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BATTERY Typically, the UPS contains the battery charger, battery and inverter inside of an enclosure.

The battery life is shortened at increased temperature, so it's important to keep the temperature inside the enclosure as low as practically possible. Also the charging voltage has to be adjusted as a function of the battery temperature. Finally, the battery charger has to function under a wide range of input voltages and protect itself during over voltage or voltage surge conditions. The battery charger keeps the UPS battery fully charged during normal input voltage range. !hen the alternate current "ac# power line voltage goes out of normal range "geographical area defined#, the power turns off and the battery supplies the power to the load. !hen the line voltage returns within the normal range, the battery is recharged. Linear Power Supply The linear power supply "continuous energy flow# is most commonly used due to low cost, but is has low efficiency, is bulky and is limited to single voltage input. $t uses a line powered %&'()*&'(, iron core, step down transformer that is energi(ed and dissipates heat all the time. This, added to the low efficiency of the linear regulator, translates into a higher temperature inside the enclosure "shared with the battery#. The immediate lower cost benefit of this solution hides the higher long term cost, due to a shorter battery lifetime and an increased maintenance time. The weight and volume make the mechanical design of the UPS more difficult. Discrete Ringing Cho e Circuit The ringing choke circuit is another continuous energy flow power supply, limited like the linear to single voltage input, but using higher fre+uency to pass the energy to the load, reducing the transformer si(e. The efficiency is also improved, but the circuit is highly dependent on the components' tolerance and it is difficult to design and manufacture. Switch!"ode Power Supply The switch mode power supply "S,PS# transfers the energy to the load discontinuously. The S,PS offers a lower cost of ownership solution because it

e.tends the battery life by maintaining a lower battery temperature, and reduces the maintenance due to better reliability.

These benefits derive from the higher efficiency of the S,PS "cooler operation#. The S,PS is also powered from the line, but it stores energy in an

input capacitor and transfers it to the load as needed, in high fre+uency increments, by switching on and off. / solid state switch, controlled by a pulse width modulation "P!,# controller, accomplishes the switching. The transformer has a ferrite core that is a much smaller and lighter than the linear's iron core counterpart, making the UPS design easier. /lso, a S,PS can be used worldwide because it accepts universal input voltages