p l i f i e d case of a wing c e n t r a l l y immersed i n a c i r c u l a r u n i n c l i n e d slipstream of uniform a x i a l v e l o c i t yw i t h o y tr o t a t i o n .K o n i n g applied the methods of l i f t i n g l i n e t h e o g y t o o b t a i n a s o l u t i o n when the r a t i o of f r e e stream v e l o c i t y t o slipstream v e l o c i t y i s close t o u n i t y . This work w a s ' e x t e n d e d by G l a u e r t( R e f e r e n c e 4) and by FrankeandWeinig.(Reference 5 ) t o a wider r a n g e of forward speeds.
Stuper(Reference 6 ) conducted a series ofexperiments t o v e r i f y the p r e d i c t i o n s of K o n i n g ' s t h e o r y by measuring the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n o n a r e c t a n g u l a r wing w i t h end p l a t e s u n d e r the a c t i o n of a c i r c u l a r j e t . Stuperused a s p e c i a l l yd e s i g n e d f a n t o produce a j e t w i t h o u t r o t a t i o n a n d w i t h a v e l o c i t y c r o s s - s e c t i o n which w a s approximatelyuniform. While the results of those e x p e r i m e n t s a r e somew3at impaired by the p a r t i c u l a r t e s t arrangementused by S t u p e r , there i s s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t the K o n i n gt h e o r yo v e r - p r e d i c t s the l i f t i n c r e a s ed u e t o t h e j e t . Becauseof the i n a b i l i t y of t h e l i f t i n g l i n e a p p r o a c h , as f o r m u l a t e d by Koning,Glauert et. al., t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y p r e d i c te x p e r i m e n t a lm e a s u r e m e n t s ,s u b s e q u e n ti n v e s t i g a t o r s assumed that the f a i l u r e o f the l i f t i n g - l i n e t h e o r y w a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t the p o r t i o n o f the wingimmersed i n the slipstream w a s u s u a l l yo f small aspect r a t i o . Graham, e t . a l . , (Refereace 7 ) t h e r e f o r e a p p r o a c h e d a s o l u t i o n via s l e n d e r body t h e o r y a n d t h e approximate l i f t i n g s u r f a c e t h e o r y of Weissinger (Reference 8 ) . C a l c u l a t i o n s made by Graham showed improved agreement w i t h Stuper ' s e x p e r i m e n t a l data. Ribnerand E l l i s (Reference 9 ) g e n e r a l i z e d the Weissinger liftingsurfaceformulation t o m u l t i p l e ,u n i n c l i n e d slipstreams. Their r e s u l t s showed r e a s o n a b l e a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l data o b t a i n e db y Brenckmann (Reference 1 0 ) f o r the o v e r a l l l i f t i n c r e a s ed u e t o the p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m .
The t e s t r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by Brenckmann r e p r e s e n t a n improvementover the e x p e r i m e n t a l data o f S t u p e r i n t h a t the former e x p e r i m e n t s u t i l i z e d a n i n f i n i t e aspect r a t i o wing, t h u s a v o i d i n g the u s e of e n d - p l a t e s which i n t r o d u c e u n c e r t a i n -

t i e s as t o the e f f e c t i v e v a l u e of wing aspect r a t i o . Since Brenckmann employed a free p r o p e l l e r y i e l d i n g a non-uniform slipstream v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e , the R i b n e r - E l l i s t h e o r y , which assumes u n i f o r m v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s , w o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o yieldadequatepredictions of the spanwise l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s as compared w i t h Brenckmann' s measurements.

Another s e r i e s of t e s t s of i n t e r e s t are thoseofGobetz (Reference 11) andSnedeker(Reference 1 2 ) who employed a similar experimentalarrangement t o that of S t u p e r , i n t h a t a j e t o f a i r of qpproximately uniform velocity p r o f i l e w a s used t os i m u l a t e the p r o p e l l e r slipstream. These test's w e r e d e s i g n e d t o determine the basic e f f e c t s of both w'ng aspect r a t i o and wing chord/slipstream diameter. The r s u l t s were compared w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s u s i n g the m o d i f i e d lifting-linetheoryof R e t h o r s t (Reference 13) and i t is shown t h a t t h i s t h e o r y i s a t l e a s t capable o f p r e d i c t i n g the t r e n d s of the t e s t d a t a .

Goland, e t . a l . , (Reference 14) formulated a mathematical model based on p o t e n t i a l t h e o r y a p p r o a c h to ppedict overall performance a n d s t a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of small a s p e c t r a t i o wing spanning a s l i p s t r e a mo fu n i f o r mv d l o c i t y .A l t h o u g h t h i s work e f f e c t i v e l y combined t h e R. T. J o n e s small a s p e c t r a t i o t h e o r y w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l f l o w t h e o r y t o y i e l d good c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t e s t d a t a , n o a t t e m p t w a s made t o p r e d i c t and c o r r e l a t e t h e w i n gs p a n w i s el o a dd i s t r i b u t i o n s .T h i s w o r k w a s e x t e n d e di nR e f e r e n c e s 1 5 and 16 t o p r o v i d e e q u a t i o n s and charts f o r e s t i m a t i n g l i f t a n dl o n g i t u d i n a lf o r c e c o e f f i c i e n t s of STOL a i r c r a f t wings immersed i n p r o p e l l e r slipstreams. t' GeorgeandKisielowski(Reference 1 7 ) modified the work of Reference 16 t o a c c o u n t f o r n o n - u n i f o r m i t y o f the prope l l e r s l i p s t r e a m .I n t h i s a n a l y s i s the p r o p e l l e rs l i p s t r e a m v e l o c i t y w a s r e p r e s e n t e d by a number ofconcentriczones of u n i f o r mv e l o c i t y ( s t a i r c a s e f u n c t i o n s ) w i t h the wingspanning the s l i p s t r e a m .A l t h o u g hs a t i s f a c t o r yc o r r e l a t i o n s were obtained between the t h e o r e t i c a l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t data f o r l o w and moderate winganglesof attack , the t h e o r yo f Reference 1 7 d i d n o t a d e q u a t e l y p r e d i c t l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s c l o s e t o the wing s t a l l . I nr e v i e w i n g t h e a b o v e a n a l y t i c a l a t t e m p t s t o s o l v e the wing-slipstreamproblem, it i s a p p a r e n tt h a tn o n eo f these
5

approaches i s s u i t a b l e f o r d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o the p r e s e n t problemofpredicting the e f f e c t s of propeller s l i p s t r e a m on the s t a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t r a i g h t wing a i r p l a n e s . Either the e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l models a r e t o o s i m p l i f i e d a n d d i s r e g a r d e f f e c t s which a r e known t o be c r i t i c a l , (e.g. Reference 6 and 13), o r the a n a l y s e s a r e toocomplexanddo n o t y i e l d p r a c t i c a l and r e l i a b l e s o l u t i o n s ( e . g . R e f e r e n c e 9). T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e e x i s t s a r e q u i r e m e n t t o developanimproved mathematical model c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c a l and r e l i a b l e a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o the wing/propeller problem.
"he a n a l y t i c a l m e t h o d s d e v e l o p e d u n d e r the c u r r e n t p r o g r a m p o t e n t i a l l yr e , p r e s e n ta na n s w e r t o t h i s problem. Although t h i s optimism i s based on a f e w i s o l a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the a v a i l a b l e t e s t data, s u f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the d e v e l o p e d m e t h o d o l o g y h a s a l r e a d y b e e n o b t a i n e d , as confirmed by c o m p a r a t i v e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d l a t e r i n the t e x t . The b a s i s f o r this improved mathematical model i s described be low.

2.3

BAS1 S F O R THE PRESENT ANALYSIS

A commm approach of p a s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n v o l v e s a n i d e a l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m i n which the v e l o c i t y i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s a c r o s s the s l i p s t r e a m boundary. This model g e n e r a l l yr e q u i r e sc o m p l e xs o l u t i o n st o the b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i s c o n t i n u i t y ,

The basis o f the c u r r e n t a n a l y s i s l i e s i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i n a r e a l s l i p s t r e a m the v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n r e m a i n s c o n t i n u o u s t h r o u g h o u t the s l i p s t r e a m b o u n d a r y .


data o b t a i n e d on t h e An examinationofexperimeatal velocitydistributionsin the w a k e so fp r o p e l l e r s shows t h a t there i s no sudden jump i n v e l o c i t y a c r o s s the s l i p s t r e a m boundary. There i s , however, a rapid i n c r e a s ei nv e l o c i t y as the boundary i s c r o s s e d b u t the c o f i t i n u i t y o f v e l o c i t y is s t i l l p r e s e r v e d .S i n c e the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n m u s t be c o n t i n uousand the v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c o n t i n u o u s , . t h e n the associated circulation distribution must also be continuous. T h e r e f o r e , the s t r e n g t h of t h e s h e d v o r t i c i t y may be o b t a i n e d by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g the s p a n w i s e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c i r c u l a t i o n i n the u s u a l m a n n e r , w i t h o u t t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n o f a c c o u n t i n g fordiscontinuitiesincirculation.

The a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d i n the followingpagesutilizes a c o m p r e h e n s i v ep r o p e l l e ra n a l y s i st o compute t h e s l i p s t r e a m f l o wf i e l di n c l u d i n g s w i r l componentsofvelocity. The wingn a c e l l ec o m b i n a t i o n i s t h e n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h i s f l o w f i e l d andtheeffectsofthenon-uniformpropellerflowfield on the wing l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n i s computed u s i n g a m o d i f i c a t ' i o n of lifting line theory w h i c hp e r m i t st h ec a l c u l a t i o n of the l o w a s p e c t r a t i o e f f e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s l i p s t r e a m immersed p o s i t i o n s of t h e wing.

l i n e theoryutilized The v a l i d i t y of t h e s i m p l e l i f t i n g herein for treating wings w i t h non-uniformspanwisevelocity distributions has been verified by a p p l y i n g it t o a problem o fl i n e a r l yv a r y i n gs p a n w i s ev e l o c i t yg r a d i e n t st r e a t e di n a more general and complex manner by Fe j e r i n R e f e r e n c e 18. The implementationof this lifting line theory to practical wing/propellercombinations i s p r e s e n t e di nS e c t i o n s 3 and 4 below.

SECTION 3 THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

This s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a summary of the a n a l y t i c a l methods developed f o r , p r e d i c t i n g the p r o p e l l e r slipstream e f f e c t s on. the spanwise load distribution of w i n g s o p e r a t i n g a t a n g l e s o fa t t a c ku p t o s t a l l . The a n a l y t i c a la , p p r o a c h, p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n i s based upon f i r s t d e t e r m i n i n g the v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e p r o p e l l e r wake a n d t h e n c a l c u l a t i n g i t s e f f e c t on the wing l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n . The a n a l y s i s, p r o v i d e s f o r the u s e of n o n - l i n e a r l i f t c u r v e s f o r both t h e p r o p e l l e r a n d the winq i n ordertorealisticallyrepresentthepropellerslipstream d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d i t s e f f e c t onwingloading a t a n g l e s of a t t a c k u,p t o s t a l l .

Accordingly,the first p a r t o f this sectiondeals w i t h thepropellerSlipstreamcalculations,andthesecond ,part pres e n t s the implementationof the s l i p s t r e a m p a r a m e t e r s i n the m o d i f i e d wing t h e o r y .
. "3 , 1

PROPELLER S L I P S m A M A N A L Y S I S

The f i r s t p a r t o f the a n a l y s i s d e a l s w i t h the p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a mr e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,i n c l u d i n g the r e q u i r e d i t e r a t i v e s o l u t i o na n dc o n v e r g e n c ep r o c e d u r e s .


3 1.1

General

Prope - l. l- e S r olution
" "

Consider a p r o p e l l e r o p e r a t i n g a t a n a n g l e of a t t a c k aP t o t h e remote f r e e s t r e a m o f v e l o c i t y Vo , a s shown i n F i g u r e 1. The presence of a l i f t i n g wingbehind the p r o p e l l e r m o d i f i e s t h e i n f l o w t o t h e p r o p e l l e r d i s k t h r o u g ha ni n d u c e d upwash velocity V , An a n approximation this upwash v e l o c i t y i s assumed t o be uniform across t h e p r o p e l l e r d i s k , a n d to lie w i t h h . t h e d i s kp l a n e . The method used f o rc a l c u l a t i n g t h i s upwash v e l o c i t y i s , p r e s e n t e di nS e c t i o n 4.2.

For the purpose of a n a l y z i n g the wing l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n it i s assumed t h a t t h e s l i p s t r e a m c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s b e i n g f u l l yd e v e l o p e d . W i t h t h i s assumption the a v e r a g ei n c l i n a t i o n o f the c o n t r a c t e d s l i p s t r e a m c a n be r e a d i l y c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g


8

s i m p l ea c t u a t o r d i s k t h e o r y( e . 9 ,R e f e r e n c e n o t a t i o no fF i g u r e 1, i s o b t a i n e d from

1 9 ) a n d ,i n

the

where u i s the a x i a li n d u c e dv e l o c i t yi n c r e m e n t a t the p r o p e l l e r d i s k . From momentum t h e o r y , u i s r e l a t e dt o propellerthrust, T , by

where VI i s the r e s u l t a n t v e l o c i t y a t

the d i s k and i s givenby

( 2 ) and ( 3 ) a q u a r t i c i n u is On combiningequations obtained and i s g e n e r a l l ys o l v e d by i t e r a t i o n . However, s i n c e the p r e s e n t a p p l i c a t i o n i s t o c o n v e n t i o n a l a i r c r a f t where (I p is s m a l l a n d V , 5 Vo t h i s q u a r t i c may be r e d u c e dt o a q u a d r a t i c whose s o l u t i o n i s

With the abovevalueof

u ,equation

t o y i e l d the mean s l i p s t r e a m i n c l i n a t i o n the freestream.

(1) can be s o l v e d as, r e l a t i v et o

To o b t a i n the d e t a i l e d v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the i n c l i n e d s l i p s t r e a m it i s assumed t h a t , t o a good approximation, this can be o b t a i n e d d i r e c t l y from t h e s o l u t i o n

for an isolated propeller operating in axial flow

a t speed

The c a l c u l a t i o n o f n o n - u n i f o r m s l i p s t r e a m v e l o c i t y

LO

distributions behind a propeller of arbitrary geometry is based upon established blade element-momentum t h e o r y a s p r e s e n t e di nR e f e r e n c e 20. While the s o l u t i o n t o the g e n e r a l t h e o r y i s verycomplex, a r e l a t i v e l y simple and p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n i s o b t a i n e d o n the a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t the rotational energy in the slipstream i s small compared t o the axial energy and t h a t the radial v a r i a t i o n o f s t a t i c p r e s s u r e i n the slipstream c a n b e . n e g l e c t e d . Standard blade element-momentum t h e o r y assumes that the f l o w i s b o t hi n c o m p r e s s i b l ea n di n v i s c i d . Thus the f l o w i n a n n u l a r stream t u b e e l e m e n t s , i s treated i n a n i n d e p e n d e n t manner. For any annular stream t u b ee l e m e n t , the slipstream v e l o c i t i e s are related t o b o t h the i n d u c e d v e l o c i t i e s a t the p r o p e l l e r d i s k and the r a d i u s i n
the f u l l y c o n t r a c t e d

slipstream,

Following the a n a l y s i s of R e f e r e n c e 2 0 , the induced a x i a l and r o t a t i o n a l v e l o c i t y components, u , 1/2wr, a t any r a d i u s , T, i n the propeller d i s k can be o b t a i n e d by a n i t e r a t i v e s o l u t i o n t o the e q u a t i o n s

and

where, fromFigure

2 , the i n f l o w a n g l e ,

+,

i s givenby

and the blade s e c t i o n list a n d d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t s i n terns of a n g l e o f attack, a, g i v e n by

a r e known

a =

p-+

(9)

Figure 2.

Blade Element Velocity

Diagram

12

To a c c o u n t f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t a n d w e l l known loss of l i f t toward the b l a d e t i p e q u a t i o n s ( 6 ) and ( 7 ) a r e r e w r i t t e n i n the f o r m

and

where F i s the t i p - l o s s c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r g i v e n Reference 2 1 and u*, 1/2(w*r) a r e m o d i f i e d v a l u e s o f


v e l o c i t y components.

by Lock i n . the induced

E q u a t i o n s ( 1 0 ) and (11) yield improved v a l u e so f the i n f l o w angle C#I a n ds e c t i o n characteristics C$ and Cd , a s a f f e c t e d by the t i p - l o s s correction factor F These v a l u e s are then used t o o b t a i n 'a b e t t e r approximation for s l i p s t r e a m - i n d u c e d velocity components u and w r / 2 , u s i n ge q u a t i o n s ( 6 ) and ( 7 )

3 . 1 . 2

I n i t i a lC a l c u l a t i o no fI n f l o w

Anqle

The i t e r a t i v e s o l u t i o n f o r the system of e q u a t i o n s ( 8 ) of 4 t h r o u g h (11) r e q u i r e s that a n i n i t i a l a p p r o x i m a t e v a l u e be o b t a i n e d . E q u a t i o n ( 4 ) can be used i f the propeller t o t a l t h r u s t i s known. However, s i n c e the p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t is g e n e r a l l y n o t known i n a d v a n c e , a method t h a t y i e l d s a s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a r t i n gv a l u e f o r $ i s developed as follows:
From F i g u r e 2 the i n f l o w a n g l e

C#I

can be expressed a s

U*

where the r e s u l t a n t i n d u c e d v e l o c i t y i n c r e m e n t to-be normal t o the l o c a l b l a d e v e l o c i t y .


On making the assumption t h a t cd e q u a t i o n (11) can be w r i t t e n as

i s assumed

<, c&' and % * I

13

By s o l v i n g equation (13) f o r u * / a r a n ds u b s t i t u t i n g this v a l u e in equation (12) a ni n i t i a lv a l u ef o r is o b t a i n e d . However, the r i g h t hand side of e q u a t i o n (13) must f i r s t be r e d u c e dt o a tractable form. This i s accomplished by applying the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s :

( a ) A l i n e a r i z e de x p r e s s i o nf o r l i f t c u r v e , g i v e n by

the blade s e c t i o n

cL~ =

oo

( Q -Q.)
Q

(14)

where a 0
Q~

is a representative l i f t slope i s g i v e n by e q u a t i o n ( 9 ) , and i s the a n g l eo f attack a t z e r o l i f t .


V, o b t a i n e df r o mF i g u r e
2 as,

(b)

An e x p r e s s i o nf o r

=Jvc2

+ (slr)2
the t i p loss f a c t o r F
P

( c ) P r a n d t l ' se x p r e s s i o nf o r obtained from Reference 2 1 as


Fp =

7 c o s ' [exp{-+

(,-+)Jqy}]

where B i s the number of blades


Combining e q u a t i o n s ( 1 2 ) through (15) and subs t i t u t i n g f o r the t i p loss f a c t o r , Fp, g i v e n by e q u a t i o n (16) leads t o the f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n :

from which the s o l a t i o n f o r

"*/a, i s obtained

as

14

nr u= 112 [ . ( ~ + x ) 2 + . . ( p - + o - . o )
where

- (z.x)]

VQ

(18)

3.1.3

Convergence of the I t e r a t i v eP r o p e l l e rS o l u t i o n

The i t e r a t i v e s o l u t i o n t o e q u a t i o n s ( 8 ) through (11) i s n a t u r a l l y d i v e r g e n t w i t h i n the normal- range of the b l a d es e c t i o n l i f t curves. Therefore, convergence of the solution must be forced by a p p l y i n g a c o r r e c t i o n t o each new computed v a l u e of #I A c o m e c t i o np r o c e d u r e which yieldsrapidconvergence i s d e r i v e d by the method presented below

L e t the e x a c t solution for inflow angle, expressed a s

$I

, be

where

SI

i s the v a l uu es e d as i n p u t o i s a s m a l l unknown increment.

the

nth

iteration and

I n the g e n e r ailt e r a t i o p nr o c e d u r e , is f i r s t used from which C$ and i ne q u a t i o n ( 9 ) t oo b t a i n a v a l u e of Q Cd may be determined knowing the b l a d e a i r f o i l s e c t i o n characteristics. Next, e q u a t i o n s (10) and (11) are u s e dt os o l v e f o r u * and u * and these v a l u e s a r e t h e ns u b s t i t u t e di n e q u a t i o n ( 8 ) t o o b t a i n a new v a l u e of i n f l o w a n g l e , d e n o t e d by +I1 I t i s this new v a l u e of i n f l o wa n g l e w h i c h must be c o r r e c t e db e f o r ep r o c e e d i n gt o the n + l t h iteration.

m e r e f o r e , l e t the exact s o l u t i o n f o r i n f l o wa n g l e , also be expressed as

$I

15

where

82 i s

a second small unknown increment.

Combining e q u a t i o n s (19) a n d( 2 0 ) ,t oe l i m i n a t e yields

S u b s t i t u t i n ge q u a t i o n

( 2 1 ) i n t oe q u a t i o n

(19), there f o l l o w s :

Equation ( 2 2 ) forms the basis o f a method f o r c a l c u l a t i n g animprovedvalueofinflowangleforinputto the n e x t i t e r a t i o n c y c l e by u s i n g the g u e s s e d a n d c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e s f r o m the p r e v i o u sc y c l e . The r a t i o , 82/81, r e m a i n s to be determined fromanapproximateerroranalysisin the f o l l o w i n g manner: From e q u a t i o n ( 2 0 ) the v a l u e of t o first o r d e r in S2 by
tan

i s expressed

From e q u a t i o n s ( 9 ) a n d , 419) the exact s o l u t i o n f o r blade l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t , - "Cd , i s e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f the v a l u e C& c a l c u l a t e di n

the

nth

iteration cycle

from

where

a,

i s a mean v a l u e of l i f t - c u r v es l o p e

.
the exact

Equation (10) w r i t t e n i n

terms of v a l u e s f o r

16

solutionbutwith

the assumption t h a t

cd

< - c.l

r e d u c e s to

S u b s t i t u t i n g e q u a t i o n s (19) aril ( 2 4 ) i n t o e q u a t i o n (25) , a n d retaining only f i r s t o r d e r terms i n 8, , there f 01lows :

where

andwheresmallchanges

i n the t i p loss f a c t o r a r e n e g l e c t e d .
(11) r e d u c e st o

S i m i l a r l y ,e q u a t i o n

ky = k :

I -

8,

(s $91
+ cot
( 2 5 ) a n d ( 2 7 ) , e q u a t i o n ( 8 ) can be

where

Now, u s i n ge q u a t i o n s expressed a s
tan

=p

(1

+ kx) +

ky

where

i s the l o c a l f o r w a r s dp e e r da t i o
. .

(Va/nr)

.
I I

R e w r i t i n ge q u a t i o n ( 2 9 ) i n terms of the v a l u e s k,,ky calculated in the nth iteration cycle yields


I

tan # ' I =

p (I

) : k

I + ky

Combining equations relationship

( 2 9 ) a n d( 3 0 )l e a d st o

the f o l l o w i n g

F i n a l l yu s i n ge q u a t i o n s( 2 3 ) , ( 2 6 ), ( 2 8 )a n d (31) a solution f o r the r a t i o 8,/8, i s o b t a i n e d a s f o l l o w s :

Equation ( 3 2 ) t h u sp r o v i d e s the e s s e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p by which e q u a t i o n ( 2 2 ) i s a p p l i e d t o o b t a i n a n i m p r o v e d v a l u e of i n f l o wa n g l ef o ri n p u tt o the n e x ti t e r a t i o nc y c l e .I n practice,theiterationprocedure i s t e r m i n a t e d when the difference. for e a c h s u c c e s s i v e i t e r a t i o n c y c l e h a s convergedtowithin a prescribedmarginof error.

(r$'-#)

3.1.4

Analysis f o rS l i p s t r e~a mV e l o c i t yD i s t r i b u t i o n s
~ ~ ~~

" "

Upon r e a c h i n g a c o n v e r g e d s o l u t i o n f o r the i n f l o w a n g l e , t h e f i n av l alues of (#I , CIQ and cd a r e t h e n subs t i t u t e di ne q u a t i o n ( 6 ) and ( 7 ) t o 'solve f o r t h e t r u e i n duced v e l o c i t y c o m p o n e n t s i n the propeller disk plane,^ and 1/2 w r

The l o c a l a x i a l v e l o c i t y component VSa i n the f u l l y d e v e l o p e ds l i p s t r e a m i s o b t a i n e df r o mF i g u r e 1 as

vo
Vsa =

COS

ap

+ 2u

(33)

18

The l o c a l r o t a t i o n a l v e l o c i t y component, Vst, i n the f u l l y d e v e l o p e d slipstream i s o b t a i n e d f r o m c o n s e r v a t i o n o f a n g u l a r momentum and i s given by


vst

wr

(+-)

(34)

where r s i s the l o c a l r a d i u s i n the s l i p s t r e a mf o r the streamtube e l e m e n t which has a local r a d i u s r i n the propeller d i s k p l a n e . The l o c a l r a d i u s rs f o r each f l o we l e m e n ti n the s l i p s t r e a m i s d e r i v e d from a s i m p l i f i e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f the c o n t i n u i t ye x p r e s s i o nt os u c c e s s i v es t r e a m t u b ee l e m e n t s . For the nth blade e l e m e ns ttation a t r a d i u s rn the corresponding radius rsn i n the s l i p s t r e a m i s g i v e n by

where, i n the n o t a t i oo n .F f igure 3, rl values ofhubandnacelleradius,res,pctively.


, '

and

r ~ l are the

The v a l u e of rsn g i v e n by e q u a t i o n (35) i s based upon r e p r e s e n t i n g the s l i p s t r e a m bya series of c o n c e n t r i c a n n u l a r s t r e a m t u b e s w i t h uniform velocity between each element station. This s o l u t i o n , while approximate, i s found t o be more t h a n a d e q u a t e f o r a l l r e a s o n a b l ev a r i a t i o n sb e t w e e n u r l and Un

19

Rl

'\

! i
r

E k
k

-t

~-

Propeller and Nacelle Axis

Figure 3 .

Analytical Model For Slipstream Contraction.

3.2 . "

"

WING-IN-SLIPSTREAM - ANALYSIS

I n the s e c o n d p a r t of t h e a n a l y s i s a m o d i f i e d form of l i f t i n g l i n e t h e o r y i s p r e s e n t e d w h i c h u s e s the nonuniform slipstreamvelocitydistribution,asdetermined above, t o c a l c u l a t e the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n on wings w i t h p r o p e l l e r s . The approadh p r e s e n t e d r e l i e s on the u s e of a simple p h y s i c a l model to o b t a i n a s o l u t i o n f o r wing-in-slipstream l o a d i n g s f o r a wide range of real a i r c r a f t p r o p e l l e r - w i n g combinations. F i r s t the method is ,presented for an unflapped wing immersed i no n e o r more non-overlapping slipstreams. Followi n g t h i s , the m o d i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o i n c l u d e f l a p s a r e d e s c r i b e d .F i n a l l y ,a ne x t e n s i o n of the a n a l y s i s t o i n c l u d e l o w a s p e c t - r a t i op r o p e l l e r - w i n gc o m b i n a t i o n s i s discussed.
3.2.1

A n a l y s i sf o r a Winq w i t h no Flaps or w i t h Full-Span Deflected Flaps

Consider the basic case of a wing i n a uniform stream of v e l o c i t y , vo I f the l o c a c l irculation is r o , t h e n the spanloaddistribution a t anyspanwisestation i s g i v e n by

90 = P vo

ro

The s u p e r p o s i t i o n of a p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m f l o w g i v e s rise t oa ni n c r e a s e dl o c a lv e l o c i t y vd a n da ni n c r e a s e dc i r c u l a t i o n , which can be expressed, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a s

r;

vi =

vo

-t

nv

(37)

where n V and A r a r e t h e i n c r e m e n t a lc h a n g e si n local v e l o c i t ya n dc i r c u l a t i o n ,r e s p e c t i v e l y ,d u e t o p r o p e l l e r slipstrew. Now the c o r r e s p o n d i n gs p a n w i s el o a dd i s t r i b u t i o n for the b a s i c wingimmersed i n the p r o p e l l e r slipstream can be w r i t t e n as

1=

v,'

rsl

(39)

21

S u b s t i t u t i n ge q u a t i o n s( 3 7 )a n d( 3 8 )i n t oe q u a t i o n. ( 3 9 ) . . y i e l d s a g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i o n f o r the spanwise load d i s t r i b u t i o n of a wing immersed i n the p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m , a s follows:

:
,

-.
,

where E Ar i s the change i n wing c i r c u l a t i o n due . t o . p r o p e l l e r slipstream a l o n e .

r 2

I t can be n o t e d from e q u a t i o n ( 4 0 ) t h a t the f i r s t com. ponent dl o f the t o t a l l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t h a t which would . be o b t a i n e d i f t h e l o c a l v e l o c i t y i n c r e a s e d while the c i r culation ro remained unchanged. If the c i r c u l a t i o n i s unchanged,then there i s no change i n t h e t r a i l i n g v o r t i c i t y ' a n dt h e r e f o r en oc h a n g ei n the wing downwash f i e l d . The second term r e p r e s e n t s the change is np a n w i s e l i f t distribution due t o the c i r c u l a t i o n I-2 and i s t h e r e f o r e associated w i t h wing downwash changescausedby the p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m .
,

The problem o f a w i n g immersed i n the p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m i s now reduced t o p r o p e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of l o c a l v a l u e s f o r the r e s u l t a n v t elocity V,' and the c i r c u l a t i o n r2 f o r the e n t i r e wing. This a n a l y s i s i s developed below.

For t y p i c a l p r o p e l l e r / w i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , the r e s u l t a n t local velocity V,' can be e q u a t e d (within the small a n g l e a s s u m p t i o n ) t o t h e combined freestream a n d s l i p s t r e a m componentalong the wing s e c t i o n z e r o - l i f t l i n e , t h u s

v, s=v :

22

Using the n o m e n c l a t u r eo fF i g u r e can be e x p r e s s e d as

4, t h i s v e l o c i t y

component

Also,

the c o r r e s p o n d i n g component o f t h e t o t a l f l o w n o r m a l to the w i n g s e c t i o n z e r o - l i f t l i n e i s g i v e n by

The q u a n t i t i t e s "ha and Vst i n the a b o v e equations represent the a x i a l and s w i r k v e l o c i t y c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e combined f r e e s t r e a n a n d 's l i p s t r e a mf l o ba n d are g i v e n by e q u a t i o n s ( 3 3 ) a n d ( 3 4 ) respectively. AlsD, t h ea n g l e s a s and Q e a r e known q u a n t i t i e s which r e p r e s e n t i n c l i n a t i o n s o f the s l i p s t r e a m a n d t h e z e r o - l i f t l i n e r e l a t i v e t o the r e m o t e f r e e s t r e a m v e l o c i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The e x t r aJ , i n gc i r c u l a t i o n , caused by the a c t i o n o f the p r o p e l l e rs , l i p s t r e a m , i s determined by e q u a t i n g t h e r e s u l t i n gc h a n g e i p wing u,pwash t o the downwash change a s s o c i a t e d with T h i s upwash change, non-dimensional in form, is defined as

r2

S u b s t i t u t i n ge q u a t i o n( 4 3 )i n t oe q u a t i o n( 4 4 )y i e l d s extra dpwashdue to t h e s l i p s t r e a m a s
v = VO sin

the

(as + Qe)

+ - COS

6s

-t

Qe) -sin Qe

(45)

In order to satisfy the wingboundaryconditionof no f l o w t h r o u g h the s u r f a c e , this e x t r a upwash o rc r o s s f l o wm u s t bebalanced by the combined i n f l u e n c e of the e x t r a bound vorticity, l-2 , and the a s s o c i a t e d streamwise ( i . e . chordwise and t r a i l i n g ) v o r t i c i t y , - d r2
dY dY.

23

Figure 4 .

N o t a t i o n for Wing-in-Slipstream

Model

24

Observationofthe l i f t on w i n g s w i t h s l i p s t r e a m s shows t h a t t h e major p o r t i o n of t h e e x t r a l o a d i n g c a u s e d by the slipstream i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on a n d n e a r t h a t p o r t i o n a c t u a l l y immersed i n the s l i p s t r e a m a n d , f o r m o s t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , the " a s p e c t ratio" of this immersed p o r t i o n i s small', u s u a l l ya b o u t 1.0. I t is herein postulated that the distribution of extra v o r t i c i t y c a u s e d by the s l i p s t r e a m e x h i b i t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h a t found on l o w a s p e c t - r a t i ow i n g s . Kuchemann, i nR e f e r e n c e 22, shows that f o r 'low a s p e c t - r a t i o w i n g s o n l y the c h o r d w i s e a n d t r a i l i n g v o r t i c e s are r e q u i r e d t o f u l f i l l the b o u n d a r yc o n d i t i o n s .I n fact, a s the a s p e c t r a t i o t e n d s t o z e r o , the t r a i l i n g v o r t i c e s c a n c e l h a l f the upwash,and t h ec h o r d w i s ev o r t i c e sc a n c e l the remainder. I n the p r e s e n t c a s e , and t h e downwash changedue w i t h the e x t r c ai r c u l a t i o n ,
'the n e t e x t r a

upwash i s Vov to the .trailing vortices associated r2 , i s given b y

- b/2

Y,

- Y

Therefore,from

t h e a b o v ec o n s i d e r a t i o n s

it f o l l o w st h a t

wj2

= 1/2 vov

(471

and hence

23, Equation ( 4 8 ) i s s u p p o r t e d by t h ea n a l y s i so fR e f e r e n c e w h i c hd e a l sw i t h the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the l i f t on a wing p a s s i n g close t o a l i n e v o r t e x . This r e f e r e n c e s t a t e s t h a t l i f t i n g l i n e t h e o r y a l w a y s o v e r e s t i m a t e s the l i f t induced by r a p i d l y changing upwash f i e l d s ( s u c h as f r o m p r o p e l l e r s a n d l i n e v o r t i c e s ) by a f a c t o r of 2 , due t o a c o r r e s p o n d i n gu n d e r e s t i m a t i o no f t h e w i n g downwash.

F o u r i e rs i n e coordinate,

Now, e x p r e s s i n g the c i r c u l a t i o nd i s t r i b u t i o n , r2, a s a s e r i e s i n t e r m s of the wingspanwiseangular

8 = cos"l

(2y)

yields
25

Combining e q u a t i o n s ( 4 8 ) w i t h ( 4 9 ) andperforming the r e q u i r e dm a t h e m a t i c a lo p e r a t i o n s ,t h eF o u r i e rc o e f f i c i e n t s Bn can be e x p r e s s e d a s

B y limiting the series for


be come s
r- I
rZm

r2

t o r-l

terms, e q u a t i o n ( 4 9 )

mrr = 112 b V o x Bn sin n -

n=l

andequation

( 5 0 ) i s reduced t o t h e

summation

m=l

From e q u a t i o n ( 4 0 ) t h e l i f t may be ex.pressed a s

d 2 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h es l i p s t r e a m

where the l i f tc o e f f i c i e n t

i s based on

V ,

Therefore

26

C o m p a r i n ge q u a t i o n s( 5 1a n d( 5 4 )t h e r er e s u l t s

If the r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s , 8, i s subs t i t u t e di n t oe q u a t i o n( 5 5 ) ,t h e l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o na s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e slipstream i s o b t a i n e d i n t h e form

(56) Havingdetermined the l i f t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s l i p s t r e a m upwash the o v e r a l l wing l i f t is c a l c u l a t e d a s f o l l o w s .


