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Signal words

Use something happens repeatedly


Examples affirmative I work. He works. I go.

Examples negative I don't work. He doesn'twork. I don't go.

every day sometimes always Simple Present or Present Simple often usually seldom never first ... then

how often something happens one action follows another things in general with the following verbs (to love, to hate, to think, etc.) future meaning: timetables, programmes something is happening at the same time of speaking or around it to be future meaning: (am/are/is) +infinitive + -ing when you have already decided and arranged to do it (a fixed plan, date) action finished in the past, mostly connected with an expression of time (no connection to the present) an action happened in the middle of another action someone was doing sth. at a certain time (in infinitive he/she/it + -s

He goes.

He doesn't go.

I'm working. He's working. I'm going.

I'm not working. He isn'tworking. I'm not going.

now Present at the Progressive moment or Present Look! Continuous Listen!

He's going.

He isn't going.

last ... Simple Past or Past Simple ... ago in 1990 yesterday

I worked. regular: infinitive + -edirregular: 2nd column of table of irregular verbs He worked. I went. He went. I was working.

I didn't work. He didn't work. I didn't go. He didn't go. I wasn'tworking.

Past Progressive or while Past Continuous

He wasworking. He wasn'tworking was/were +infinitive + -ing I was going. He was going. I wasn't going. He wasn'tgoing.

the past) - you do not know whether it was finished or not just yet never Simple Present Perfect or Present Perfect ever already so far, up to now, since for recently all day Present Perfect Progressive or Present Perfect Continuous the whole day how long since for action began in the past and has just stopped how long the action has been happening emphasis: length of time of an action mostly when two actions in a story are related to each other: the action which had already happened is put into Past Perfect, the other action into Simple Past the past of the Present Perfect Past Perfect how long Progressive or since Past Perfect for Continuous how long something had been happening before something else happened I had beenworking. had + been +infinitive + ing He had beenworking. I had beengoing. I hadn't beenworking. He hadn't beenworking. I hadn't beengoing. I have beenworking. He has beenworking. I haven't beenworking. He hasn't beenworking. I haven't beengoing. He hasn't beengoing. I hadn'tworked. you say that sth. has happened or is finished in the past and it has a connection to the present action started in the past and continues up to the present I have worked. I haven'tworked.

He has worked. He hasn'tworked. I have gone. I haven't gone.

have/has + past participle* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)

He has gone.

He hasn't gone.

have/has +been + infinitive+ I have ing beengoing. He has beengoing.

I had worked.

He had worked. He hadn'tworked. I had gone. had + past participle* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) I hadn't gone.

Simple Past Perfect or Past Perfect (Simple)

already just never

He had gone.

He hadn't gone.

He had beengoing.

He hadn't beengoing.

The Indefinite Article

To facilitate pronunciation, a is used in front of any word that begins with a consonant or consonant-like vowel sound. Conversely, an is put in front of any word that begins with a pure vowel sound or a mute 'h'. Our town has a theatre, a university, a large park and a conference hall.

Many Chinese still believe an Englishman always carries an umbrella. It's an old custom. It's a strange old custom.

Note that spelling is not a reliable indicator of when to usea or an. The indefinite article a or an is placed in front of acountable noun that is being mentioned for the very first time. Once introduced, all further references to it can be preceded by the definite article the. In English, an indefinite article is needed in front of professions. The indefinite article can also be used instead of perwhen giving the rate or pace of something.

The coastguard received an SOS. He spent an hour standing in line. I have two cars: a Ford and an Audi. The Ford is white and the Audi is silver.

She is an architect and he is a doctor.

He earns $200 a day. She swims twice a week. He drove at 60 miles an hour. She has a little money and a few friends, so she'll probably get by. Compare: She has little money and few friends, so I doubt if she'll get by.

Note too that little and few become a whole lot more positive when preceded by the indefinite article!

The Definite Article

The definite article the is used in front of any noun the listener or reader already knows about. The is also used when the existence of something is common knowledge or comes as no surprise because of the context in which it is mentioned. I have two cars: a Ford and an Audi. The Ford is white and the Audi is silver.

