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Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and connotes positive and virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, and

straightforwardness, including straightforwardness of conduct, along with the absence of lying, cheating, theft, etc. Furthermore, honesty means being trustworthy, loyal, fair, and sincere. Honesty is valued in many ethnic and religious cultures. Integrity is a concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes. Barbara Killinger offers a traditional definition: Integrity is a personal choice, an uncompromising and predictably consistent commitment to honour moral, ethical, spiritual and artistic values and principles In ethics, integrity is regarded as the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions. Integrity can stand in opposition to hypocrisy in that judging with the standards of integrity involves regarding internal consistency as a virtue, and suggests that parties holding within themselves apparently conflicting values should account for the discrepancy or alter their beliefs. The word "integrity" stems from the Latin adjective integer (whole, complete). In this context, integrity is the inner sense of "wholeness" deriving from qualities such as honesty and consistency of character. As such, one may judge that others "have integrity" to the extent that they act according to the values, beliefs and principles they claim to hold. A value system's abstraction depth and range of applicable interaction may also function as significant factors in identifying integrity due to their congruence or lack of congruence with observation. A value system may evolve over time while retaining integrity if those who espouse the values account for and resolve inconsistencies. Civic Virtue: Placing the needs of the country and its citizens above individual needs and desires Civic comes from the Latin word civitas
or living in a city. Think of the word citizen. Virtue comes from the Latin word virtus which means being moral or good. Civic Virtue is the behavior of good citizens. It includes: Voting Obeying rules and laws Serving on juries which means civilized

Civic Virtue involves giving back to your community, and your society some of what they have given you.

Commitment A necessary element of life. The most important single factor in individual success Ignites action Achieved by practicing your beliefs consistently conditions Sound set of beliefs Faithful adherence to those beliefs with your behavior PROBLEMS IN LOW WORK COMMITMENT ENVIRONMENTS Organizational Performance Absenteeism Turnover (Customer Sat) * Half leave < 3 years Effort expenditure * Quality initiatives Theft Job dissatisfaction Willingness to be relocated REASONS FOR DECLINE IN COMMITMENT Corporate America has not met its obligations to employees a. Downturns: layoffs, hours & compensation cut b. Mergers & Acquisitions: employees terminated c. Experiments with two-tiered pay systems d. Increased use of temps & contract employees 2. Societal values have changed & organizations have failed to accommodate these changes a. Importance of work ethic b. Work/family balance issues c. Diversity issues The experience of paid employment has not met

expectations of post-boomers a. Standard of living b. Flatter orgs and lower rate of advancement c. Career is not progressing according to plan (disillusioned by practice, employer impediments)

4. Growing numbers of jobs do not foster commitment a. Low challenge b. Few opportunities for growth ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Continuance Commitment Definition: Loyalty to an organization based on accumulated investments that will be lost upon leaving Sample Measure: Too much of my life would be disrupted if I left my present organization.

A changeable Attitude II. Affective Commitment Definition: The extent to which individuals identify with and have goals consistent with the organizations Sample Measure: A changeable Attitude I feel like Im part of the family at my organization.

Basic Empathy Responses are roughly interchangeable with those of the client

Additive Empathy Responses include an addition of what the client said (providing a link to what has been said earlier or another perspective)

Subtractive Empathy Responses distort or take away from the meaning expressed by and experience of client

Empathy is deeply feeling what another person feels in any given moment in that persons unique life experience Experiencing the inner world of another It allows for Joining between counselor and client Self-awareness and self-experience of counselor and client Aid in future communication

What Gets in the Way of Empathy Habit Avoidance of pain

Fear of feelings Instead of working to feel clients, I must work to prevent strong emotions.

Misattributed responsibility Worry about errors in empathy Worry about moving client out of bad feelings

Letting go of control

Expressing Empathy Strive to feel with your client Be prepared to accept corrections Match clients tone Facial expression and body language The most over means words

Naming the feeling

Engineering ethics ethika in Greek means character Engineering ethics is concerned with the personal conduct of engineers as they uphold and advance the integrity, honor and dignity of engineering while practicing their profession. This conduct of behavior has obligations to 1. Self, 2. Employer and/or client 3. Colleagues and co-workers 4. Public 5. Environment

Engineering ethics o o Applied ethics Focuses on set of standards that cover engineers responsibility to the public, clients, employers and profession

Engineering one of fundamental human activities o o Large social impact and significant responsibility Engineers are often placed into conflict situations they need to be able to resolve conflicts in ethical manner

ABET - recognized accreditor for college and university programs in applied science, computing, engineering, and technology o o Requirement for teaching engineering ethics Goal preparation of students for ethical challenges in technology dominated world

Engineering Ethics is the study of moral issues and decisions confronting individuals and organizations engaged in engineering. The Study of related questions about moral ideals, character, policies and relationship of people and corporations involved in technological activity.