L e t ail and ai2 be t h e i n d u c e d a n g l e s o f attached a s s o c iated with the l i f td i s t r i b u t i o n s dl and 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y , a s g i v e nb ye q u a t i o n ( 4 0 ) . Then the t o t a li n d u c e da n g l eo f attack a t any point k i s g i v e n by

Also, r e - e q r e s s i n g e q u a t i o n ient bsa s eo dn V , yields

( 4 0 ) i n terms o ft h e

lift coeffic-

u s i n g the m u l t i p l i e r s there f o l l o w s

Pmk

from Reference

1 i ne q u a t i o n( 5 8 )

Now, by d e f i n i t i o n

27

Adding Qi2k t o b o t h s i d e s ( 5 7 ) and (60) l e a d s t o

o fe q u a t i o n( 5 9 ) .a n du s i n ge q u a t i o n s

...

rn = I

...

Equation (61) g i v e s t h e t o t a l i n d u c e d a n g l e of a t t a c k i n terms of, . t h e unknown wing l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n , CdC/b, t h e known i n d u c e d a n g l e o f a t t a c k , Qi2Vo V/VS , and t h e known s l i p stream l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n , c,& c / b , g i v e n by e q u a t i o n( 5 6 ) . The s o l u t i o n is o b t a i n e d by i t e r a t i o n a s f o l l o w s .
t o the o v e r a l l l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c a l c u l a t e da n de q u a t i o n ( 6 1 ) i s used t o o b t a i n a f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i o nt ot h ei n d u c e da n g l eo fa t t a c k . The e f f e c t i v e angle of attack at the wing s e c t i o n i s obtainedfrom
& approximation I

Where Qgk i s the s e c t i o ng e o m e t r i ca n g l eo fa t t a c k , add( , i s the section zero-lift angle and E is the edge-velocity factor o f Reference (1) T h i sv a l u eo fe f f e c t i v ea n g l eo fa t t a c k is t h e nu s e d w i t h t h et w o - d i m e n s i o n a ls e c t i o n lift curves at the e f f e c t i v es e c t i o nR e y n o l d s number R e k t o o b t a i n t h e l i f t c o e f f icient CL The v a l uo ef Cddb t h uc sa l c u l a t e d i s compared t o the i n i t i a l a p p r o x i m a t i o n a n d , i f s u f f i c i e n t a g r e e m e n t is n o t o b t a i n e d , a new v a l u e i s computed u s i n g t h e m e t h o d g i v e n i n Reference 1. This i t e r a t i o np r o c e s s i s t h e nr e p e a t e du n t i l guessed and calculated values agree to w i t h i n prescribed tolerance.

I t shouldbenotedthattheaboveanalysis is also a p p l i c a b l e t o a wing w i t h f u l l - s p a n d e f l e c t e d f l a p s , p r o v i d e d that a p p r o p r i a t e a i r f o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e employed f o r wing sectionswithflaps.

28

3 . 2 . 2

A n a l y s i s f o r a Winq w i t h Part-Span Deflected F l a p s


~~

The d e f l e c t i o n of a p a r t - s p a n f l a p c a u s e s a d i s c o n t i nuity 8 i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a b s o l u t e a n g l e of attack a t the end of the f l a p , andproduces a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n the s l i p s t r e a m - i n d u c e dc r o s s f l o w . The e f f e c t of these d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s on the span load d i s t r i b u t i o n i s treated below.
The a n a l y s i s i s d e v e l o p e d f o r a winghaving a deflected part-sf p e la x an t pe n dfir n o g m y=-b/2 t o y = y * The m o s t g e n e r a l case i s that of a f l a p whoseend l i e s w i t h i n the slipstream, a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 5.

Following the p r e c e d i n g t r e a t m e n t o f a wing w i t h no f l a p s or w i t h f u l l - s p a n deflected f l a p s , the t o t a l wing l i f t distributiongivenbyequation ( 4 0 ) can be d i v i d e d i n t o t w o p o r t i o n s andcan be expressed i n non-dimensionalform as

where C & . c / b i s the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o na s s o c i a t e d w i t h s l i p - . stream-induced upwash and CJ, .c/b i s the remainder of the distribution

I n the p r e s e n t case, however, the s l i p s t r e a m - i n d u c e d upwash VOv , g i v e n b y e q u a t i o n (48), i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s a t t h e end of the f l a p a s shown i nF i g u r e 5. The n e t d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n c r o s s f l o w a t the edge of t h e f l a p , y = y* , can be o b t a i n e d from e q u a t i o n ( 4 5 ) by c o n s i d e r i n g the upwash on both sides of t h e f l a p end. Thus, using equation (45) f o r the flapped s i d e of the wing, a t y = y*-o , t h i s e x t r a upwash can be expressed a s follows

vo.v
(Y
"0)

= vS% sin (a,*+a$ +8)

- V,

sin

( ~ g+ 8)

+ vtt. cos (a*, +.:,ss, (

4)

29

Propeller Diameter \

Slipstream / Diameter

?.

.,

I -

Distxibution (a) = (b)

(c)

Fig.ure 5.

Mathematical Representation of Flap Discontinuity

30

S i m i l a r l y , f o r the u n f l a , p p e ds i d e i s g i v e n by

at

y =y+o

the crossflow

T h e netdiscontinuityincrossflow i s o b t a i n e d a s the d i f f e r e n c e between e q u a t i o n s ( 6 4 ) and ( 6 5 ) , t h u s

vo v (y "0)

- vo

v(y*+o)

=V , Av*

(Ci6)

Because of the d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n c r o s s f l o w , Vo n v* , s o l u t i o n f o r t h e l i f t d i s t ribution g i v e n by e q u a t i o n ( 6 6 ) , t h e Cd2 can n o t be o b t a i n e d from a s i m p l eF o u r i e r series f o r a s w a s p o s s i b l ei ne q u a t i o n ( 4 8 ) . T h e r e f o r e , the d i s t r i bution VO v i s s p l i t i n t o two p o r t i o n s , one a c o n t i n u o u s distribution V,.vI and the o t h e r a s t e pf u n c t i o nd i s t r i b u t i o n VO.vl1 8 where -

r2,

Now, it i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e l a t e ~e v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s g i v e nb ye q u a t i o n ( 6 7 ) t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n gc i r c u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n sS . ince r2 i s t ht eo t ac li r c u l a t i o n corresponding t o Vo v , a s g i v e n by e q u a t i o n ( 4 8 ) , it c a n a l s o be mlit i n t o w t o d i s t r i b u t i o n s , i.e., I-2' , corresponding to V , V I and r 2 " corresponding to V , vll , where

31

r2

r2'

r2

II

T h u s ru s i n ge q u a t i o n s ( 4 8 ) and ( 6 8 ) , the v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s g i v e n by e q u a t i o n ( 6 7 ) c a n now be r e - e x p r e s s e d i n terms of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g c i r c u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n s and r 2 I 1 as f o l l o w s :

v , v

= v,v

VOV

where

and

Now the p r o b l e m reduces to determining r2' and the corresponding l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n Cd2. c / b accomplishedasoutlinedbelow.

and r 2 I 1 This i s

32
!
'/
I .

Since V0.v' i s continuous then, following the a n a l y s i s of s u b s e c t i o n 32.1, r2' can be e x p r e s s e d as the simple Fourier series
I

rzl

b 2

Vo

1 =I
n Bn

r- I

8, sin n e

where the c o e f f i c i e n t s

a r e g i v e n by:

B,

m 4l r = -

n.r

1
m=I

r-

(v-vil)

mlr sin sin n r

(73)

The r e l a t i o n s h i p for of Reference 2 4 i n t h e form

r2"

i s o b t a i n e d from t h e analysis

The d i s t r i b u t i o n

given by e q u a t i o n (74) s a t i s f i e s the x r e q u i r e d d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e c r o s s f l o w , Vo.v1l = VO. OV i ne q u a t i o n ( 7 1 ) .


The c i r c u l a t i o n distributions and , determined i n e q u a t i o n s ( 7 2 ) a n d( 7 4 )r e s p e c t i v e l y ,c a n now be used t o o b t a i n . the corresponding l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n C d 2 c/b a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s l i p s t r e a m - i n d u c e d upwash. This i s accomplished by rearranging e q u a t i o n( 5 4 )a n du s i n ge q u a t i o n (68),thus

r2I'

r 2 I

r2I'

33

I.

I . ,

...-... ......_. .-.-

F i n a l l y ,s u b s t i t u t i n ge q u a t i o n s ( 7 2 ) , (73) and (74) i n t o equaiiion ( 7 5 ) y i e l d s the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n C J 2 c / b at any point k on t h e wing, in the form

The a b o v e a n a l y s i s g i v e s the s o l u t i o n f o r t h e c a s e * where t h ef l a pe x t e n d s from t h e l e f t wing t i p t o a p o i n t Y = Y on t h e * r i g h tw i p g . ?he s o l u t i o nf o r a f l a pe x t e n d i n gb e t w e e n -Y S Y l Y , or any other combination of flap positians, is o b t a i n e d by s u p e r p o s i t i o n of s o l u t i o n s a s shown i n F i g u r e 6 .
I t should be n o t e d t h a t e q u a t i o n ( 7 6 ) r e p r e s e n t so n l yo n e p a r t o f the s o l u t i o n f o r the t o t a l l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n C d . c / b a sg i v e ni ne q u a t i o n( 6 3 ) . I t i s now n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i na n appropriats eo l u t i o n for the d i s t r i b u t i o n CJI c/b This i s accomplishedasoutlinedbelow.

The d i s c o n t i n u i t y 8 i n a b s o l u taen g lo ef attack caused by the f l a p d e f l e c t i o n a l s o a f f e c t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n Cd,db, This d i s t r i b u t i o n , , a l t h o u g h c o n t i n u o u s , p o s s e s s e s a n i n f i n i t e derivative a t y = y T h e r e f o r e , the m u l t i p l i e r s Pmkdeveloped i n Reference 1 c a n n o t be u s e d d i r e c t l y t o o b t a i n t h e i n d u c e d a n g l eo fa t t a c k due t o t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n . This r e s t r i c t i o n i s removed by t h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h .

The d i s t r i b u t i o n p o r t i o n s ,t h u s

C,J$ c/b
I

can a l s o be divided into

two

where 34

c$ c / b s
I

i s the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n

due t o a u n i t

Propeller

S1 i p s tream

.er

Distribution (a) Figure 6.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Method for Superposition ,of S o l u t i o n s

35

I I I I IIII I Ill1 1 1 1 1II

111111 I I

'I I'I

IIII

I II

II

II

I I I II

discontinuity

and Cd,' c/b

i s the remainder.

Applying the m u l t i p l i e r s the f o l l o w i n g

Pmk

t oe q u a t i o n

(77) yields

a p p l y i n g t h e m u l t i p l e r s Prnk y i e l d s the t o t a l l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n C d c/b


Also,

t o e q u a t i o n (63) as

S u b s t i t u t i n ge q u a t i o n

( 7 8 ) i n t oe q u a t i o n

(79), yields
\

rn = I

"

I n order t o o b t a i n the i t e r a t i v e s o l u t i o n t o e q u a t i o n ( 8 0 ) , it is now n e c e s s a r y t o r e l a t e the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s g i v e n i n e q u a t i o n s (63) and ( 7 7 ) t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n gi n d u c e da n g l e of a t t a c kd i s t r i b u t i o n s . If Q i i s the i n d u c e d angle of a t t a c k distribution corrresponding to the total l i f t distribution , C& d b and Qii and Q i 2 a r e the i n d u c ea d ngle of a t t a c k distributions corresponding t o t h e l i f t components C d l c / b and C&c/b t h ef nr o m equation ( 6 3 ) there follows

A l s o , a p p l y i n g similar c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o e q u a t i o n ( 7 7 ) theze

36

results

(82) i n t oe q u a t i o n S u b s t i t u t i n ge q u a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r the i n d u c e d t o t a l a n g l e

(81) y i e l d s the of a t t a c k as follows:

where

ail'

= 8 o v e rt h ef l a ps p a n
o o u t s i d e the f l a p span

I t c a n be n o t e d i n e q u a t i o n ( 8 3 ) t h a t the i n d u c e d , a n g l e o f attack d i s t r i b u t i o n ail' must be c o n t i n u o u s ,s i n c e its corresponding l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n Cdl' c/b as g i v e n in equation ( 7 7 ) i s continuous. Therefore, this i n d u c e d a n g l e of a t t a c k d i s t r i b u t i o n is obtained d i r e c t l y usingthemultipliers,thus

The a b o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n be r e - e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f t h e t o t a l i n d u c ea dn g l e of a t t a c k distribution ai by u s i ne gq u a t i o n (83), t h u s

Now, e q u a t i o n ( 8 5 ) can be s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o e q u a t i o n (80) t o e l i m i n a t e the C$/ c/b d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d t o y i e l d the t o t a l l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n C J c/b i n t h e d e s i r e d m u l t i p l i e r form as follows

37

>

F i n a l l y , r e a r r a n g i n g the e q u a t i o n (86), the t o t a l ' i n d u c e d .. . a n g l eo f a t t a c k a t a n yp o i n t k on the wing can be r e l a t e d t o _. .._ .: the corresponding total l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d the know d i s t r i b u - . . .. t i o n s of induced angle of attack ailt1 and Qi2 and their c o r r e s p o n d i n g l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s Cd,llc/b and Cd2 c/b , r e s p e c t tively rela The tio nn g re ,s sh uilp t is

where from the a n a l y s i s of Reference 1

and Cd2c/bhas b e e n a l r e a d y d e t e r m i n e d i n e q u a t i o n

(76)

Equation ( 8 7 ) i s a n a l o g o u st oe q u a t i o n( 6 1 )d e v e l o p e di n s u b s e c t i o n 3.2.1 f o r no f l a pd e f l e c t i o n . This e q u a t i o n i s a l s o s o l v e d by a n i t e r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , similar t o t h a t used for s o 1 v i . q Thus, upon o b t a i n i n g the r e q u i r e dc o n v e r g e n c e of equation.(.61). t h ei t e r a t i v es o l u t i o n ,e q u a t i o n ( 8 7 ) y i e l d s the t o t a l l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n C$ c/b f o r a wing w l t h a deflected f l a p w i t h i n the propeller slipstream. . .

38

3 . 2 , 3

E x t e n s i o no f

the Winq A n a l y s i s t o

Small Aspect R a t i o s

To p r o v i d e a d d e d f l e x i b i l i t y t o the methodology d e v e l o p e d h e r e i n , the wing a n a l y s i s t r e a t e d i n S e c t i o n s 3 . 2 . 1 and 3 . 2 . 2 is extended t o i n c l u d e w i n g s o f s m a l l aspect ratio. This a n a l y s i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r the c u r r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n , s i n c e much o f t h e a v a i l a b l e t e s t data on spanwiseloadi n g s for w i n g s i n s l i p s t r e a m f a l l s w i t h i n t h e low a s p e c t r a t i o r a n g e . The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f this e x t e n d e da n a l y s i s w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g t e s t data w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e i s shown i n S e c t i o n 5.0.
The m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s t o s m a l l aspect r a t i o wings i s based on t h e wing t h e o r y o f Kuchemann ( R e f e r e n c e 22), as outlinedbelow.

I n e q u a t i o n s (61) and ( 8 7 ) a s e t o f m u l t i p l i e r s w a s usedtoobtain the inducedangleof attack d i s t r i b u t i o n s for a wing w i t h no f l a p s and w i t h p a r t - s p a n d e f l e c t e d f l a p s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . These m u l t i p l i e r sw e r eo b t a i n e df r o mt h ef u n d amentalequationof the h i g h - a s p e c t - r a t i o , l i f t i n g - l i n e t h e o r y w h i c he x p r e s s e st h ei n d u c e da n g l eo fa t t a c ki n terms o f the span loading,

b/2

d (CJ c/b)

Qi

- b/2

dYl Y, - Y

dy I

Kuchemann, Reference 2 2 , h a s shown t h a t t h i s e q u a t i o n generalized to wings of any aspect ratio by w r i t i n g

may be

where w ' i s a f a c t o r whichvariesbetween 1 f o rh i g ha s p e c t ratio (AR+a), and 2 f o r low a s p e c tr a t i o ( A R + O )

39

Kuchemann o b t a i n e d the f o l l o w i n g equation


I

f o r w

..

= 2 - [I

+x2]
4

- 1/4

I f the m u l t i p l i e r s P m k new s e t of m u l t i p l i e r s , s e t by
I

a r e r e d e r i v e du s i n ge q u a t i o n Phk , i s o b t a i n e dr e l a t e dt o

(91), a the o l d (92)

Pmk

Prnk
I

This new s e t of m u l t i p l i e r s P m k may t h e n be used t o calc .l a t e i n d u c e d a n g l e of a t t a c k throughout t h e e n t i r e aspect i d t i o range.

The s e c o n d e q u a t i o n that must be m o d i f i e d i s t h a t which d e f i n e s the e d g e - v e l o c i t y f a c t o r E . I nR e f e r e n c e 1, this q u a n t i t y i s g i v e n by

(93)

J I + G 2

where
a

a . i s the two-dimensional l i f t c u r v e slope (AR-oo)and i s the c o r r e s p o n d i n gv a l u e f o r f i n i t e aspect r a t i o .

Reference 22 p r e s e n t s a n e x p r e s s i o n c u r v e slopes a s
a0

f o r t h e r a t i o o f the l i f t

2 - 7r w cot ( + )

(94)

where

i s g i v e n by e q u a t i o n ( 9 1 )

40

T h u s ,s u b s t i t u t i n ge q u a t i o n (94) i n t oe q u a t i o n( 9 3 ) y i e l d s the e d g e - v e l o c i t y f a c t o r E. a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l v a l u e s of a s p e c t r a t i o a s

E =

2 - T W I cot(?) 2w'

(95)

I n the e x t e n d e d a n a l y s i s e q u a t i o n ( 9 5 ) e q u a t i o n( 9 3 ) .

i s used i n place of

Finally,theexpressionforthe,liftdistributionassociated w i t h a d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n i n d u c e d a n g l e o f a t t a c k , as g i v e n by , e q u a t i o n ( 8 8 ) , m u s t be m o d i f i e d i n the followingform

E q u a t i o n ( 9 6 ) i s now a p p l i c a b l e t o a n y v a l u e o f a s p e c t r a t i o . This e q u a t i o n i s implemented i n the computerprogramandextends the program c a p a b i l i t i e s t o wings w i t h lowand h i g h a s p e c t r a t i o s ranging from about 2.0 t o i n f i n i t y

41

SECTION 4 D I G I T A L COMPUTER P R O G R m

The t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i n S e c t i o n 3 was programmed f o r u s e on the CDC 6600 series d i g i t a l computer. This was accomplished by e x t e n s i v e l y m o d i f y i n g the computer .programofReference 1 t o i n c l u d e the p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m and the w i n g i n - s l i p s t r e a m a n a l y s i s . This s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e combined c o m p u t e rp r o g r a ml o g i c ,t h es e l e c t i o na n da s s e m b l yo ft h e pertinentairfoilsectioncharacteristics, and a sample computer output. Wherever appropriate, the d i s c u s s i o n i s directed t o w a r d s t h o s e f e a t u r e s o f t h e m o d i f i e d p r o g r a m that are d i r e c t l y relevant to the treatment of the propeller slipstream and i t s e f f e c t on t h e wingspanwiseloading.Additiona l i n f o r m a t i o np e r t a i n i n gt oc o m p u t a t i o n so f the wing l o a d i n g f o r a basicwing/fuselagecombinationcan be obtained from Reference 1

4 1

PROPELLER SLIPSTREAM COMPUTATION-S

This s u b s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y a n d the a s s o c i a t e d airfoilsectiondatausedincomputationsof the p r o p e l l e r slipstreamvelocitydistributions,whichare l a t e r implemented in the overall solution for the wingspanwiseloadingof a

general wing/propeller combination. The b a s i c computational s t e p sf o ri m p l e m e n t i n gt h es l i p s t r e a mv e l o c i t yd i s t r i b u t i o n s i n t o the w i n g a n a l y s i s a r e summarized i n s u b s e c t i o n 4.2

4.1.1 Computational Procedures for Propeller VelocityDistributions


(a)

Slipstream

C a l c u l a t e the p r o p e l l e r a n g l e o f a t t a c k a n d t i p speed r a t i o from

42

J
P . L T =

COS

U p

7r

COS

r r

ap

(c)

obtain an approximate solution for

t h e t i p loss

factorusing

where, by d e f i n i t i o n

FP

and ao, Q&) a r e the l i f t - c u r v es l o p e and angleofattack at z e r o l i f t , - r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r a linearized approximation t o the t a b u l a t e d a i r f o i l s e c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (e) :Compute a n i n i t i a li n f l o wa n g l e element s t a t i o n from a t each blade

(p'
(f)

= A+

x
U*

O b t a i n a n i n i t i a lv a l u ef o rt h eq u a n t i t yd e f i n e d

as

(9) As t h e f i r s t s t e p i n t h eb a s i ci t e r a t i o nr o u t i n e , c a l c u l a t e a b e t t e r approximation for t h e t i p loss factor from

from where F /Fp i s obtained by i n t e r p o l a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s the t i p loss c o r r e c t i o n t a b l e s f o r s p e c i f i e d v a l u e s of B , T and sin$ A l i s t i n g o ft h et i p loss correctiontablesstored and u t i l i z e d by the computer program i s presented i n Appendix A.

(h) Calculatethebladesection blade section Mach number from

angle of

a t t a c k and the

44

Then o b t a i n the s e c t i o n characteristics C& and cd by i n t e r polation and/or extrapolation of the data p r e s e n t e d i n the propeller a i r f o i l tables, f o r the s p e c i f i e d a i r f o i l s e c t i o n geometry and values of Q b and M,

(i)

Compute the f o l l o w i n g q u a n t i t i e s d e f i n e d

as

k ,

=L 4 F[

and then c a l c u l a t e a new v a l u e of

from

(j) If the absolute magnitude of (t#)"-~#)')>O.l degrees, t h e n the s o l u t i o n f o r # r e q u i r e sr e i t e r a t i o n .I n this case t h e v a l u e of t o be s u b s t i t u t e d for #I i ns t e p s ( 9 ) through ( i ) is o b t a i n e d from

45

.. . .. ..

. .

where .kc i s g i v e n by

( k ) If the a b s o l u t e m a g n i t u d e of ( #I1#I) 5 0.1 d e g r e e st h e n t h e f i n a l s l i p s t r e a m v e l o c i t y c o m p o n e n t s f o r the s t r e a m t u b ee l e m e n tp a s s i n gt h r o u g h the .specified blade element s t a t i o na r ed e t e r m i n e da sf o l l o w s . First, c a l c u l a t e t h e t r u e induced axial velocity ratio in the p r o p e l l e r d i s k planeusing

Slr

4 F ky kz i - ( I -I-k x ) 2

-4
the f u l l y con-

a n dt h e no b t a i n the a x i a l v e l o c i t y r a t i o i n t r a c t e d s l i p s t r e a m from

(1) Obtain the l o c a lr a d i u si n the f u l l yc o n t r a c t e d s l i p s t r e a m which c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e s p e c i f i e d blade e l e m e n t s t a t i o n from

where rsp , r p and VSap/va are the v a l u e s corresponding to the immediately preceding inboard b l a d e s l e m e n ts t a t i o n . The v e l o c i t y r a t i o a t the o u t e r s l i p s t r e a m b o u n d a r y i s t a k e n as u n i t y , a s is t h a t a t fhe h u b / n a c e l l eb o u n d a r yu n l e s s a blade e l e m e n t s t a t i o n i s s p e c i f i e d a t the hub.

46

( m ) Compute the t a n g e n t i a lv e l o c i t yr a t i oi n f u l l y c o n t r a c t e d s l i p s t r e a m as

the

( n ) H a v i n go b t a i n e ds o l u t i o n sf o r the f l o w c o r r e s 1 ponding t o all p r o p e l l eb r l a d e l e m e nstt a t i o n s m=l (at the hub) through m = M ( a t the b l a d et i p ) ,c a l c u l a t e the v a l u eo f t h e i n t e g r a t e d p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t from

where

cT =
d 7

( 7 r

ky

kz

T)

(I + k ) "

( 0 ) Obtain the momentum v a l u e of p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t from

( p ) Compute the i n t e g r a t e dp r o p e l l e rt o r q u e coefficient using

47

where

(9) C a l c u l a t e the v a l u e of the momentum-weighted average axial v e l o c i t y r a t i o i n the f u l l y c o n t r a c t e d s l i p stream from

4.1.2

Propeller Blade Section-Characteristics

that The a n a l y t i c a l m e t h o d s d e v e l o p e d h e r e i n r e q u i r e suitableaerodynamiccharacteristics be employed f o r the blade sections of propellers used on g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n - t y p e a i r c r a f t . The i n f o r m a t i o n on t y p i c a l b l a d e s e c t i o n s was obtainedfrom the a v a i l a b l e t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e a n d is summarized i n Table I

A s can be n o t e d from t h i s t a b l e , e a r l y blade . s e c t i o n s usedintypicalpropellers a r e of the USNPS and Clark Y a i r f o i l s e r i e s . These s e c t i o n sh a v ev e r y similar p r o f i l e s and members of each series a r e u n i q u e l y i d e n t i f i e d by the v a l u eo ft h i c k n e s s / c h o r dr a t i oa l o n e .

Later b l a d e s e c t i o n s a r e of the NACA 1 6 - s e r i e s f a m i l y , which have a w i d e r a , p , p l i c a t i o n i n modern p r o p e l l e r d e s i g n because of t h e i r s u p e r i o r low-drag c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (see Reference25) These c o n s i d e r a t i o n sa l s oa p p l yt o the use o f NACA 64and65 a i r f o i l s e r i e s . All of the latter airf o i l s a r e s p e c i f i e d i n terms ofboth a d e s i g n l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t and a t h i c k n e s s / c h o r d r a t i o

Basedon a review of published experimental measurements ofpropellerairfoilsectioncharacteristics, it i s e v i d e n t t h a t the most r e l i a b l e d a t a f o r t h e c u r r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d from t e s t s c o n d u c t e d i n t h r e e windtunnel
48

'Table I .

Typical Propeller Blade Sections.

A i r f o i l Series
~~

Design Lift Coefficients

Thickness/Chord
Ratios

USNPS

0.05

to
to
to to

0.35
0.50

29

Clark Y
NACA 16XXX NACA 64-XXX NACA 65-XXX 0.2 0

to to
0.7

0.07

17,30,31

0.04
0.07

0.40
0.26
0.40

17,30,32,33,34

0.2

35
35,36

to

0.2

0.04

to

"

f a c i l i t i e s only. These a r e the Langley Low Turbulence PressureTunnel(Reference 261, f o r s e c t i o n d a t a a t l o w speed conditions ( M e 0.15) 8 and both the Langley and A m e s HighSpeed Wind Tunnels(References 27 and 2 8 , respecti v e l y ) f o r s e c t i o n data a t h i g h s p e e d s (0.3 M 0.85). E x p e r i m e n t a ld a t aa v a i l a b l e from t e s t s i n these f a c i l i t i e s were t h e r e f o r e u s e d a s the basis f o r p r e p a r a t i o n of the required s e c t i o n characteristics f o r a l l s e l e c t e d a i r f o i l s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the USNPS andClark Y series. The s e c t i o n data f o r the l a t t e r w t o a i r f o i l s w a s g e n e r a t e d from the m e a s u r e m e n t s o b t a i n e d i n the LangleyVariable-Density Tunnel

< <

A p p l i c a t i o no f the p r e s e n t a n a l y t i c a l m e t h o d s r e q u i r e s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e two-dimensionalbehavior of b o t h l i f t and d r a gf o r the s p e c i f i e d blade a i r f o i l s . However, a n importa n ts i m p l i f i c a t i o ni np r e , p a r i n g these airfoil characteristics i s r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h the useof a c o n s t a n t v a l u e f o r d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t o n the b a s i s of the followingapproximation. From the p r o p e l l e r a n a l y s i s it can be n o t e d t h a t the contributions of the b l a d e s e c t i o nd r a gc o e f f i c i e n t cd t o t h e a x i a l and s w i r l v e l o c i t y components i n the s l i p s t r e a m a r e g i v e n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y , b y ( Cd/Cd) tan d and (Cd/Cd) cot $ r e s p e c t i v e l y , where c# i s the inflow angle F .or low speed flightconditionsappropriatetogeneralaviationtype airc r a f t , the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f blade s e c t i o n d r a g t o the l o c a l a x i a l v e l o c i t y component i n the slipstream a r e f o u n d t o be n e g l i g i b l e ,w h e r e a s the c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e l o c a l swirl v e l o c i t y a r e t y p i c a l l y n o t morethan a f e w p e r c e n t . Thus it i s considered a j u s t i f i a b l e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n the computer program t o s u b s t i t u t e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n s t a n t v a l u e f o r Cd inplaceof the a c t u a l v a r i a t i o n s a s a f u n c t i o n of a n g l e o f a t t a c k and Mach number.
r e a l i s t i c a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r o p e l l e r - s l i p s t r e a ma n a l y s i s demands t h a t s e l e c t e d data on blade section lift c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s be a c c u r a t e l y d e f i n e d a s a f u n c t i o no fl o c a la n g l e - o f - a t t a c ka n d Mach number f o r t h o s e typical airfoil sections identified above
I t is thusevidentthat

Table I1 summarizes the a i r f o i l s e c t i o n s f o r which aerodynamiccharacteristicshavebeenobtainedandidentifies the s o u r c er e f e r e n c e s . I n general it i s apparent t h a t insuff icient data exist to enable a thorough coverage of a l l the possiblevariationsinsectiongeometry,angle-of-attackand
50

Table 1 1 .

Summary of P r o p e l l e A r irfoil Sections T a b u l a t e d f o r U s e i n the Computer P r o g r a m .


. .
I'

A i r f o i l Series . T h i c k n e s s / C h o r d Ratios i n Percent


.. .
e

'. .

'

.'
.

Mach No.
Range
-0.07'

So,urce :References

USNPS
___..

-4
j

-1

4 8 6 6 6 6

6
~

10 16 .1 41 2
-.."

18
- .,

20
.

"

"

Clark Y

-4 ; I
."

10

11.7. 1 4 2 21 8
1 5 ' " 15
' 30

0,.07
. r

..

NACA 1 6 1 X X 163XX 165XX 167XX


.-

9 9 9 9
9

12 12 12 12 12 12 12

___-

0.3 to'i0.8

" "

.-

. .

39

'

..

.2l

.- . '. .

1 53 0 2 1 15

- -_"

NACA 6 4 OXX

15 2 1 1 8

0.15

40,4L

64-2XX 64-4XX
NACA 65-OXX

15 2 1 1 8 15 15
-

- "_______" 9
6 6

18 18

21 21 21

-_______

9 9
10

65-2XX 65-4XX

1 2 18 15

12

15

18

21

Mach number range.Accordingly

a number of s i m p l ee m p i r i c a l techniqueshavebeendevelopedtopermit a reasonable extrap o l a t i o n o f the a v a i l a b l e data, a s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n the text.

F u r t h e r m o r e ,i np r e p a r a t i o no f the f i n a l s e c t i o n characteristics, faired c u r v e so f . the e x p e r i m e n t a l cd v e r s u s Q were u t i l i z e d . The d a t a w a s c a r e f u l l y selected so as t o best d e f i n e the n o n - l i n e a r i t i e s i n the faired c u r v e s .I n g e n e r a l the data r e p r e s e n t s the f u l l r a n g e o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l measurementsextendingfrom the z e r o l i f t c o n d i t i o n t o a point close to stall and i nm o s t cases t h r o u g h the s t a l l .
A completecomputer l i s t i n g o f the t a b u l a t e d s e c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the p r o p e l l e r a i r f o i l s l i s t e d i n Table 11, is p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x B. The a i r f o i l tables a r e a r r a n g e d so as t o p r o v i d e the maximum f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i r use i n the computer program. These tables can be e a s i l y extended o r deleted t o i n c l u d e o t h e r a i r f o i l families o r s p e c i a l l y modifiedaerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the selected s e c t i o n s .

These t a b l e s form the basis forlook-upprocedures which t h r o u g h i n t e r p o l a t i o n a n d e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f the s t o r e d data p r o v i d e the r e q u i r e d values of Cd for specified blade s e c t i o n s . These t a b l e look-up procedures are described indetailin the n e x ts u b s e c t i o n . 4.1.3
Table Look-Up P r o c e d u r e sf o rP r o p e l l e rA i r f o i l Characteristics

?he p r o p e l l e r a i r f o i l data t a b l e s a r e read i n and s t o r e d by thecomputer immediately p r i o r t o e x e c u t i o n o f the p r o p e l l e r - s l i p s t r e a mc a l c u l a t i o n s . The computer program p r o v i d e s data tables f o r up t o 9 a i r f o i l families, i d e n t i f i e d by a n a i r f o i l s e r i e s codebetween 1 and 9 i n c l u s i v e , b u t is c a p a b l eo fa c c e p t i n g a maximum o f 150 tables. This s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d more thanadequateundermost circ u m s t a n c e sb u tc o u l d be extended, i f r e q u i r e d , by a n i n t e r n a l program change. A s a r u l e the only tables read i n w i l l be t h o s e sets c o r r e s p o n d i n gt o the blade s e c t i o n s of the prope l l e r - w i n gc o n f i g u r a t i o nb e i n ge v a l u a t e d .

by the computer, i s indexedconsecutivelyinordertopermitefficientoperation o f the l o o k - u pp r o c e d u r e .F o rp r o p e ru t i l i z a t i o no f these 52


Each t a b l e , a s it i s r e a d i n

datatables, it i s e s s e n t i a l that t h e y be assembled i n a s p e c i a lo r d e r . The a s s e m b l y of a l l t a b l e s f o r each g i v e n a i r f o i l f a m i l y must be i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f Mach number, t h i c k n e s s / c h o r dr a t i o and d e s i g n l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t . However, t h e s e t s of tables f o r any a i r f o i l f a m i l y may be assembled i n anyorder.
As a n i n i t i a l s t e p i n the t a b l e look-upprocedure, the computerprogram f i r s t s e a r c h e s t h r o u g h t h e t a b l e s to locate a n d i n d e x t h o s e p a r t i c u l a r tables r e q u i r e d f o r i n t e r p o l a t i o n as e a c h p r o p e l l e r b l a d e e l e m e n t s t a t i o n is specified. The a c t u a l l o o k - u p p r o c e d u r e u t i l i z e s l i n e a r i n t e r p o l a t i o n throughoutand i s performed f i r s t f o r the r e q u i r e d v a l u e of a , s e c o n d l yf o rt h ev a l u eo f Mach number, t h i r d l yf o r the sectionthickness/chordratio and f i n a l l y f o r the d e s i g n l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t o f the a i r f o i l f a m i l y s p e c i f i e d .
To p e r m i t s a t i s f a c t o r y o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c o m p u t e r program f o r c o n d i t i o n s o u t s i d e the r a n g e o f t h e d a t a t a b l e s a s e r i e s o fs i m p l ee x t r a p o l a t i o np r o c e d u r e sh a v e been developed e m p i r i c a l l y from t h ea v a i l a b l ee x p e r i m e n t a ld a t a . These proceduresareoutlinedbelow.

