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Edward Morgan Forster (1 January 1879 7 June 1970), was an English novelist, short story writer, essayist and

d librettist. He is nown best !or his ironi" and well#$lotted novels e%a&ining "lass di!!eren"e and hy$o"risy in early '0th#"entury (ritish so"iety. )orster*s hu&anisti" i&$ulse toward understanding and sy&$athy &ay be a$tly su&&ed u$ in the e$igra$h to his 1910 novel Howards End+ ,-nly "onne"t,. )orster was born into an .nglo#/rish and 0elsh &iddle#"lass !a&ily at 1 2el"o&be 3la"e, 4orset 56uare, 7ondon 801, in a building that no longer e%ists. He was the only "hild o! Edward 2organ 7lewellyn )orster and .li"e 9lara ,7ily, (n:e 0hi"helo). His !ather, an ar"hite"t, died o! tuber"ulosis on ;0 -"tober 1880. .&ong )orster*s an"estors were &e&bers o! the 9la$ha& 5e"t. He inherited <8,000 (<1=9,;00 as o! '010), !ro& his $aternal great#aunt 2arianne >hornton (daughter o! the abolitionist Henry >hornton), who died on = 8ove&ber 1887.? >he &oney was enough to live on and enabled hi& to be"o&e a writer. He attended >onbridge 5"hool in @ent as a day boy. >he theatre at the s"hool is na&ed a!ter hi& .t @ing*s 9ollege, 9a&bridge, between 1897 and 1901,? he be"a&e a &e&ber o! a dis"ussion so"iety nown as the .$ostles (!or&ally na&ed the 9a&bridge 9onversaAione 5o"iety). 2any o! its &e&bers went on to "onstitute what "a&e to be nown as the (loo&sbury Brou$, o! whi"h )orster was a $eri$heral &e&ber in the 1910s and 19'0s. >here is a !a&ous re"reation o! )orster*s 9a&bridge at the beginning o! The Longest Journey. .!ter leaving university he travelled in "ontinental Euro$e with his &other. He visited Egy$t, Ber&any and /ndia with the "lassi"ist Boldsworthy 7owes 4i" inson in 191C. (y that ti&e, )orster had written all but one o! his novels. /n the )irst 0orld 0ar, as a "ons"ientious obDe"tor, he volunteered !or the /nternational Eed 9ross, travelling to .le%andria, Egy$t. )orster s$ent a se"ond s$ell in /ndia in the early 19'0s as the $rivate se"retary to >u oDirao ///, the 2aharaDah o! 4ewas. The Hill of Devi is his non#!i"tional a""ount o! this tri$. .!ter returning !ro& /ndia, he "o&$leted his last novel, A Passage to India (19'C), !or whi"h he won the Ja&es >ait (la" 2e&orial 3riAe !or !i"tion.

After A Passage to India /n the 19;0s and 19C0s )orster be"a&e a su""ess!ul broad"aster on ((9 Eadio and a $ubli" !igure asso"iated with the (ritish Hu&anist .sso"iation. He was awarded a (enson 2edal in 19;7. )orster develo$ed a long#ter& loving relationshi$ with (ob (u" ingha&, a &arried $oli"e&an (his wi!e*s na&e was 2ay), and in"luded the "ou$le in his "ir"le, whi"h also in"luded the writer and arts editor o! The Listener, J.E. ." erley, the $sy"hologist 0.J.H. 5$rott, and, !or a ti&e, the "o&$oser (enDa&in (ritten. -ther writers with who& )orster asso"iated in"luded the $oet 5ieg!ried 5assoon and the (el!ast#based novelist )orrest Eeid. )ro& 19'= until her death at age 90 on 11 2ar"h 19C=, the novelist lived with his &other in 0est Ha" hurst, .binger Ha&&er, !inally leaving on or around '; 5e$te&ber 19C1. His 7ondon base was '1 (runswi" 56uare !ro& 19;0 to 19;9, a!ter whi"h he rented 9 .rlington 3ar 2ansions in 9hiswi" until at least 1911. )orster was ele"ted an honorary !ellow o! @ing*s 9ollege, 9a&bridge in January 19C1,?8F and lived !or the &ost $art in the "ollege, doing relatively little. He de"lined a nighthood in 19C9 and was &ade a 9o&$anion o! Honour in 19=;. /n 1919 he was &ade a &e&ber o! the -rder o! 2erit. )orster died o! a stro e? in 9oventry on 7 June 1970 at the age o! 91, at the ho&e o! the (u" ingha&s. )orster was a hu&anist, ho&ose%ual, li!elong ba"helor. Novels )orster had !ive novels $ublished in his li!eti&e. .lthough Maurice a$$eared shortly a!ter his death, it had been written nearly si%ty years earlier. . seventh novel, Arctic Summer, was never !inished. His !irst novel, here Angels !ear to Tread (190=), is the story o! 7ilia, a young English widow who !alls in love with an /talian &an, and o! the e!!orts o! her bourgeois relatives to get her ba" !ro& 2onteriano (based on 5an Bi&ignano). >he &ission o! 3hili$ Herriton to retrieve her !ro& /taly has !eatures in "o&&on with that o! 7a&bert 5trether in Henry Ja&es*s The Am"assadors, a wor )orster dis"ussed ironi"ally and so&ewhat disa$$rovingly in his boo As#ects of the $ovel (19'7). here Angels !ear to Tread was ada$ted into a !il& by 9harles 5turridge in 1991.