Teaching engineering ethics can achieve at least four desirable outcomes: a) increased ethical sensitivity; b) increased knowledge of relevant standards of conduct; c) improved ethical judgment; and d) improved ethical will-power (i.e., a greater ability to ethically when one wants to). act

Ethical responsibility...involves more than leading a decent, honest, truthful life. . . . And it involves something much more than making wise choices when such choices suddenly, unexpectedly present themselves. Our moral obligations must . . . include a willingness to engage others in the difficult work of defining the crucial choices that confront technological society Examples of Engineering Codes of Ethics Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) ABET Code of Ethics of Engineers The Fundamental Canons 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties. 2. Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence. 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. 4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest. 5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others. 6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the profession. 7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision.

Code of Ethics : The main objectives of the engineering code of ethics are to (i) protect the public, (ii) protect and further develop the profession 1. Safety, health and welfare of the public : to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; 2. Conflicts of interest: to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist; 3. Honest and realistic on claims: to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data; 4. Reject bribery: to reject bribery in all its forms; 5. Improve understanding of technology: to improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and potential consequences; 6. Technical competence: to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations; 7. Honesty in criticism and credit: to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others; 8. Fair: to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender, disability, age, or national origin; 9. Truthful: to avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action; 10. Supportive: to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics.

Self Confidence Statement : confidence is Freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities Self Confidence Statement :It is the confidence of the type: "I can do this". " I have the ability to do this". Genuine self-confidence is the forerunner of achievements. Self-confidence integrates the powers of mind and body and focuses them towards the goal. Only such a concentrated energy can reach the goal. Why? :Self-confidence is the first step to Progress Development Achievement Success. Why? The successes and achievements in turn will strengthen your self-confidence further. People like, respect and trust persons who are self-confident. It is natural that persons with good confidence are offered leadership and other office responsibilities of groups. In short, success flows to those who have a genuine Self-confidence what Does Courage, Confidence & Trust means to you????? : What Does Courage, Confidence & Trust means to you????? The Natural Enemy of self-confidence? : The Natural Enemy of selfconfidence? Here are some factors that contribute to one's fear: : 1. When we feel separated, fear increases. 2. Strange surroundings and unfamiliar people bring about fear. Here are some factors that contribute to one's fear: 3. One's negative memory of past experiences where one had either suffered or witnessed loss, harm or death aggravates fear. 4. Imagination at times can create or invent images of trouble, suffering or pain outside physical truth or reality. How to improve SELFCONFIDENCE? 1. Be Positive : 2. Emphasize your strengths 3. Talk to yourself. 4. Evaluate yourself 5. Be in a group : 6. Preparation : 7. Move with purpose : 8. Connect with confidence : 9. Build your success file : 10. Maintain Eye Contact : 11. Take those risks Lastly, Always remember Success comes in cans, not cant's.

1. Engineering EthicsThe rules and standards which govern the conduct ofengineers in their role as professionals. Engineeringethics are similar to general ethics, but apply to thespecific issues which affect engineering professionals.Engineering ethics is the study of moral issues anddecisions confronting individuals and organizationsengaged in engineering.The study of related questions about moral ideals,character, policies and relationship of people andcorporations involved in technological activity.

Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg

Author of a three-stage theory on how moral reasoning develops Moral reasoning is the aspect of cognitive development that has to do with the way an individual reasons about moral decisions Assessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind peoples answers Proposed three distinct levels of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional

Each level is based on the degree to which a person conforms to conventional standards of society Each level has two stages that represent different degrees of sophistication in moral reasoning. Levels of Moral Reasoning Preconventionalmoral reasoning is based on external rewards and punishments Conventionallaws and rules are upheld simply because they are laws and rules Postconventionalreasoning based on personal moral standards

Preconventional Moral Reasoning Characterized by the desire to avoid punishment or gain reward Typically children under the age of 10

Stage 1: Punishment & Obedience A focus on direct consequences Negative actions will result in punishments

Stage 2: Mutual Benefit Getting what one wants often requires giving something up in return Right is a fair exchange. Morals guided by what is fair

. Conventional Moral Reasoning Primary concern is to fit in and play the role of a good citizen People have a strong desire to follow the rules and laws. Typical of most adults

Stage 3: Interpersonal Expectations An attempt to live up to the expectations of important others Follow rules or do what others would want so that you win their approval Negative actions will harm those relationships

Stage 4: Law-and-Order

To maintain social order, people must resist personal pressures and follow the laws of the larger society Respect the laws & authority

3. Postconventional Moral Reasoning Characterized by references to universal ethical principles that represent protecting the rights or of all people Most adults do not reach this level.