For a n g l e s o f a t t a c k o u t s i d e the t a b u l a t e d r a n g e i n each table it i s assumed t h a t the v a l u eo f CJ remains c o n s t a n t ,a n df o r a Mach number o u t s i d e t h e g i v e n r a n g e the e x t r a p o l a t i o np r o c e d u r ed e t e r m i n e s a c o r r e c t i o n t o the r e q u i r e d valu oe f Q , d e f i n ea ds ac , thus

where the s u b s c r i p t T extrapolated.

d e n o t e sv a l u e sf o r

the t a b l e t o be

This method i s based o n a n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d P r a n d t l - G l a u e r tr u l ef o r the change i n l i f t - c u r v e s l o p e with Mach number and assumes t h a t t h e e x t r a p o l a t e d f a m i l y o f l i f t curvescan be r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i m p l e a d j u s t m e n t o f the a n g l e of attack scale a b o u t ~1~ point.

For s e c t i o n t h i c k n e s s / c h o r d r a t i o s o u t s i d e the g i v e n rangeoftables a t e a c hv a l u eo fd e s i g n l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t it i s assumed t h a t t h e a i r f o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be i n v a r i a n t . While t h i s a s s u m p t i o n d o e s n o t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ' r e p r e s e n t the

53

g e n e r a lr e d u c t i. o. ni nl i f t - c u r v es l o p e. f o r- t h i c k sections., . .-, the e x i s t i n g d a , t a . d o e s . n o t p r o v i d e . : a b,,ase ( ' t i c ,> 0.2 1 . . .. .. . . f o r a better approximation.


,

.-..-.

..

, ..

I-

.2

For a s e c t i o n design l i f t coefficie t. " ,outside .n . .. - . c&i the t a b u l a t e d r a n g e ; a n e x t r a p o l a t i o n p r o c ; e d u r e i s .'used t o o b t a i n a corrected v a l u e - o f C& d e f i n e d as :-C& , t h u s . .. . . kc& - , . ' , .
I.

..

,.

, ,
8

ccec = CLeT

(c9 -

CLeiTj -:
:..
,

(1261

. .

_ .

where the subscript T d e n o t e sv a l u e s 'f o r the t a b l e t o be e x t r a p o l a t ea dn d kCdi i s ae nm p i F i c ac 1o n s t a n t which g e n e r a l l y v a r i e s f a r each a i r f o i l ' f a k i i y a n d t h i c k n e s s / c h o r d r a t i o . This c o n s t a n t has been determined f o r each a i r f o i l family used herein, and constitutes an inherent part of the . . computerprogram t a b l e look-upsubroutine. .~ 4.2
WING . . IN-SLIPSTREAM -COMPUTATIONS

..

.. .

This s u b s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h e method of implementation of the p r o p e l l e r slipstream d i s t r i b u t i o n s o b t a i n e d a,bove i n t o the s p a n w i s e l o a d c a l c u l a t i o n s of a pro,peller/wingcombination.,.., The e s s e n t i a l c o m p u t a t i o n a l s t e p s a r e described below.'

4.2.1 Computational Procedures for Spanwise Loadinq on - .. Winq w i t h no F l a p s , o r w i t h Full-Span Deflected


~

a
Flaps
. .
c'

( a ) Obtain t h e wing basic geometric,parametersnamely,, . . section chord ratio c/CR , t w i s t distribution.' E 8 thickness-chord ratio t/c , and camber d i s t r i b u t i o n . Then c a l c u l a t e the wing section Reynolds number R e based on the l o c ac lh o r d c and the l o c ar l e s u l t a nv t elocity V , thys..
,

..

. P i, ,.

. :,
'

: '

- .. .

~.. . . ."
, .

.
.

where V i s the combined f r e e s t r e a m and slipstr'eam v e l o c i t y given in equation ( 3 ) and Y i s the k i n e m a t i c v , iscosity. A l s o , o b t a i n the s e c t i zo en r o - lain ft gle ado ..

. I

..

..
%. .

(b)
..

Compute the wing-induced upwash f u n c t i o n ,

.s4

from the f o l l o w i n g . e q y a t i o n which i s based on a simple horseshoemodel of t h e wake (Reference 1 9 )

J (7?4-$2+

-2

xp

-xp

are the non-dimensionalspanwiseandchordwiselocations


the r i g h t - h a n d p r o p e l l e r

of

hub.

( c ) C a l c u l a t e the g e o m e t r i ca n g l eo f wing s t a t i o n from

attack a t each

where

ag

i s the f u s e l a g ae n go le f attack aR is the w i n g / f u s e l a g e r o o t s e t t i n g E i s the l o c a l g e o m e t r i c t w i s t

i s the c o r r e c t i o f na c t ofrofru s e l a g e upwash g i v e n i n R e f e r e n c e (1) and A E n i s the s e t t i n g of the e q u i v a l e n t c h o r d l i n e , of the n a c e l l e a b o v e the wingchord l i n e a t the n a c e l l es t a t i o n . The q u a n t i t y A E n i s o n l yt o be i n c l u d e d when a c o m p u t a t i o n s t a t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h ' t h e nacelle location

T [E$-,]

(a)

C a l c u l a t e the f o l l o w i n gi n i t i a la p p r o x i m a t i o nt o

the o v e r a l l wing l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t

CLAPPROX-

(I + %j

("B

"R -0.4

adoTIP-0.6 "doROOT)(130)
5-5

( e ) Compute the wing-induced upwash a t the p r o p e l l e r disc using equation ( 1 2 8 ) as follows :

v,

CL APPROX. f ~ - 2A R

( f ) Calculate the p r o p e l l e rt h r u s t - l i n ea n g l eo f attack a n d a v e r a g e i n c l i n a t i o n of the p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m t o the freestream from

ap =
as = tan

+ ~ T L

{ Vo

sin QP

+ V,

VStl

1
the

where

i T L i s the p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t - l i n e a n g l e r e l a t i v e t o f u s e l a g ec e n t e r l i n e .

( 9 ) A t each Qing s t a t i o n calculate the e f f e c t i v e a n g l e s of a t t a c k , the r e s u l t a n t local slipstream v e l o c i t y , V , and the non-dimensional slipstream upwash, v , from the f o l l u w i n ge q u a t i o n s :

(h) C a l c u l a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i f t due t o s l i p stream upwash C& c/b u s i n g e q u a t i o n ( 5 6 ) .


( i ) Using the e f f e c t i v e angles of a t t a c k , ae , computedfromequation (134) f i n d the v a l u e s of s e c t i o n l i f t coefficient, C& , f r m the t w o - d i m e n s i o n asle c t i o n data a t the p r o p e r v a l u e s of Reynoldsnumber,thickness-chord ratio and camber l e v e l .

56

( j ) C a l c u l a t e an i n i t i a la p p r o x i m a t i o nt o l o a d i n gd i s t r i b u t i o nu s i n g

the spanwise

"

AR

+ 1.8
(137)

where

i s the wing t a p e r a t i o .

( k ) Compute the v a l u e so fi n d u c e da n g l eo f attack f o r t h i s l o a dd i s t r i b u t i o nu s i n ge q u a t i o n (61) anddetermine (62). theresultantsectionanglesofattackfromequation (1) From the s e c t i o n data o b t a i n the v a l u e s of l i f t coefficient corresponding to the r e s u l t a n t a n g l e s of attack f r o m s t e p (k) a n d c a l c u l a t e the new v a l u e s o f me spanloadi n g , c(e c/b

(m) Compare the approximatevaluesofspanloading w i t h the c a l c u l a t e dv a l u e s . If these are n o t i n s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e a g r e e m e n t , compute a new s e t ofappro.ximate values of
CCe c / b u s i n g the p r o c e d u r e sp r e s e n t e di ns u b s e c t i o n 3.2.2 o fR e f e r e n c e 1. Repeat the i t e r a t i o n p r o c e s s u n t i l the r e q u i r e d convergence i s a c h i e v e d .

( n )I n t e g r a t e the new s p a n l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n t o o b t a i n the o v e r a l l wing l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t CL a n dc a l c u l a t e a new v a l u e of wing-induced upwash a t the p r o p e l l e r d i s c u s i n g e q u a t i o n s ( 1 2 8 ) and (131).
(0) R e p e a t steps (f), ( 9 ) , ( h ) , ( i ) , (k), (11, (m), ( n ) u n t i l the a p p r o x i m a t e a n d c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e s of span loading are insatisfactoryagreement.

( p ) Having determined the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o no b t a i n the s e c t i o n p r o f i l e d r a g a n d p i t c h i n g moment v a l u e s from the sectiondataandcalculate the o v e r a l l w i n g l i f t , drag,and p i t c h i n g moment c o e f f i c i e n t s .
4.2.2

Computational Procedures for Spanwise Loadinq on a W i n q w i t h Part-Span Deflected F l a p s

( a ) Calculate a ni n i t i a la p p r o x i m a t i o nt o the f l a p p e d wing l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n f r o m the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n s

57

where C ~ R i s the v a l u eo f the l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t a t the r o o t obtained f r o m the f l a p p e d s e c t i o n data a t the a n g l e o f attack

(b)

cient

Determine the u n c o r r e c t e dv a l u e so f c>, a t each f l a p end as f o l l o w s

l i f t coeffi-

where FF i s the c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r the change i n the two-dimensionalsection data a t the f l a p end. The c a l c u l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e f o r o b t a i n i n g these c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s i s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n s u b s e c t i o n 4.1.3 of Reference 1, and w i l l n o t be d u p l i c a t e d here.
(c) For the v a l u e s of c2, obtained i n step ( b ) a b o v eo b t a i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n ga n g l e so f a t t a c k Q o from t h e data f o r flapped s e c t i o n s ,C a l c u l a t e the corresponding corrected a n g l e s of a t t a c k Qc8 a t each endof the f l a p from

the same p r o c e d u r e as i n s t e p ( c ) above, ( d )U s i n g calculate the v a l u e so fa n g l e of a t t a c k a c S=O on the unflapped s i d e s o f the wing. Then o b t a i n the first approxi m a t i o n f o r the v a l u e s o f the d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n a n g l e of attack 8 , thus

58

( e ) I n t e g r a t e the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o ng i v e n by e q u a t i o n (138) t o o b t a i n a n a p p r o x i m a t e v a l u e o f the o v e r a l l f l a p p e d l i f t coefficient, CL , and using equation ( 3 ) , determine the wing-induced upwash a t the p r o p e l l e r disc. Then c a l c u l a t e the v a l u o ef slipstream i n c l i n a t i o n , as , using equation (5)
and as from steps (d) and *Fej , r e s p e c t i v e l y , c a l c u l a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of slipstream c r o s s f l o w f r o m the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n :
I '

( E ) ~ Using the v a l u e s of

(%)

COS

(as

+ .e)

- sin

Qe

a n du s ee q u a t i o n s( 6 4 )a n d c r o s s f lio nwu i t i e s Av*=

( 6 5 ) to determine the d i s c o n t i n vII

.".

NOTE: - I n t h e m o s t g e n e r a l case of a wing having t w o : " . . p r o p e l l e r s , (one mounted on' each w i n g p a n e l ) , r o t a t i n g i n & e . . same d i r e c t i o n , the s l i p s t r e a m - i n d u c e dc r o s s f l o wd i s t r i b u t i o n .. w i l l be d i f f e r e n t a t ' the same s p a n w i s es t a t i o n Y on each s i d e of the f u s e l a g ec e n t e r l i n e . This d i f f e r e n c e i s caused by upward s l i p s t r e a m s w i r l v e l o c i t i e s on one wing.pane1 and . . downward on the other, o c c u r r i n g a t the' same s p a n w i s e s t a t i o n s on each side of the f u s e l a g e , i.e. v (y) # v (-y) I n the ~. case of two propellers r o t a t i n g i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s , each s l i p s t r e a m - i n d u c e d c r o s s f l o w i s symmetricalabout the f u s e l a g e c e n t e r l i n ea n de q u a t i o n( 1 4 3 )n e e do n l y be a p p l i e d o n c e , s i n c e v'(y)= v(-y)
'

( 9 ) U s i n g * i h ea p p r o p r i a t ev a l u e so f the d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s 8 and n v = v i r from steps ( d ) and ( f ) , r e s p e c t i , v e l y , compute the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n 'Cd2.c/b u s i n eg quation (76).

..
"

For the m o s t g e n e r a l case, as d i s c u s s e d i n step . . ( f ) above, t h i s l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n m u s t be c a l c u l a t e d ' s e p a r a t e l y for each wing panel.
(h) Determine the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n CdZ,lI-c/b 8 c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the l e f t a n d r i g h t s p a n w i s e d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s f r o m e q u a t i o n (88).

N O T E :

__

59

( i ) C a l c u l a t e the o v e r a l l induced angle-of-attack distribution Qi from equation (87), u s i n g the approximate s p a nl o a dd i s t r i b u t i o n computed i n step ( a ) above.

(j) Compute the e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t a n t s e c t i o n a n g l e d i s t r i b u t i o n f r o m the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n

of

Qe

where Qg i s the g e o m e t r i c angle of attack, Cdmax i s the v a l u e of CLemax obtainedfrom the c o r r e c t e d s e c t i o n data and (Cd?max)o i s the u n c o r r e c t e d value of CJma

(k) Using the v a l u e s of Qe from s t e p ( j) above, o b t a i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e s , o f l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t c& from the u n c o r r e c t e dt w o - d i m e n s i o n a ls e c t i o n l i f t data. Then d e t e r m i n e the c o r r e c t v a l u e s of l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t C& by s c a l i n g , as f o l l o w s :

(1) C a l c u l a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n

C&c/b from (145) and

compare this calculated d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h the approximate distribution. If agreement between the d i s t r i b u t i o n s i s n o t sufficiently close, calculate a new and better approximation u s i n g the p r o c e d u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n s u b s e c t i o n 3,2.2 of Reference

1 . .

( m ) Repeat steps ( b ) t h r o u g h (1) above, u n t i la g r e e ment i s reached between the approximate a n d c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e s of the s p a n l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n .
(n)Havingdetermined g r a t e d wing l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t

(m), c a l c u l a t e the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e o f
CL

the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s t e p the o v e r a l l i n t e -

60

4.2.3

Winq S e c t i o n Characteristics

The wing a i r f o i l s e c t i o n characteristics f o r t y p i c a l g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n aircraft are presented in Section 4.2 o f Reference 1, and w i l l n o t be d u p l i c a t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t . These characteristics are u s e d d i r e c t l y i n t h e c u r r e n t computer program and constitute a p a r t of the o v e r a l l t o o l for prediction of stalling characteristics o f g e n e r a l w i n g / propeller combinations

4 . 2 . 4

Table Look-Up P r d c e d u r e sf o r Characteristics '

Winq S e c t i o n

The t a b l e l o o k - u p s u b r o u t i n e f o r w i n g s e c t i o n characteristics u s e d i n the c u r r e n t p r o g r a m i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t describedinSection 4.2 ofReference 1.

4.3

DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPUTER PROGRAM LOGIC

The c o m p u t a t i o n a lp r o c e d u r e sd e s c r i b e di nS e c t i o n 3.0 have been programmed f o r u s e on a CDC 6600 series d i g i t a l computer. The p r o g r a m u s e r i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n Appendix C. The f l o w d i a g r a m f o r the program i s shown i n F i g u r e 7 and a l i s t i n g o f the program i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix D. The program w a s accomplished by a n e x t e n s i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g a n d enlargement of the basic power-offwing stall analysis program c o n t a i n e d i n R e f e r e n c e 1.

The program i s i n i t i a t e d by r e a d i n g i n the basic w i n g - f u s e l a g ec o n f i g u r a t i o np a r a m e t e r s .I n this input f o r m a t , p r o v i s i o n has been made t o i n c l u d e a n i n c r e m e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g the d r a gc o e f f i c i e n to f the n a c e l l e s . I f the c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e t o be p e r f o r m e d f o r the power-on case this i s i n d i c a t e d t o the program by s e t t i n g the parameter NSLIP e q u a l t o 1. If NSLIP=O, the s l i p s t r e a m c a l c u l a t i o n l o o p s are bypassed and the programonlycomputes the power-off characteristics.
The computerprogramarrays a r e dimensioned t o e n a b l e c a l c u l a t i o n s o f the s p a n l o a d i n g t o b e made u s i n g 1 0 c o n t r o l pointspersemispan. For t w i n p r o p e l l e r a i r c r a f t computations where t h e p r o p e l l e r s a r e s i t u a t e d n e a r the c e n t e r o f each w i n g p a n e l o r
61

AIRFOILTAQLES

CALCULATE FUSELAGE PARAMETERS

..
.

. .- .. .. *. ..,_ .
I .
~

. )

-!

NO

CALCULATE WING GEOMETRY

. ,

,
READ LIST OF OF ATTACK

, : . I

. I

. ..,
..I

CALCULATE CONVERGENCE MATRIX Kij

CALCULATE
. C -

a t , / 8,
Cd',c/b 6 AND STORE NO

CALCULATE AND STORE

- . PRINT OUT INFORMATION

.. ,

CALCULATE APPROXIMATE L I F T DlSTRlQUTlON

THERE A

UPWASH FUNCTION, f

CALCULATE SLIPSTREAM SUBROUTINE

- .

SLIPSTREAM UPWASH, v

Y
.
I

I No I

CALCULATE FIRST APPROXIMATION TO POWER-OFF LIFTDlSTRlQUilON

I
I I

CALCULATE INDUCED ANGLES OF ATTACK AND NEW LIFT DISTRIBUTION

..

*
. * .

NO

*
I

",

AND PRINT OUT

SELECT VALUES OF a8 TO DEFINE STALL

(e)
62

F i g u r e 7. Computer Program Flow Diagram

a t the wing t i p s , this number o f w i n g c o n t r o l s t a t i o n s

adequate However, f o r s i n g l e p r o p e l l e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , a better d e f i n i t i o n o f the s p a n l o a d i n g i n the s l i p s t r e a m r e g i o n i s o b t a i n e d i f the number o f c o n t r o l s t a t i o n s is doubled t o 20 persemispan. This i s r e a d i l ya c h i e v e d by redimensioning the r e q u i r e d a r r a y s . Having i n p u t t h e basic data, the r e q u i r e d wing s e c t i o n d a t a tables are read i n a n d s t o r e d on t a p e . If the case i s f o r a wing w i t h f u s e l a g e the r e q u i r e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p a r a meters are computed. The l i s t o ff u s e l a g ea n g l e s of attack i s now r e a d i n a n d the f i r s t v a l u e i n the l i s t i s s e l e c t e d . If the computation i s t o be p e r f o r m e d f o r apower-on c a s e the p r o p e l l e rs l i p s t r e a ms u b r o u t i n e i s then called. Executionof the s l i p s t r e a m s u b r o u t i n e shown i n Figure 8 i s i n i t i a t e d w i t h inputandstorage a t the p r o p e l l e r t i p l o s sc o r r e c t i o nf a c t o rt a b l e s . This i s followed by r e a d i n g a n d . s t o r i n g the r e q u i r e d b l a d e s e c t i o n data t a b l e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the data s p e c i f y i n g the basic p r o p e l l e r g e o m e t r y a n do p e r a t i n gc o n d i t i o n . ?he programthenproceeds w i t h the maincomputations as the p a r a m e t e r s f o r each s u c c e s s i v e b l a d ee l e m e n t are read i n .F o r each b l a d e s t a t i o n , the s o l u t i o n f o r blade s e c t i o n a n g l e o f a t t a c k and lift i s i t e r a t e d t o convergence. The v e l o c i t y components f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g streamtubeelementin the c o n t r a c t e d s l i p s t r e a m a r e t h e n comp u t e d .F i n a l l y ,h a v i n go b t a i n e d the c o m p l e t ev e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o nf o rt h es l i p s t r e a m , the s l i p s t r e a m v e l o c i t i e s a t the wing c o n t r o l s t a t i o n s are determined by i n t e r p o l a t i o n b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t o the main program logic. H a v i n g c a l c u l a t e d the s l i p s t r e a m v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s the wing upwash f u n c t i o n a n d the i n d u c e d a n g l e - o f - a t t a c k m u l t i p l i e r s are now computed. If a p a r t s p a n d e f l e c t e d f l a p is p r e s e n t the parameters a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the spanwise discont i n u i t i e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h the f a c t o r s u s e d t o c o r r e c t the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l s e c t i o n data.
The matrix of c o e f f i c i e n t s K i j u s e di n the i t e r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i s now computedandstored. If the c a l c u l a t i o n s are t o i n c l u d e slipstream e f f e c t s , the s l i p s t r e a m i n c l i n a t i o n t o the freestream, t h e s l i p s t r e a m upwash f u n c t i o n , v , and the l o a d i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s upwash f u n c t i o n , C& c/b, are computed

is

63

START

I. n p LOSS CORRECTION FACTOR TABLES 2 AIRFOIL TABLES

1
READ BASIC INPUT DATA FOR TEST CASE

I
CALCULATE INITIALVALUE [OF FOR ITERATION

1
CALCULATEBASIC CASE PARAMETERS

1
PRINT OUT CASE HEADING AND BASIC INPUT DATA SET INITIALVALUES FOR SLIPSTREAM SOLUTION AT HUB AND NACELLE

LOOK UP TIP LOSS CORRECTION FACTOR

LOOK UP CL FROM AIRFOILTABLES

r " l
CALCULATE NEXT VALUE FOR ITERATION OF

CALCULATE NEW VALUE I O F O

, I
CALCULATE AND PRINT OUT INTEGRATED VALUES FOR SLIPSTREAM

READ INPUT DATA FOR LOCAL BLADE STATION

CALCULATE SLIPSTREAM ELEMENT VELOCITIES AND INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS

YES

SET BOUNDARY VALUES FOR SLIPSTREAM SOLUTION


PRINT OUT SOLUTIONS FOR BLADE STATION AND SLIPSTREAMELEMENT

OUT SLIPSTREAM VELOCITIES AT WING SPAN STATIONS

RETURN TO MAIN PROGRAM

Figure 8. Logic D i a j r a m f o r P r o p e l l e r S l i p s t r e a m

Subroutine

64

The c e n t r a lp r o g r a mi t e r a t i o nl o o p i s now e n t e r e d . A new l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n i s computedandcompared t o anapproximate i n p u t v a l u e . If convergence i s n o t a c h i e v e d a new and b e t t e r approximate value i s computed. I f slipstream e f f e c t s a r e b e i n gc o n s i d e r e d , this new l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n is used t o r e c a l c u l a t e - t h e upwash a t the p r o p e l l e r d i s c s a n d a modified s l i p s t r e a mi n c l i n a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d . A new upwash d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c a l c u l a t e d a n d the basic i t e r a t i o n l o ~ p r e e n t e r e d . Once convergence i s o b t a i n e d , the programcomputes a n dp r i n t so u t the o v e r a l l wing i n t e g r a t e dv a l u e so f CL , CD , etc. t o g e t h e r w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n s . If s t a l l i s d e t e c t e d a t anywing s t a t i o n , the program e n t e r s a r o u t i n e t o s e l e c t v a l u e so ff u s e l a g ea n g l eo f a t t a c k t h a t w i l l d e f i n e the e x a c t s t a l l a n g l e more c l o s e l y .
4.4

SAMPLE OUTPUT

A typicaloutputobtained f r m t h e computerprogram, i s p r e s e n t e di n Tables I11 a n d I V . Table I11 shows samplecomputationsfor t h e spanwise l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n on a wing-in-slipstream, whereas Table I V p r e s e n t s

as described above,

a s a m p l eo u t p u tf o r t h e s l i p s t r e a mv e l o c i t yd i s t r i b u t i o nu s e d i n the wingcomputations.

65

._.

Distribution

. . . .. . . . .

,.

.,;.

P R O P E L L ESR LIPSTKEAKANALYSIS' PROPELCER

z.

N R C LR-284

F I G ,26 CT1'NOM=.0.64~, BETA75=25!, Jr0.605

-G k O I iP M \ rR E G O TP RE YL L E R
= 0.5667 = .0,6179
= 2

..

NA GC EE O LM LETRY

. P R O P E L ~ E ROPERAT-ING

CONDITION

N U M B E R OF P R O P S P R O P FkD COURU 2.XP/B PHOP SPAN 2.YP/.8 CCORD PROP G I A / W l N G SPAN SO ELE UG M T bE IE L O O L A NN E .D T P V P E E E LT N AR T G YP P IC TC BR / H R $ /P RP

= Oi4753

N O OF P R 8P L OA E PD RE S HUtl D I A / P R O P D I A NACELLE DIA / PROP DIA PRO AP XR IS EL BOOY A X I S

= 4
x

0.1673 0.1673

0.000 D E G

L E F T / RP R O R IT G O N H PT .A PD RV O R A P A NT CI E O ,FLIGHT MACH NUMBER PROP A N G L E OF A T T A C K '..

* . *

LH 0.6050 0.0581 :4.250 D E G


RH,

S LS E IP O LS L ET U MR T .E IO N AN T M R S R IP

T/C A /CfL I S E R

CL ALP MH AA CH

co
0 . .

U S A / U A * USTIUA

PHIS

0.2000 0.3000 O..400G 0.50@C, 0.6600 0.7000 0.8000 G.9000 0.9500

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PROPELLER THRUST CCIEFFICIENT~' PROPELLER THRUST C O E F F I C I . E N T ,C IT PROPELLER TGRUUE C O E F F I . C E N T VC *Q MGMENTUk WGTU SLIPSTKEAM VEL RArIO SLIPSTRfAY VALUES AT

= = = =

0.6327 0.2462 0.0374 1.6455

WING CONTKOS L TATIONS

2Y / D 0.9876 0.9510 0.8910 0.8090 0.7071 0.5677 G.4579 0.3G90 -0.3090 -0.4539 -0.5b77

WS/RP
0.77BO 0.7009 0.5745 0.4C20 O.la76 C.0633 0.3448 0.0490 0.6498 0.3448 C.0633 0.1876 0.4020 0.5745 0 7009 0.7780

I;SA/UO 1.7148 1.7865 1:7e40 1.6470 1.2490 1 24YO 1.5544 1.7918 1 7918 1 5544 1 2490 1-2490 1.6470 1.7840 1.7865 1.7148

UST/UO
0.2903 0.3452 0.4136 0.4730 0.31 75 -0.1071 -0.4613 -0.3712 -0.3712 -0.4613 -0.1071 0.3175 0.4730 0.4136 0 3452 0.2903

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SECTION 5

V E R I F I C A T I O N O F THE DEVELOPED . THEORY


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T h i ss e c t i o np r e s e n t s a series o fc o r r e l a t i o n sb e t w e e n the p r e d i c t e d r e s u l t s , o b t a i n e d f r o m the computerprogram described i n S e c t i o n 4 and the a v a i l a b l e e x , p e r i m e n t a l d a t a . A d i s c u s s i o no f these c o r r e l a t i o n s h a s b e e n separated i n t o t w o n a t u r a lc a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t p a r t d e a l s w i t h a v e r i f i c a t i o n of the s o l u t i o n f o r a n i s o l a t e d p r o p e l l e r - n a c e l l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n , w h i l e t h e second p a r t c o n s i d e r s the combined wing-in-slipstream case.
5.1

CORRELATIONS FOR AN I S O L A T E D PROPELLER

A m a j o r i t yo f t h e a v a i l a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a on i s o l a t e d p r o p e l l e r s i s l i m i t e d t om e a s u r e m e n t so ft o t a lt h r u s t a n dt o r q u e . Even i n t h e f e w r e p o r t e ds t u d i e sw h e r e the prope l l e r s l i p s t r e a m v e l o c i t i e s were measured, the d a t a ,presented i s g e n e r a l l yi n c o m , p l e t ea n di n s u f f i c i e n tt op e r m i t a compreh e n s i v ee v a l u a t i o no f the p r o p e l l e ra n a l y s i s . I t was therefore n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h the o v e r a l la d e q u a c yo f the a n a l y t i c a l p r e d i c t i o n s by p r e s e n t i n g a s e r i e s of p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the a p p l i c a b l e data from each e x p e r i m e n t a ls o u r c e .

a propeller C o r r e l a t i o n s of t h e e l e m e n t a ll o a d i n go n blade a r e l i m i t e d t o the e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a r e p o r t e d i n Reference 30. This d a t a i s p r e s e n t e df o r two 2.8-foot diameter model p r o p e l l e r s o f similar d e s i g n , b u t d i f f e r e n t t w i s t d i s t r i b u t i o n s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l o a d i n g s were o b t a i n e dd i r e c t l y f r o mm e a s u r e m e n t so ft h es l i p s t r e a mv e l o c i t ya n d swirl a n g l ei n a p l a mi m m e d i a t e l yb e h i n dt h ep r o p e l l e r disc. This t e s t i n f o r m a t i o nf o r m st h e basis f o rt h ec o r r e l a t i o n s shown i nF i g u r e s 9 , 1 0 , and 11.

Figure 9 p r e s e n t s c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e p r e d i c t e d a n dm e a s u r e de l e m e n t a lt h r u s t a n d t o r q u el o a d i n g s ,e x p r e s s e d as ratiosofpredictedovermeasuredvalues,versuspredicted l o c a l l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t a t a blade r a d i u s o f 7 5 . 2 p e r c e n t . As can be notedfrom this f i g u r e , t h e t h r u s t l o a d i n g p r e d i c t i o n s ,e m p l o y i n g t h e t a b u l a t e d a i r f o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , are i n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o goodagreement w i t h the t e s t data t h r o u g h o u t the range of the l i f t c a r v e . A l s o , the
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71

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c o r r e s p o n d i n gt o r q u el o a d i n g s a r e i nr e a s o n a b l ea g r e e m e n t , e x c e p t a t c o n d i t i o n s n e a r t h e s t a l l , w h e r e the d i s c r e p a n c i e s the d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t , may be a t t r i b u t e d t o a n u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o f a t a n o m i n a lv a l u eo f 0.01. However, it a s s u m e dc o n s t a n t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l t o r q u e l o a d i n g . is p a r t i c u l a r l ys e n s i t i v et ot h em e a s u r e m e n to fs l i p s t r e a m swirl a n g l e ,a n dt h e r e f o r e may be s u b j e c t t o a p p r e c i a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a l 9 a l s oi n c l u d e s a comparison of the p r e d i c t e d e r r o r .F i g u r e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by u s i n g a n u n s t a l l a b l e l i n e a r l i f t ' c u r v e The l i m i t a t i o n to, approximate the a i r f o i l characteristics. of the l i n e a r i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d by a n i n f e r i o r the stall point. p r e d i c t i o no ft h r u s tl o a d i n g sn e a ra n da b o v e F i g u r e 1 0 shows similar c o r r e l a t i o n s ,t ot h o s ep r e s e n t e di nF i g u r e 9 b u t f o r a blade s t a t i o nf u r t h e ri n b o a r d a t 5 2 p e r c e n tr a d i u s .I n t h i s c a s e ,s a t i s f a c t o r yt o good c o r r e l a t i o n s are a l s oi n d i c a t e d . Figure 1 1 shows similar c o m p a r i s o n st ot h o s e shown i n F i g u r e s 9 a n d 1 0 , b u t a t a b l a d e r a d i u s n e a r the h u b , a t 2 5 . 3 p e r c e n t . W n i l e a ni n c r e a s e d scatter i n the c o r r e l a t i o n s t h e smaller m a g n i t u d eo f the may be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o measured q u a n t i t i e s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h ea s s u m p t i o no f a better c o r r e l a t i o n anunstallablelinearliftcurveoffers for b o t h t h e t h r u s ta n dt o r q u el o a d i n g s . A suggestion that the stall pointforthisairfoilsl?ould be e x t e n d e d t o a h i g h e ra n g ' l e - o f - a t t a c k , i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r o b a b l e e x i s t e n c e of a f a v o r a b l eb o u n d a r yl a y e rd e v e 1 o p r ; I e n tc a u s e d t h e h u br e g i o n . by c e n t r i f u g a l pumpingnear

I n r e v i e w i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s shown i n F i g u r e s 9 t h r o u g h 11, it i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e may be a r e s t r i c t e d r e g i o n o f the b l a d e c l o s e t o t h e h u bw h e r e s t a l l d e l a y . owever, there i s c l e a r l y a n insuffe f f e c t s are presentH t h i s phenomenon t o p e r m i t a n y icientsubstantiationof r a t i o n a le m p i r i c a lt r e a t m e n t .
F i g u r e s 1 2 and 1 3 p r e s e n tc a r r e l a t i o n sb e t w e e n the p r e d i c t e da n dm e a s u r e dv a l u e so f the a x i a l a n d s w i r i velocity d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i t h i n the s l i p s t r e a mo fp r o p e l l e r so p e r a t i n g a t r e l a t i v e l y l o wa d v a n c er a t i o s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a shown w a s o b t a i n e df r o mR e f e r e n c e 1 7 , which p r e s e n t s s l i p stream v e l o c i t ym e a s u r e m e n t sf o r two 3 9 - i n c hd i a m e t e rp r o p a p l a n ea p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.44 diameters e l l e r - n a c e l l em o d e l s ,i n

72

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COmpariSOn Between Predicted and Measured D i s t r i b u t i o n so fS l i p s t r e a m Axial V e l o c i t ya n d S w i r l Angle f o r t h e P-2 P r o p e l l e r 015 R e f e r e n c e 1 7 a t J = 0.12.
73

30

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Figure 13. Compari-son Between Predicted and Measured Distributions oS f lipstream Axial V e l o c i t y and Swirl A n g l ef o r the P-1 P r o p e l l e r of R e f e r e n c e 17 a t J = 0.26.
.