8e%t, )orster $ublished The Longest Journey (1907), an inverted bildungsro&an !ollowing the la&e Ei" ie Elliott !ro& 9a&bridge to a "areer as a struggling writer and then to a $ost as a s"hool&aster, &arried to the una$$etising .gnes 3e&bro e. /n a series o! s"enes on the hills o! 0iltshire whi"h introdu"e Ei" ie*s wild hal!# brother 5te$hen 0onha&, )orster atte&$ts a ind o! subli&e related to those o! >ho&as Hardy and 4. H. 7awren"e. )orster*s third novel, A %oom with a &iew (1908), is his lightest and &ost o$ti&isti". /t was started be!ore any o! his others, as early as 1901, and e%ists in earlier !or&s re!erred to as ,7u"y,. >he boo is the story o! young 7u"y Honey"hur"h*s tri$ to /taly with her "ousin, and the "hoi"e she &ust &a e between the !ree#thin ing Beorge E&erson and the re$ressed aesthete 9e"il Gyse. Beorge*s !ather 2r E&erson 6uotes thin ers who in!luen"ed )orster, in"luding 5a&uel (utler. A %oom with a &iew was !il&ed by 2er"hant#/vory in 198=. here Angels !ear to Tread and A %oom with a &iew "an be seen "olle"tively as )orster*s /talian novels. (oth in"lude re!eren"es to the !a&ous (aede er guideboo s and "on"ern narrow#&inded &iddle#"lass English tourists abroad. >he boo s share &any the&es with short stories "olle"ted in The 'elestial (mni"us and The Eternal Moment. Howards End (1910) is an a&bitious ,"ondition#o!#England, novel "on"erned with di!!erent grou$s within the Edwardian &iddle "lasses re$resented by the 5"hlegels (bohe&ian intelle"tuals), the 0il"o%es (thoughtless $luto"rats) and the (asts (struggling lower#&iddle#"lass as$irants). /t is !re6uently observed that "hara"ters in )orster*s novels die suddenly. >his is true o! here Angels !ear to Tread, Howards End and, &ost $arti"ularly, The Longest Journey. )orster a"hieved his greatest su""ess with A Passage to India (19'C). >he novel ta es as its subDe"t the relationshi$ between East and 0est, seen through the lens o! /ndia in the later days o! the (ritish EaD. )orster "onne"ts $ersonal relationshi$s with the $oliti"s o! "olonialis& through the story o! the Englishwo&an .dela Huested, the /ndian 4r. .AiA, and the 6uestion o! what did or did not ha$$en between the& in the 2arabar 9aves. )orster &a es s$e"ial &ention o! .h&ed .li and his Twilight in Delhi in his 3re!a"e to its Every&an*s 7ibrary Edition. Maurice (1971) was $ublished $osthu&ously. /t is a ho&ose%ual love story whi"h also returns to &atters !a&iliar !ro& )orster*s !irst three novels, su"h as the suburbs o! 7ondon in the English ho&e "ounties, the e%$erien"e o! attending 9a&bridge,