Last week a fighter plane crashed into a field but the pilot managed to eject safely. Yesterday I spent the afternoon at home. I threw my work clothes into the washing machine and went outside to sit in the garden.

The definite article is used in front of things generally regarded as unique. Because nouns preceded by superlative adjectives andordinal numbers are by their very nature unique, they too require the definite article. Exception: Spoken American drops the in dates.

The sun, the moon, the sea, the sky, the Arctic Circle, theenvironment, the capital, the air, the ground, etc.

It was the worst day of my life! The captain was the first person to leave the burning tanker. BrE June the twenty-first. The twenty-first (day) of June. AmE June twenty-first.


The definite article is used in front of countable nouns representing a whole class or category of something.

The computer has changed our lives. It is left up to the consumer to decide which one to buy. We all have a duty to look after the old and infirm. The blue whale is thought to be the largest animal ever to have lived.

The is used in front of oceans, seas, rivers, island and mountain

The Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Amazon, the West Indies, the Rockies, the Sahara,

chains, deserts, countries with plural names, and noun forms of points of the compass. The is used in titles and place names including of. In the case of official job titles, the is usually dropped if there is only one such incumbent at any given time. The is also used in proper names consisting of noun(s) and/or adjective(s) + noun. The is used in hotel names. The is used for newspapers. The is used for many larger organizations and institutions (not commercial enterprises), including those with initials that are normally spelled out. Acronyms (initials read as whole words) are treated in the same way as regular names (proper nouns) and so do not require any article. If you are uncertain, please monitor usage in the media or consult a dictionary. The is used for currencies.

the Netherlands, the Far East, etc.

It is unlikely the Queen of Denmark has ever swum in the Bay of Bengal. Margrethe II is (the) Queen of Denmark. Donald was elected chairman of the board.

The Empire State Building, the English Channel, the White House, the Ro Festival Hall, the Rolling Stones, theBerlin Philharmonic (Orchestra), the British Museum, theTitanic, etc. The Hilton Hotel, the Savoy, the Sheraton The Times, the Baltimore Sun, the Australian

The Commonwealth, the Fed, the EU, the WHO, the BBC,the FDA, the IA etc. Compare: OPEC, NATO, ICANN, etc.

The U.S. dollar has risen against the yen but fallen against the euro. I'm the David Appleyard that lives in Japan.

In front of people's names, however, the is only used to avoid

confusion. The is used with the names of musical instruments. The can be used instead of a possessive form when referring to parts of the body and items of clothing. Richard Clayderman plays the piano.

She was hit on the head by a snowball (= a snowball hit her head). Joe grabbed the youth by the collar (= Joe grabbed the youth's collar). I go to the cinema/movies, the theatre, the circus, the ballet and the opera. In the daytime I listen to the radio, but in the evenings I prefer to watch television.

Many forms of entertainment are preceded by the definite article the, but not the medium of television.

Pridjev je u engleskom jeziku nepromjenljiva rije, pa se prema tome pridjevom ne moe izraziti ni rod, ni broj ni pade. Pridjev obino stoji ispred imenice.

Pridjevi se dijele na:

line (proper), koji se piu velikim slovom: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, English, German, Italian ; opisne (descriptive): young, beautiful, green ; koliinske (quantitative): some, few, much, all, enough ; pokazne (demonstrative): the this, that, these, those, such, younder, the same, the order ; neodreene (indefinite): a, an, any, one, certain, another ; diobne (distributive): each, every, either, neither ; prisvojne (possessive): my, your, his, her, its, our, their ; upitne (interrogative): what, which .

Poreenje pridjeva - Comparasion Pridjevi imaju tri stupnja poreenja: prvi stupanj - jednakost - positive drugi stupanj - nejednakost - comparative trei stupanj - nadmonost - superlative . Jednakost se izraava pomou rijei "" i pozitiva pridjeva. He is as rich as his friend. (on je isto toliko bogat kao njegov prijatelj). He is as strong as a horse. (jak je kao konj) Komparativ, kojim se izraava umanjenost, obrazuje se pomou rijei "less...then": He is less rich than his brother. (on je manje bogat od svog brata) Komparativom se izraava uveanost, i obrazuje se: - kod jednoslonih i nekih dvoslonih pridjeva dodavanjem nastavka "er": He is richer than his friend. (on je bogatiji od svog brata); - kod vieslonih pridjeva dodavanjem nastavka "more" ispred pridjeva: He is more independent than his brother. (on je samostalniji od svog brata); - "sve vie i vie" se prevodi svezom "and" koja prethodi i dolazi poslije komparativa za uveanje: stronger and stronger (sve jai i jai). Ako je pridjev viesloan, ponavlja se samo prilog "more": more and more contemptible (sve vie omrznutiji). Trei stupanj superlativ moe biti:

relativni, kada je poreenje izraeno pridjevom na najviem ili najniem stepenu. On se pravi kod: -jednoslonih i nekih dvoslonih pridjeva kojima prethodi lan the i dodaje im se nastavak"est": he is the richest (on je najbogatiji); -vieslonih pridjeva kojima prethode rijei "the most": he is the most intelligent (on je najpametniji);

apsolutni superlativ se pravi kada se ispred pridjeva stavi prilog most ili very: It is most true. (to je veoma tano, to je ponajvie tano). Ako umjesto pridjeva stoji prilog vremena sadanjeg koji ima ulogu pridjeva, umjesto veryupotrebljava se much ili very much: I am much obliged to you. (veoma sam vam zahvalan).

Pravopisna pravila pri poreenju Ako se pridjev zavrava kratkim samoglasnikom iza kojeg dolazi suglasnik, taj se suglasnik udvostruuje: fat- fatter- the fattest (debeo), big- bigger- the biggest (velik). Ako se pridjev zavrava muklim "e", na komparativ i superlativ dodaju se nastavci "-r", odnosno "st": fine- finer- the finest (lijep). Ako se pridjev zavrava sa slovom "y" ispred kojeg se nalazi suglasnik ono se mijenja u "i": pretty- prettier- the prettiest (drag), ali gray- grayer- the grayest (jer "y" dolazi poslije samoglasnika, a ne suglasnika).

Poreenje pridjeva pomou nastavka "-er" za komparativ i "-est" za superlativ naziva segermansko poreenje. Na ovaj nain porede se svi jednosloni predjevi - sa izuzetkom sljedeih: just, more just, the more just right, more right, the most right . Germanskim nainom poreenja porede se jo i dvosloni pridjevi koji se zavravaju na "-y", "-ow", "er" ili na silabino "l", kao i pridjev koji imaju naglasak na drugom slogu: pretty, prettier, the prettiest; narrow, narrower, the narrowest; clever, cleverer, the cleve rest simple, simplier, the simpliest; polite, politer, the politest . Poreenje koje se dobiva dodavanjem rijei "more" za komparativ i "the most" za superlativ ispred pridjeva naziva se romansko poreenje. Ovim nainom porede se svi viesloni pridjevi koji imaju naglasak na prvom slogu, kao i pridjevi koji se zavavaju na "-ed" i "-ing": famous, more famous, the most famous; learned, more learned, the most learned; beautiful, more beautiful, the most beautiful . mnogi dvosloni pridjevi mogu se porediti na oba naina. Takvi su pridjevi: common, cruel, pleasant, quiet, cheerful, handsome itd.

Nepravilna komparacija pridjeva - Irregular comparasion Nepravilno se porede sljedei pridjevi:

Positive good (dobar) bad (lo) evil (zao) ill (bolestan) much (mnogo) many (mnogo) little (malen) late (kasan) more less worse better

Comparative the best


the worst

the most the least the latest (najnoviji) the last (posljednji) the nearest (najblii) the next (sljedei, do)

later (kasniji) latter (dalji po redu)

pnear (blizak)


pold (star)

older elder

the oldest the eldest

far (daleko)

farther (prostorno dalji) further (dalji po redu)

the farthest the furthest

Komparativ i superlativ sloenih pridjeva: kada sloeni pridjevi poinju jednosloni pridjevom onda nastavke za komparativ i superlativ dobija jednosloni pridjev: I never saw a faster sailing ship. (nikad nisam vidio breg jedrenjaka) I never saw a worse looking man. (nikad nisam vidio ovjeka koji loije izgleda)