74

@ownstream..of---the- propeller disc.. The. slipstream v e l o c i t y 1 easur&&$:%&*& -abt&;n?e&:'.deirig ,an eight-probe rake mounted 9 ',<., : .; symetr~&&~~y:< " a 3 j o u t '~e"',p$ope~l.er -axis I i F i g u r e 1 2 shows :a comparison between the p r e d i c t e d a n d . " .- -. . . . v . elo ..,c i . t i e s f o r -a propeller designed w i t h deasured s !ipstream h i g h tape$and t w i s t :so a s t o produce an a x i a l v e l o c i t y p e a k qe11 inboard. As can be seen 5rom t h i s f i g u r e , the p r e d i c t e d Gxial v e l o c i t y d i.s... t r - i-.b ..'u - t i o n w i t h i n the s l i p s t r e a m i s i n good t e s t d a t a ; However, the agreement q t h [tihe-corrgkponding . Swirl a n g l ? p r e d i c t . i b p . , c a n n o t b e p r o p e r l y a s s e s s e d b e c a u s e df the -exc$.s3PVe '&itter ".oaf t h e . e x p e r i m e n f a l d a t a p o i n t s . It dhould be .!kioted t h a t jtlagged and unflagged t e s t p o i n t s shown 4n F i g u r e , : l 2 r e p r e s e n t image p o s i t i o n s o n " e a c h s i d e of the propeller;3 . :I

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. .--E-ig&-.l&-shows ~ ~ a - - s h i ldegree ar of , c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the p r e d i c t e d a n d measured s l i p s t r e a m v e l o c i t i e s f o r a p r o p e l l e r Qavirig.a'rtCYre-c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n .form and t w i s t d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n t h i s caGe, the p r e d i c t e d r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d f o r a p r o p e l l e r Speed reduced t o 8 0 p e r c e n t o f the r e p o r t e d v a l u e . This c o r r e c t i o n w a s i n t r o d u c e d . t o overcome a n a p p a r e n t d i s crepancy i n the t e s t ' m e a s u r e m e n t s , as suggested by the a u t h o r s df. Reference . : 1 ; 7 -*.. . _ _ '.'.:, . . - . . .
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Figure,-.14preser&s'.twQ a d d i t i o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r s l i p Stream s w i $ l a n g l e d i i t r i b u t i o n s k q s e d o n t h e t e s t dataof Reference $2. The e x p e r i m e n t a l d a s u r e m e n t s were o b t a i n e d a t a distance! .. ... :of. -2 d i a m e t e r s , downstream of an i s o l a t e d p r o p e l l e r . ". --$ t can be :Seen from Figure 14 t h a t the a n a l y s i s g e n e r a l l y Bredicts B r o f i l e s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , a l t h o u g h an incremkntal shift ,in the s w i r l a n g l e of up t o 4 d e g r e e s i s Qvident. i Sowever, the absence of the corresponding t e s t d a t a a propereyplandn the a $ i a l v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s p r e c l u d e s ~Uiiifi'T$&Ts-' s h i f t i n the s l i p s t r e a m s w i r l a n g l e . .Ir.-, 2 . . , i '{ One a s p e c t of tlie analysis n o tc o n s i d e r e di n the above G o r r e l a t i o n s i s an assumption %hat the s l i p s t r e a m may be c o n s i d e r e d \as f u l l y d e v e l o p e d or f u l l y c o n t r a c t e d , f o r the ~ ~ ~ n s e . . - o f - , p r a d i c t the-wing. ing.. spanloading.While the e f f e c t :bg s l i p s t s e a m c o n t r i c t i o n o n wing loading can only be p r o p e r l y assessed bycomprehensive-measurements, some o b s e r v a t i o n s o n the r a t e o f s l i p s t r e a m c .o n r from the .t _ . a c t. i o n c a n . . be made . . a v a i l a b l e 'lie*% 'data . *. . ..
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42.

76

I n practical a i r c r a f t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s the p r o p e l l e r d i s c p l a n e i s generally located between one-half and one From the diameter f o n m r d of the w i n gq u a r t e r - c h o r dl i n e . c o r r e l a t i o n s shown i n F i g u r e s 1 2 and 13, it may be i n f e r r e d t h a t slipstream c o n t r a c t i o n c o u l d be f u l l y d e v e l o p e d at d i s t a n c e sw i t h i n 0.44 ( D ) behind the p r o p e l l e r . If this is the case, t h e n the r a t e o f s l i p s t r e a m c o n t r a c t i o n is s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t p r e d i c t e d by p o t e n t i a l t h e o r y . From the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d a b o v e , it can be concluded that thecomputerized a n a l y t i c a l methoddeveloped h e r e i n y i e l d s more than adequate s o l u t i o n f o r the non-uniform p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s , whichcan be c o n f i d e n t l y u s e d f o r p r e d i c t i o n of wing spanwise loadings.
5.2

CORRELATIONS FOR WING-IN-SLIPSTREAM

This subsection presents the correlations of the theorywithexperimentaldata on wing spanwise loadings with slipstream e f f e c t s . I ns e l e c t i n ge x p e r i m e n t a ld a t at o thoroughly t e s t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model t h ef o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were used : Completeinformation on the geometricparameters w i n g s ,n a c e l l e s a n d p r o p e l l e r s .

of

Adequate d e f i n i t i o n of t h e wing and p r o p e l l e r a i r f o i l s e c t i o n s u s e d i n the t e s t s .


the p r o p e l l e r o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n terms of blade a n g l e ,a d v a n c er a t i o , a n dr o t a t i o n a ls p e e d .
A thoroughdescriptionof

An accurate d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the spanwise l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n o b t a i n e d by chordwise pressure surveys.


I t was found t h a t the amount o f a v a i l a b l e t e s t data t h a t meets a l l of the above c r i t e r i a i s extremely l i m i t e d . However, s u f f i c i e n t d a t a w a s o b t a i n e d from the t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e t o p r o v i d e a f a i r l y a d e q u a t e basis f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l model. Some t e s t d a t a was o b t a i n e d on wings immersed i n j e t s , w i n g s h a v i n g c e n t r a l l y mounted

77

propellers, and wings w i t h propellers p l a c e d a t d i f f e r e n t spanwisestationsup t o a n d i n c l u d i n g the wing t i p s .


,

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Wi,th few exce~tions, t h e m a j o r i t y : o f the available

t e s t data w a s o b t a i n e d a t w i n g a n g l e s of a t t a c k below stall. Therefore ,I the adequacy of the IdeveXoped :methods t o p r e g i c t the s p a n " l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n a t f i e o n s e t of s t a l l c o u l d n o t be t h o r o u g h l y v e r i f i e d . However, based on the c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n , a t a n g l e s of a t t a c k c$,ose t o s t a l l , it can be i n f e r r e d t h a t the -span ' l o a d i n g a t s t d l l can be r e a s o n a b l y w e l l p r e d i c t e d u s i n g ;the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s .: Unfortunately, no t e s t data i s a v a i l a b l e onspanwise l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r wings w i t h p a r t - s p a nd e f l e c t e d flaps. Therefore, c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r this case c a n n o t be p r e s e n t e d a t the present t i m e

The c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t a r e p r e s e n t e d - b e l o w show the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the a n a l y s i s t o low a s p e c t - r a t i o w i n g s ; the capability to predict wing-inj e t e f f e c t s , t h e p r e. d i c t i o n . o fs p a nl o a d i n gf o rs i n g l e@ p r o p e l l e rc o n f i g u r a t i o n sa n d , f i n a l l y , the a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s on ._ t w i n e n g i n e a i r c r a f t i n c l u d i n gt h o s eh a v i n gt i p - m o u n t e d ' p r d p ellers.

5 . 2 . 1C o r r e l a t i o n sf o r

Low Aspect-Ratio Winqs

The a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h e p r e s e n t method t o l o w aspect r a t i o w i n g s , (see s u b s e c t i o n 3 . 2 . 3 ) , was"Y e r i f i e d by p e r f o r m i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s of the s p a n l o a d i n g o n a rectangularwingof 1.0. T h e s ec o r r e l a t i o n s which are a s p e c tr a t i oe q u a lt o shown i n F i g u r e 1 5 , a r e basedon t h e a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s of R e f e r e n c e 2 2 and the a v a i l a b l e t e s t d a t a o b t a i n e d from a number of sources. ( a ) shows a comparison o f the p r e d i c t e d F i g u r e1 5 s p a nl o a d i n g( e x p r e s s e d a s C J / a )., w i t h the a n a l y t i c a l d a t a A s can be n o t e d f r o m this of the two selected R e f e r e n c e s . f i g u r e , the p r e d i c t e d r e s u l t s . are i n s a t i s f a c t o r y a g r e e m e n t w i t ht h er e s u l t so f Referedces 22 and 43. A l s o F i g u r e 15 ( b ) shows a comparisonbetween the p r e d i c t e d a n d m e a s u r e d v a r i a t i o n s o f l i f t - c u r v e ,slope f o r . a r e c t a n g u l a r w i n g v e r s u s aspect r a t i o .A g a i n , the computed r e s u l t s match t h o s eo f R e f e r e n c e s 22 a n d4 3 ,a n da g r e ew i t ht h ec o r r e s p o n d i n ge x p e r i m e n t a lv a l u e s . 78

..
. .

Reference 2 2
" "

Reference 4 3 ComputerProgram
Test Data 2.0

. .

A
5
4

1.6
1.2

3
cLa
2

%/a
Per radian

Per radian
1
0 0

.8

.4
0

.2

..4

.6

.8

1.0

AR
(b)

2Y/b

V a r i a t i o n of L i f t Curve Slope with Aspect Ratio

(a) Spanwise L i f t D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r R e c t a n g u l a r Wing, AR = 1

Figure 15.

V e r i f i c a t i o n of Low A s p e c t Ratio Analysis

5.2.2

C o r r e l a t i o n f o r Centrally-Mounted

Propellers and J e t s

I n R e f e r e n c e 6 Stupermeasured the l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n a u n i f o r m c i r c u l a r j e t of a i r on a r e c t a n g u l a r w i n g h a v i n g b l o w i n go v e r the c e n t e rs p a n . The j e t w a s produced by a speciallydesignedfangenerating a uniform j e t f l o w w i t h o u t t e s t d a t a was chosen for comparisonbecause r o t a t i o n .T h i s i t p r o v i d e s a check of the w i n g - i n - s l i p s t r e a m t h e o r y , w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e propeller a n a l y s i s . F i g u r e 16 shows a comparisonbetween the p r e d i c t e d l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s f r o mS t u p e r ' s t e s t ; andmeasuredspanwise a n da g a i ns a t i s f a c t o r ya g r e e m e n tb e t w e e nt h et h e o r ya n d the e x p e r i m e n t a l data i s o b t a i n e d . Measurementsof l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s onwingswith c e n t r a l l y mounted p r o p e l l e r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n R e f e r e n c e 29. I n t h i s series o f t e s t s , d a t a was o b t a i n e d f o r a f u l l - s c a l e la r g e 3 0 ' X 6 0 ' wind w i n g / p r o p e l l e rc o m b i n a t i o ni nt h e t u n n e l a t NASA, Langley. The p r o p e l l e r had a diameter o f 4 f e e t and the wing w a s r e c t a n g u l a r w i t h a 5 f o o t c h o r d . A s p e c t r a t i o w a s v a r i e d by changing t h e wingspan. F i g u r e 1 7 p r e s e n t s a comparisonbetween the t h e o r e t i c a l p r e d i c t i o n s a n d the e x p e r i m e n t a l data o b t a i n e d f o r a s p e c t r a t i o of 6.0 f o r w i n g a l o n e , w i n g a n d n a c e l l e , a n d w i n g , n a c e l l ea n dp r o p e l l e r . Similar comparisons f o r a - w i n g a s p e c tr a t i oo f 3.0 a r e shown i nF i g u r e 18. I t can be n o t e df r o mt h e s ef i g u r e s t h a t t h e combinedwing/propeller t h e o r y p r e d i c t s the s p a nl o a d i n gv e r y w e l l , e x c e p t n e a r the t i p s where t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a shows the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c square-tiploadingwhichcannotbepredictedusinglifting 1i n e t h e o r y .
I t s h o u l db en o t e d t h a t f o r b o t h the S t u p e r j e t case ( F i g u r e 1 6 ) and the c e n t r a l p r o p e l l e r cases ( F i g u r e s 117 and 18), t w e n t ys t a t i o n sp e rs e m i s p a n were u s e di n the computationsinordertoobtainadequatedefinition of the Load d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o p e l l e r s l i p s t r e a m r e g i o n . - -If t h e p r o p e l l e r slipstream i s n o t p r e s e n t , s u f f i c i e n t d e f i n i t i o n is g e n e r a l l y a c h i e v e d w i t h the s t a n d a r d 1 0 p o i n t s p e r s e m i s p a n .

80

Configuration Wing Alone

Tes't

Predicted

a
0

"-

PJing With J e t
1.o

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

1
Y/R

OD r

Figure 16. Comparison Between P r e d i c t e d Spanwise Loading and Measurements of R e f e r e n c e 6 f o r a R e c t a n g u l a r Wing With End P l a t e s S u b j e c t e d t o a Uniform J e t : V,/Vo = 1.36.

03
h)

J = 0.42 (Climb Condition) 1 . 2

1 . 0

0 . 8

C1
0 . 6

0.4

0 . 2

0 -1.0

-0.8

0 . 6 -0.2 -0.4

0 . 4

0 . 6

0 . 8

1 . 0

Figure 17.

Predicted Versus Measured Spanwise Loadings for the'Rectangular Wing of Reference 29 With a Centrally-Mounted Propeller; AR = 6.

J = 0.42

(Climb Condition)

1.2
Configuratio T ne s t Wing Alone
1 . 0
Predicted

- -___ --P

Wing With Nacelle Only

*-e-.

I
i

0 . 8
C1

0 . 6

0 . 4

0.2

F i g u r e 18.
03

P r e d i c t e dV e r s u s Measured Spanwise Loadings for the R e c t a n g u l a r Wing of R e f e r e n c e 29 With a C e n t r a l l y - M o u n t e d P r o p e l l e r ; AR = 3 .

5 .2 .3

C o r r e l a t i o n f o r Twin P r o p e l l e r Co.nfiquratitons

Reference 42 p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s o f wind t u n n e l t e s t s on a r e f l e c t i o n - p l a n e model of a twin-engined tiltwing VTOL c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The model tested c o n s i s t e do f a low (18" X 26")unswept wing w i t h a aspect ratio rectangular n a c e l l e and p r o p e l l e r s i t u a t e d a t 62 p e r c e n t of the semispan. The wing a i r f o i l s e c t i o n w a s a NACA 0015, the p r o p e l l e r blade s e c t i o n s were of the NACA 16 series and the p r o p e l l e r diameter w a s 26". The t e s t r e p o r t p r e s e n t s measured spanwise l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n s a t v a r i o u s wing a n g l e s o f a t t a c k f o r a limited range of propeller thrust coefficients. F i g u r e s 19, 2 0 , and 2 1 show comparisonsof d i c t e d and measured span loadings for power-off and
the prepower-

CTI=O , on c o n d i t i o n s , f o r p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t s o f 0.36 and 0.64, r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t w a s found t h a t i n o r d e r t o match the measured l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s p o w e r - o f f , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s had t o be performed a t a n g l e s o f a t t a c k s l i g h t l y below t h o s e v a l u e s q u o t e d i n R e f e r e n c e 42. For example, i no r d e rt o match t h e C d i s t r i b u t i o nf o r 5 O angle of a t t a c k , the c a l c u l a t i o n s a d t o be made a t 4.25O. The r e a s o nf o r t h i s discrepancy i s n o t clear s i n c e , a s is shoim elsewhere, , p r e d i c t i o n sf o ro t h e rw i n g s ,p o w e r - o f f , a g r e e w i t h the ex,perimentaldata. The discrepancycould be a t t r i b u t a b l et ot u n n e lf l o wi n c l i n a t i o n e f f e c t s . -In the comparisons shown f o r power-on c o n d i t i o n s , t h e a n g l e o f a r e t h o s e t h a t match the power-offloading. attackvaluesused

the t h e o r e t i c a l Despite the differences notedabove, p r e d i c t i o n s o f the spanwise l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n a g r e e w e l l w i t h t h e experimental data ofReference 42 e x c e p t n e a r the wing r o o t . This discrepancy i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the presence of tunnel wall boundary l a y e r e f f e c t s , a s mentioned i n R e f e r e n c e 42

InReference44, a s e r i e s o.f t e s t s are r e p o r t e d t h a t were made on rectangularwingsoraspectratio 2.28, 3.26, and 4.7 w i t h a n u n d e r s l u n g n a c e l l e a n d p r o p e l l e r placed a t 8 3 p e r c e n t , 58 p e r c e n t a n d 40 p e r c e n t o f the semispan, The p r o p e l l e r was the same p r o p e l l e r u s e d i n respectively. the t e s t s of Reference 42. The wing a i r f o i l s e c t i o n was a NACA 4415 series. The t e s t s were conducted f o r wing a n g l e s of attack of Oo through 120 a t v a r i o u s v a l u e s o f p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t coefficient.

84

SYm A
B

Test a = loo

Predicted

a =
Q

v
0 . 6
1 , .

a = a =
Q

50

oo

8.75O 4.25O

a =

= "50 a = -loo

a = -4.250 a = -8.7~~

o0

0.4
. _
W Q -

0.2
C1
0

-0.2

pa-0.4

-0.6 0

0.2

0.4
2Y/b

0 . 6

0.8

1 . 0

Figture 1 9 .

P r e d i c t e d Versus Measured spanwise Loadings f o r the T w i n - P r o p e l l e r C o n f i g u r a t i o n of R e f e r e n c e 42; AR = 3.0, CT = 0.

a5

". . ..... .." .

_"

. .

. . . .. . .. . .

.-. .

Predicted a = 8.75O a = 4.25O

a = oo a = -4.25O a = -8.750
0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0 . 6

0
I

0.2

0.4
2y/b

0 . 6

0.8

1.0
\

I
~~

~.

11
I

F i g u r e 20.

P r e d i c t e d Versus Measured S,panwise Loadings

f o r t h e T w i n - P r o p e l l e rC o n f i g u r a t i o n of R e f e r e n c e 4 2 ; AR = 3.0, C T = ~ 0.36, p75 = 250.

86

Predicted a = 8.x0
Q

=
= I

4.25O
00

a =
Q

-4.25O

= -8.75O
0.4

0 . 2

\I

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6
0
I

0.2

0.4
2Y/h

0 . 6

0 . 8

1 . 0

I
0

I
Predicted Versus Measured Spanwise Loadings f o r the T w i n - P r o p e l l e rC o n f i g u r a t i o n of R e f e r e n c e 42; AR = 3.0, C T 5: ~ 0.64, p75 =-25O.
/

F i g u r e 21.

F i g u r e s 22, 23, and 24 show power-off c o r r e l a t i o n s of the spanwise l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n o b t a i n e d u s i n g the p r e s e n t t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r the three wing a s p e c t r a t i o s a t wing a n g l e s o f a t t a c k below s t a l l . The agreementbetween the theory and t e s t i s good throughout a l l values of wing aspect r a t i o except n e a r the wing r o o t where s u b s t a n t i a l w a l l e f f e c t s are e v i d e n t .F i g u r e s 25 through 27 show the t h e o r e t i c a ls p a n a propeller thrust l o a d i n g v e r s u s the measured loading for I n a l l cases, e x c e l l e n atg r e e m e n t c o e f f i c i e n t C T ~ = 0.4. i s obtained between the p r e d i c t i o n s a n d t h e test distributions. Although t e s t d a t a w a s o b t a i n e d a t a n g l e s o f a t t a c k up t o 120, the a n g l e s o f a t t a c k were e i t h e r below s t a l l o r w e l l above s t a l l . Thus no data w a s o b t a i n e d a t the p o i n to f initialstallonset. N o check of t h e t h e o r y c l o s e t o t h e s t a l l p o i n t i s , t h e r e f o r e , a v a i l a b l e from t h i s t e s t s e r i e s . 5.2.4 E f f e c t of P r o p e l l e rR o t a t i o n

The d i r e c t i o n o f r o t a t i o n of p r o p e l l e r s o f m u l t i p r o p e l l e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s may i n t r o d u c e a p p r e c i a b l e c h a n g e s i n the wing spanloading.Forexample,rotation of p r o p e l l e r s i n the same d i r e c t i o n of a t w i n - p r o p e l l e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n c a u s e s asymmetry i n the s p a n l o a d i n g , w h i c h i n t u r n g i v e s r i s e t o t h e a i r c r a f t r o l l i n g moment.
Althoughno t e s t data e x i s t s t o v e r i f y t h i s a s p e c t of the p r e s e n t t h e o r y , c o m p u t a t i o n s were performed for the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of Reference 42 t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e a b i l i t y of the computerprogram t o h a n d l e d i f f e r e n t p r o p e l l e r r o t a t i o n s . The p r e d i c t e d r e s u l t s showing the e f f e c t o f p r o p e l l e r r o t a are presented in Figure 28. t i o n s on t h e wingspanloading The r e s u l t s are a p p l i c a b l e t o wing a s p e c t r a t i o of 3.0, wing loo and p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t of angle of attack of = 0.64. cTS

.
,

A s canbenotedfromFigure 2 8 counterclockwise r o t a t i o n o f both p r o p e l l e r s (as viewedfrom the r e a r ) r e s u l t s intheasymmetricspanloading,whichcould be i n t e g r a t e d t o y i e l d the a i r c r a f t r o l l i n g moment due t o power e f f e c t s .

88
-.

Sym -

Test

a= 0 : a = 10
1.0

"g

0.8

C1
0.6

0.4

0.2

F i g u r e 22.

Predicted V e r s uM s easured S,panwise Loadings f o r the T w i n - P r o p e l l e r C o n f i g u r a t i o n of R e f e r e n c e 44: AR = 4 . 7 , C T = ~ 0.


89

1 . 0

0.8

C1
0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6 2y/b

0.8

1.0

Figure 2 3P . redicted Versus Measured .Spanwise L o a d i n g s of f o r the T w i n - P r o p e l l e r C o n f i g u r a t i o n R e f e r e n c e 44; AR = 3 . 2 6 , C T = ~ 0.

90

0 . 8

0.6

C1

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

2Y/b

Figure 24. Predicted Versus Measured Spanwise Loadings f o r the T w i n - P r o p e l l e r C o n f i g u r a t i o n Reference44; AR = 2 . 2 8 , C T = ~ 0.

of

91

1.0

Sym Test o a= 0 '


EJ
0.8
Q=

1 0 '

0.6

0.4

0 . 2

0 0

0.2
,

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

2Y/b
\

Figure, 25.

Predicted Versus .Measured Spanwise Loadings f o r the Twin-Propeller Configuration of Reference 44; AR = 4.7, C T = ~ 0.4.

92

0.8

Sym
0.

Test

a=
Q

00 = loo

0 . 6

0.4

0 .2

0
0

0.2

0.4
2Y /b

0.6

0.8

1 . 0

F i g u r e 26.

Predicted Versus Measured Spanwise Loadings f o r the T w i n - P r o p e l l e r C o n f i g u r a t i o n Reference 44; AR = 3.26, CTs = 0.4.

of

93.

0 . 6

S y m Test

0.4
ClS

0.2

-0.2
0

0.2

0.4
2Y/b

0.6

0.8

1.0

F i g u r e 27.

P r e d i c t e d Versus Measured S,panwise Loadings f o r the T w i n - P r o p e l l e r C o n f i g u r a t i o n of Reference 44; AR = 2.28, C = 0.4.

TS

94

0 . 4

0 . 2

-0.2
-0.4 -0.6
I

-0.2
\

0.2

0 . 4

0 . 6

I
0.8

1 . 0

2Y/b
t
\

Figure 28.

E f f e c to fP r o p e l l e rR o t a t i o n on Span L o a d i n gf o rt h eC o n f i g u r a t i o n of Reference 42; AR = 3.0, C T = ~ 0.64, Q = 10 Degrees.

1.

1
5.2.5
E f f e c t of F l a p D e f l e c t i o n

the design of modern g e n e r a l One of the p r i m e c o n c e r n s i n a v i a t i o n t y p e a i r c r a f t i s the e f f e c t of f l a p d e f l e c t i o n ( p a r t s p a na n df u l l - s p a n )o rb r i n gs t a l l i n gc h a r a c t e r i s t i c sd u r i n g take-offandlanding, i.e. power-on andpower-offconditions r e s p e c t i v e l y . This e f f e c t can be r e a d i l y predicted by the computerprogramdevelopedherein,however the adequacy of the the l a c k o f s u i t a b l e analysis can not be verified because of e x p e r i m e n t a ld a t a . Figure 29 d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e c u r r e n t computerprogram t o p r e d i c t power-on s p a n l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n s a s s o c i a t e dw i t ht h ed e f l e c t i o no fp a r t - s p a nf l a p s .T h i s f i g u r e p r e s e n t s the computed r e s u l t s f o r the t w i n - p r o p e l l e r configurationofReference 44, w i t h a n a r b i t r a r y f l a p o f 60 percentspan. The p r e d i c t e d power-off span loadings, with and withoutflapdeflection,arealso shown forcomparison.
Based on t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n it i s concluded t h a t t h e w i n g - i n - s l i p s t r e a m t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d h e r e i n providesaneffectiveanalytical tool f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e e f f e c t s ofpropellerslipstream onwingspanwise loadings. U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,d u et ot h el a c ko fs u i t a b l ee x p e r i m e n t a ld a t a , these correlations had to be l i m i t e d to unflapped wings I t i s expected,however, o p e r a t i n g a t c o n d i t i o n sb e l o ws t a l l . that if the pressure data was a v a i l a b l e f o r w i n g s a t t h e o n s e t of s t a l l and w i t h p a r t - s p a n d e f l e c t e d f l a p s , t h e p r e s e n t t h e o r y It is would a l s op r o v es a t i s f a c t o r yf o rt h e s ec o n d i t i o n s . t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t t h i s p a r t o f t h e t h e o r y be v e r i f i e d by wind tunnel t e s t s which should include pressure measurements f o r b o t h the wingand theslipstreamfortypicalwing/propeller stall combinations operating close to

96

I
i

1 . 0

"

Sym " "

Flaps

C T ~

--0.8

Down

rn

0 0 0 . 4

" "

0.6 C1

0 . 4
" " "

---""

"

-""

0.2

0 0

0.2
/

0.4 2y/b

0.6
\

0.8

1.0

1 I

L
"_

.
\

1
I

Figure 2 9P . redicted Spanwise Loadings for t h e TwinPropellerConfigurationofReference44to show t h e E f f e c t o f F l a p D e f l e c t i o n : AR = 4 . 7 , Q = 10 Degrees.


97

,'

SECTION 6

/
,I
,

'CO@CLUSIONS AND RECOI@ENDATIONS


/
I
I

1.

This report p r e s e n t sa n a l y t i c a lm e t h o d s for predicting s p a n w i s el o p dd i s t r i b u t i o n so fs t r a i g h t - w i n g / p r o p e l l e r c o m b i n a t i o n so p e r a t i n g up t o s t a l l , f o r a r a n g e of aspect ratio, from about 2.0 a n d h i g h e r .


\

2.

The a n a l y t i c 4 1m e t h o d sd e v e l o p e dh e r e i n employ nonl i n e a r l i f t c u r v e s , i n the form of computerized table look-u,p s u b r o u t i n e s , f o r a v a r i e t y of wing a i r f o i l s and a n e x t e n s i v e s e l e c t i o n of t y p i c a l p r o p e l l e r blade s e c t i o n s . These methods a r e therefore a p p l i c a b l e t o a w i d e r a n g e of wing/,propeller configurations and operating conditions

3.

The p r e d i c t e dr e s u l t sf o r both p r o p e l l e r slipstream velocitydistributionsandfor wingspanwiseloadings are g e n e r a l l y i n goodagreement w i t h the l i m i t e d t e s t d a t a . However, due t o the l a c k of s u i t a b l e experimental d a t a i n v o l v i n gp r e s s u r em e a s u r e m e n t s onwingscloseto stall andwithpark-span deflected f l a p s , t h e f u l l capability of the a n a l y s i s c o u l d n o t be v e r i f i e d . shown i nS e c t i o n 5 , it i s concluded t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r i z e d m e t h o d s d e v e l o p e d h e r e i n represent an effective analytical tool for predicting the ,power-on a n d p o w e r - o f f s t a l l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of generalaviation aircraft.
Based o nt h ec o r r e l a t i o n s

4.

5.

I n viewof the p r o m i s i n gr e s u l t so b t a i n e di n this study, it i s s t r o n g l y recommended t h a t a comprehensivewind the n e c e s s a r y tunnelprogram be u n d e r t a k e n t o p r o v i d e ex,perimental d a t a base t o c o m p l e t e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the analysis.
I t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t the w i t nu dn n e l test programmustinclude d e t a i l e d pressure measurements f o r both the wing and the slipstream f t oy r p i cw a li n g / p r o p e l l e rm m b i n a t i o n so p e r a t i n gt h r o u g h o u t the e n t i r e r a n g eo fa n g l eo fa t t a c ku pt oa n di n c l u d i n g stall.

6.

,
i
I

98

SECTION 7

REFERENCES

1,. McVeigh, M. A.: and Kisielowski, E.: Design Summary of I S t a l l Characteristics of S t r a i g h t Wing Aircraft. NASA 1 CR 1646, June 1971. i
2. ,I
I

S i v e l l s , James C.: and Westrick,Gertrude, C.: Method f o r C a l c u l a t i n g L i f t D i s t r i b u t i o n s for Unswept Wings w i t h Flaps or A i l e r o n s by u s e of Nonlinear Section L i f t Data.
NACA Rep.

1090, 1952.

3.

Koning, C. : I n f l u e n c e of the P r o p e l l e r on O t h e r Parts of the A i r p l a n eS t r u c t u r e . Aerodynamic Theory (Durand, F. W., E d i t o r ) V o l . 4. D i v i s i o n W. J u l i u sS p r i n g e r ,B e r l i n ,1 9 3 5 . G l a u e r t , H. : "he L i f t and Drag of a Wing Spanning a Free J e t . R & M 1603. Franke, A.: and Weinig, F.: The E f f e c t of t h eS l i p s t r e a mo n a nA i r p l a n e Wing. NACA TM 920.

4.
5.

6. Stuper,

J . :

E f f e c to fP r o p e l l e rS l i p s t r e a m

on Wing and T a i l .

NACA m874, 1938.

7.

Graham, E. W.: Lagerstrom, P. A.: L i c h e r , R. M.: and Beane, B. J . : A P r e l i m i n a r y Theoretical I n v e s t i g a t i o no f the Effects of Propeller Slipstream on Wing L i f t . D o u g l a s A i r c r a f t Co. Report SM-14991, 1953. Weissinger, J . : The L i f t D i s t r i b u t i o no f NACA TM 1120, 1947

8.

Swept-Back Wings.

9. Ribner, H. s.: and E l l i s , N. of a Wing i n a Slipstream. 10.


I

D.:

Theory and Computer Study AIM Paper No. 66-466, 1966.

Brenckmann, J . : Experimental I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e A e r o dynamics of a Wing i n a S l i p s t r e a m , J. Aeron. Sci. 8 Vo1.25, NO. 5 May 1958, pp. 324-328 Gobetz, F, W,: A Review of theWing-Slipstream Problem w i t h Experiments on a Wing Spanning a C i r c u l a r J e t . Princeto U n niversity Department of Aeronautical Engineering 8 Report489,1960.

11,
,

99

12.

Snedeker, R i c h a r d S.: Experimental Determination of Spanw i s e L i f t Effects on a Wing of I n f i n i t e A s p e c t Ratio Spanning a C i r c u l a r Jet. P r i n c e t o nU n i v e r s i t y , Department of AeronauticalEngineering, Report 525,1961.

13,. Rethorst, S . : Royce, W.: and wu8 T. Yao-tsu: L i f t Characteristics of Wings Extending Through Propeller Slip-. streams. Vehicle Research CorporationReport No. 1, 1958.
1 4 .

Goland, L.: Miller, N.: B u t l e r , L.: Effects of P r o p e l l e r Slipstream on V/STOL Aircraft P e r f o r m a n c e a n d S t a b i l i t y . USAAVLABS T e c h n i c a l Report 64-47,1964. Huang, K. P.: Goland, L.: and Balin, J . : Charts f o r EstimaS W L Aircraft Wings Immersed t i n g AerodynamicForceson No. DCR-161, i nP r o p e l l e rS l i p s t r e a m .D y n a s c i e n c e sR e p o r t BureauofNaval Weapons, Department of the Navy, Washingt o n , D O C # November 1965.

15.

1 6 .B u t l e r , L. : HUand, K . P. : andGoland, L. : An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f P r o p e l l e r Slipstream Effects on V/STOL Aircraft Performance a n dS t a b i l i t y , USAAVLABS Technical Report 65-81, February1966.
17.

George, M.: a n d Kisielowski, E.: I n v e s t i g a t i o n of P r o p e l l e r S l i p s t r e a m Effects on Wing Performance. USAAVLABS Techn i c a l R e p o r t 67-67,1967.
Fejer,: A. : L i f t i n gL i n eT h e o r yf o r a Wing i nL i n e a r l y Varying Flow. Ph.D. Thesis, C a l i f o r n i aI n s t i t u t e of

18.

Technology, Pasadena, California, 1945.


19.

G l a u e r t , H.: The Elements of A i r f o i l and A i r s c r e w Theory. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959. Durand, W. F. ( E d i t o ri n Chief) : Aerodynamic Theory, Volume I V . Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s ,I n c . , New York, 1963. Lock, C. N. H.: and Yeatman, D.: Tables for' Use. i na n 'Improved Method of A i r s c r e w S t r i p Theory C a l c u l a t i o n . Aeronauti-ca1 Research Council, Reports and Memoranda 1674,October1934.

20.

21.

100

22

. . .

Kuchemann, D.: A Simple Method f o r C a l c u l a t i n g the Span , andChordwiseLoading on S t r a i g h t a n d Swept Wings of any Aspect Ratio. R & M 2935, August 1952.
F i l o t a s , L. T.: F i n i t e Chord Effects on Vortex Induced I Wing Loads. AIAA J o u r n a l V o l u m e 11, No. 6 , June 1973. &Young, J.: Spanwise Loading f o r Wings and Control S u r f a c e s o f Low Aspect R a t i o , NACA TN 2011, August , 1940.
I
I

23.

24

25.
26

Abbott, I
,

H. and Von Doenhoff, A. E.: Sections. Dover, New York 1958.

Theory of Wing

I
!

Abbott, Jr., F. T. and Von Doenhoff, A. E.: The Langley I TWO-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel.
NACA TN-1283
I

27.