and the wild lands"a$e o! 0iltshire. >he novel was "ontroversial, given that )orster*s se%uality had not been $reviously nown or widely a" nowledged. >oday*s "riti"s "ontinue to argue over the e%tent to whi"h )orster*s se%uality, even his $ersonal a"tivities, in!luen"ed his writing. Critical reception /n the Inited 5tates, interest in and a$$re"iation !or )orster was s$urred by 7ionel >rilling, (>rilling 19C;) whi"h began+ E. 2. )orster is !or &e the only living novelist who "an be read again and again and who, a!ter ea"h reading, gives &e what !ew writers "an give us a!ter our !irst days o! novel#reading, the sensation o! having learned so&ething. Key themes )orster was 3resident o! the 9a&bridge Hu&anists !ro& 19=9 until his death and a &e&ber o! the .dvisory 9oun"il o! the (ritish Hu&anist .sso"iation !ro& 191; until his death. His views as a hu&anist are at the heart o! his wor , whi"h o!ten de$i"ts the $ursuit o! $ersonal "onne"tions in s$ite o! the restri"tions o! "onte&$orary so"iety. His hu&anist attitude is e%$ressed in the non#!i"tional essay hat I )elieve. )orster*s two best# nown wor s, A Passage to India and Howards End, e%$lore the irre"on"ilability o! "lass di!!eren"es. A %oom with a &iew also shows how 6uestions o! $ro$riety and "lass "an &a e "onne"tion di!!i"ult. >he novel is his &ost widely read and a""essible wor , re&aining $o$ular long a!ter its original $ubli"ation. His $osthu&ous novel Maurice e%$lores the $ossibility o! "lass re"on"iliation as one !a"et o! a ho&ose%ual relationshi$. 5e%uality is another ey the&e in )orster*s wor s, and it has been argued that a general shi!t !ro& heterose%ual love to ho&ose%ual love "an be dete"ted over the "ourse o! his writing "areer. >he !oreword to Maurice des"ribes his struggle with his own ho&ose%uality, while si&ilar issues are e%$lored in several volu&es o! ho&ose%ually "harged short stories. )orster*s e%$li"itly ho&ose%ual writings, the novel Maurice and the short#story "olle"tion The Life to 'ome, were $ublished shortly a!ter his death. )orster is noted !or his use o! sy&bolis& as a te"hni6ue in his novels, and he has been "riti"ised (as by his !riend Eoger )ry) !or his atta"h&ent to &ysti"is&. -ne e%a&$le o! his sy&bolis& is the wy"h el& tree in Howards EndJ the "hara"ters o!

2rs 0il"o% in that novel and 2rs 2oore in A Passage to India have a &ysti"al lin with the $ast and a stri ing ability to "onne"t with $eo$le !ro& beyond their own "ir"les. Notable works by Forster Novels

here Angels !ear to Tread (190=) The Longest Journey (1907) A %oom with a &iew (1908) Howards End (1910) A Passage to India (19'C) Maurice (written in 191;1C, $ublished $osthu&ously in 1971) Arctic Summer (an in"o&$lete !rag&ent, written in 191'1;, $ublished $osthu&ously in '00;) )oo* of Love

Short stories

The 'elestial (mni"us +and other stories, (1911) The Eternal Moment and other stories (19'8)

Literary criticism

As#ects of the $ovel (19'7) The !eminine $ote in Literature ($osthu&ous) ('001)

A Passage to India (19'C) is a novel by E. 2. )orster set against the ba" dro$ o! the (ritish EaD and the /ndian inde$enden"e &ove&ent in the 19'0s. /t was sele"ted as one o! the 100 great wor s o! English literature by the Modern Li"rary and won the 19'C Ja&es >ait (la" 2e&orial 3riAe !or !i"tion. Time &agaAine in"luded the novel in its ,>/2E 100 (est English#language 8ovels !ro& 19'; to '00=,.?

>he story revolves around !our "hara"ters+ 4r. .AiA, his (ritish !riend 9yril )ielding, 2rs. 2oore, and .dela Huested. 4uring a tri$ to the 2arabar 9aves (&odeled on the (arabar 9aves o! (ihar), .dela a""uses .AiA o! atte&$ting to assault her. .AiA*s trial, and its run#u$ and a!ter&ath, bring out all the ra"ial tensions and $reDudi"es between indigenous /ndians and the (ritish "olonists who rule /ndia. /n A Passage to India, )orster e&$loys his !irst#hand nowledge o! /ndia. lot s!mmary . young (ritish s"hool&istress, .dela Huested, and her elderly !riend, 2rs. 2oore, visit the !i"tional "ity o! 9handra$ore, (ritish /ndia. -n their arrival, .dela is to &arry 2rs. 2oore*s son, Eonny Heaslo$, the "ity &agistrate. 2eanwhile, 4r. .AiA, a young 2usli& /ndian $hysi"ian, is dining with two o! his /ndian !riends and "onversing about whether it is $ossible to be !riends with an English&an. 4uring the &eal, a su&&ons arrives !ro& 2aDor 9allendar, .AiA*s un$leasant su$erior at the hos$ital. .AiA hastens to 9allendar*s bungalow as ordered, but is delayed by a !lat tire and di!!i"ulty in !inding a tonga and the &aDor has already le!t in a hu!!. 4is"onsolate, .AiA wal s down the road toward the railway station. 0hen he sees his !avorite &os6ue, a rather ra&sha" le but beauti!ul stru"ture, he enters on i&$ulse. He sees a strange Englishwo&an there, and angrily yells at her not to $ro!ane this sa"red $la"e. >he wo&an, however, turns out to be 2rs. 2oore. Her res$e"t !or native "usto&s (she too o!! her shoes on entering and she a" nowledged that ,Bod is here, in the &os6ue) disar&s .AiA, and the two "hat and $art !riends. 2rs. 2oore returns to the (ritish "lub down the road and relates her e%$erien"e at the &os6ue. Eonny Heaslo$, her son, initially thin s she is tal ing about an English&an, and be"o&es indignant when he learns the truth. He thin s she should have indi"ated by her tone that it was a ,2oha&&edan, who was in 6uestion. .dela, however, is intrigued. (e"ause the new"o&ers had e%$ressed a desire to see /ndians, 2r. >urton, the "ity ta% "olle"tor, invites nu&erous /ndian gentle&en to a $arty at his house. >he $arty turns out to be an aw ward business, than s to the /ndians* ti&idity and the (ritons* bigotry, but .dela does &eet 9yril )ielding, head&aster o! 9handra$ore*s little govern&ent#run "ollege !or /ndians. )ielding invites .dela and 2rs. 2oore to

