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# Constitutive Modelling for Engineering Materials in Computational Procedures

By Chandrakant S. Desai

## Is Continuum Approach Valid?

May be for some limited materials In general: Geologic materials contain discontinuities initially, and/or they develop during deformations. Then the continuum approach may not be valid, e.g. the definition of stress = P/A A tends to 0.

DSC Approach
Sat and Asat: Existence and Nonexistence Combines continuum and discontinuum approaches and takes into account microstructural modifications in a material element, which may lead to microcracking, fracture and softening or degradation. It also accounts for healing or stiffening.

DSC : BASICS

D = 0 (or Do)

D>0

F A R I

DDu1

Ri RI FA

D=0 i

Dc

Df

Du

D=1

## Relative Intact (RI) Response

HISS as RI response
Where,

J 2D

J = 2D

2 a

J1

( J 1 + 3R ) =
2 pa

J 3D 27 Sr = . 3/ 2 2 J 2D

Ultimate Envelope

## Phase Change Line (Critical State)

3 R

(a)

(b) Octahedral plane; ( for convexity) Figure 8. Plots of Yield Surface, F, in Stress Spaces

The Hierarchical Single Surface (HISS) Plasticity Model: Contains most other plasticity models as special cases:
For Example: Conventional: von Mises, Mohr Coulomb, Drucker Prager and Continuous Yielding Models: Critical Sate, Cap, Matsuoka/Nakai, and Lade et al.

## Critical State Model As a Special of HISS:

Assume: Soil is normally consolidated and cohesionless and 3R=0, then HISS specializes to:

J 2 D + J J = 0
2 1 2 1

## which has the form similar to modified Cam Clay model.

In the critical state model: The critical state is reached near the end when the material element deforms with invariant volume under shear. On the other Hand; In the DSC, the material element may reach the fully adjusted state (FA) , which can be considered to be the critical state, from the beginning, at distributed locations in the material . Then, when most of the material reaches the FA (critical state) , it could fail.

## Fully Adjusted State Zero Strength :

=0
~

Critical State :

c 2D

c J 1 , = e e ln = m.J 1 3p a c c 0

= C
~

~ ~

DISTURBANCE

D = 0 (or Do)

D>0

F A R I

DDu 1

Ri RI F A

D=0 i

Dc Df

a Dcd c D=0

Dc

Df

Du

Du F A D=1

Rc

D= 1

## (a) Stress-strain Response D

b a d

(b) Disturbance Figure 7. Representation of Softening and Healing (Stiffening) Response in DSC

Two Dimensional

APPLICATIONS

## bending moment acceleration

9.3 m

Dr 55%

11.4 m

Dr 80%

3.7 m A 12 D

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 B 22.667 m C 20.7 m

## 0.25 0.20 0.15

Acceleration (g)

0.10 0.05 0.00 -0.05 -0.10 -0.15 -0.20 -0.25 0 5 10 Time (sec) 15 20 25

## Figure 9. Base motion acceleration (Wilson et al. 1997c)

120

P ore P ressure, kP a

80

40

Experimental
0 0 9 18 27

Time, sec
120

## Excess Pore Pressure = Initial 'v

Pore Pressure, kPa
80

40

## With Interface Case

0 0 9 18 27

Time, sec
120

P ore P ressure, kP a

80

40

## Without Interface Case

0 0 9 18 27

Time, sec

Comparisons for pore water pressures for Element 139 near pile.

## Laboratory Triaxial Tests on Back Fill

Interface Tests Using CYMDOF: Cyclic Multi Degree of Freedom Shear Device Saturated and Dry

## Wide Range of Applications:

Failure and Reliability Analysis of Computer Chips in Electronic Packaging Behavior of Glacial Till and Till-Ice Interface for Prediction of Motion of Glaciers and Ice Sheets: Global Warming and Climate Change

35 mm

31 mm

31 mm 35 mm
Figure 2: Pin layout for 313-pin PBGA (Zwick)

CONCLUSIONS:
DSC: Perhaps ONLY Unified Approach available for Constitutive Modeling: Solids and Interfaces/Joints Contains most previous approaches as Special cases: Elasticity, Plasticity, Viscoplasticity, Damage, etc and Critical State or Cap Models commonly used in Geotechnical Engineering are included within DSC

Conclusions (Continued)
Lowest or equal number of parameters compared to available models of comparable capabilities. Parameters have physical meanings and can be determined from standard laboratory tests. Validated with respect laboratory tests, impendent tests and Field/laboratory measurements.

Conclusions (continued) **
Applied to a wide range of problems: Static and Dynamic Soil-Structure interaction, Piles, Retaining walls, Dams, Tunnels. Earthquake analysis, and LIQUEFACTION Landslides and Glacier Motions Electronic Packaging: Computer ChipsBoeing