S t a c k , J.: Lindsey, W. F. and L i t t e l l , R. E.: The Comp r e s s i b i l i t y B u r b l e and t h e E f f e c t o f C o m p r e s s i b i l i t y on Pressures a n d ForcesActing on a n A i r f o i l . NACA Rept. N o . 646, 1938. Treon, S. L.: The E f f e c t s of Amounh Summers, J. L. and and Type of Camber on The V a r i a t i o n w i t h Mach N u m b e r of t h e Aerodynamic Characteristics o f a 10-Percent-Thick, NACA 6 4 A - S e r i e s A i r f o i lS e c t i o n . NACA TN-2096. Wing-NacelleRobinson, R. G. and H e r r n s t e i n , W. H.: P r o p e l l e r I n t e r f e r e n c e f o r Wings of Various Spans; Force and Pressure D i s t r i b u t i o n Tests. NACA R i d p f X t N o . 569, 1936. Reid, E. G.: Wake S t u d i e so fE i g h t NACA TN-1040, J u l y , 1946. Model P r o p e l l e r s .

28

29.

30.

31.

I n v e s t i g a t i o no f the Draper, J. W. and Kuhn, R. E.: Aerodynamic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a Model Wing-Propeller Combination and o f t h e Wing and Propeller S e p a r a t e l y a t Angles of A t t a c k up t o 90, NACA TN-3304. Hammach, J. a n d Bogeley, A. W . : P r o p e l l e rF l i g h t I n v e s t i g a t i o n t o D e t e r m i n e t h e E f f e c t s of Blade Loading, NACA TN-2022

32

101

33.

McLemore, H . C. and Cannon, M. D.:

Aerodynamic Invebtig a t i o n of a F o u r - B l a d e P r o p e l l e r Operating t h r o u g h an Angle-of- A t t a c k Range from Oo t o 180, NACA TN-3228

34.

C u r r i e , M. M. a n d Dunsby, J . A.: Pressure Distributions and Force Measurements on a VTOL T i l t i n g W i n g - P r o p e l l e r National R e s Model. P a r t 11: Analysis of Results. earch Council of Canada, NRC A e r o . R e p t . LR-284, June 1960

35.

B o r s t , H. V. and Ladden, R. M.: Propeller T e s t i n g a t Zero V e l o c i t y , C&/AVLABS Symposium P r o c e e d i n g s : V o l 1, June 1966.


Wickens, R. H . : Aerodynamic Force and Moment Characte r i s t i c s of a F o u r - B l a d e d P r o p e l l e r Yawed Through 120 Degrees. National Research Council of Canada. NRC A e r o . Rept. LR-454, May 1966.

36.

37.

Weick, F. E . : H i l l , 1960.

A i r c r a f t P r o p e l l eD r esign.

McGraw

38

P i n k e r t o n , R. M.

andGreenberg, H. : Aerodynamic Characteristics. of a Large Number of A i r f o i l s T e s t e d i n t h e V a r i a b l e - D e n s i t y Wind Tunnel, NACA Report No. 628, 1938.

39.

Lindsey, W. F,: Stevenson, D. B. and Daley, B. N.: Aerodynamic Characteristics of 24 NACA 1 6 - S e r i e s A i r f o i l s a t Mach Numbers Between 0.3 and 0.8. NACA TN-1546, September 1948

40.

Abbott, I. H . : Von Doenhoff, A. E . a n dS t i v e r s , Sumnary of A i r f o i l Data. NACA TR-824, 1945.

L.

S . :

41.

L o f t i n , L. K . 8 Jr. a n d Snith, H. A,: Aerodynamic Characteristics of 1 5 NACA A i r f o i l S e c t i o n s a t Seven . 7 x lo6 t o 9.0 x 106 Reynolds N u m b e r s from 0
NACA TN-1945,

1949.

42.

C u r r i e , M. M., and Dunsby, J. A.: Pressure Distribution andForceMeasurementson a V m L TiltingWing-Propeller Model P a r t 11; A n a l y s i s of R e s u l t s . NRC LR-284, June 1960.

102

43.

Falkner, V. M.: The S o l u t i o no fL i f t i n g P l a n e Problems by Vortex Lattice Theory. R & M 2591, September 1 9 4 7 .
N i s h i m u r a , Y.: An E x p e r i m e n t a l Investigation by Force and Surface Pressure Measurements of a Wing Irmnersed i n a P r o p e l l e r S l i p s t r e a m Part 11; Surface Pressure Measurements. NRC LR-525, June 1969.

44.

103

APPENDIX A PROPELLER T I P LOSS CORRECTION TABLES

Thisappendixpresents a c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d l i s t i n g of the propeller t i p l o s s c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s u t i l i z e d by the c o m p u t e rp r o g r a md e s c r i b e dh e r e i n .T h e s ec o r r e c t i o nf a c t o r s are a p p l i e d a s d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 4.1 t o o b t a i n a n im,provement t o the a p p r o x i m a t e t i p loss f a c t o r g i v e n by e q u a t i o n ( 1 6 ) . T h e s e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s are based directly on the t a b u l a t e dv a l u e sg e n e r a t e d byLock, a s g i v e ni nR e f e r e n c e 21. However, the o r i g i n a l t a b l e s g i v e n by Lock havebeenmodified f o r moreuniformincrements i n the two a n de n l a r g e dt op r o v i d e parametric v a r i a b l e s , r a n d s i n $ These c h a n g e sp e r m i t a more e f f i c i e n t t a b l e look-u,p i n t e r p o l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e a n d p r o v i d e f o r a ni m p r o v e dd e f i n i t i o no f the c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s . The a d d i t i o n a l a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e v a l u e s o f these f a c t o r s were obtainedthroughcrossplottingof the o r i g i n a l t a b u l a t e d d a t a a n d by u s i n g s u i t a b l y f a i r e d c u r v e s .

The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s a r e , p r e s e n t e d f o r , p r o p e l l e r s more h a v i n g e i t h e r 2 , 3 , o r 4 b l a d e s . F o r, p r o p e l l e r sw i t h t h a n 4 b l a d e s , the compuberprogramassumes a correction f a c t o r of u n i t y f o r a l l v a l u e s o f 2 and s i n # .

104

I T I P LC.SS C C K R E C T I C N S

T A B U L A T I O N CF k / F P

FOR 2

I ~ L A ~ EP CR E P E L L E K S

R/RP

0:

0.4

c.5

C.6

0.7

-0.8

0 . 9

1.0
-~
~

SN(Pl-I)
0.co

1.ooc
1.OOC

1..000 1.COC
1.COO

1.ooc

1.CCO
1.CCO

1.000 1.0 0 0 .0 998 (3.996

1.000

1.G00

$A00

0.. 0 5

1.CCC

Ot9~kC.990
G.990
0.97,8,

( 2 . 1 0
0.0 15
0.20

1.000

0.999

0.998

C.983
0.966.

G.976

0.9 09 .9 09 .9 b 09 .9 7 09 .9 487 0.995 C.994 O.99C 0.984 C.972

0.955
1

(3.959
,I

C,.,$40
,
/

p . 9 2 3

Q.45

rl.356

C.341
C.929

0.913 C.894 0.876

(2.879 0.852 0.827 0 806 6.791

0.831
0.801 c.777 0.759

C.i86;C.746

0.711

0.50

0.954

0 . 7$ 5.7 717
/

0.681
0.656

0.55
0 060

C.953
0.955
0.Y63

G.91@ Go907

0.851:
0.843

0 . 7 3 4 /. 0 . 6 9 4
I

0 0.65
0.70
O.i!5

0-0 9C 0
C.897 c.E!99

.7 4 4
Go658 C.646 C.634 C.6G7 0.564 0.547 c.531 0.515

0.975

0.835

0 0-700
0 ..777 0.777

c.735 C.726 C.718 0.710 0.7U4 C.638

C.992 1.015 1.056 1.128 1.240

0.833
0.840 0.855

0.80
0.85
0.90

c.. 9 1 1
0.442 C.990 1 .C6C

0 .i780
0.784 0.791

0.592
0.577 0.563 0.5SO

0.877
0.906

0-95
1.00

C.623

1,512

10 .1 C .9 7o 4 00 t0 7 .6 93 82

(3.612

0.500

105

T1.P L C S S C C R K E C T I C N S

TABljLATIOhi CF F/FP

F O R 3 B L A U f O PROPLLEHS

R'/ R P

o.3

0.4

c.5

C . 6

c.7

0.8

0 . 9

1 . 0

1.ooo
2.000

1.coo

1.ccc 1.ccc
0.SSS

1.GOcj

1.ooc
1.000 0.999 0.995

1.ocii
c. 999
0.995
0.990
C. 9 8 2
0.9-/1

1.coo
G.997

1.ooci
0.995

1.coo
1.OOC
c.999

1.oco
G.4S9
0.957

0.1c
0.15 0.2c

1.oco
(3.999 c.997
C.Y95

C.992

0.987
0.976

0.997
O.cj94

C.985
6.972
c.953 0.931

C.996
c.9c33

(3.993
C.587 C.980 C.971
(3.553 (3.945
COS31

C 990
C.Y81

0.96C
0.938
0.910

u.25
0.3C

C.931
C.986

C.992 c.9e9
C.985

C.930

(2.968

0.955 6.935 G.91L' C.886 0.861

0.35

G.985
G.975

0.975 0.97c (3.961 0.953 0.947 C.341

c.954
0.Y38
G.919

C.905
Go876
(2.845

6.879 ci.844

0.4C
0.45

C.980

0.973

0.803
3077.7
lJ.749

5.50

C.976
(2.975 C.978

C.567 C.964
C.965

G.900
G.882 C.865

0.815
C.789

u.55
0.60 0.65
0.70

C.318

C.837 Go816

C.906

0.765
c.744

0.724
0.701
(3.680

G.986
c.99q

C.568
C.976

0.935
0.938
0093s
(2.344

C.897

C. 8 4 9
0.835 C.823
C.815

C. 7 9 6

0,890
c.8~35

0.75

1.02c

(2.986
1.co1
1.C28

c ; .
c.

c.

779

Go725
0.706
0.689

P63

0.661 0.644 0.627

0.80 0.85

1.051
1.099 1.163 1.255
1.535

C.1182
c.886
C.897
Go914 0.935

750

0.957
(3.9e4

0.812
0.814 C.815

0.739
C. 7 3 0

0.675

0.90

1 C73
1,145 1.275

C.663
(2.652

0.611
0.597 0.583

0 095

1.c25

C, 722
(2,715

1.co
106

1.coc

C.817

0.642

TI-P LESS CCHRECTICNS

TABCILbTION

CF F/FP

FOR 4 B L A D E D P R O P E L L E R S

0.25

0.998

C.998 c.995 C.992

0.596 0.593 C.9139 0.984 0.97s 0.$74 0.97~

0.994 C.591 0.98s 0.977 0.967 0.958 0.949 0.942

0.991 0.984 0.974


C 9.62

0.30 0.35
0 .4i)

C.996 2.994 0.991

C.588
C..Y84 0.981 0.980

0.45 0.50

C.987
C.985
c.385

0.9411 c.933 Go919 (3.905 (3.756 C.8UO

0.55
0.6C

C.987 (2.981 0.966 c.993 1.004 1.022 1.049 1.090

0 -65
0.70

Q.985
C.991 0.965 0.926 1.004

0.965 OoG32 0.892 0.848 Co8Cl

Go833
Go818
0.806

(2.783 0.765 (3.748

0.737 0.719 0.701 0.684

0.75 0 . .8 0
0.85

0.565

0.922 0.870

1.021 0.976 0.921 0.862 1.C48 1.~90

01989

0.923

0.857

0.795 0.733

0 9.0

1.155
1.25C 1.493

1 . ~ 0 0 ~. 9 02 .8 (9 2 5.5 7~6

c.720

0.667

0.95
1.00

1.156 1.043 0.943 C.857 0.779 0.709 1.267 1.095 0.965 0.862 0.773 0.699

0.652
0.637

107

APPENDIX B PROPELLER AIREXIIL T.ABLE-S


Y
3
.."

the

This a p . p n d i - x p r e s e n t s a, computer-generated l i s t i n g of p r o - p e l l e r blade s e c t i o n data t a b l e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r use by the computerprogram.

E&h table c o n t a i n s the v a l u e s o f l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t verpus angle of attack f o r a r a n g e o f Mach number c o n d i t i o n s f o r : o n e s p e c i f i e d a i r f o i l s e c t i o n . A t the head of each t a b l e i s ' d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the a i r f o i l name and d a t a source. This is f o l l o w s by the a i r f o i l s e r i e s c o d ei d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d the maingeometricand t e s t ,parameters.

The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s c o n t a i n the selected p r o p e l l e r s t a t i m characteristics f o r a i r f o i l s of the U.S.N.P.S., Clark Y, NACA 1 6 , NACA 64 and NACA 65 families. The sets o f tables f o r each a i r f o i l series a r e a r r a n g e d i n the s p e c i f i c o r d e ro fi n c r e a s i n g Mach number, t h i c k n e s s / c h o r d r a t i o a n d design l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t , as n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o p e r u t i l i z a t i o n by the computerprogram.

108

PROPELLER BLADE SECTION AIRFOIL TABLES A I R F O I L SECTIOIY TASLB DATA SOURCE USNPS -1104 USNPS -Mob USNPS

-1100

USNPS

10

USNPS

-1112

USNPS

-)I14

F E WEICK

F E WEICK

F E YEICK 1
0.000

F E YEICK
1
0.000 0.100 0.070 -4.300 0.000
-4.300 4.000 6.000

F E WEICK
1
0.000 0.120 0.070 -5 250 0.000

F E YEICK

A I R F O I L SER CODE OESICN LIFT COEFF THICKNESS / CHORO MACH NUMBER ZERO L I F T ALPHA EXTRAP COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

1
0.000

1
0.000
0.060

1
0.000 00140 0.070 -6.300 0.000 -6.300 -4.000 -2.000 0.390 2.000 0.765 4.000 0.935 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 13.000 14.000 16.000 0.000 0.200

0.040 0.070 -1.900 0.000 -1.900


0.000
0.000

0.070 -2.600
0.000

0.080 0.070 -3.350


0.000

2.000 4.000
6.000

0.200 0.420 0.615 0.760


0.860

-2,600 2.000 4.000


6.000 8.000

0.000

0.465
0.660 0.850

-3.350 4.000
6.000 8.000

8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 0.000 0.000


AlRFOIL SECTION TABLE DATA SUUKCC USNPS E F

0.915 0.930 0.925 0.885 0.000 0.000 16


WEICK

10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 0.000


0.000 0.000

1.020 1.075 1.040 1.010 0.990


0.000

10.000 11.000 12.000 14.000


16.000

0.000
0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000


USNPS E F

0.000 0.735 0.925 1.105 1.200 1.215 1.160 1.105 1.060 0.000
0.000

0.000

0.800
0.985 1.145 1.310 1.395 1.435 1.235 1.095 0.000 0.000 0.000

-5.250 2.000 4.000


6.000 8.000 10.000

0.000 0.700
0.880

8.000 10.000 11.000 12.000 14.000 16.000

0.000
-HZ0
WEICK

0.000 0.000 0.000

12.000 13.200 14.000 16.000


0.000 0.000

1.055 1.220 1.370 1.470 1.490 1.480 1.240 0.000 0.000

1.090 1.230 1.355 1.440 1.430 1.385 1.230

USNPS E F

18
WEICK

A I R F O I L SER CODE

1
0.000

1
0.000 0.180 0.070 -8.700 0.000

1
0.000 0.200 0.070 -10.200 0.000

0 0.000
0.000

0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000


0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000


0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

OESICN L I F T COEFF
THlCKNESS / CHORO MACH NUMBER Z E R O L I F T ALPHA EXTRAP COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

0.160 0.070 -7.400


0.000

0.000 0 .ooo 0.000


0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 . 0 0 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0-000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 . 0 0 0 0.000 0.000

-7.400
-6.000

0.000

-4.000 -2.000 2.000 4.000


6.000

8.000 10.000 12.000 13.000 14.000


16.000 0.000

0.110 0.270 0.450 0.795 0.950 1.095 1.210 1.305 1.375 1.365 1.305 1.195
0.000

-8.700 -4.000 -2.000 0.000 2.000 4.000


6.000

0.000

-10.200
-6.000 -4.000

0.000

8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 0.000


0.000

0.320 0.490 0.650 0.795 0.950 1.070 1.165 1.240 1.285 1.220 1.135
0.000 0.000

-2.000
0.000

0.215 0.345 0.490 0.630

.o.ooo

2.000 0.760 0.890 4.000 6.000 1.010 8.000 1.110 10.000 1.165 11.000 1.1.80 1.170 12.000 14.000 1.135 1.060 16.000

.o.ooo

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

o..ooo
0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0;ooo
0.000

r r
0
PROPELLER BLADE AIRFOlL SECTION TA8LE D A T A SOURCE AlRFOIL SER C O O DESIGN L I F T COEFF THICKNESS / CHORD NACH NUMBER Z E R O L I F T ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL: VALUES CLARK.Y-MO6 NACA TR-628 2
0.000

SECTION AIRFOIL TABLES CLARK-Y-MI0 NACA TR-628 2 0.000 0.100 0.060 -4.560
0.000

CLARK-Y-HOB NACA TR-628 2


0.000 0.080 0.060 -3.560
0.000

CLARK-Y NACA TR-628

CLARK-Y-Ill4 NACA TR-628

CLARKeY-MlB NACA TR-628 2

2
0.000 0.117 0 060 -5.000 0.000

0.060
0.060

0.000 0.140

0.000

0.180
0.060 -7.600 -0.000

0.060
-6.200 0.000 -6.200 2.000
4.000

-2.950
0.000 -6.000

-2.950 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000

-0.300 0.000 0.680 0.865 0.985 1.060 1.070 1.050 1.020 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 . 0 0 0 0.000 0.000

-6.000 -0.235
-3.560
6.000 8.000 0.000

-6.000
-4.560 2.000 4.000
6.000

0.925 1.110 1.370 1.170 1.100 0.000


0.000 0.000 0.000

-0.130 0.000 0.640

-6.000 -0.095
-5.000 -2.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 15.300 1.680 16.000 20.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.285 1.030 1.200 1.360 1.485 1.610 1.500 1.300 0.000 0.000

0.830
1.015 1.365 1.500 1.635 1.680 1.420 1.220
0.000

6.000
8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 20.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

10.000 1.280 11.500 12.000 1.290 14.000 16.000


0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

1o.aoo

8.000 1.195

12.000 14.000 14.800 16.000 20.000 0.000

0.000 0.800 0.985 1.160 1.315 1.465 1.590 1.720 1.550 1.430 0.000 0.000 0.000

-7.600 -6.000 -4.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 13.000 14.000 1.470 16.000 20.000

0.000

0.160
0.350 0.890 1.040 1.185 1.315 1.420 1.470 1.480 1.430 1.360

AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE DATA SOURCE

CLARK.Y-MZ2 NACA TR-628 2


0.000 0.220 0.060 -9.290 0.000

NACA 16106 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16106

NACA 16106 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16106 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16106

NACA TN-1546

AIRFOIL SER CODE DESIGN L I F T COEW THICKNESS / CHORD HACH NUMBER ZERO L I F T ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

3
0.100 0.060 0.300 -1.050 0.760 -2.000 -0.085 -1.050 0.000 0.000 0.100 2.000 0.305 4.000 0.510

3
0.100 0.060 0.450 -1.100

3
0.100 0 060

3
0.100 0.060 0 e 700 -1.000

3
0.100 0.060
0.750 -1.000 0.760

0 . 6 0 0
-1.000 0.760
-2.000 -0.105 0.000 0.110 0.340 2.000 0.600 4.000 5.000 0.705 0.780 6.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.760
-2.000 -0.090 0.000 0.105 2.000 0.305 4.000 0.540 6.000 0.705 8.000 0.820 9.000 0.835 10.000 0.810 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.160
-2.000 -0.130 0.000 0.120 2.000 0.37s 3.000 0.540 3.770 0.725 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.~000 0.000

-9.290 -6.000 -4.000 0.480


0.000

0.000

0.300
0.800 1.085 1.185 1.265 1.320 1.350 1.360 1.340 1.300

2.000 0.950 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000

6.000
8.000
9.000

0.670

10.000

.o.arro0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

13.000
14.000 16.000 20.000 1.240

0.8.15 0.850 0.855 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

-0.145 -2.000 2.000 0.405 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

PROPELLER BLADE AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE DATA SOURCE AIRFOIL SER COOE DESIGN L I F T COEFF THICKNESS I CHORO MACH NUWER LfRO L I F T ALPHA EXTRAP COEFF KCLI ALPHA, C'L VALUES NACA 16106 NACA TN-1546 NACA 16109 NACA TN-1546

SECTION AIRFOIL TABLES NACA, 16109 NACA TN-1546 NACA, 16109 NACA TN-1546 NACA 16109 NACA TN-1546 ' 3 0.100 0.090 0.700 -1.000 0.730 -2.000 -0.100 0.115 0.000 0.365 2.000 4.000 0.520 0.000 0.000 0.000 q.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 16115 NACA TN-1546 NACA 16109 NACA TN-1546

3
0.100
0.060

3
0.100 0.090 0.300 -1.000 0.730 -2.000 -1.000
0.000 2.000

3
0.100 0 090 0.450 -1.100 0.730 -2.000 -0.080 0.095 0.000 2.000 0.295 4.000 0.470 6.000 0.665 8.000 0.785 9.000 0.805 10.000 0.795 11.000 0.775 12.000 0.755 NACA 16115 NACA TN-1546

3
0.100 0.090 0.600 -1.000 0.730
-2.000 -0.090 0.000 0.100 2.000 0.320 4.000 0.500 6.000 0 . 7 0 0 7.000 0.750 8.000 0.780 10.000 0.790 12.000 0.785 0.000 0.000 NACA 16115 NACA TN-1546 3 0.100

3
0.100 0.090 0.750 -0.850 0.730
-2.000 -0.110 -1.000 -0.025 0.000 '0.125 2.000 0.420 3.770 0.630 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 16130 NACA TN-1546 3

0.800 -0.950 0.760 -2.000 -0.950 1.770 0.000 -0.175 0.000 0.450
0.000

I
~

-0.085
0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000


AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE DATA SOURCE AIRFOIL SER COOE

0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 11.000 0.000

0.090 0.295 0.465


0.660

0.790 0.835 0.850 0.000

N A C A 16109

NACA 16115 NACA TN-1546 3


0.100 0.150

NACA TN-1546 3
0.100

3
0.100 0.150 0.450 -0.800 0.600

3
.

DESIGN L I F T COEFP
THICKNESS / CHORO FACH NUMBER Z E R O LIFT ALPHA E X T R A P C O E F F KCLI, 9LPHAq C C VALUES

0.090 0.800 -1.000 0.730 -2.000 -0.130 -1.000 0.000 0.360 1.770 0.000 0.000

O.lS&-J"
0.600 -0.800 0.600

0.300
-0.eoo 0.600
-2.000 -0.110 0.000 -0.800 0.000 0.080 0.260 2.000 0.350 4.000 5.000 0.390 0.445 6.000 7.000 0.515 0.620 8.000 0.785 10.000 11.770 0.855

0.100 0.150 0.70-0 - 0 . BOO 0 600

'

. -

."

0.100 0.300 0.300 0.500 -0.190

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

-2.000 -0.110 0.000 0.080 2.000 0.260 4.000 0.330 5.000 0.380 6.000 0.445 8.000 0.620 10.000 0.790 0.800 11.000 11.770 0.780 0.000 0.000

-2.000 -0.115 0.000 0.085 2.000 0.280 4.000 0.355 5.000 0.405 6 . 0 0 0 0.470 0.620 8.000 10.000 0.860 11.000 0.830 11.770 0.690 0.000 0.000

-2.000 -0.130 -0.800 0.000 0.085 0.000 2.000 0.295 0.400 3.770 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

-2.000 -0.110 0.000 -0.025 0.000 0.500 2.000 0.100 4.000 0.195 6.000 0.245 8.000 0.260 10.000 0.295 11.770 0.345 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

r I-J r

PROPELLER BLADE AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE O A T A SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE DESIGN L I F T COEFF THICKNESS / CHORO M A C H NUMBER L E K 0 L I F T ALPHA E X T R A P C O E F F KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES NACA 16130 NACA TN-1546 NACA 16130 NACA TN-1546

SECTION AIRFOIL TABLES


N A C A 16306

NACA 16306 NACA TN-1546 3 0.300 0.060 0.450 -2.400 0.760 -4.000 -0.190 -2.000 0.045 0.270 0.000 2.000 0.490 4.000 0.675 6.000 0.865 8.000 0.965 0.980 9.000 9.770 0.980 0.000 0.000 NACA 16309 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16306 NACA TN-1546 3 0.300 0.060 0.600 -2.300 0.760 -4.000 -0.220 -2.000 0.035 0.000 0.295 1.000 0.420 2.000 0.540 3.000 0.650 4.000 0.780 0.895 5.000 6.000 0.970 1.010 7.770 NACA 16309 NACA TN-1546 3

NACA 16306 NACA TN-1546

NACA TN-1546

3
0.100 0.300 0.450 0.500 -0.190
-2.000 0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 11.770 0.000 0.000 -0.140 -0.030 0.080 0.160 0.180 0.185 0.235 0.290 0.000 0.000

3
0.100

3
0.300 0.060 0.300 -2.400 0.760 -4.000 -2.400 -2.000 0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 9.770 0.000 -0.190 0.000 0.045 0.265 0.490 0.640 0.800 0.960 1.010 0.000

3
0.300 0.060 01700 -2 300 0.760

0.300 0.600
-0.500 -0.190 -2.000 -0.155 -0.500 0.000 0.000 0.030 2.000 0.030 4.000 0.085 6.000 0.105 8.000 '2.135 9.770 0.190 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

-4.000 -0.260 ,3.770 0.920 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000


0.000 0.000

0.000

AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE O A T A SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE DESIGN L I F T COEFF THICKNESS / CHORO MACH NUMBER Z E R O L I F T ALPHA: E X T R A P COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

NACA 16306
N A C A TN-1546

NACA 16309 NACA TN-1546 3 0.300 0.090 0.300 -2.450 0.730 -4.000 -2.450 -2.000 0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 9.000 10.000 11.000 11.770 -0.155 0.000 0.045 0.240 0.450 0.610 0.750 0.905 0.950 0.975 0.980 0.960

N A C A 16309

NACA 16309 NACA TN-1546

NACA TN-1546 3 0.300 0.090 0.450 -2.600 0.730 -4.000 -0.160 -2.000 0.055 0.000 0.250 2.000 0.455 4.000 0.620 6.000 0.800 8.000 0.930 9.000 0.955 10.UOO 0.950 0.920 11.770 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

3
0.300 0.060 0.750 -2.200 0.760
-4.000 -2.200 0.000 1.770 0.000 -0.340 0.000 0.360

3
0.300 0.090 0.600 -2.500 0.730 -4.000 -2.000 0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 9.000 9.770 -0.190 0.050 0.270 0.490 0.690 0.900 1.080 1.070 0.950

0 300 0.090 0.700 -2.500 0 730


-4.000

0.300
0.090 0.750 -2 350 0.730

-0.190
0.320 0.890

0.000
3.770

-4.000 -2.350
1.770

-0.205

0.000
0.650 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.730
0.000 0.000

0.000

0.000

O.ObO
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

o.oc0
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000


0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000

0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000. 0.000

PROPELLER BLADE SECTION AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE OATA SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE DESIGN LIFT COEFf THICKNESS / CHORO Y A C H NUMBER Z E R O LIFT ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES NACA 16312 NACA TN-1546 NACA 16312 NACA TN-1546 3

AIRFOIL TABLES NACA 16312 NACA TN-1546 NACA 16315 NACA TN-1546 NACA 16315 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16312

NACA TN-1546

3
0.300
0.120

3
0.300 0.120 0.600 -2.800 0.690

3
0 300 0.120 0.700

3
0 300 0.150 0.300 -2.100
0.600

3
0.300 0.150 0.450 -3.000 0.600 -4.000 -0.045 -2.000 0.050 -1.000 0.110 0.000. 0.200 2.000 0.400 4.000 0.520 6.000 0.580 0.650 7.000 8.000 0.750 10.000 0.890 11.770 0.960 0 . 0 0 0 0.000 0 . 0 0 0 0.000 N K A 16506 NACA TN-1546 3 0.500 0.060 0.300 -3.900 0.760 -3.900 1.000 2.000 4.000 0.740 6.000 8.000 9.000 0.000

0.300
0.120 0.450 -2.800 0.690 -4.000 -2.000 0.000 2.000 4.000 5.000
-0.100 0.065 0.230 0.420 0.550 0.620 6.000 0.715 8.000 0.900 9.000 0.940 9.770 0.950 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.300
-2.600

-3.000
0.690 -4.000 -0.080 -3.000 0.000 0.000 0.285 2.000 0.505 3.770 0.705 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 . 0 0 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 . ~ 0 0 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 16321 NACA TN-1546

0.690
-0.110 -2.600 0.000 0.000 0.215 2.000 0.410 3.000 0.485 0.540 4.000 6.000 0.700 8.000 0.835 10.000 0.935 0.965 11.000 11.170 0.960 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
-4.000

-4.000 -0.105 -2.000 0.080 0.000 0.265 2.000 0.490 0.570 3.000 4.000 0.615 0.680 5.000 6.000 0.770 7.770 0.940
0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000

0.000
0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000 0.000

-4.000 -0.070 -3.000 -0.040 -2.100 0.000 0.000 0.195 2.000 0.370 4.000 0.515 5.000 0.540 6.000 0.570 7.000 0.655 8 . 0 0 0 0.760 10.000 0.885 11.000 0.915 11.770 0.930 NACA 16321 NACA TN-1546 3

AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE O A T A SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE DESIGN LIFT COEFF THICKNESS / CPORO MACH NUMBER Z E R O LIFT ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

NACA 16315
N A C A TN-1546

NACA 16315 NACA TN-1546 3

NACA 16321 NACA TN-1546 3

3
0.300 0.150
0.600 -3.600 0.600

3
0.300 0.210 0.450

0.300
0.150

0.300
0.210 0.300 -1,300 0.370
-4.000

0.700
-3.750
0.600

-1 300
0.370 -4.000 -0.030 -3.000 -0.070 -2.000 -0.060 2.000 0.255 -3.000 0 . 3 3 0 4.000 0.400 0.495 8.000 0.680 11.770 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.300 0.210 0.600 -1.100 0.370


-4.000 0.000 -2.340 -0.100 -1.100 0.000 0.345 3.000 4.000 0.410 6.000 0.430 8.000 0.480 10.000 0.580 11.770 0.790 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

-4.000 -2.000

-0.020

-1.000 0.000
2.000 3.000 4.000 6.000 8.000
10.000 11.770

0.075 0.115
0.200

0.415 0.515 0.570 0.620 0.790 0.940 1.050

-3.750 -2.000 -1..OOO 0.000 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000 7.000 7.770 0.000

0.000 0.085 0.130


0.190 0.290

0.440 0.580 0.725 0.725 0.740


0.000

-0.100 -0.090 -2.000 -0.060 -1.300 0.000 2.000 0.270 4.000 0.425 5.000 0.460 6 . 0 0 0 0.485 8.000 0.500 11.710 0.720 0.000 0.000

-3.000

0.000 0.525 0.625


0.895 1.050 1.090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000 0.000

PROPELLER 8LAOE SECTION AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE OATA SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE DESIGN LIFT COEFF THICKNESS / CHORO MACH NUMBER ZERO LIFT ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES NACA 16506 NACA TN-1546 3 0.500 0.060 0.450 -3.900 0.160
-4.000 -0.010 2.000 0.660 0.720 3.000 4.000 0.795 6.000 0.970 7.770. 1.085

AIRFOIL TABLES NACA 16506 NACA TN-1546 NACA U S 0 9

NACA 16506 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16506 NACA TN-1546

WACA TN-1546

3
0.500 0.060 0.600 -3.700 0.760 -4.000 -0.040 1.000 0.605 2.000 0.730 3.770 0.765 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 16509 NACA TN-1546

3
0.500 0.060 0. 700 -3.500 0.760 -4.000 -0.080 -2.000 0.230 1.770 0.830 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 16509 NACA TN-1546

3
0.500 0.060 0.750 -3.400 0.760

i 0.500
0.090

0.300
-4.200 0.730 -4.200 2.000 4.000

-3.400
-2.000 0.000 1.770 0.000 0.000

0.000
0.240 0.595 0.050 0.000 0.000

0.000
0.615

0.110
0.990

7.170
0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000
NACA 16512
NACA TN-1546

AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE O A T A SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE DESIGN LIFT COEFF THICKNESS / CHORO MACH NUMBER LERO LIFT ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCL ALPHA, CL VALUES

NACA 16509 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16512 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16512 NACA TN-1546

3
0.500 0.090 0.700 -4.200 0.730 -5.000 -0.085 -4.000 0.020 1.770 0.700 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

3
0.500 0.090 0.750 -4.100 0.730 -4.100 0.000 1.710 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.560 0.750 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

3
0.500 0.120 0.300 -4.200 0.690 -4.200 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 11.770

3 0.500
0.120 0.600 -4.200 0.690

0.500
0.090 0.600 -4.200 0.730 -4.000 1.000 2.000 0.720 4.000 5.770 0.000 0.000
0.020 0.605 0.810 0.930 0.000 0.000

0 500 0.120 0.450 -4;250 0 690


-41000
2.000 3.000 4.000 6.000 1.770 0.000 0.02s 0.510 0.645

0.000 0.545 0.100 0.170 0.905 1.010 1.070

-4.000
2.000 3.000 4.000

0.02s 0.620 0.705

ob000 0.420
0.175 0.840 0.000

0.700
0.790 0.910 0.000

5.710 0.000

PROPELLER BLADE SECTION AIRFOIL SECTIOY TABLE D A T A SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE
D E S I G N LIFT COEFP THICKNESS I CHORO MACH NUMBER Z R O LIFT ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCLI

AIRFOIL TABLES NACA 16515 NACA TN-1546 3 0.500 0.150 0.450 '4 500 0.600 -4.000 -2.000 0.000 2 .ooo 3.000 4.000 6 000
8.000

NACA 16512 NACA TN-1546 3 0.500 0.120 0.700


-4.100

NACA 16512 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16515 NACA TN-1546 3 0.500 0.150 0.300 -4.400 0.600 -4.400 -4 .OOO -2.000
0.000

NACA 16515 NACA TN-1546 3 0.500 0.150 0.600 -4.600 0.600 -4.000 -2.000 0.000 2.000 0.045 0.220 0.325 0.525 0.720 0.780 0.840 0.915 0.000 0.000