a tea $arty with hi& and a Hindu#(rah&in $ro!essor na&ed 8arayan Bodbole. -n .dela*s re6uest, he e%tends his invitation to 4r. .AiA. .t )ielding*s tea $arty, everyone has a good ti&e "onversing about /ndia, and )ielding and .AiA even be"o&e great !riends. .AiA buoyantly $ro&ises to ta e 2rs. 2oore and .dela to see the 2arabar 9aves, a distant "ave "o&$le% that everyone tal s about but no one see&s to a"tually visit. .AiA*s 2arabar invitation was one o! those "asual $ro&ises that $eo$le o!ten &a e and never intend to ee$. Eonny Heaslo$ arrives and rudely brea s u$ the $arty. .AiA &ista enly believes that the wo&en are really o!!ended that he has not !ollowed through with his $ro&ise and arranges the outing at great e%$ense to hi&sel!. )ielding and Bodbole were su$$osed to a""o&$any the little e%$edition, but they &iss the train. .AiA and the wo&en begin to e%$lore the "aves. /n the !irst "ave, however, 2rs. 2oore is over"o&e with "laustro$hobia, !or the "ave is dar and .AiA*s retinue has !ollowed her in. >he $ress o! $eo$le nearly s&others her. (ut worse than the "laustro$hobia is the e"ho. 8o &atter what sound one &a es, the e"ho is always ,(ou&., 4isturbed by the e"ho, 2rs. 2oore de"lines to "ontinue e%$loring. 5o .dela and .AiA, a""o&$anied by a single guide, a lo"al &an, "li&b on u$ the hill to the ne%t "luster o! "aves. .s .AiA hel$s .dela u$ the hill, she inno"ently as s hi& whether he has &ore than one wi!e. 4is"on"erted by the bluntness o! the re&ar , he du" s into a "ave to "o&$ose hi&sel!. 0hen he "o&es out, he !inds the guide sitting alone outside the "aves. >he guide says .dela has gone into one o! the "aves by hersel!. .AiA loo s !or her in vain. 4e"iding she is lost, he angrily $un"hes the guide, who runs away. .AiA loo s around again and dis"overs .dela*s !ield#glasses (bino"ulars) lying bro en on the ground. He $uts the& in his $o" et. >hen .AiA loo s down the hill and sees .dela s$ea ing to another young Englishwo&an, 2iss 4ere , who has arrived with )ielding in a "ar. .AiA runs down the hill and greets )ielding e!!usively, but 2iss 4ere and .dela have already driven o!! without a word o! e%$lanation. )ielding, 2rs. 2oore, and .AiA return to 9handra$ore on the train. >hen the blow !alls. .t the train station, 4r. .AiA is arrested and "harged with se%ually assaulting .dela in a "ave. 5he re$orts the alleged in"ident to the (ritish authorities.