Stage 5: Legal Principles Must protect the basic rights of all people by upholding the legal principles of fairness, justice, equality & democracy. Laws that fail to promote general welfare or that violate ethical principles can be changed, reinterpreted, or abandoned

Stage 6: Universal Moral Principles Self-chosen ethical principles Profound respect for sanctity of human life, nonviolence, equality & human dignity Moral principles take precedence over laws that might conflict with them, Conscientious objectors refuses to be drafted because they are morally opposed to war.

Criticisms of Kohlbergs theory Research has not supported Kohlbergs belief that the development of abstract thinking in adolescence invariably leads people to the formation of idealistic moral principles Some cross-cultural psychologists argue that Kohlbergs stories and scoring system reflect a Western emphasis on individual rights, harm, and justice that is not shared in many cultures. Kohlbergs early research was conducted entirely with male subjects, yet it became the basis for a theory applied to both males and females.

Carol Gilligans Model

Feels Kohlbergs model is based on an ethic of individual rights and justice, which is a more common perspective for males

Gilligans model of womens moral development is based on an ethic of care and responsibility. However, when subjects are carefully matched, there do not seem to be systematic gender differences in moral reasoning

Gilligans Perspective: Males = typically a justice/rights orientation Females = care response orientation Orientations arise form rational experiences of inequality and attachment Girls attached to and identify with mothers Boys attached to mothers and identify with fathers

Gilligan sees morality in girls developing in 3 stages. Preconventional: Orientation toward individual survival - where females concentrate on what is practical and best for them. Transition from selfishness to responsibility to others Conventional: Goodness as self-sacrifice - where females think they must sacrifice their own wishes to what others want. Transition from goodness to truth Post Conventional: Morality of nonviolence - women come to see hurting anyone as immoral, including themselves.

~The highest levels of morality are represented by compassionate concern for the welfare of others

Criticisms of Gilligans theory Theory is based on moral decisions in an actual real life situation. Findings may not apply in ALL situations. Data was collected on women ONLY. Gilligan also never published her data in peer-reviewed journals.

SELF-ESTEEM Self-esteem refers to the way we see and think about ourselves.

Your self-esteem is made up of all the experiences and interpersonal relationships youve had in your life. Everyone youve ever met has added to or taken away from how you see yourself! The Effects of High Self-Esteem People with high self-esteem possess the following characteristics: -They like to meet new people. -They dont worry about how others will judge them. -They have the courage to express themselves. -Their lives are enriched with each new encounter. -They are nicer to be around. -Their ideas are met with interest because others want to hear what they have to say. -They are magnets to positive opportunities! People with high self-esteem have an I think I can attitude! The Effects of Low Self-Esteem People with low self-esteem possess the following characteristics: -They dont believe in themselves. -They see themselves failing before they begin. -They have a hard time forgiving their mistakes and make themselves pay the price forever. -They believe they can never be as good as they should be or as others. -They are afraid to show their creativity because they will be ridiculed. -They are dissatisfied with their lives. -They spend most of their time alone. -They complain and criticize. -They worry about everything and do nothing. People with low self-esteem have an I cant do it attitude. 12 Steps to High Self-Esteem Step 1 Step 2 -Forgive yourself for past mistakes. -Focus on your positive attributes.

Step 3 Step 4

-Follow the example of successful people. -Become a self talker.

Step 5 -Exhibit a good attitude. Step 6 -Get plenty of rest. Step 7 -Make your work skills your own Step 8 -Practice your talents Step 9 -Become physically fit. Step 10 -Learn new things. Step 11 -Improve your personal relationships. Step 12 -Dress well! Self-esteem comes from every experience of your life. How you view yourself affects everything you do in life. High self-esteem gives you a GOOD feeling about yourself. Low self-esteem distorts your view of yourself. Self-esteem can me improved!