NACA 16515 NACA TN-1546 3

3
0.500 0.120 0.750 -3.600 0.690 -3.600 -2.000
0.000 2.000 0.000

0.690 -4.000 -2.000


0.000

0.500 0.150 0.700 -4 700 0.600


-4.000 -2.000 -1.000 0.000 2.000 3.770 0.000 0.000 0.000

ALPHA, CL' VALUES

2.000 3.000 3.770


0.000

0.005 0.225 0.440 0.675 0.780


0.825 0.000

3.770
0.000 0.000 0.000

0.200 0.380 0.530 0.680


0.000 0.000 0.000

2.000 4 .ooo
6.000

0.000 0.000 0 .ooo 0.000


AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE DATA SOURCE

0.000 0.000 0 .ooo 0.000

8.000
10.000 12.000 13.770

0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.025 0.155 0.305 0.495 0.660 0.710 0.815 0.920 1.010 1.030

10.000 12.000 13.770

0.040 0.195 0.325 0.520 0.600 0.655 0.715 0.825 0.940 1.025. 1.010

4.000
6.000 7.000 7.770 0.000 0.000

0.065 0.235 0.265 0.315 0.530 0.710 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000

NACA 16515 NACA TN-1546


3

NACA 16521 NACA TN-1546


3

NACA 16521

NACA 16521 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16521 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16530 NACA TN-1546

NACA TN-1546

AIRFOlL SER CODE

3
0.500

3
0.500

3
0.500 0.210 0 700 -0.400 0.370 -2.000 -0.210 -1.000 -0.080 0.000 -0.400 0.000 0.035 2.000 0.020 3.000 0.190 0.270 3.770 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

3
0.500

DESIGN LFT COEFF


THICKNESS I CHOKO MACH NUMBER Z E R O LIFT ALPliA EXTKAP COEFF KCLI ALPI~AI CL VALUES

0.500 0.150 0.750 -1.600 0.600 -2.000 -1.600


0.000 1.000

0.500 0.210 0.300 -2.300 0.370 -2.000 3.000 4.000 5.000 6.000 8. 000 10.000 11.770 0.030 0.455 0.540 0.605 0.650 0.685 0.750
0.860 0.000 0.000

0.210 0.450 -2.000 0.370 -2.000 -1.000 0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 11.770 0.000 0.000

0.210 0.600 -1.800 0.370 -2.000 -1.000 0.000 3.000 4.000 5.000 6.000 7.000 8.000 9.770 0.120 0.120 0.170 0.440 0.530 0.590 0.610 0.660 0.750 0.910

0.300
0.300 1 500 -0.190

-0.045
0.000

2.000 3.770 0.000

0.145 0.210 0.295 0.480 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000

0.070 0.000 0.180 0.360 0.520 0.620 0.670 0.840 0.000


0.000

0.000 -0.100 6.000 0.300 8.000 0.405 3.770 0.470 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 . 0 0 0

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

r r

u l

PROPELLER BLADE AIRFOIL SECTIOY TABLE DATA SOURCE NACA 16530 NACA TN-1546 NACA 16530 NACA TN-1546

SECTION A I R F O I L TABLES
NACA 16109 NACA TN-1546 NACA 16109 NACA TN-1546 NACA 1b709 NACA TN-1546

NACA 16709
NACA TN-1546

A I R F O I L SER CODE DESIGN LIFT COEFF 1 H I C K N E S S / CHORO k A C H NUMBER ZERO L I F T ALPHA EXTRAP COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

3
0.500 0.300
0.450

3 0.500 0.300 0.600

3
0.100
0.090 0.300 -5.400 0.730

3 0.700 0.090 0.450 -5.500 0.730 -6.000 -0.060 -4.000 0.145 0.000 0.580 1.000 0.690 2.000 0.780 4.000 0.880 6.000 1.005 8.000 1.140 9.000 1.200 9.170 1.210 0.000 0.000
NACA 16712 NACA TN-1546

3
0.700 0.090 0.600 -5 500 0.730
-6.000 -0.050 -40000 0.150 -2.000 0.395 0.000 0.645 2.000 0.855 4.000 1.010 5.770 1.110 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
NACA 16712 NACA TN-1546

3
0.100 0.090 0.700 -5.600 0.730 -6.000 -0.020 -5.000 0.040 -4.000 0.150 -2.000 0.445 0.000 0.750 2.000 0.915 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
NACA 16712 NACA TN-1546

2.200 -0.190
0.000 -0.120 2.000 -0.015 4.000 0.115 6.000 0.245 8.000 0.355 9.770 0.415 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 16709 NACA TN-1546

3.200
-0.190
0.000 - 0 . 2 8 0 3.200 0.000 0.070 4.000 6.000 0.120 8.000 0.260 9.773) 9.430 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 16709 NACA TN-1546

-6.000 -0.065 0.000 -5.400 -4.000 0.140 -2.000 0.345 0.000 0.550 2 . 0 0 0 0.755 3.000 0.815 4.000 0.850 0.895 5.000 6.000 6.965 1.770 1.080 NACA 16712 NACA TN-1546

AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE DATA

SOURCE

A I R F O I L SER COO D E S I G NL I F TC O E F F T H I C K N E S S I CHORO MACH hlUM8ER ZERO L I F T ALPHA tXTRAP COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

3
0.700 0.090 0.750 -5.400 0.130
-4.000 -2.000
0.000

3
0.700 0.090 0.775 -3.500 0.730

3
0.700 0.120 0.300 -5.500 0.690 -6.000 -0.040 -4.000 0.120 0.000 0.495 0.685 2.000 0.885 4.000 6.000 0.930 8.000 1.025 10.000 1.140 11.770 1.210

3
0.700 0.120 0.450 -5 600 0 s 690 -6.000 -0.035 -4.000 0.130 -2.000 0.340 2.000 0.740 4.000 0.910 6.000 0.960 8.000 1.085 9.770 1.115 0.000 0.000

3
0. 700 0.120 0.600 -6.000 0 690

3
0.700 0.120
0.700 -6.000 0.690

1.000 2.000 3.770 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.150 0.375 0.585 0.620 0.670 0.820 0.000 0.000 0.000

-4.000 -0.100 -3.500 0.000 -2.000 0.205 0.000 0.460 0.535 1.170 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

-6.000 -5.000 -4.000 2.000 3.770 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.060 0.150 0.825 1.040 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

\.
I

4.000 -2.000 0.000 1.770 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.150 0.365

0.575 0.760 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000. 0.000 Ow000 0.000

PROPELLER BLADE NACA 16715 NACA TN-1546

SECTION AIRFOIL TABLES NACA 16715 NACA TN-1546

AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE DATA SOURCP AIRFOIL SER COO DESIGN L I F T COEFC THICKNESS / CHORO hACH NUMBER Z E R O L I F T ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL: VALUES

NACA 16715 NACA TN-1546

3
0.700 0.150 0.300
-5.400

3
0.700

3
0.700 0.150 0.600 -5 A 0 0
-6.000 -5.400
-4

0
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.150

0.450
-5.500 0.600
-6.000

0.600 0.600
-6.000 - 0 . 0 4 5 -5.400 0.000 -4.000 0.110 -2.000 0.295 0.000 0.445 2.000 0.625 4.000 0.800 0.865 5.000 6.000 0.905 8.000 0.950 1.050 10.000 11.770 1.110

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

-0.050

-4.000
-2.000

0.130 0.300
0.460 0.660 0.850 0.895 0.915 0.975 1.090 0.000

- 0.000
0.120

m0.040

0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

000

0.000 2.000 4.000


5.000 6.000

-2.000 -1.000
0.000

0.325 0.390
0.470 0.720 0.840 0.930 1.050 1.150 1.200

2.000 3.000
4.000 6.000 7.770 9.770

8.000
9.770 0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000

0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000
0.~000 0.000 0.000

0.wo

PROPELLER BLADE AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE D A T A SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE


O E S I G V L I F T COEFF

SECTION AIRFOIL TABLES NACA 64-012 NACA TR-824 4


0.000 0.120 0.150

NACA 64-006
N A C A TR-824

NACA 64-009 NACA TR-824 4

NACA 64-015 NACA TR-824 4


0.000 0.150 0.150 0.000
0.740

NACA 64-018 N4CA TR-824 4 0.000 0.180 0.150 0 .ooo 0.740 -6.000 -0.650 6.000 0.650 8.000 0.840 10.000 0.980 12.000 1.040 1.070 14.000 16.000 1.040 17.200 0.640 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 64-218 NACA TR-824 4 0.200 0.180 0.150 -1.220 0 740
(*

NACA 64-021

NACA TR-824
4 0.000 0.210 0.150 0.000 0.740

4
0.000

THICKNESS I CHORO PlACH NUMBER ZEHO L I F T ALPHA E X T R A P C O E t F KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

0.060 0.150 0.000 0.740


-4.000 4.000 6.000 8.COO 10.000 -0.430 0.'430 0.620 0.790 0.810 0.770 12.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 6 4 - 2 0 6 NACA TR-824 4 0.200
0.060

0.000 0.090
0.150 0.000 0.740

0.000 0.740
-6.000 -0.650 0.650 6.000 8.000 0.830 0.930 10.000 12.000 0.910 0.850 14.000 16.000 0.800

-6.000 - 0 . 7 0 0 0.000 0.000 6.000 0.620 8.000 0.770 10.000 0.870 0.890 12.000 14.000 0.870
16.000
0.800

-6.000 -0.670 6.000 0.670


8.000

10.000 12.000 14.000

0.870 1.000 1.100 0.900


0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000

-6.000 -0.630 6.000 0.630 8.000 0.800 10.000 0.900 12.000 0.980 14.000 1.010 16.000 1.030 17.000 1.030 0.900 18.000 0.700 19.000 20.000 0.680
NACA 64-221 N4CA TR-824 4 0.200 0.210 0.150 -1.260 0.740

AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE D A T A SOURCE AIRFOIL SER C O O DESIGN L I F T COEFF THICKNESS I CHORO MACH NUMBER Z E R O L I F T ALPHA EXTRAP COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

NACA 64-209 NACA TR-824 4 0.200 0.090 0.150 -1.400 0.740


-6.000 -0.490 -1.400 0.000 6.000 0.790 8.000 0.970 10.000 1.050 12.000 1.040 14.000 1.010 16.000 0.9bO 18.000 0.860

NACA 64-212 NACA TR-824 4 0.200 0.120 0.150 -1.240 0.740 -6.000 -0.520 -1.240 0.000 6.000 0.790 8.000 0.980 1.125 10.000 1.160 11.000 12.000 1.130 14.000 1.010 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
'

NACA 64-215 NACA TR-824 4 0.200 0.150 0.150 -1.440 0.740


-6.000 -0.490 -1.440 0.000 6.000 0.800 8.000 0.990 10.000 1.120 12.000 1.200 13.000 1.200 14.000 1.150 16.000 1.020 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.150 - 1 330 0 740

-6.000 -0.490 -1.330 0.000 4.000 0.560 6.000 0.770 0.900 8.000 10.000 1.000 12.000 1.010 14.000 0.970 16.000 0.910 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000

-6.000 -0.530 -1.220 0.000 6.000 0.000 8.000 0.930 10.000 1.060 12.000 1.135 14.000 1.180 16.000 1.200 17.000 1.200 18.000 0.790 20.000 0.760

-6.000 -0.540 -1.260 0.000 4.000 0.600 6.000 0.800 8.000 0.940 10.000 1.030 12.000 1.090 14.000 1.130 1.140 16.000 1.000 18.000 20.000 0.920

PROPELLER BLADE SECTION AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE O A T A SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE OESICN LIFT COEFF THICKNESS / CHORD MACH IWMBER 1 R O LIFT ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCLl ALPHA, CL VALUES NACA 64-409 NACA TN-1945 4 0.400 0.090 0.150 -2.540 0.740
-6.000

AIRFOIL TABLES
NACA 64-418 NACA TR-826 4 0.400 0.180 0.150 -2.800 0.740 -6.000 -0.360 -2.800 0.000 2.000 0.540 4.000 0.740 6.000 0.930 1.080 8.000 10.000 1.170 12.000 1.230 14.000 1.240 16.000 1.230 18.000 1.170 0.000 0 . 0 0 0 0.000 0 . 0 0 0 NACA 65-015 NACA TR-824 5 NACA 64-421 NACA TR-824

NACA 64-412 NACA TR-824 4


0.400

NACA 64-415

NACA TR-824 4 0.400 0.150 0.150 -2.820 0.740


6.000 -0.360 0.000 0.320 6.000 0.950 1.110 8.000 10.000 1.220 12.000 1.290 13.000 1.300 14.000 1.290 16.000 1.240 18.000 1.050

4 0.400 0.210 0.150 -2.570 0.740


-6.000 -0.400 -2.570 0.000 0.000 0.300 2.000 0.530 4.000 0.720 6.000 0.890 8.000 1.000 10.000 1.070 1.120 12.000 14.000 1.160 16.000 1.180 18.000 1.180 I . 00.0 20.000 NACA 65-018 NACA TR-824 5 0.000 0.180 0.150 0.000 0 740
-6.000 -0.600 -4.000 -0.420 0.000 0.000 6.000 0.620 8.000 0.800 10.000 0.930 12.000 1.020 14.000 1.070 16.000 0.900 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 . 0 0 0 0.000 0.000

0.120 0.150 -2.860 0.740


-6.000 -2.860
6.000

0.000 0.0.00 0.000


0.000 0.000

-2.540

-0.360 0.000 6.000 0.890 8.000 1.040 10.000 1.110 1.120 11.000 1.090 12.000 14.000 1.020 0.960 15.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 O.OGO 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 NACA 6 5 - 0 0 6 NACA TU-824 5

-0.340
0.000

8.000
10.000 11.000

12.000 14.000 16.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.960 1.150 1.290 1.340 1.340 1.220 1.100

0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE O A T A SOURCE AIRFOIL SER CODE OESICN LIFT COEFF THICKNESS / CHORD HACH NUMBER Z E R O LIFT ALPHA E X T R A P COEFF KCLI, ALPHA, CL VALUES

NACA 65-009 NACA TR-824


5

N A C A 65-012

NACA 65-021 NACA TR-824 5


0.000

NACA TR-024 5
0.000

0.000
0.060 0.150 0.000

0.740
-6.000 0.000

0.000 0.090 0.150 0.000 0.740

0.120 0.150 0.000


0.740

'

0.000 0.150 0.150 0.000 0 740

0.210 0.150 0.000 0.740


-6.000 -0.580 -4.000 -0.390 0.000 0.000 4.000 0.400 6.000 0.590 8.000 0.140 0.850 10.000 12.000 0.930 14.000 1.020 1.070 16.000 18.000 1.080 0.860 20.000

-0.640 0.000 4.000 0.420 6.000 0.620 8.000 0.770 10.000 0.870 12.000 0.920 0.880 14.000
16.000

-6.000 -0.630 6.000 0.630


8.000 10.000 11.000 12.000 14.000 0.000 0.820 0.900 0.920 0.910 0.850 0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000

0.790 0.060

0.000

0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000

-6.000 -0.650 0.000 0.000 0.670 6.000 8.000 0.870 10.000 0.970 12.000 0.950 0.900 14.000 16.000 0.840 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0 . 0 0 0 0.000 0.000

-6.000

-0.630
-0.440
0.660 0.840 1.000 1.030 1.020 0.880 0.790 0.680 0.000 0.000

-4.000
6.000

8.000 10.000 11.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 18.000 0.000 0.000

PROPELLER BLAOE SECTION AIRFOIL TABLES AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE DATA SOURCE NACA 65-206 NACA TR-824 NACA 65-209 NACA TR-824 NACA 65-212 NACA TR-824 NACA 65-215 NACA TR-E24 NACA 65-218 NACA TR-B24

NACA 65-221
NACA T R - 8 2 4
5
0.200 0.210 0.150 -1 530 0.740 -6.000 -0.440 -4.000 -0.250 -1.530 0.000 4.000 0.560 6.000 0.710 0.930 10.000 12.000 1.040 14.000 1.100 .l6.000 1.130 1.140 17.000 18.000 1.130 20.000 0.900

A I R F O I L SER CODE DESIGN LIFT COEFF T H I C K N E S S / CHORO RACH NUMBER ZERO L I F T ALPHA EXTRAP COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

5 0.200 0 060 0.150 -1.330 0.740


-6.000

5 0.200 0.090 0.150 -1.280 0.740


-6.000

5 0.200 0.120 0.150 -1.180 0.740


-6.000 - 0 . 5 0 0 -4.000 -0.310 0.000 -1.180 6.000 0.790 8.000 0.960 10.000 1.070 12.000 1.060 14.000 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

5 0.200 0.150 0.150 -1.250 0.740 -6.000 -4.000 -1.250 4.000 -0.500 -0.300 0.000 0.570 6.000 0.770 8.000 0.960 10.000 1.070 12.000 1.130 14.000 1.090 16.000 0.990 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
NACA 65-418 NACA TR-824

5
0.200

OeIBO
0.150

-1 270
0.740
-6.000 -0.470 -4.000 -0.280 -1.270 0.000 4.000 0.540 6.000 0.730 8.000 0.870 10.000 0.970 1.060 12.000 14.000 1.110 15.000 1.130 16.000 1.120 18.000 0.720
NACA 65-421 NACA TR-824

-1.330 4.000
6.000 8.000 10.000

-0.490 0.000
0.560

12.000 14.000 16.000

0.760 0.900 0.990 1.000


0.960

0.900

-1.280 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 11.000 12.000 14.000

-0.500 0.000
0.560

0.770 0.900 0.990 1.000 0.980 0.930

0.000
0.000 0.000
AIRFOIL SECTION TABLE DATA SOURCE

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000

IJACA 65-410 NACA TR-824


5

NACA 65-412 NACA TR-824


5

NACA 64-415 NACA TR-824


5

A I R F O I L SER CODE

5 0.400 0.180 0.150 -2.450 0.740


-6.000 -0.370 4.000 0.670 6.000 0.820 8.000 0.970 1.070 10.000 1.140 12.000 14.000 1.200 15.000 1.220 1.200 16.000 1.120 18.000 1.000 22.000 0.000 0 . 0 0 0

5
0A00 0.210 0.150 -2.490 0.740

0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000


0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

DESIGN L I F T COEFF
T H I C K N E S S / CHOHO MACH NUMBER Z E R O L I F T ALPHA EXTRAP COEFF KCLI ALPHA, CL VALUES

0.400 0.100 0.150 -2.370 0.740


-6.000

0.400 0.120
0.150

-2.660 0.740
-6.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 11.000 12.000 14.000 0.000 0.000

0.400 0.150 0.150 -2.640 0.740


-6.000

-0.390
0.000

-2.370 6.000 8.000


10.000

0.900
1.090 1.260 1.180 1.100 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

-0.360 0.720 0.920 1.100 1.250


1.310

4.000
6.000

-0.360 0.710 0.890


1.060

12.000 14.000
0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000
0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000

1.300 1.220 0.000 0.000 0.000

8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 15.200 0.000


0.000

1.170 1.220 1.240 1.070

0.000

0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000

0.000

-6.000 -0.360 -2.490 0.000 0.460 2.000 4.000 0.630 6.000 0.770 8.000 0.890 10.000 0.990 12.000 1.080 14.000 1.150 16.000 1.180 18.000 1.190 20.000 1.180 22.000 0.850

0 . 0 0 0
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

AqPENDIX

PROGRAM USER INSTRUCTIONS

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Thisappendixcontains a guide to the setting up and r u n n i n go f the computer program. The e s s e n t i a lc o m p u t a t i o n a l 4, and the u n d e r l y i n gt h e o r y s t e p s a r e d e s c r i b e di nS e c t i o n 3 of Reference.1. i n S e c t i o n 3 of this report, a n dS e c t i o n I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t whereas this program i s a n extension a n d m o d i f i c a t i o n of the computerprogramdeveloped i n Refere n c e I, c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between the w to programs. U s e r s of the o l d program a r e , t h e r e f o r e ,c a u t i o n e d againstattemptingmodification of theformerprogram without a carefulstudyof the p r e s e n t p r o g r a m l a y o u t a n d d a t a f o r m a t requirements.
2 .O

PROGRAM LANGUAGE

The program i s w r i t t e n e n t i r e l y i n F o r t r a n IV, V e r s i o n 2.3 f o r a Scope 3.1 o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m a n d l i b r a r y t a p e .

3.0

MACHINE REQLJIREMENTS

The program i s d e s i g n e d t o r u n o n a CDC-6600 computer. the o v e r l a y c a p a b i l i t y a n d r e q u i r e s The program makes u s e o f 15 d i s c f i l e s and a t a p e u n i t f o r p e r i p h e r a l s t o r a g e .

4.0

I N P U T DATA

The i n p u t data r e q u i r e d b y t h e program t o compute a s e r i e s o fs o l u t i o n s a t specifiedanglesof a t t a c k up t o s t a l l f o r each w i n g - f u s e l a g e - p r o p e l l e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s case. This i q p u - td a t am u s ti n c l u d et a b u l a t i o n so f o n ei n p u t applicable wing-section and propeller blade-section aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r o p e l l e r t i p loss c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s , and a r a n g e o f g e o m e t r i c a n d f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n parameters t o g e t h e r w i t h s p e c i f i c a t i o no fs e v e r a lc m n p u t a t i o n a lc o n t r o l and sequence options

121

The i n p u t data f o r each case i s i n the f o r m of punched cards a r r a n g e d i n s e q u e n t i a l g r o u p s as shown i n F i g u r e 30. The p r i n c i p a l : card groups are i d e n t i f i e d as follows:
CARD

GROUP
A

DESCRIPTION

Wing-fuselage geometry and control and s e q u e n c i n go p t i o n s Wing-section aerodynamic


data

B
C

Wing geometry i f ns o tt raight-tapered Fusela ag ne go le fs Propell te ip r


attack

E F
G

loss f a c t o r s data

Pro,peller blade-section aerodynamic

Propell g ee ro m e t r y

and o p e r a t i n co gn d i t i o n s

I n general, the f i r s t case r e q u i r e s a f u l l s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the i n p u t data c o n t a i n e di n each group. However, f o r the secondandsubsequent cases, card g r o q p s s p e c i f y i n g t a b u l a t e d data (Groups B, C , E , and F) may be o m i t t e d where there i s no change i n the i n p u t data requirements. See F i g u r e 30. 4.1 Winq Fuselaqe G e o m e t r y ( C a r d Group A )
i s e n t e r e d on the f i r s t three

Wing-fuselagegeometry c a r d s as follows:

CARD COL .LOC


1
1-10 11-20

VARIABLE

PROGRAM

TYPE
Real

NAME:
ASPEC
TAUT

VARIABLE

DE S C R I P T I O N

AR
(t/c)T

wing a s p e c t r a t i o Wing thi td ip cness/ chord ratio Wing r o o t t h i c k n e s s / chord r a t i o

Real

21-30

Real

TAUR

(t/c)R

122

Program termination Second and subsequent input cases e a c h c o n s i s t of card groups A through G as i n - t h e f i r s t case, b u t card group elements i n d i c a t e d by * shouldbe omitted unless new d a t a is required. Note that blank cards i n groups E and F must,however, be r e t a i n e d Blade element geometry Propeller operating condition Propeller-nacelle geometry, P r o p e l l e r case d e s c r i p t i o n < L y \ Blank card *Propeller airfoil data tables, Blank card *Propeller airfoil section titles Blank card *Pro.peller t i p loss c o r r e c t i o n tables Fuselageangles of a t t a c k Wing geomeitryt omitbed f o r s t r a i g h t - t a p e r e dc o n f i g , *Airfoil data tables for
"

Y
H

-rxA\)w

J t

Figure 30,

Assembly of Computer Program Input Data Card Deck

CARD COL.LOC'
1
31-40 41-50
'

VARIABLE

TYPE
Real

PROGRAM NAME

VARIABLE

DE SCRIPTION Wing t a p e r r a t i o Wing geometric t w i s t (If geometric t w i s t i s specified, TWISA on card 2 must be s e t t o
100.0)

TAPER
TWIST

Real

51-60 61-70 71-80

R e a1

N u m b e r of spanwise

stations
Real

BF REYND

bf/b
Rd

F l a p span/wing span Reynolds number i n m i l l i o n s based onwing mean aerodynamic chord Criterionforconvergenceofiteration loop Fuselagesemi-height/ wing semi- span Fuselage s e m i - w i d t h / wing semi- span Height of wingabove f u s e l a g ec e n t e r l i n e / wing semi- span Wingbodyincidence degrees

Real

1-10

Real

D I SCR

A
A

11-20 21-30 31-40

Real

Real

B H

Real

41-50
60

Real

ALPHR

QR

Integer

NFLAP

if Flap indicator: NFLAP = 1, F l a p i s d e f l e c t e d : i f NFLAP = 0 , Flap i s undeflected

124

VARIABLE CARD COLmLOc TYPE

PROGRAM NAME VARIABLE

DE SCRIPTION

61-65

Real

FLAP

Sf

setting Flap degrees: If 8f is zero,ie, f l a p s not deflected, then BF on card 1 should be s e t t o 1.0 X-coordinate of moment reference point Z-coordinate of moment reference point Aerodynamic t w i s t degrees ( I f aerodynamic t w i s t i s specif i e d , TWIST on card 1 must be s e t t o 100.0)
T i p a i rs fo er il ies camber l e v e l

66-70

Real

'

71-75

Real

76-80

Real

T W I SA

ea

1-10

R e a1 Real Integer

CAMBT

KT

11-20
21-30

CAMBR

KR

Root a i s rf eo rie ls camber level


NSLIP = 0 , power off

NSLIP

"

case, no propeller data required; NSLIP = 1, power on case, propeller data required

31-40

Real

CDNAC

QN

Total drag coefficient of a l l n a c e l l e s based on wing a r e a , s e t t o zero i f no nacelles

125

4.2

Control and Sequencinq Options

-~

(Card Group A)

Card 4 of Group A d o n t r o l s data r e a d - i n a n d o p t i o n a l p r i n t o u t features, i na d d i t i o nt os t a n d a r do u t p u t . ' The c a r d l a y o u t i s shown below.

CARD COL.LOC
4 1

VARIABLE TYPE

PROGRAM NAME VARIABLE

DESCRIPTION

Integer

NLVL

N u m b e r of v a l u e s of

thickness chord ratio (limit 5)


2

Integer

ISWIT( 1)

Optionforreading i n wing geometric parameters Option t o p r i n t o u t i n t e r m e d i a t ec a l c u l a t i o n s a s t h e y are performed Option t o p r i n t o u t matrices


Switch used t o s e t up d a t a t a b l e s

Integer

ISWIT(2)

Integer Integer

IS W IT ( 3 )

IG

6-55 Alphanumeric

--

Run number, date, etc.

The o p t i o n s a r e a s f o l l o w s :
ICSWIT(1)

This c o n t r o l o p t i o n i s used f o r w i n g s h a v i n g n o n l i n e a r t a p e r . The l o c a lv a l u e s of Reynolds number, geometric t w i s t , and r a t i o s of thickness/chord and local chord/root chord must be key-punched f o r each spanwise s t a t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h the v a l u e s of e d g e v e l o c i t y f a c t o r and the r a t i o s of mean aeroBy s e t t i n g dynamicchord/rootchordandrootchord/span. I S W I T ( 1 ) = 1, these v a l u e s ( C a r d Group C ) are read i n the f o l l o w i n g order usingFormat (16F5.0) :

126

PROGRAM VARIABLE

NUMBERS

NAME T A U

DESCRIPTION Thickness/chord r a t i o s Reynoldsnumbers Chord/root chord ratios Geometric t w i s t Edge v e l o c i t y f a c t o r Rootchord/span ratio

TYPE

OF
VALUES
R-1

array array array array single value single value single value

BEY
C EP S
EDGE CRB
ACC

R-1

R- 1
R-l

1
1 1

Mean aerodynamicchord

If ISWIT(1) = 0, the program assumes a s t r a i g h t - t a p e r e d this i s the case. wing a n dc a l c u l a t e s the values.Normally

ISWIT(2L

This o p t i o n a l l o w s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e d i n t h e computation.

types o f p r i n t o u t

S e t t i n g ISWIT(2) = 1, c a u s e s the program t o p r i n t out i n t e r m e d i a t ec a l c u l a t i o n s a s t h e y are performed. This p r i n t o u t i s v e r y l e n g t h y andshould be used only when a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r yt oa i di nd e b u g g i n g .
If ISWIT(2) = 0, i n t e r m e d i a t e c a l c u l a t i o n s

are n o t

printed. IswIT(3)
If this c o n t r o l o p t i o n i s set t o 1, the w t o major matrices o f the program w i l l be l i s t e d . F i r s t , fimk (BETA), the matrix of multipliers used t o o b t a i n i n d u c e d a n g l e s of attack i s printed out. Then this i s followed by the m a t r i x K i j ( T R I X ) which is u s e d i n the i t e r a t i o n c y c l e .
I f ISWIT(3) is s e t to z e r o , n o p r i n t o u t o f

the matrices

w i l l be o b t a i n e d .
127

I 1

I I

This c o n t r o l o p t i o n i s used t o s e t up t h e wing a i r f o i l For t h ec a s e of a wing h a v i n gt h er o o ta i r f o i l d a t at a b l e s . o r f o r a wing with s e r i e s t h e same a s t h e t i p a i r f o i l s e r i e s , a deflected part-span flap, set:
I G = 3,

if airfoil data i s beingread time from c a r d s

f o r the f i r s t
been read i n

o r I G = 1, i f t h e a i r f o i l d a t a h a s a l r e a d y and s t o r e d on t a p e
If the root airfoil series s e r i e s then s e t :
I G = 4,

i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e t i p

i f a i r f o i l data i s beingreadforthe time from cards

first

o r I G = 2,

if t h e a i r f o i l d a t a h a s a l r e a d y and s t o r e d on tape

been read

Note t h a t f o r a wing w i t h a deflected part-span flap, the a i r f o i l s e r i e s from r o o t t o t i p must be the same. The value of I G causesthe computer t o performthefollowingoperations.

VALUE O F I G
1

OPERATION

Read a i r f o i d la t a from peripheral Storage device ( P s D ) t o cube 1 on disc then copy cube 1 t o cube 2 (SeeFigure 7 ) . Read r o o t s e r i e s a i r f o i l d a t a from PSD t o cube 1 on disc, then read t i p s e r i e s d a t a from P S D t o cube 2 on d i s c . Read a i r f o i l d a t a from cards , load t o PSD, then read from P S D t o cube 1 on d i s c . Copy cube 1 t o cube 2 .

Read r o o t s e r i e s a i r f o i l d a t a from cards,load t o PSD, then t o cube 1 on d i s c . Read t i p s e r i e s t o PSD, then a i r f o i l d a t a from cards,thenload t o cube 2 on d i s c .

128

The aerodynamicsection characteristics of the a i r f o i l are read i n t o the computer i n the f o r m o f t a b l e s of l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t ( C 1 ) versusangleofattack ( Q ), drag coeffic i e n t (cd) v e r s u s C 1 , p i t c h i n g moment c o e f f i c i e n t (G) v e r s u s C 1 and l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h f l a p d e f l e c t e d v e r s u s a The tables must be selected t o cover the range. of values of t h i c k n e s s / c h o r dr a t i o ,R e y n o l d s number, and camber a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the wing u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

For each v a l u e o f t h i c k n e s s / c h o r d r a t i o , ' the d a t a tables are arranged a s i n d i c a t e di nT a b l e V. The f i r s t card (punched i n columns 1 through 7 ) i n d i c a t e s the number ofrows i n the t a b l e (columns 1 and 2 ) , t h e number ofcolumns i n the t a b l e (columns 3 and 4 ) and the a i r f o i l t h i c k n e s s / c h o r d r a t i o (columns 5, 6 , and 7 ) The second card (inalphanumeric d a t a e.g. f o r m a t ) i n d i c a t e s the a i r f o i l t y p e and the typeof NACA 230xX, C1.

The f i r s t card c o n t a i n s t h e v a l u e s o f R e y n o l d s number ( i n m i l l i o n s ) andbegins w i t h a b l a n k i n columns 1 t h r o u s h 7. I f t h e table i s t o c o n t a i n C 1 v a l u e s , the n e x t card r e a d s - 90.0 i n columns 1 through 7 , and -9.0 i n columns 8 through 8 0 . If t h e t a b l e i s forvaluesof C d , t h e card r e a d s -10.0 i n columns 1 through 7, and 2.0 i n columns 8 t h r o u g h8 0 .I ft h et a b l e i s t oc o n t a i n Cm v a l u e s , t h e c a r d r e a d s -10.0 i n columns 1 through 7 , and z e r o s i n columns 8 through80.
The remaining c a r d s c o n t a i ne i t h e r : (1) a value of angleofattack(columns 1 through 7 ) followed by the v a l u e s of C 1 correspondingtoeachReynolds number, o r ( 2 ) a v a l u e of C 1 (columns 1 through 7 ) followed by the v a l u e so f cd, o r ( 3 ) a value of C 1 (columns 1 through 7 ) followed b y the v a l u e s o f Cm, dependingonwhether the t a b l e c o n t a i n s C1 , C d , or Cm data. The l a s t t h r e e c a r d s i n e a c h t a b l e are :

A l l c a r d si nt h et a b l eh a v ef o r m a t( F 7 . 3 , 9 F 8 . 3 ) .

129

Table V. Col.
LOC.

C a r dF o r m a tf o r , W i n qS e c t i o nA i r f o i l
$ 1

Tables

16

Header Cards Reynolds Numbers

$311-12 NACq 23012 L i f t C o e f f i c i e n t CL 1 0.5

-9oio I

-9.0

-1410

-0.5
C& Values

1.0 -9.0 -0 45

a Values

+90.0

Cd Max Values
Q
I

1.54

4.0 1.51

. .

9.0

Max Values
1511.12 NACA 23012Drag

17.2

17.0

-10 -0.3
Values cd
C d Values

C o e f f i c i e n t CD 0.5 2.0
0.004

1.o 2.0 0 0042

2.0

. 10.0
a

2.0 Blankcard Blankcard

1611.12
NACA 23012 P i t c h i n g Moment C o e f f i c i e n t

-10.0 -0.36
C& Values

CM1/4 Chord 0.0 -0.40


C ,

0.0 -0.41

Values

10.0

0.0

0.0

Blankcard Blankcard

130

r
3
Table
Card No.

Columns 1 t h r o u q h 7
90.0

Remain.inq F i e l d s
9.0 9.0 e t c .

1
2*

blank blank

Values of C 1 max Values of Q C 1 max i.e.


Q

3*

at

Qmax

I n the C 1 t a b l e s the v a l u e s of CLmax and on cards 2 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y , m u s t a l s o a p p e a r i n body of the t a b l e .

max a p p e a r i n g the main

10.0

2.0

2.0 e t c .

b l a n k card
3

b l a n k card

C ,

Table

1
2

10 .o

0.0 0.0 e t c .

b l a n k card b l a n k card

may be used. W i t h i n each l e v e l the t a b l e s i z e i s l i m i t e d t o 8 columns ( 7 valuesofReynoldsnumber)and 25 r o w s ( 2 2 d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s of Q o r C 1 ) . The a i r f o i l data cards are assembled a s shown i n F i g u r e
30.