>he run#u$ to .AiA*s trial !or atte&$ted se%ual assault releases the ra"ial tensions between the (ritish and the /ndians. .dela has a""used .AiA o! only trying to tou"h her. 5he re&e&bers the situation as hi& !ollowing her into the "ave and trying to grab her. 5he !ends hi& away by swinging her !ield glasses at hi&. 5he re&e&bers hi& grabbing the glasses and the stra$ brea ing whi"h is what allows her to get away. >he only a"tual eviden"e the (ritish have is the !ield glasses in the $ossession o! 4r. .AiA. >his is no &atter to the (ritish "olonists at 9handra$ore, who are outraged by the alleged assault, but no one is really sho" ed. )or at the ba" o! all their &inds is the "onvi"tion that all dar er $eo$les lust a!ter white wo&en. Holding this attitude, they are understandably stunned when )ielding $ro"lai&s his belie! in .AiA*s inno"en"e. )ielding is ostra"iAed and "onde&ned as a blood#traitor. (ut the /ndians, who "onsider the assault allegation a !raud ai&ed at ruining their "o&&unity*s re$utation, wel"o&e hi&. 4uring the wee s be!ore the trial, 2rs. 2oore is une%$e"tedly a$atheti" and irritable. Her e%$erien"e in the "ave see&s to have ruined her interest and !aith in hu&anity. .lthough she "urtly $ro!esses her belie! in .AiA*s inno"en"e, she does nothing to hel$ hi&. 5he insists on ta ing a shi$ ba" to England be!ore the trial ta es $la"e. 5he dies during the voyage. .!ter an initial $eriod o! !ever and wee$ing, .dela be"o&es "on!used as to .AiA*s guilt. .t the trial, she is as ed $oint#blan whether .AiA se%ually assaulted her. 5he as s !or a &o&ent to thin be!ore re$lying. 5he has a vision o! the "ave in that &o&ent, and it turns out that .dela had, while in the "ave, re"eived a sho" si&ilar to 2rs. 2oore*s. >he e"ho had dis"on"erted her so &u"h that she te&$orarily be"a&e unhinged. 5he ran !ranti"ally around the "ave, !led down the hill, and !inally s$ed o!! with 2iss 4ere . .t the ti&e, .dela &ista enly inter$reted her sho" as an assault by .AiA, who $ersoni!ies the /ndia that has stri$$ed her o! her $sy"hologi"al inno"en"e, but he was never there. 0ith laudable honesty and bravery, she $ro"lai&s her &ista e. >he "ase is dis&issed. .ll the .nglo#/ndians, who had eagerly rallied to her su$$ort, are sho" ed and in!uriated by what they view as .dela*s betrayal o! the white ra"e. 2rs. >urton shrie s insults at her, and Eonny Heaslo$ soon brea s o!! their engage&ent. .dela stays at the sy&$atheti" )ielding*s house until her $assage on a boat to England is arranged. .!ter e%$laining to )ielding that the e"ho was the "ause o! the whole business, she de$arts /ndia, never to return. .lthough he is !ree and vindi"ated, .AiA is angry and bitter that his !riend, )ielding, would be!riend .dela a!ter she nearly ruined his li!e. >he two &en*s

!riendshi$ su!!ers in "onse6uen"e, and )ielding soon de$arts !or England. .AiA believes that he is leaving to &arry .dela !or her &oney, !or whi"h )ielding had dissuaded .AiA !ro& suing her. (itter at his !riend*s $er"eived betrayal, he vows never again to be!riend a white $erson. .AiA &oves to the Hindu#ruled state o! 2au and begins a new li!e. >wo years later, )ielding returns to /ndia and to .AiA. His wi!e is 5tella, 2rs. 2oore*s daughter !ro& a se"ond &arriage. .AiA, now the EaDa*s "hie! $hysi"ian, at !irst $ersists in his anger against his old !riend. (ut in ti&e, he "o&es to res$e"t and love )ielding again. However, he does not give u$ his drea& o! a !ree and united /ndia. /n the novel*s last senten"es, he e%$lains that he and )ielding "annot be !riends, at least not until /ndia is !ree o! the (ritish EaD. Even the earth and the s y see& to say, ,8ot yet., Character list 4r. .AiA . young 2usli& /ndian 3hysi"ian who wor s at the (ritish hos$ital in 9handra$ore. He relies heavily on intuition over logi", and he is &ore e&otional than his best !riend, )ielding. He &a es !riends easily and see&s 6uite garrulous at ti&es. His "hie! drawba" is an inability to view a situation without e&otion, whi"h )orster suggests is a ty$i"al /ndian di!!i"ulty.4es$ite being the $rotagonist o! the novel .AiA does have so&e vulgar notion about wo&en*s $hysi"ality. .AiA see& to $ossess a $ro!ound love !or his late wi!e but !orgets her due to his overshadowing i&$ulsiveness. 9yril )ielding >he C=#year#old, un&arried (ritish head&aster o! the s&all govern&ent#run "ollege !or /ndians. )ielding*s logi"al 0estern &ind "annot "o&$rehend the &uddle (or &ystery) o! /ndia, but he is highly tolerant and res$e"t!ul toward /ndians. He be!riends 4r. .AiA, but "ultural and ra"ial di!!eren"es, and $ersonal &isunderstandings, se$arate the&. .dela Huested . young (ritish s"hool&istress who is visiting /ndia with the vague intention o! &arrying Eonny Heaslo$. /ntelligent, brave, honest, but slightly $rudish, she is what )ielding "alls a ,$rig., 5he arrives with the intention o! seeing the real /ndia. (ut a!ter a !rightening tri$ to the 2arabar 9aves, she !alsely a""uses .AiA o! se%ually assaulting her. 2rs. 2oore

>he elderly, thought!ul &other o! Eonny Heaslo$. 5he is visiting 9handra$ore to oversee her son*s engage&ent to .dela Huested. 5he res$e"ts /ndians and their "usto&s, and the /ndians in the novel a$$re"iate her &ore than they do any other (riton. .!ter undergoing an e%$erien"e si&ilar to .dela*s, she be"o&es a$atheti" and bitter. Eonny Heaslo$ >he (ritish "ity &agistrate o! 9handra$ore. >hough not a bad &an, he shares his .nglo#/ndian "olleagues* ra"ist view o! /ndians. He brea s o!! his engage&ent to .dela a!ter she retra"ts her a""usation against .AiA. He "onsiders it a betrayal o! their ra"e. 3ro!essor 8arayan Bodbole .n elderly, "ourteous, "onte&$lative (rah&in who views the world with e6uani&ity. He re&ains totally aloo! !ro& the novel*s "on!li"ts. 2r. >urton >he (ritish "ity "olle"tor o! 9handra$ore. He does not hate /ndians, !or that would be to negate his li!e*s wor . 8evertheless, he is !ier"ely loyal to his ra"e, reviles less bigoted $eo$le li e )ielding, and regards natives with thinly veiled "onte&$t. 2rs. >urton 2r. >urton*s wi!e. -$enly ra"ist, snobbish, and rude toward /ndians and those .nglo#/ndians who are di!!erent, she s"rea&s at .dela in the "ourtroo& when the latter retra"ts her a""usation against .AiA. 2aD. 9allendar >he (ritish head do"tor and .AiA*s su$erior at the hos$ital. He is &ore o$enly ra"ist than any other &ale "hara"ter. Eu&ors "ir"ulate a&ong /ndians that 9allendar a"tually tortured an inDured /ndian by $utting $e$$er instead o! antise$ti" on his wounds. 2r. 2"(ryde >he (ritish su$erintendent o! $oli"e in 9handra$ore. 7i e 2r. >urton, he "onsiders dar #s inned ra"es in!erior to light#s inned ones. 4uring .AiA*s trial, he $ubli"ly asserts that it is a s"ienti!i" !a"t that dar &en lust a!ter white wo&en. 8evertheless, he is &ore tolerant o! /ndians than &ost (ritons, and he is !riendly with )ielding. 2iss 4ere .n Englishwo&an e&$loyed by a Hindu royal !a&ily. 5he !re6uently borrows their "arKand does not trouble to as their $er&ission or return it in ti&e. 5he is too boisterous and easygoing !or &ost o! her "o&$atriots* tastes. 5he has an a!!air with 2"(ryde. 8awab (ahadur

>he "hie! /ndian gentle&an in 9handra$ore, a 2usli&. 0ealthy (he owns a "ar) and generous, he is loyal to the (ritish (he lends his "ar to Eonny Heaslo$). (ut a!ter the trial, he gives u$ his title o! ,nawab,, whi"h the (ritish bestowed on hi&, in !avor o! $lain ,2r. Lul!i6ar., Ha&idullah .AiA*s un"le and !riend. Edu"ated in law at 9a&bridge Iniversity, he de"lares at the beginning o! the novel that it is easier to be !riends with an English&an in England than in /ndia. .AiA "o&es to agree with hi&. .&ritrao . $ro&inent /ndian lawyer !ro& 9al"utta, "alled in to de!end .AiA. He is nown !or his strong anti#(ritish senti&ent. He ta es the "ase !or $oliti"al reasons and be"o&es disgusted when the "ase eva$orates in "ourt. 2ah&oud .li . 2usli& /ndian barrister who o$enly hates the (ritish. 4r. 3anna 7al . low#born Hindu do"tor and .AiA*s rival at the hos$ital. Eal$h 2oore . &entally handi"a$$ed but dis"erning youth, the se"ond son o! 2rs. 2oore. 5tella 2oore 2rs. 2oore*s daughter and )ielding*s beauti!ul younger wi!e. "hemes >he &aDor the&es o! the novel revolves outside the notion o! -rientalis&. A Passage to India has !our "entral the&es+ the di!!i"ulty o! !riendshi$ between an English&an and an /ndian, the ra"is& and o$$ression o! the (ritish who rule /ndia, the ,&uddle, o! /ndian "iviliAation and $sy"hology, and the unity o! all li!e. A Room with a View is a 1908 novel by English writer E. 2. )orster, about a young wo&an in the re$ressed "ulture o! Edwardian England. 5et in /taly and England, the story is both a ro&an"e and a "riti6ue o! English so"iety at the beginning o! the '0th "entury. 2er"hant#/vory $rodu"ed an award#winning !il& ada$tation in 198=. art one >he !irst $art o! the novel is set in )loren"e, /taly, and des"ribes a young English wo&an*s "on!usion at the 3ensione (ertolini over her !eelings !or an English&an staying at the sa&e hotel. 7u"y Honey"hur"h is touring /taly with her overbearing