U,p t o 5 " l e v e l s " of t h i c k n e s s / c h o r d r a t i o

131

4.4

Fuselage Anqles of Attack (Card Group D)

The fuselage angles-of-attack a t which calculations are t o be made are read i n on 2 cards, Format (10F8.0). These a r e used s e q u e n t i a l l y a s punched u n t i l e i t h e r 99.0 i s encountered o r s t a l l i s reached. If the former condition i s encountered, the program w i l l automaticallyproceedtothenextcase; if s t a l l i s reached, the program w i l l search f o r an angle-ofattack close to the value of anglerof-attack a t which s t a l l j u s t occurs. The accuracy of this search depends on how closely the angles-of-attack are chosen near s t a l l . Note t h a t a l l t h e l i f t t a b l e s a r e a r t i f i c i a l l y extended beyond the C 1 max point w i t h a positive slope. For example, i n a l l t a b l e s C1 a t 01 = f 90 i s s e t t o k 9.0. This i s done t o ensure convergence. The e f f e c t of t h i s i s t h a t t h e o v e r a l l wing Cb versus a curve predicted by the program w i l l be c o r r e c t up t o ;the angle-of-attack a t which s t a l l f i r s t occurs on the wing. Thereafter,thepredicted CL i s incorrect. This i s consistent w i t h the purpose of the programwhich i s t o p r e d i c t the point of stall onset only. 4.5 Propeller T i p Loss CorrectionFactors (Card Group
E)

The p r o p e l l e r t i p loss correction tables are defined by a three-dimensional array of s i z e ( 3 , 21,8) The datavaluesare read i n on a t o t a l of 63 data cards, each card containing 8 values and having the following format:

VARIABLE COL .LOC TYPE

PROGRAM

SYMBOL
IB

ALGEBRAIC SYMBOL

DE S C R I P T I O N

Integer

(B-1)

Array index identifying number of blades per prop e l l e r , l e s s one value of s i n

2- 3

Integer

IP

(1+20 sin#) Array index identifying

4-32 33-38 39-44


132

Blank Data value a t r / R Data value a t r / R


= 0.3

Real Real

m o s s ( 1) F/FP
TLOSS( 2 )

F/FP

= 0.4

VARIABLE COL. LOC. TYPE


t

PROGRAM

ALGEBRAIC

SYMBOL SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION

I I

75-80

Real

TLOSS(8)

F/FP

Data v a l u e a t r / R = 1.0

These 63 data cards

may be assembled i n any o r d e r .

4.6

Propell-er .Blade S e c t i o n Aerodynamic D a t a (Card Group F)

U p t o 150 p r o p e l l e r b l a d e - s e c t i o n ddta tables*canbe acceptedandstored by t h e computer program. Each t a b l e cont a ' i n sa n array of up t o 20 p a i r s of 0 add C1 v a l u e sf o ro n e airfoilsectionat one Mach number conditjion. Up t o 25 a i r f o i l s e c t i o n s may be s p e c i f i e df o re a c h4 i r f o i lf a m i l y . A maximum of 9 f a m i l i e s c a n be s t o r e d , e a c q b e i n g a s s i g n e d a n series codebetween 1 and 9 arbitrarysingle-digitairfoil inclusive

The s t a n d a r d b l a d e - s e c t i o n d a t a t a b l e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h the programusepreassignod airfoilseriescodes (as g i v e n below)forwhichthecomputerprogram s t o r e s t h ef o l l o w i n g t i t l e s and valuesof two c o n s t a n t s , k l and k2.

Code
1
2
3

AS ie rf ro ie il s
USNP s

Name

k 1
0.

k -2
-40.0

Clark, Y
NACA 16XXX
NACA 64-XXX NACA 65-XXX

0.

-40 .O
0.

-7.3
-6.9

4
5

0.
0. 0.

-6.9
0.

6-9 *See s e c t i o n 4.1.3

Blank ofmain

report for order of assembly.

133

The c o n s t a n t s k l , k 2 a r e empirical v a l u e s t h a t p e r m i t a ni n i t i a lv a l u ef o r a, , a n g l e - o f - a t t a c k a t z e r o l i f t used to be o b t a i n e d from a l i n e a r i z e d ap,prD.xiinequation104, mation to the a i r f o i l characteristics g i v e n by the e x p r e s s i o n

a, = k l X ( d e s i g n l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t )
k2

( t h i c k n e s s / c h o r dr a t i o )

The a i r f o i l s e r i e s t i t l e c a r d i s u s e d t o r e a s s i g n a i r f o i l s e r i e s names and k l , k? v a l u e s a s r e q u i r e d . One card i s used f o r each r e a s s i g n m e n t grid has t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m a t :


COL .Loc P

VARIABGE TYPE

PROGRAl4 Wi

ALGEBRAIC SYivl30L

DESCRIPTION

Integer
Alphanumeric
Rea 1
Rea 1

A i r f o i l s e r i e s code
A i r f o i l series name

11-18

AFSER(1)
AK(I,l)

21-30

31-40

=(It21

E cm on ,p si tr ain cta sl defined i n preceeding t e x t

Each a i r f o i l t a b l e i s d e f i n e d on a sequenceoffrom 2 t o 5 c a r d s . The f i r s t card i n the s e q u e n c ec o n t a i n s the a i r f o i l s e c t i o n a n d o t h e r h e a d e ri n f o r m a t i o ns p e c i f y i n g p e r t i n e n tp a r a m e t e r s as f o l l o w s :


COL .Loc

VARIABLE TYPE

PROGRAM NAME:

ALGEBRAIC S Y M B O L

DE SCRIPTION

1-2

Integer

IHEDD ( 1)

.
5
9- 16

N u m b e r of p a o i rfs a , C 1 v a l u e si n table

Integer
Rea1

IHEDD( 2 )
THEDD( 1)

A i r f o i l s e r i e s code Design l icfo tefficient Thickness/chord ratio

C 1i

17-24

Real

THEDD ( 2 )

t/c

134

COL .Loc

VARIABLE TYPE

P R O G R A M

ALGEBRAIC

NAME
M E D D ( 3)

SYMBOL
Mo
a0

DE SCRI P T I ON

25-32 33-40 41-48

Real
R e a1

Mach number
;P;rrgle-of-attack for zero l i f t

M E D D ( 4)

Real

Extrapolation
coefficient given

b y . e q u a t i o n ( 126)

57-68* Alphanumeric 69-80* Alphanumeric

"

"

Table d a t a s o u r c e
I

"

"

A 5 r f n ; i l s e c t i o n name

For reference o n l y ; these columns n or tead by program.

The secondand subsequent c a r d s i n each a i r f o i l t a b l e sequence contain the p a i r s of Q and C1 v a l u e s . These v a l u e s must be a r r a n g e d i n order o f a i n c r e a s i n g . The f o r m a t i s a s follows:

COL .LOC

VARIABLE TYPE Real

P R O G R A M

NAME
TALFA(1)

ALGEBRAIC SYMBOL

DE SCRI PTION

1-8 9-16 17-24 25-32


I I I I I I I

1st p a i r of v a l u e s Real Real


Rea1
I
I I I I I
I

TLIFT(1) TALFA ( 2 ) 2nd p a i r o f TLIFT( 2)


I I I I I

values

I I I I I I I

65-72 73-80

Real Real

TALFA(5) TLIFT( 5)

5th p a i r of v a l u e s

135

4.7

P r o p e l l e r GeometryandOperatinqConditions (Card Group: G )

I n f o r m a t i o n , t o s p e c i f y the p r o p e l l e r g e o m e t r i c a n d o p e r a t i n g parameters i s ,providedon a series of c a r d s o f four types. These c a r d sm u s t be a r r a n g e d i n t h e o r d e r Each c a r d t y p e i s a s s i g n e d a numerical d e s c r i b e d below. ?he v a l u e i s r e a d by the program c o d ev a l u e i n column 80. t o ensure t h a t t h e c a r d s a r e i n p r o p e r s e q u e n c e . ?he f i r s t c a r d , p r o v i d e s f o r t i t l e information as follows:
COL .mc i VARIABLE TYPE
PROGRAM NAME

t h e i n c l u s i o n of a r b i t r a r y

DE S C R I P T I O N

1-76

Alphanumeric Integer

TITLE IDENT

Propell ie dr entification C id ae rn dt i f i c acto io dn e

title
= 1

80

propeller a n d n a c e l l e g e o m e t r y
COL .Loc

The s e c o n dc a r dp r o v i d e si n f o r m a t i o ns p e c i f y i n gt h e as f o l l o w s :

VARIABLE TYPE

PROGRAM NAME

WGEBRAIC SYMBOL
"

DESCRIPTION

1-2 11-12

Integer Integer

NP
NB

Number ofpropellers

Number ofbladesper propeller

21-30

Real

DPB

P r o p e l l e r diameter/ wing s , p n
rhub/R l n a c e l l e/R
Hub r a d i u s / t i p r a d i u s

31-40 41-50

Rea1 Real:

R H B R
RNBR

Nacelle r a d i u s / t i p radius
C a r di d e n t i f i c a t i o n code = 2

80

Integer

I DENT

136

The t h i r d c a r d p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i f y i n g the o p e r a t i n gc o n d i t i o n s f o r the p r o p e l l e r ( s ) as ,follows: I


COL .Loc

VARIABLE TYPE

PROGRAM NAME

ALGEBRAIC
SYMBOL
"

DE SCRIPTION

1-2 11-12
21-30

Integer Integer
Rea 1

NROT( 1)

propeller rotation index


R. H . propeller

. H .

NROT(2)

"

rotationindex
AJ

Propeller advance ratio

31-40
80

Real

AMCHU

MO
"

F l i g h t Mach number i dC ea nr td ification code = 3

Integer

IDENT

The p o s i t i v e v a l u e ( 0 1 ) f o r the p r o p e l l e r r o t a t i o n i n d e x i s used t o s p e c i f y a r i g h t - h a n d r o t a t i o n f o r either propeller. The n e g a t i v ev a l u e (-1) i s u s e dt os p e c i f y a left-hand r o t a t i o n . Where a s i n g l e - p r o p e l l e rc o n f i g u r a t i o n i s cons i d e r e d , the r o t a t i o n i n d e x f o r the L . H . p r o p e l l e r must be s e t t o z e r o ( 0 0 ) while the R.H. p r o p e l l e r i n d e x h a s the a p p r o p r i a t e v a l u e f o r the s i n g l e p r o p e l l e r r o t a t i o n s e n s e .
The f o u r t h - t h r o u g h - l a s tc a r d so f the s e r i e s p r o v i d e the b l a d es e c t i o ng e o m e t r y . One c a r d i n f o r m a t i o ns p e c i f y i n g i s r e q u i r e d f o r each selected b l a d e s t a t i o n b e t w e e n hub and tip, up t o a maximum of 1 2 c a r d s . These c a r d sm u s tb ea s s e m b l e di n o r d e ro fi n c r e a s i n g b l a d e s t a t i o nr a d i u s . The f i r s t s e l e c t e d stationneednotbe a t thehub,butthe l a s t c a r d must s p e c i f y the s t a t i o n a t the t i p w i t h a v a l u e o f 1.0 i n columns 1-10.

COL .LOC
1-10

VARIABLE TYPE
Real

PROGRAM NAME RPBR

ALGEBRAIC SYMBOL

DE SCRIPTION

r/R

Blade s t a t i o n r a d i u s / tip radius Blade-section chord/ t i p radius

11-20

Rea1

CPBR

C/R

137

MOL .Loc

VARIABLE

TYPE
Rea1

PROGRAM NAME

ALGEBRAIC SYMBOL

I3ESCRIPTION
B se la cd t ie on pitch angle I degrees sB ec lt aid oe n series code

21-30 Integ 3e 1r 41-50 51-60

BETA

P
"

NA
Rea1
CLI

airfoil

C1 i

Bs le ac d d te e io si ng n l i f t coefficient B se lta c hd tiie c ok nness/chord ratio


Card i d e n t i f i c a t i o n code = 4

Rea1

TOC

t/c

80

Integer

ID E N T

"

4.8

Proqram Termination (Card Group

H)

The p r o g r a m o p e r a t i o n i s t e r m i n a t e d by three i n p u t d a t a c a r d s ' l o c a t e d a t the end of the i n p u td a t ad e c k . The f i r s t card u s e s the format of card number 1 of Group A w i t h t h e v a l u eo f ASPEC s e t t o 99.0. The s e c o n da n dt h i r dc a r d s must be b l a n k .

4.9

Data R e s t r i c t i o n s

The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of i n p u t q u a n t i t i e s t o g e t h e r w i t h the , r e s t r i c t i o n s and normal range of values.


Q3ANTI TY
ASPEC

SIGN-RESTRICTIONS-NORMAL RANGE
+#

2.0
1.0

TAUT, TAUR, TAPER


1

+,

TWIST, TWISA

between +150 and -15O

+20 only*

138

QUANTITY REYND
D I SCR

SIGN-RESTFUCTIONS-NORMAL

RAWE

+
+,
v sa ul g u g ee s t e d
-001

ALPHR

and

+loo between
0 or 1

-loo

NFLAP FLAP

+,

between Oo and 90 or

x, z
NSLIP CDNAC

+
+,

5
1 . 0

0 or 1
0

R , which must be an even integer,

may be changed t o a l l o w c a l c u l a t i o n a t a g r e a t e r number of spanwise stations This r e q u i r e sc h a n g i n g the DIMENSION s t a t e m e n t s .

5.0

OUTPUT

5.1

P r i n t o uO t ptions

All o u t p u t i s from a s t a n d a r d 120-characters-,per-line printer. The amount andtypeof data outputdependson the optionsexercisedand on whether the computation i s f o r a wing w i t h o r w i t h o u t a d e f l e c t e d f l a p / w i t h o r w i t h o u t s l i p s t r e a m .F o r the s t a n d a r dr u n( w i t h o u t the debug p r i n t o u t ) , the o u t p u t data i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . When the o p t i o n f o rp r i n t i n gi n t e r m e d i a t ec a l c u l a t i o n s i s exercised, the o u t p u t c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s whose meaning i s given below.

139

'QUANTITY

TYPE
s i n g l ev a l u e

DESCRIPTION (see a l s o Reference 1)

Al

Angle of a t t a c k c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o C 1 a t f l a p e n d ,f r o mf l a p p e d s e c t i o n data
Angle of a t t a c k c o r r e s p o n d i n g C 1 a t f l a p end,fromunflapped s e c t i o n data
Z e r o - l i f t a n g l e a t f l a p end f l a p p e ds e c t i o nd a t a

A2

single value

to

A3
A4

single value single value

Zero-lift angle a t flapend u n f l a p p e ds e c t i o n data

ALPC

array

attack c o r r e c t i o n s f o r Angleof f l a p effect

ALPH

array

Anglesof a t t a c k c o r r e c t e d f o r downwash, f l a p e f f e c t s and body upwa sh Effective angles of attack Wing s e c t i o n g e o m e t r i c a n g l e s attack
of

ALPHE ALPG ALPHU

array array array

S e c t i o n downwash a n g l e s corrected forfuselageeffects Sectionzero-liftangles Propellershaftangleofattackin radians Average slipstream a n g l e Calculatedvaluesof Approximatevalues Values of Cdc/b Integrated lift coefficient used to n o r m a l i z e CLADD
Clc/b

ALPHZ ALFPR

array s i n g l ev a l u e singlevalue array array

ASBAR CBC
CBG CDOC

of C l c / b

array
s i n g l ev a l u e

CL
240

QUANTITY
CLADD

TYPE

DESCRIPTION (see a l s o Reference 1)

array array

Additional l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t distribution Modified distribution of addi t i o n a l l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t s from t i p t o f l a p end M o d i f i e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of additional l i f t coefficients from . flapend to wing/fuselage junction D i s t r i b u t i o n of l i f t associated w i t he q u a t i o n (56) D i s t r i b u t i o n of l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t due t o f l a p d e f l e c t i o n o n l y Valuesofsection coefficients maximum l i f t

CLAD1

CLAD2

array

CL2CB
CLDEL

array array array singlevalue singlevalue array array s i n g l ev a l u e

CLMAX

CL STA

Section l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t a t f l a p end U n c o r r e c t e d s e c t i o n l i f t coe f f i c i e n t a t f l a p end Liftcoefficientscorresponding t o ALPG D i f f e r e n c e s between guessedand calculated l i f t distributions Increment i n s e c t i o n maximum l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t a t flapend due t o f l a p d e f l e c t i o n Edge v e l o c i t y f a c t o r Factorsusedinaltering twod i m e n s i o n a ls e c t i o n d a t a t o three-dimensional data

CL STU

cvffi
DELTA

DDCLMA

EDGE

singlevalue array

141

~~

QUANTITY

TYPE

DESCRIPTION (see a l s o Referanqe 1)

FF F1
F2
FUNC

s i n g l ev a l u e single value single value singlevalue array array singlevalue

F a c t o r s u s e d a t flapside of f l a p end t o a l t e r 2-dimensional d a t a Factorused t o scale a d d i t i o n a l


scale CLDEL
l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n CLADD

Factorusedto

Wing-on-propeller equation (128)

upwash f u n c t i o n ,

GE l ? F ,

Values of e q u a t i o n (88) f o r

e*

= K-

8"

HOPP

Valuesof QcK equation (38 )

see Reference 1

RDUBAR/DU

R e a l p a r t of the d e r i v a t i v e o f the conformaltransformation ( 9 ) of R e f . f u n c t i o n ,e q u a t i o n

SGENE

array array array array array singlevalue

Function associated equation (76)

with

SmNY

Function associated w i t h equation (76) Function associated w i t h HOPP

SIGMA

sv
TONY

Slipstream crossflow distribution Values of e q u a t i o n (88) Wing-induced upwash i n p r o p e l l e r disc plane

vw
5.2

E r r o r Messaqes

I n d e v e l o p i n g the program it was found t h a t the most In common s o u r c e o f e r r o r w a s the a i r f o i l d a t a tables. p a r t i c u l a r , the t a b l e s of C1 v e r s u s a are most c r i t i c a l . The v a r i a t i o n of C 1 w i t h i n c r e a s i n g Q should be smooth
142

without sudden breaks, especially for values higher than Q maxA sharpbreak i n the slope of 'C1 versus Q a f t e r =?X m a y cause t h e i t e r a t i o n procedure t o I diverge. If this occurs a message i s printed as follows:
UNABLE TO CONVERGE AFTER 30 I T E R A T I O N S ABORTED

'

The l a s t values of DELTA and the values of l i f t coe f f i c i e n t a r e then listed together with a dump of t h e a i r f o i l t a b l e s i n core a t t h a t time.

A second e r r o r message associated with \table interpolation


is a s follows:
ERROR CODE ( N )

I F 1 CVAL GTR THAN I F 2 CVAL GTR

MAX VALUE L I S T E D

THAN TABLE VALUE


THAN TABLE VALUE
CANNOT BE FOUND

I F 3 ALPHA VALUE GTR

I F 6 " I I C K N E S S CHORD RATIO VALUE

If these errors occur, the tables mistakes i n key punching, e t c .

should be examined

for

Several e r r o r messages are associated with the propeller slipstream analysis subroutine and operate as follows:

If an invalid number of tip loss correction cards areread,i.e.other than 0 o r 63, t h i s i s indicated by the message:

XX T I P LOSS CORRECTIONTABLE DATA CARDS READ INVALID SLIPSTREAM COMPUTATIONS ABORTED

IS

If the propeller geometry and operating condition data cards are read out of sequence, t h i s i s indicated by the message:
CARD I D E N T X X HASBEENREADOUTOFSEQUENCE, SLIPSTREAM COMPUTATIONS ABORTElD

143

If p r o p e l l e r a i r f o i l t a b l e s a r e n o t s t o r e d f o r t h e a i r f o i l s e r i e s code specified on a blade station data card ( I D E N T 4), t h i s is indicated by thefollowing message :
A I R F O I LT A B L E S NOT STORED FOR A I R F O I LS E R I E S )(x S P E C I F I E DA TR B / R P = THIS ELEMENT I S DELETED FROM THE ANALYSIS
2CX0XXXX

If the propeller-slipstream analysis fails to verge within 9 iterations, then the following message appears a f t e r p r i n t i n g o u t t h e s o l u t i o n for the last iteration:

con-

S3LUTIONFORPRECEEDINGELEMENTFAILED TO CONVERGE I N 9 I T E R A T I O N S AND I S DELETED FROM THE SLIPSTREAM LNALYSI s

6.0

PROGRAM STRUCTURE

The program i s written to operate i n OVERLAY mode. The central controlling portion of the overall program i s called STALL. The remainder of t h e program i s s p l i t i n t o 3 p a r t s , ONE, TWO, THREE:, which areoverlaid. STAI;L c a l l s ONE which then c a l l s e i t h e r TWO or THREE depending on whether the calculation i s f o r a flapped wing ornot. The major subroutines called by each overlay are as follows:
ONE
TWO THREE

calls calls calls

MAIN, MAINA, MAIN1 MAIN2, MAN2A, MAIN4 MAIN2, MAIN3, MAIN5

These major subroutines call the i n the program a s follows:


MAIN MAINA MAIN1 MAN2A MAIN3 MAIN4 MAIN5 BRIDG ARC

remainingsubroutines

calls Calls calls calls calls calls calls calls calls

MAINA, SETSW, AERDA, DATSW, ZZZ SLIP, AAA, D A T m , Z Z Z , BRIDG, MAIN1 DATSW, IVLA, MINV, GRIDG, SSS DATSW, A A A , BRIDG, Z Z Z , MAIN4 DAGET, DATSW, A A A , ARC, Z Z Z , MAIN5 BRIDG, A A A , DATSW, MAN2A DAGET, ARC, DATSW, A A A , ZZZ DAGET, ARC

LOOK

144

7 .O

OPERATING PROCEDURE

Logical TAPE5 i s named as the working (scratch) tape. The program deck and d a t a deck are l o a d e d i n the following sequence: job card, system control cards, end-of-record card, program deck, end-of-recordcard, data deck,' end-off i l e card.
8 .O PROGRAM TIMING

Central processor u n i t t i m e for an average run of angles-of-attack i s approximately 60 seconds-

six ( 6 )

145

APPmDIX Q

INTERNAL LIS'PIING OF THE CDMPUTER PROGRAM


Presented in

the

computer

this appendix an is internal listing of program developed under the present contract.

146

=OUTPUT,TAPtl OlrTAPE15=201

50

30
t

R ECA.LL 1

10
4c

*RECALL 1
P

2c

RECALL 1

S
t
A

T 1

9 ) , A L P G i 19

*
*
I

liPRDE*dLPl-e*K CCPPCh &SLIP*

0* .C D N A C

20

1c

TC 2C

.I

GC T C 1 c C O TLi 3C

30

147

10

C C

20

30

48

C
50
00

IhTERCEANGE C O L L H N S

~ K = h t i + ~. ~ .I F s . I P + . I

t
C C C

73

80 9s

1co
110 C

120
h
h.

t
C

C C C

115C113C 130 I 15011 4 C 14C K J = I J - I * K ACIJ)=FCLC* P ( K J ) + A ( I J ) 15C C C h T I h C t

O I V I D E ROW B Y P I V O T
K J=.K-F; C C 170 J ~ 1 . h KJ=KJ+k F ( J - i1 o6 C 9 1 7 0 1 1 6 C I t 0 b(KJ)=A(KJ)/!IGA 1 7 0 CCNT I N U E PRODUCT OF

C C C

PIVOTS

C C

- 0 4*B.I GA
REPLACE P I V O T tiY RECIPROCAL ACKKl*l.O'/flEGA F I K A L R G k AND CCLLMN I N T E H C k A N G E
K =N

C C C

180 C C h T I h U t

19C

20c
213

0 I 2co

230r210

220 2 3C J = P (.KI F(J-K) 1 240 K =!(-!I I I C 25c I = K =K :+k HC.LC=A(KI JI=KI-K+J

149

2 5 6 A L J )=l-CLI: G CT C ,190 200 R E T L R h thC S U B R C L T I V EC 4 6 E T ( A R K A Y . t I F I L E t I I I


SLBRCbTINE T G GET T A B L E FHCY I T IhTC CORE
r

UISK AND PUT

C C

C C C C

TPeLE PRESEbiTLY

I K CORE

IS

IhNCjW

I f - T I B L EI SA L R t A C Y IN C C R E T H t N RETURN I F hGT T H E N G E T 1 A t i L . E FRCR CISK

1c

c
C

I s 1 REkIRC IFILE H E L C ( 1 F I L EA IHtlAY R E i I h C IF I L E

I.F'(IFILE-IhhCh)

10t90r10

RESETABLE PREStKTLY

I N CCRE INUICATCR

3c

40

50 F ( I F I L F - 1 60

GC

ARRPY~JFCX
TC SC

80 9c

7c

C C C C

TC OUlPUT

4 OhE C I C E N S I O N A L

C C
P=6

S U B R C U T I N E TI? O U T P U T A .SINGLE V A L U E CLTPLT VALLE WRITE(IPt~101 .VALUE*VALUE RETLRh


I N S E T H F AFIlC

C C

FORKAT

10 F C ~ C A T ( l X . t F 1 5 . 8 r E 1 6 . 8 / 1 X ~

150

C C C

EhC SLBHCUTIYE SSSCArkP)


CLTPUT A SCLARE TkC SLBRCbTINF TC C I P E k S ICI\iAL AHHAY

C 10

20

C C C
10

20
C C

E
K=C . I P=6

kWITE(IP*90) I . F ' ( I S h I T ( 1 )2 ) Cr20r10 10 K = K + 1 kRITE(1PrlCC) ) 0r4G131i 20 F ( I S h I T ( 2 ) 4

3c
50

K=K+ 1

4c

6s 70 8C

C C C
10 10 16

iT=C. OT SE

VbKES CECIS

ICLNC

ICCHC

A S E D Clc S E T T I k G CF T h E S b t I l C H , S k - I T C k I SS E T r I C O ~ ~ O = L If

3)

50 50

40

50

50 C
VLrkh XCULrCBXXrIFILErKEEP)

t
C C

S L f ! R C U T I N E TC R E A L A E R O D Y K 4 Y I C TABLES FRCH C A R C S ANL' P L T T A B L E S ON UlSK

151

l A L P t - V ( 16) C C P P CIh Nh'Ck ZhTECER.2 KEEP


Y A X X t C ) COhTAlNS KUMBER C F R C h S IK A T A B L E h k E i ? E ( . 2 r b ) C C N T A l h S I t i 6 L E N L P B E K AN0 T A U

c" C
C C C

C C C

VbLLt IhfiCk

IS

TkE T A B L E PHESEhTLY

N I COKE

Ea=@
1 P*O
I h I T I P L I Z CL E V t L S CC 10 J = l r h ; L V L LCCP rc R E A C I N L E V E L S GF LL S E T CF EITHER L I F TC , RAG, CR P I l C H I N G E C K E h T

I N YHERE

C C C
C

DC 40 L V L = 1 r h L V L
REAL AhD PRIFjT NUMI3ER OF K C k S r C C L U M P i S T,A L V A L L E S FUR A G I V E hL t V E L RibCtIQ,5C) ~C,'hCCL,~~E~~E(Z,LVL) W R I T E ( I P v 6 C~ I c,hCCLThtEi~E(2rLVL) S T C R kLMDER OF C C L U F N S PX.CCLf LVL J = h C C L S T C R EN . LKBER OF RCkS M A X X L L V L1 s t ~ ~
KEbC A h C l n R I l E T I T L E OF T A B L E

C C
C C C

C C C C

REbC(.IR,70) hACE W R I T E ( I P , E Oh) A F E , L V L REAL VALUES


FOR T A B L E

WRITE COPPLETE TABLE

UN D I S K

R E.T LR K

'C,YO r C D N A C t

:
C C C
C

OLPY?=C.@ DL;CVl=C.O f-(PEYCh-SSS.) LO K E Y = l GC T C 3C 2 KG EY=2

20*lUI2C

STCRE C VALbE

3C C L T = C l L
hEk I S THE F I L E N L K b E R OF T k OThCR CUeE PRICAHY CLBES ARE FiUK:bEKEC l r 2 t 3 r 4 SECCNCOHY CLbES AHk k U K t i E H E C 5*lLr15120

C C C C C C C C C C

hrEh=LCY*S
STCRE XCAX XIVX=XPbX t ALUE C E T E R F I N E I F S I h G LV L I S T L F V A L L E S IS lfl 6 E
4C K C t = L

LSEC I N L C O K UP

I S T O B E USED CR

I . F ( IS-IP)

5C940r50 UP SET
FljK V C AG LU NE STA\T

OF X

ATPPIL)=XX(l) 7C GC TC

E
L

S E T b P FOR V A R I A B L E VALUE

GF X

60 A T Y F L J ) = X X ( J )

50 KCC=2 DC C C J = N S * h P
TABLE PRCPR PUT S VEA Ti 3E I UA IP T 6H LA c ER LPI-A I(=KS*hP GC T C l e O ? S C l c K G C 83 ALPFA=AIYP(IS) G C TC 1CC 9C A L P I - P = A T F P ( K )

t C
C C C

IN C O R E
OH C C V S T A N T

7C C A L L C P C E T ( . ~ R R A Y I ~ E ~ ~ I Z X Y )

c c 1sc

::
C

C L T T A U V A L U E FRnP A R A A Y

LCC TPLX=TPL ( K )

C C

GC T C ( 1 2 C , l l ? ) )K r EY R E G LE LA IT H HE h rLG !R KE B ETE YR hP C R LC CP SE R CR P A X bi~PbE13

i:
4 L

110 R k Y C % = . 9 E Y CK 1 REYhtSS9. GC T 1 C2 0 .12C REYh=HEYIK) 13C CLL=CLT XC~X=XCX


P F R F O R P LCCK F C R L I F T ? ORAGI PCIUCNT C k F L A P C A S t CjC T C 1 1 4 0 r 1 5 t r 1 6 C r 1 7 C )L r CK 1 4 G. C A L L J~~CCAHHPY*TA~X?~PPArP~ IE C IC AL ~ *. E K E ? ~ L V L ) CC T C l e 0 15C C A L L A ? C I P R R A Y * T A L X * M A @ O r ~ ~ C C l * I ~ * d ~ E R E I N L V L I GC T C l e 0 160 . C A L L A R C ( A R R A Y ~ T A U X ~ C A C C I P C C C L * I E P C P E R E ~ N L V L L GC TC 1bO

PITCHING

153

17C . C A L L d R C ( ~ R R A Y , T A ~ X , ~ A C D , P ~ C C L t I ~ ~ O ~ E R E I N L V L L
STCRE VALUES
1HG C C Z Z C K I = Y Y CCLR2 ( K )=CUPY 1 CALR2(kI=CLPY2

4.
L

FCUNC I N L O C K LP

l-

C C

FO RR EPEAT

hLMBER B E CFT O VALUES

FCUND

C C C

190 C C A T I \ b E
CtT NEXT TABLE CALL C&CET(bRRAY*LCE*IYl ALPPA UP OC 310 K=hS,hP GC T C (20C,21Clr ZOC A L P k A = P T P P ( I S l LC T C 2 2 0 210 . A L P k b = A T P P ( K l SET

I N CORE

C
VALU E L

KC0

5
L

S t T UP R E Y R C L O S UUFtlER

225 G C T C C 2 4 C ~ 2 3 C ) r K E Y 23C R E Y C h = ! ? E Y ( K )

G C T C 250 240 R E Y h = K E Y ( K 1

l?fYk=SSS.

t C

VALUE XPAX

ANCS E T T AL UP , CVAL,

25C C L . L = C L T

TLLX=TLL(XI XPbX=XPX L C C K LP FCH S E C C N C L I F T , P C C E N T , CR F L A P CASE DRAG, PITCHING

3CO C C Z l ( . K I = Y Y

310 . C C l i T I h U E

CCLRL(K)=CLWYl CLLR 1 ( Y ) = C L P Y Z

153

39C C C h T I h U E HE T L R h
RECCLAR INTERPCLATIOtB d ETkEEh

TAGLES

A G I V E & TABLE P WRAY I 5

SLt3RCbTIbiE T C

INTtRPCLATE BETkEEX LEVELS

OF

F!

r:
C

i.
f

C
TPL JALLt

IC T4b LESS THAN

CR E Q U AT LC LCihESL TE V E L

YES,

S E T J E C U AT LC

PAX LEVEL

3C J = \ L V . L S

.XTRPU=l. GC T C 80
hCt S E A 2 C k L I S T G F L C V E L ( S. T A U VALUES) U h T I L C h i G I U L N I S G R E A T E R T I - A h OhE T @ BC FCLhU

ERRCR

I F NCNE C A h f3E FOUhC


YON X M A X

60
76

95

ao

11s 12c 13C 143 150 160 173 le0 190

1oc

zcc

GC TC 270 230 I s = l GC TC 270 24C I. 5 = 2 bC TC 270 25C FS=? G C TC 2 7 0 26C I . t = t RETLRh 2 7C C L L L L C C K( P R R P Y V L V L , F A X R I C A X C ~ I E ) . C L 2 (.2) = c u P Y z P L R (.2 ) = C U V Y 1 GC T C ( Z H C w 2 S C 1 3 C C , 3 1 C T 3 2 C ) * IS FlhL'=ALPHA ALPkA=SS9. GC TC 3 5 0 290 F I h C = R E Y N AEYr\=SS9. GC TC 3 5 0 3cc F I A C = C V P L CVPL=9SS. G C TC 3 5 0 310 F I h C = R E Y @ N REYCh=SS9, GC TC 3 5 0 320 F \ L = X P b X GC T C ( 3 3 C 9 3 4 C ) r 1F L ? 33c XPPX=C. GC T C 3 5 0 340 XPAX=lC$. 35c L V L = k k F ? E ( l r J - l ) ,YdX2=h2ChS ( J - 1 ) PPXC=hCCLS(.J-l) FOR I N T C R P C L A T I C K S P E C I A ILJ R G C E O b r l E hEICkbLRhCbC O f C L M A X

220 I S-4

G C 1C 210 IFLP=2 2 10 I.S=5 2 C TC 270

IN T F E

36C
J)
373 362 39c 4c2 412 42C
430

53c 1T

IS

C1510

c" ALPtA

45c 4co 47c

440

480

490

59c
510

156

.CVAL=TRP(R I(ETLR)\ 520 C l = R E Y C \ QEYCk=TERP( RETLRh 5 3s C l = X C A X XPAX=TEdP(R RETLHh

C C C

EhC SLERCUTINE .LCCX(A~~LVLICPXR~PAXC,IE)

SLBRCUTIhk F C R THC DIMENSIOkAL TAhLE


Y L 5 2 V

LCOKUP

Y P B JPI

i
L

'NAC

i
*
C
I !
f

waxx
AClK * EKE *
AX

rCLPAX*C

* EIGE.