older "ousin and "ha$erone, 9harlotte (artlett, and the novel o$ens with their "o&$laints about the hotel,,>he 3ension (ertolini., >heir $ri&ary "on"ern is that although roo&s with a view o! the Eiver .rno have been $ro&ised !or ea"h o! the&, their roo&s instead loo over a "ourtyard. . 2r E&erson interru$ts their ,$eevish wrangling,, o!!ering to swa$ roo&s as he and his son, Beorge E&erson, loo over the .rno. >his "auses 2iss (artlett so&e "onsternation, this behaviour being seen as i&$olite. 0ithout letting 7u"y s$ea , 2iss (artlett re!uses the o!!er, loo ing down on the E&ersons be"ause o! their un"onventional behaviour and thin ing it would $la"e her under an ,unsee&ly obligation, towards the&. However, another guest at the $ension, an .ngli"an "lergy&an na&ed 2r (eebe, $ersuades the $air to a""e$t the o!!er, assuring 2iss (artlett that 2r E&erson only &eant to be ind. >he ne%t day, 7u"y e&bar s on a tour o! )loren"e with another guest, 2iss Eleanor 7avish, a novelist who shows 7u"y the ba" streets o! )loren"e, ta es her (aede er guideboo and subse6uently loses her in 5anta 9ro"e, where 7u"y &eets the E&ersons again. .lthough their &anners are aw ward and they are dee&ed so"ially una""e$table by the other guests, 7u"y li es the& and "ontinues to run into the& in )loren"e. -ne a!ternoon 7u"y witnesses a &urder in )loren"e. Beorge E&erson ha$$ens to be nearby and "at"hes her when she !aints. 7u"y as s Beorge to retrieve so&e $hotogra$hs o! hers that ha$$en to be near the &urder site. Beorge, out o! "on!usion, throws her $hotogra$hs into the river be"ause they were s$otted with blood. 7u"y observes o! how boyish Beorge is. .s they sto$ to loo over the Eiver .rno be!ore &a ing their way ba" to the hotel, they have an inti&ate "onversation. .!ter this, 7u"y de"ides to avoid Beorge, $artly be"ause she is "on!used by her !eelings and $artly to ee$ her "ousin ha$$y2iss (artlett is wary o! the e""entri" E&ersons, $arti"ularly a!ter a "o&&ent &ade by another "lergy&an, 2r Eager, that 2r E&erson ,&urdered his wi!e in the sight o! Bod., 7ater on in the wee , a $arty &ade u$ o! (eebe, Eager, the E&ersons, 2iss 7avish, 2iss (artlett and 7u"y Honey"hur"h &a e their way to )iesole, in "arriages driven by /talians. >he driver invites a wo&an he "lai&s is his sister onto the "arriage, and when he isses her, 2r. Eager $ro&$tly !or"es the lady to get o!! the "arriage. 2r. E&erson re&ar s how it is de!eat rather than vi"tory to $art two $eo$le in love. /n the !ields, 7u"y sear"hes !or 2r. (eebe, and as s in $oor /talian !or driver to show her the way. 2isunderstanding, he leads her to a !ield where Beorge stands. Beorge is over"o&e by 7u"y*s beauty a&ong a !ield o! violets and isses her, but they are interru$ted by 7u"y*s "ousin, who is outraged. 7u"y $ro&ises 2iss (artlett that she will not tell her &other o! the ,insult, Beorge has $aid her be"ause 2iss (artlett !ears she will be bla&ed. >he two wo&en leave !or Eo&e the ne%t day be!ore 7u"y is able to say goodbye to Beorge.