C C
C

SECTICh TO LCCATH L EYhOLCS hLMoER

1N T A B L E

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

t
C C C C C

40

EF(REYh-A(LVL*lrZ))

5Ct6C~tC
PLW k t h a N T TO

C C

TI-E

TABLE

USE T h E

50 L C C b 3 XTHAL,l.

157-

# -

GC TC 7C
AND G R E . A T E R THAR . A R C tT . ABLE UhTIL kE R VREATEH TPAN 1HE

S E C T I C N F@R N O R M A L LOCK U P CF A L P H A AND C i r d L . A V A L L r E C . F . 5 9 9 S P k C I F I E S T H A T THIS V A R I A P L E I S T H E O h E hHCSE V A L U E IS T C BE F C L k C I N TI- T A d L E .

S E C T I C N T O L C U K U P A L P H A F C R G I V L AC V A L IhTEKPCLuTIRG dEThEh CCLLYkS hHERE REYhCLCS KUVrjERS BRACKET GIVEN RkYN

BY

LCCK Lf'.CVAL FOK G I V E N ALPkA. C k e C K T G SEE I F h E t-.uvC P L I F T C R C R A G T4HLE l i \ A T THIS T l r E . LKAG T A i 3 L i S hAVE LEHC 'dALLES FCH ALL P4XIVLE V4LLES (.LAS1 TWU F i C h S ) .

C C P
L

210

22r

230
)

240 2c;C

24

25c

270

2dG

290 300 310 320

330

,158

340
s5ii

360
370

4 19 42c 430
453

39c 40C

440

4bi!

4 70

2%
509

51c

520
53c
54C

E 550
C

560

57c
59s

590
600 510

620

E
159

C C C C

S L E R G L T I N E T CS T O R tT . A U C L A T E C PKCPELLER T I P L C S S C U H K E C T I C f \ C A T A CH CISK REPL TLCSS( 8 1 KEACLll'ITKC) 'TLOSS RtTLRh EhC .sc:BRcuTIr:E G C : S K C I T I ~ C . T A L F I . T L I F T ) S L B R C L ; T I r \ rT C STCRE TABLJLATEC PROPELLkR AIKFCIL S t C T I O N GATA ON U I S K ALPl-A A K LC 'L VALULS CNLY R E A LT 3 L F P ( 2 @ ) r T L I F T ( 2 C ) R L A C C I Z ' I T h CT )ALfA REAC: l.13 ' I . T r \ C 1 T L I F T R.TLRh EhC SLBRCLTINE S L I P SLRRCUTINE TC CALCLLATE PRCPELLER S L I P S T R E A KV i L C C I T YC I S T K I B L T I L J N bSING kcrd LINEAR ULAL;E ~IRIXIL SECTIGX L I F l Cl-AKACTtKISTICS

C C C C C C

c
c
C

C C

q 4 4 44

I44.t

DbTP DAT P DA1A D4TP CPTi CPTP DblP


CPTG

C .C/
FSEk FSEK FStk

I h I T IA L I Z E CATA ARRAYS

t-

D A T A AF S R DPTP P R C T i

CFSEP i
(

I- C L A T 4 P R X . Y / l- F . I c 41-A 1 6 /

us.

41-NPS /

e/3l-

Ll-

4t-A 6 4 / 4 h A 65/

t3H RH/

Ct-ECK V A L U t GF I P R A B
hE

t C

EC 1 1

h e h C A S E , k E A 3 CAHC I N P L ' T h t k A L P H C Oi\lLY, S K I P C A R D INPUT

2000

IF (PQbB-l) C C h T I hLE
KP=6 KR=! P1=3.:415$37 .u~~=57.2957e AK(1.2)=-4C.C AK(5,2)=-4C,C

2350,2COC.235C SET F I X E D CCKSTANTS

t
C

SET AIRFOIL COhSTAKTS t C SR G LI L hT IT IC IA NL

C C C C

..*............
. . e

AK(4,1)=-C.4 AK(5*1)=-6.4

AK(3,1)=-7.3

REPC.
4 4
44

STCki:

ANC I h C tTXILP CSS

CGRR T A B L t S
.4

4+ 44
44 44 44

C AC TARD AL SC E P T E O I Y 4NY CHDErl. G U T r.LST NLFdER E I T k E R C OK 6 3


hCME H E G U I H L C I T FIL PC S T SA b L E S PRC- A L R k A C Y SlOKED CK CISK F I L E

*+
4+

*+ *+
te
t .

4.

4 4

FCLLOIUII\G C A R C PUS1 BE BLANK

160

2 c
2 100
2110
2120
I R ) * I K = 1r 8

213C

3c

s 214C

2140 R E A C * s 1'CR t ANiJ I R C E X A I R F C I L T A B L E S


11
- 1

k C

5
C C C C C

++
4 . 4. 4 4
I "

T I T LC E A R CP SC S T BE R E A F DI R S T NCT R t i Q C f R E D F O H S T A l l D AT HA O &LES F C L L O k l KC GA R L
P U S 1 E BLANK

tt

..
** 4.
ea
.4 44

1 :

C C C C C C

4 4 4 4 4

+*
a+
4 4

4 4 4 4 4

C A TC AA R D S FC,K E A C H AIHFGIL StT KLS C A TE SSPBLcL: I n CESCENOING CRC CE FR C If Li IC R E A S I N G INCwEASNT G/ C INCREAS PI A NC Gk

..
44 4.

+ . *it
*4 4. 44 44

NCNE R E E U I H EF CCS Rt C C hC CA S E

et
44

FLLLOh CIA NR GD

F'UST B LB AE NK

C
C

4 L

REAC AIRFOIL 1 1 IICr F S R l r A F S R f r A K 1 A K 2 r Z i L 2 r 229 1

SERIES 1I.TLE CARDS

2200
22C1

EFSP.1

AFSR2

2202 C

S T T A L L E I K C E X Ah C

.AD F I R S T TABLE

22C3 t

I h I T I A L I L EA I R F C I LS E C T I C hI h D E X

2204 2205
22C8

(I
C C 22 10

CL!*
TI-E TkE
A=

S E T L A S T V A L L E S O F A I R F O I LC C D f c T / C p AkL 4 I R F L i L S E C T I C h I I L D E X

C 2220

i: TA8LE C
C

.-

IT= REA AIHf-OIL LAST FCH

TABLE

IT
Cl-ECK

F t f l - E A D ( I T . 2 12) 2 2 5 ~ 2 2 3 C s 2 2 2 5
CATA C RC Eh AT 0I K i L E * T A B L CARDS EN E X T F C R B=ItfACI (T 1) RfACCKRt2913) CTALFA(I)rTLIFT(I)~I=l~IB)

2225

161

,I

..........

......

2230

224C 225G 226C

C 220C C 229C 2295 C

2296
C C

C C

C
C C C

2330

C C C

234C

2341

2342

2343
2345 C

2344
PLFP=ALPHB+EYETL ALFPQ=PLFF/PTC CP=CCS(PLFPP I AFLT=GJ*CP/FI ACCt-T=Fl*PCCtL/AJ

2350

...................

DhP=CP@*RhE!*

C C

162

C C C C C 2360

14
*4

.*

LAD ST A. TC AA R D

YUSl

E A V t RPUA=l.D

. +

*+

4 t

2365

=1,3lrkGATALIS)r

2370

C C
C

C t E C K FCk L A S T BLACE STATICh DATA C b L C bB LC AU TE NOAR hT=C F=C .O ACPCi-=4CCl-T+SCRT(l.C+A~U1442) .ALFI-A=C 00 CL=C.C LC=C.C ~S~RCIS)=SGRT(HS~HX4+2+11.C-KPBRX1+2)+(0 R S T C Q = R S ! ? R ( IS1

CARD

z3ac

....................
CEPEii(ISI=l.G

I F GHPER-loC 1 2 4 C C r 2 3 f ! C

2380
Y' . VALUES

FC H S L I P S T R E A P

5+1.0/(1.C

+UStlRX I 1 I

2400 C C C C

24C5

24 10 2411

bSTEK(IS)=C.C PI- 1 s=c .c C T = C T + C 5 * C C T X * ( 1.C-HPHRX I CC=CG+C.S*C.CCXI(l.C-R~~RXI GC TC 275C C C h T kUE L C C P T E 4\13 I R D E X d 4kC G F C P t l k I C O A T k TC L C C h U P C L F 0 ; i AIRFCIL SECTION G I.T=ITh(kP,l) I.F ( . I T2)4 1 C 9 2 4 C 5 , 2 4 1 0 W R I T E ( K P v Z S S 4 ) hAsRPtlR IS=IS-l GC TC 236C TtECl=Tl-EAC(ETslI DC 5 4 1 1 I=1,4 ITC(Itl)=C I,TCCII~)=C IP=l

....................

LES ED

I.@=i I-c= 1

2415

24212 2425
2430 2435

2440
2445 245C

24.55 2460

16 3

2465 24 7 0 2475

T Z (, TCL 1 TTCC TXCL

ii i

IF

'(

'4

-TI-ED1 1 75 * 2480

IC=1
F2= I

2480

GC T ZTG ( TTCC TXCL

Iici
T
T

IC)

I T-1

2465 2490 1e=4

95 9 2490
1)
IC=C 1 . E.= C G C TC 2 4 5 5 .CCr\Tli~b ........e

2495 I3 C
C

......

. . * . e

L. A T E I N I T I A L L A L U E SC F I T E R A T I O N R C UT I NE

PHIR AND CX

FOR

YFP = ( Z . C X= S C L * b 'V = ( F t T J UXCZk=C Pi-.Ih=Pk PI- I =PI- I X=L'XCZK .cxzx/ ( 1 hiFT=l C

.C-Y**Z L'*2)/(
eLt4.C.

25CO

..*.................
CP=CtS(PYIR) SP=SIh(Pl-IP)

BAI STI E C I I A T IR OCNU T I N E


L C C K CP TIP L O S S C G R R E C T I C N FACT~IR

2510
C

2520

G C rc 2 5 6 c l@=hC-l
AH=lC.S.f!PBR I.R=PR 1.F ( I R - 3 ) : AR=3.C

I.F ( . h e - 4 ) ~ 5 2 ~ ~ 2 5 ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 1 0 FCf F=l.C


CI-ECK

ILF T RPBR

C.3

PSSLkE RPBR

= G . 3

2530 C C C 2540

kH=3

253C*254C*254C
C C h T I h b IE NTEH C PC CM LP Ab TT IG t :N FRACCIOkS Ah2 A H H A Y IhCICES FUK T I P LCSS C G R Z L C T I O K V P L L E S TL, b f INTEQPOLATEO

DR=PR-IR C* I R-2 IC=IC+l AP~LC.C~SP P=AP DF=PP-IP


DC 255C

111 r 2

I h T E H P C L A T E FOR R P B R AT EACF SIYIPHI)

164

^.L F C R ACk AIHFCIL TABLE

2686

F
b

.CLP ( I C ) = T L F T l GC TC 2 6 9 C

E X T R A P C L A T E FOR A L P H a I h T E R P C L A T E FOR ALPHA

2687 2690

C C 2691

CLPf I C l ~ T L F T l + L T L F T 2 - T L F T l ~ * ~ A L F L ) / ( T A L F Z ~ ~ ~ L F l ~ .CChTIhLE GC T I : ( 2 6 5 1 * 2 t 9 2 ) r I 8 .CLCtIP)=CLP!l) E X T R A P C L A T E FOR APACh

165

F L
2692 2695 C

G O TC 2 6 9 5

IhTERPCLATE FUR APACH . L Y ( l ) l * ( AE:ACHhTERPCL A T CL (.TPCHZ- ,TKCHL i


AhrC CL I-

27C5
L

,2705 t 2710
IhTERPCLATE FOR T C C LG ( I A ) T CC( I k 1 - 7 XCL T CC ( I A

C C 271G

C 2715 2720

E X 1 2 APCLA T E FOR TGC

k C
L

2 7 2 5 r 2 7 3 C ,2725 IhTERPCLATE FOR C L I

2725

F
2730 2735 C

CL=CLC(1)+LCLCLZ)-CLC(l~~+(CLI-TCLI(l~~/(TCLI(Z~-TCLI(l)) GC TC 2735 EXTRAPCLATE FOX C L I O b T S I G E TABLE L I P I T


ACti**
AG

2740

C C 2745

01 SK PLANE ELEF

ElrtT

1FvP IF 2755 IF 2760 kRI

2750

WRI

hA,2) rCL~ I TCCI PI- I S

28CO

.CCh T k H L E

IS= I s-1 GC T C 2360

SLP INTEGRAL

I P S T R E A K ELtMENT

"

VALU6.S OF IIJTtGRAL TERMS

281C C C

,~"..,.............

CALCI

E E
C
2831 2812 2813

1 ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRIhT

FI!VAL SLIPSTREAM IhlEGRAL S

....................

HRITE(KPrs295@)C T S r C T r C C r V S B P R CALCCLATE SLIPSTRiAM VALbES FOR IRPLT TC; h l N t i ANALYSIS

EF ChPCT( 11 1 2812r2811.,2@12 kR=- 1 GC T C 2 E 1 3 NR=-l+IAHS(hRCT(2)-hKCf(l)) KCP=C

2 1 1 15
2816 28 17 2820 2625
2830

*ISIGh

2e35 2840
2845

2850 2b55

2060
286 1 2862

STATIGNS

2865

167

28 7C

2897

.CCh T I hL E

WRITE(KPr2SSl) IDERT
. e .

C 2901 2911 EY 1 2 2913 2923 2924 2925


b

R E L I C FGRKATS

.C.C) 0 )

292 1

e . .

0 "0."

. ..
0

e e . o

0 .

..

PR 1i\T FCRaYATS

168

C C

REACEH (IR) AND PHINTEK FiLPBEHS

I I P ) L O G I C A L LNIT

lR=8

RGk1h.C 1 .RchIhC 2 RECEKC. 3


.RE.h I h C 5 REhIhC 10 .KEA IkC 15 REhIhC 20 REkISC 7
KEEFx.1
L

P=6

REhIhC 4

IhPLT CATA SECTIOh;

L P Y C U T CF F C L ' R T H CATA CAR0

C C C

FlELC 1 FIELC 2 FIELD 3 FIELC 4

C C C C C C

I1 11
I1
I1

N L Y B t H C F T AV LA L U E S

PER T A B L E

1 F O R K E A D - . IC hF T AR L IE Y t E T C . LJ F U R ItL X c A C I h
1 FCR O b ~ P C F C C C P U T EA OK R A Y S 0 F O R NC DUKP 1 F@R I)UrlP C F B E TA AR R A Y G k(1h NU UUPP
WOK

z C
C
C C C C C

FIELC 5

I1

C C

TAPE LGAO CUtiE 1 f G CUBE

C C

E C
C

c
C

C C *
C b L L SE DC ? C J Ul--ERZ( 1 HI-ERE ( 2

S h I T C k L C K C CN L l L L READ I N VALUES FRCR C A R C S FCk TAL, R E Y : C I E P S , E C G E t C R L Ah0 ACC. FCRF'AT IS L ~ F ~ . C A .RAAYS A R ~ IN

RChnlSk

REA^

30 M P C C L ( J
IY=C F ( EG-3

PAkhtJ)

40

169

40
50

rFACCLrPAYkr7rKEEP)

6C
70 00 l K = l

rYACCL*PAkkr7rKEEP)

90 100

110

12c

130

170

150

5 L

160

I F hO F U S E ( F U S E L A G E 1 F.(41 410e410e170 170 Y C = e r S C R T ( l . - ~ + * Z / A * * 2 ~ EC.C=SCRl (A*+2-8*+2) C A L L CATSh ( C e I ) GC T C ( 1 9 C e l e C I r I 183 C R O = 2 0 * ~ 1 . - Y C 1 / ~ A S P f C . ( 1 . + T A P E R - 2 . r Y O + T A P ~ R - 2 ~ * Y U ~ T A P E R 1 ~ 190 ~ F P C = l o - ( . Y C r T P U H + C R ~ / ( ~ . 1 4 l 5 9 *


Yo..( I

CSEE CK1646 F CE RX P L A R A T I O h S L

Ct-ECK
E(A-F!)

I F FOSE E L L I P T I C A L OR C I R C U L A R

230e230e21C E L L I P T I C A L FUSE

C
C C C C C C C

Y BAR P R I F E ( I . !

220 Y C 4 X ~ . I l ~ ~ Y C ~ ~ I l / ~ A - D ) . . ~ ~ - b + C I S T ~ I l / S Q ~ l ~ C I S T ~ . I l ~ * 2 - ~ C C * ~ Z l l l GC T C 2 5 0
Y B A R P R I M E 1.11 F C R C I R C L L A R FUSE

230
24r)

3C 2 4 C I = l r J P P

BkX=l.-.A**2/(1.+~++21 CCPPCIS TI1 t L L I P T I C A K O C I k C L L A R FUSE

Y C b X ~ ~ I ~ = Y C A ~ I ~ * ~ 1 . - A r r Z / l Y C A ~ I l ~ ~ Z + ~ ~ + Z l l / ~ ~ X

250 DC 260 I P l e J P P
Y BAR . ( I 1
A [=I-1

5 L

260 Y X ( I = C C S ( 4 I * P I E i 3 1

171

t C

k I h 6 ON TOP GR 8 O T T U P OF FLSELAGE

* + 2 l+SC (XISF++
360
37P

391

40C

380 390

2+l-++2

4 lC

42G

C C C C C

S P k L I I L CASE I F V I L U E S HAVE B E E N R E A D I N CC k C T k.A!qT TU CllPPUTk C R O . k I L L I\OT COCPbTE V A L L E S ALREADY K E A O I N

430 44 0
4 5C 460

410
480

49c
50L:

51L

52C 53c

54 1

,172

173

ALPkPS99.CL.L=C. REYChrS99. XCPX=O.

LCCK LP ZERO L I F TA N G L EF C R .

L
t

C A L L t?RlCG F( E l 5 6 C LCCK LP ZEKC LIFT

ANGLE FCR H c o r SECTIUN

C C

C6LCLLATE AERODY!JAP!IC

ANC G E C M E T R I C T l v I S T

5ec T h I S T = T n I S
59c bOC
61L

5 7 0 IF ( T h l S A - 1

62G

610

GC T C t C O ThISP=ThIS C b L .C L PTSk GC 1C (-i3C cc 6 S b 1 = 1 EPSLI.)=Thl F(hFLbF.h .LC.C E R = 1 CLL=949. ALPk/;=S990 REYhZSS9o .REYCh=C.

ALPI-Z ALPI-Z

5sc

IY(I)

F C R X P A X = l C CA. R C h I L L L C C K LP A L P H A FAX F C R XIAX=C. ARC t. I L L L C O KU PC LF A X

6bC

320 F C R P P T r e F 1 C . C ) F C R P b T ( 1 X ~ l l k t R R G H CCCE ,12,13F

E~,T:

-IF1

S E C T I F N rI3,SH

ABCRTEDI

2 L

SCBRCLTIIJ PAIN1 CCP hT A II N h lb- A - -T- I . O h

C F S UPB&R IN CLTIhE

C C C

3 . 7 4

.12c 13C

. I 13c1 I= 11 hP
=1./45.
=l./SC.
P ER TSTIX)

3 10 14C115 AX*Slh
C S 1 TI-.F t-TbTA c s (TI-

14C

150
-60

tc
,

= I ./sc. ( 1.-cc

17C

(l.+CCS 1=20*SX )=2.*SI =TChl( I =GEhE( I


E

+1 . 5

IAX

1-SC. E)-90.

EGA E GA

*TSTAX STAX 1 (3.141 9*TChY cj*.C-EKE

STbX 1 1

CI-ECK FGR

CLWP

L80
190

2CC

2 1.n
ZZC 2 3C 240

250
26C 27G

280
CkECK FCR O W P

CALL C A l S W ( 3.r.I')

175

29C

31C
STCHE BETA TEMPGRARILY Oh DISK C C C F U T E THk TRAlriSPCSF OF T R I X R E h I h C 44

3CO

C
C C C

SO WE C A N

~WIlE(441eET4 R E h I h C 44
STCRE TRIX
I N BETA

C C C

320
hCk TRAKSPCJSE b E T A

(CLD

TRIX)

330
C C C
RSTCHE DETA

R E P C 1.441 E E T A

IhVERT TRIX

S E T tip FOR C L PAX LOOK

UP

c
C C

lrCK CP C L P A X VALUES
XM A X I

$20

176

490 F C P P b T ( l l 1/ FCRCATI 1x/1 sou


51C F r P F A T I

4 'IC

FCklvAT I l o x

54c 552

! a 3 2

52C F C j u C i i

590 6 C0

563 5 IC)

lox* 1l)X * lrrX * lox* lox* LOA * lox*


13Y*

lox.

/1X) SE STATIGNS-ZY/B)
/ CPCRC DISTRBUTIUN) EYhCLCS hbKeERS,MILLIONS) TRIZUTlCiJ) TRIBGTIOK), STRItLTlOh)

' I N E FA I R 2
PA1\2----L

G EhETIPL P R I NS TU R i t C U T I N E - - - - - - - - -

Ci-CHC.

KkESS C f lC.2/1 IC TbIS FlC.L+1 I h G I LE FlC.2/1 A T t Ut: /lX 1

T ~ P ~ R

2t 1CX 9 3UHGECCETHI 4 hhlSt STATIO'VS. = Z / 1 5 X r 3 C h F L A P SPA

4Yl-

1HC Z*T 3AL

CI C

,~azz it
KCL* v STAL *CP( 1
Pl-A * K E Y tERErkITAPEt3, U

11.;

LC

1AL

11s k Tk 5Wk

2*P

1EP

cc cc

PuYYvFL RICACBT

*IY*IZ*

177

70 C C C C C
80

OC 7 C K=lrhP .ALPGLK)PALP~B+PLP~R+E~S~K)+ALP~~~TFAC.C~~&N$~K).-~~~
ShITCl- KUVEER 3 IS USED FCR 4N I N T E R N A L CLWP CF A R H A Y S C O P P U T E D CLWIhG ITkRACIOh: PPCCESS

90

66

47

101 135

136
1c2

103
104

105

1C6
109

55 1003

lOiC
1011

51 1G31

1C7

52 1071 1072

178

53 DC 1 2 0 K z 1 ~ h . P AK=F SLVl=C.C qc 1 2 1 h = l r h P
SLtJZ=C.C 3 c 122 C=l.hP
Ah=&

122 121 3 2c 130L 13G 13 L 1311


54

SI l':(. AN* .AM*P 1 ER


) I'AN

/EDGE
IYTIEcREYcTAC

100 11c

PSPECt1.E) 1*C(.K 1 + C R B + 60 /C1.14159*CIK 1 ) )

.L 20
14 0

159
6.0
L 1/EDGE

C C

170

G L

18C
Cf-ECK FCR CUPR
8

19C
4

I I I

Cl-ECK T C L E R A h C E

179

26C W R I T E ( I P , 3 9 C ) C P L L bAA(C8GThPI

C A L L C P T S k ( 3 9 JUhK ) G C 'IC ( 2 6 Z 1 2 7 C ) r JIJKK REPEAT CYCLE

F +.

.141

27C T R = T R + l F.( TI?-30 1 14 1 9 1 4 1 9 2 8 C

IF ( A S L I P - 1 )1 4 C , l C 5 r l C 5

IF L N A H L E TC CONVERGE AFTER 30 I T E R A T I O N S CLFP C E L T A V A L L E S , C V P L U E S , i4ND T A B L E LCCK UP P R E S E h T L Y I-N C C R E B E I h G LSEC F O R


280

30C

3 10

c
68
f C R r ~ T ( l O X , l t l - Z E R C - L I F T ANGLES) 37C FCRf'A.T I 1 O X 4 M L P G 1 383 F ~ R C A T ( I G X * 4 F C V A L ) 3 3 0 I-LRPA r O 1 G X v 2 k C E G I 40C F C R C b T L l O X * S l - A L P l ' U I 4 1 CF C R P A T (l C X , 5 l " b L P h E ) 420 F C R f J P T C l O X , 3 P C H C ) 430 F C R C L T L l G X , S t - C E L T A l 440 F C R t ' A T ( l X t 4 E t L X A B L E TC C C h V E R GA EF T E R 30 I T E T R A T I G NA SB O A T E D ) 470 FCRCbT( i O ! p I 2 , 6 3 F ITE?ATIChS REQCIREO TO CCNVEKGE FOR AhGLE CF AT' l F i l C K E6L.A- T C vF8.2/1X) 480 F C R I A T ( l X i l C l - . E R R C KC C G E , Z , l X ~ l C P A TS E C T I O N r 3 , l X o 3 2 H I ~ PROGRAKT E 1XE.CLTICh .TEHYIhATtC 1 EhC SU@RCL;TI R E P P I K 4
IsAIk4----CGKrINUATCN

c L

CF S U B R C L I T I N E ).'.PIN2

1 C

J . 8 0

CCPPLTE QUARTER CCEFFICIEkTS


b

Cl-CRD P T C H I N G WOPENT

Cl-ECK STALL IE FD S E C T I O N

CCPPUTE SECTiOh

P I T C h Z N G CCPENT

40

StiP2-COO

50

.R!/ELrX

5 L .
53
70

L .

Cl-ECK FGR CLiPP

80

80 1

z c

'2
9C

CCP t CLPP CCNAC, 'ZKrCC ;ch!pp r C O P P

~FI(KSTPL.FCoC).ANC.(KC~~To~~oC GC ) ) TO 2 5 0

4
L

CEFIhrE E X A C T STALL AhGLE

CF A T T A C K

GC TO 9 S C O

10oc
2GCC

2 102
30c0 31CO
323C
3 30-c
99CO

170

GC TO 171

25C 1'71
c

IH(-101 RETCRK

-"C C

KPIh3--SUBRCbTIhE

FGR TI-E C A S E hITl-!

PART-SPAN

FLAPS---------------

1 . 8 2

I Ct AXX CGE
,t

I
t

PUT FLAPS-LP

CL

D A T AI N T C

CGRE

CbLL L A G E T L P R R A Y .LCLER=i CC 6 C K = l r h P ALPGCKl=3-

t 19

1Y 1

LCCK

LP C L VALUES

CLL=S99. ALPkU=ALPE(Al REYh=PEY(K) TLLX=TJ~L[KI REYCh-SS9, XPAX=C. .CP.LL P H C ( A R H A Y I T A U X ~ ~ ~ X X , ~ X C C L ~ I E T ~ ~ E R E , ~ L V L ) Cl-ECK FCR ERROR STGP

83 9G
L C C K LP A L P F A FUR LCCER=3 ALPkh=SS9. CL.L=C.C LERC L I F T

TALX=TAL(K) REYCh5SS9-

KYh=HkY(KI

4
L

L C C K L PC LV A L L E S LCCERd4 .CLL=SS9. ALPI-P.rALPkE.1X4

183

t C
C C C
O W P ALL

220

C
C

2 C
26 C

C A L C L L b T EA C C I T I C h A L Cc.LEF=G~SCrJ DC Z6C K=l#hP .CLACC(K)=&VAL(K)/CCLIF CLL=O. AL.PkP=S99. REYh=REY(ISTAR) TAbX=TAL(ISTAR) CALCLLATE ZEHC-LI FLAP EhC REYCh=SS9. CALL ARC(ARRAY,TALX*NAXX

LIFT DISTKJUTICNICL

FT' A N G L E S CL'TBOAHC A N D I h B C A R D
TP X C C L ~ I E 9 k k E R E ~ h L V L )

CF

'184

Al=bLPkA AL?kA=SF9o

LOAC F LAP CL TAB, L E S INTO CCRE C P L L C d G E T 1.bfRHPY p 4 I\* 1 CALL d r ~ C ( f i H P A Y ~ T A C X ~ t ' A h k,f'kCCLt I t t XFEKE 9 N L V L 1 AZ=PLfI-P SCELT-A1-A2 ALPE(JP)=Oo d L P i - d = A L P C ( JP 1 CLL=SSS. HEYh=REY(JP) BPLX=TPL(JP) CALCULATE APPRCXICATE SPAN LSIACING k I T HF L A P

C C

RtYCti"SF9o CCELL A F C ( A R R A V r T A U X ~ t ' A h b t t ' h C C L t 1 k v X k E R E ~ ~ L V L ~ CVbLIJF)=CLL CC 2 9 C K = l , JP


ALKIK

?7@

K C S ( AK * P I Eh 1

260

I L 1.-cc S ( A K * P

24C
3oc
31C 32C

33c 34c

ECTICN C ATP

I S T R I BL'T ION h I T h FLAP-LNCGR RECTEO FOK

FL. A P

35c

36C 37c
XFEREphLVL) /EDGE XHEREI~LVL)

38C
htEREthLVL1 /EDGE

kHEHk I h L V L I

40G

39c

185

4 10

42c
44G

43c

450

46C

47c

480
49 ' 0

..

9cc

51c
a2G

S3G 542

55C
56C
57G

LCCK LP CL V,CX FOR S E C T I C k CK UYFLAPPED S I D E OF


580 f 4 L L CaGETCPRRAY, 1, I Y ) REYF\=SSS. XPAX=C.

FLAP END

.IS6

C C

L C C K UP C.L PBX FCR S E C T I C R C A L L C A G E 1 I AR C A L LA R C (A R R A CLPF=XP'AX DCLPA=CLMF-CL CLLt999. AL.PkAxS09. REYhrCS9. , XCAX=O. DC C 3 C :K=li,hP FIK-ISTAd) 6C O r 6 0 C 5 9 0 F ( K - I W I + Y S T A # R ) 610 xc PX=C, 6CC REYCNXREY~K) FAL;X=TPL(k 1

CN

F L A P R E C S I D E OF F L A P t N O rlEvXkfREvhLVL)

IRI=R

3:

/.LCCK L PC L P A XF C RW F L A P P E C

KING S E C T I O N S

LCC C C KPL P A FX OFR LA'PPEO

kKG SECTIOiJS

620 F ( . K ) = l . + F 630 C . L P b X ( K ) =

CILL CAGE C A L L PR.C(

uc c 7 c
L
c

FF=l..+FF*

64C

F (K-.I STA f(K-Ii2I.+

K=

t C C k UP A L P t - A 4 1 C L Y A X F C R L i v F L A P P E D kING
CECET(6RP 650 CbLL -AL'PkA=SS9. PY,lriY)

SfCTItiNS

.REYhxSSQ.

.CLL=495. RiYCh=WkY(K) TPL:X=TAL(K 1 XYPX=lCC. .CAlL ARCtARRAY GC T C 6 7 0

rT4UX,PAXX,CXCCL,IE,h~ERE,hLVL)

'

LCCK LP ALPFA AT CLPAX CAGET(PRRAYt4rIk) 66C . C b L L XPLX=lCC. R E Y C h r R F Y ( K1 TPI:X=TLL( K 1 REth=SS5.'

FCR

F L A P P E Dk I N G

SECTICNS

670

kLVL1 (K)

680

187

72C

73c 740 75c 760 7 70 760 79P


80C

3 2H IN PROGRAR,

S
1

I2*
19H

8lC 820

83C
P4C

a:?

ti 9c SCO
96C

P8C

5i2P
99i; l0CC lCl0 le20 1C4C

97G SbG

1C3C
1LOL

lC58
109C 11CO
1CRR

1L7U

4 C ALPl-A=4LPE ( K 1 .cLL=993. HEYh=HtY f K 1 T4LX= T A L fK i

188

C C

F I h C CL FRCP FLAP
50 . A L . P k A = A L P G ( K 1

U A T A UF NO FR LAP SP E AC b

STATlOkS

':,:.

. .. .
.1

:;

CLL=FS9. RtYh=REY(JO TALX=TAL(K) REYChtSS9. C A l L. C A G E T f B R R A Y * 4 r I h ) CALL A R C ~ A R H A Y ~ T A L X ~ ~ A k h r ~ h C C L ~ I E ~ X ~ E ~ E ~ ~ L V L ) C V B L ( K 1= C L L 6C CBt(.K)=CVAL(K)~(ASPEC/(ASPEC+l~~))+Cf.K)*CR~+(.Oo5+~l.+TAPER)~SIN(AK l*PIER1/13o14159*C(K1)) CkECK f C K

F L

CbPP

lL GC T 70 WKIT c 4.L L WRIT C A.L L

.c P

kRIl
kRIT

CblL
ITR=

f A.L 1
135 136
r

TChY 80 L L S T

uc

F(h 1

C C

L C G K LP Z E R L L I F T PkC.LES

AT FLAP kc-FLAPSICE

10u
CLL=C. RFYh=P?CY ( I S T A R 1 TbUX=TP.L( I S T A R ) CPLL ARC(ARRPY*TALXrYAk A3=PLPI-b CALL CATSk(3,JUtiK) GC TC ( l l C v 1 2 C ) v JUYK hRITE( IFp'65C) C A L L ZZZ( A3 1 A4=bLpkZ(I5TAR) CLSTb=CLSTA<Ff C A LC LATSh(.,rJUKK) GC TC ( 1 3 C * 1 4 C ) J *UNK WRITE(IPv66C) .CA.LL Z Z L C L S T L 1 SRITE(IF,b7,) Cb.LL ZZZl A 4 1 .CA.LL C A G E T ( b H R A Y * 4 r I b ) ALFkP=SS9. CLL=CLSTlJ REYh=REY(ISTAR) TCbX=Tc\L( I S T E R 1 RFYCk=SSY. C P . LC L RC(ARRAY*TAkX,VAk hr AL'Ft-X=PLPI-,? A L = E C ~ E ~ F f r ( 6 L P I - X - A 3 ) + 83 A C P l L C L T S k ( 3 9 JUhK 1 G C TC 1 1 5 C . l c C )J rU N K WRITE(SPr.68C) CALL 2 2 2 ( A 1 1 .
RLYCh=S99.

110

.I 2 0

130
14L

150

189

C
L

160.CLSTL*CLSTA/F[ISTAAl.

L C O K L P ALPkA CUbE 1

1?O 181)

180 1

57

1O G 9

lOlC

1c11
1

5 14

1C3

107

108
52 1071 1072
53

17CC 171G

$90

CC 126 K s l r h P AK=K SLlrl=C.C OC 1 2 1 N=l*hP

SL1V2=C..C CC 122 P t l r h P 122 121 .126 1bCZ 190

Ah=h

200 2 LC

220

23c 24C
250

260 2 70 290 3CCr 110


Z8G

320 330
r

t
340 Y R I T E ( 1 iJ!?ITE( I
DC

NCh; CEkVERGENCE OCYP


.C.*LL A P WdITlr( I CbLL b b

I .

352

KW=CbXX

cc

NC=)rXCC TAL X=kk wRITEI I

35c

191,

60C 012 61C b3d


64C

650

b(5C 673 6fC 69C 7cc


7 10 720 73c 745 75G 160

1 T E i t A T I CNS

7 7c 7'a0

(til, LE ,.;I

2t

790

ANGLE

Cl- A.T T

193