art two /n Eo&e, 7u"y s$ends ti&e with 9e"il Gyse, who& she new in England. 9e"il $ro$oses to 7u"y twi"e in /talyJ she reDe"ts hi& both ti&es. .s 3art >wo begins, 7u"y has returned to 5urrey, England to her !a&ily ho&e, 0indy 9orner. 9e"il $ro$oses yet again at 0indy 9orner, and this ti&e she a""e$ts. 9e"il is a so$histi"ated and ,su$erior, 7ondoner who is desirable in ter&s o! ran and "lass, even though he des$ises "ountry so"ietyJ he is also so&ewhat o! a "o&i" !igure in the novel, as he gives hi&sel! airs and is 6uite $retentious. >he vi"ar, 2r. (eebe, announ"es that new tenants have leased a lo"al "ottageJ the new arrivals turn out to be the E&ersons, who have been told o! the available "ottage at a "han"e &eeting with 9e"ilJ the young &an brought the& to the village as a "o&eu$$an"e to the "ottage*s landlord, who& 9e"il thin s to be a snob. )ate ta es an ironi" turn as 7u"y*s brother, )reddy, be!riends Beorge and invites hi& to $lay tennis one 5unday at 0indy 9orner. .lthough 7u"y is initially &orti!ied at the thought o! !a"ing both Beorge and 9e"il (who is also visiting 0indy 9orner that 5unday), she resolves to be gra"ious. 9e"il annoys everyone by reading aloud !ro& a light ro&an"e novel that "ontains a s"ene sus$i"iously re&inis"ent o! when Beorge issed 7u"y in )loren"e. Beorge "at"hes 7u"y alone in the garden and isses her again. 7u"y realiAes that the novel is by 2iss 7avish (the writer# a"6uaintan"e !ro& )loren"e) and that 9harlotte &ust thus have told her about the iss. )urious with 9harlotte !or betraying her se"ret, 7u"y !or"es her "ousin to wat"h as she tells Beorge to leave and never return. Beorge argues with her, saying that 9e"il only sees her as an ,obDe"t !or the shel!, and will never love her enough to grant her inde$enden"e, while Beorge loves her !or who she is. 7u"y is &oved but re&ains !ir&. 7ater that evening, a!ter 9e"il again rudely de"lines to $lay tennis, 7u"y sours on 9e"il and i&&ediately brea s o!! her engage&ent. 5he de"ides to !lee to Bree"e with a"6uaintan"es !ro& her tri$ to )loren"e, but shortly be!ore her de$arture she a""identally en"ounters 2r. E&erson senior. He is not aware that 7u"y has bro en her engage&ent with 9e"il, and 7u"y "annot lie to the old &an. 2r. E&erson !or"es 7u"y to ad&it out loud that she has been in love with his son Beorge all along. >he novel ends in )loren"e, where Beorge and 7u"y have elo$ed without her &other*s "onsent. .lthough 7u"y ,had alienated 0indy 9orner, $erha$s !or ever,, the story ends with the $ro&ise o! li!elong love !or both her and Beorge.


Appendi# /n so&e boo s, an a$$endi% to the boo is given entitled ,. Giew without a Eoo&,, written by )orster in 19=8 as to what o""urred between 7u"y and Beorge a!ter the events o! the novel. /t is )orster*s a!terthought o! the novel, and he 6uite "learly states that ,/ "annot thin where Beorge and 7u"y live., >hey were 6uite "o&!ortable u$ until the end o! the war, with 9harlotte (artlett leaving the& all her &oney in her will, but 0orld 0ar / ruined their ha$$iness a""ording to )orster. Beorge be"a&e a "ons"ientous obDe"tor, lost his govern&ent Dob but was given non#"o&batant duties to avoid $rison, leaving 2rs Honey"hur"h dee$ly u$set with her son#in#law. 2r E&erson died during the "ourse o! the war, shortly a!ter having an argu&ent with the $oli"e about 7u"y "ontinuing to $lay (eethoven during the war. Eventually they had three "hildren, two girls and a boy, and &oved to 9arshalton !ro& Highgate to !ind a ho&e. 4es$ite the& wanting to &ove into 0indy 9orner a!ter the death o! 2rs Honey"hur"h, )reddy sold the house to su$$ort his !a&ily as he was ,an unsu""ess!ul but $roli!i" do"tor., .!ter the outbrea o! 0orld 0ar //, Beorge i&&ediately enlisted as he saw the need to sto$ Hitler and the 8aAi regi&e but he un!ortunately was not !aith!ul to 7u"y during his ti&e at war. 7u"y was le!t ho&eless a!ter her !lat in 0at!ord was bo&bed and the sa&e ha$$ened to her &arried daughter in 8uneaton. Beorge rose to the ran o! "or$oral but was ta en $risoner by the /talians in .!ri"a. -n"e /taly !ell Beorge returned to )loren"e !inding it ,in a &ess, but he was unable to !ind the 3ension (ertolini, stating ,the Giew was still there and that the roo& &ust be there, too, but "ould not be !ound., He ends by stating that Beorge and 7u"y await 0orld 0ar ///, but with no word on where they live, !or even he does not now. Ma$or themes >he &ain the&es o! this novel in"lude re$ressed se%uality, !reedo& !ro& institutional religion, growing u$ and true love. /t is written in the third $erson o&nis"ient, though $arti"ular $assages are o!ten seen ,through the eyes, o! a s$e"i!i" "hara"ter. A %oom with a &iew is )orster*s &ost ro&anti" and o$ti&isti" boo . He utiliAes &any o! his trade&ar te"hni6ues, in"luding "ontrasts between ,dyna&i", and ,stati", "hara"ters. ,4yna&i", "hara"ters are those whose ideas and inner#sel! develo$ or "hange in the $lot, whereas ,stati", "hara"ters re&ain "onstant. 3ublished in 1908, the novel tou"hes u$on &any issues surrounding so"iety and $oliti"s in early '0th "entury Edwardian "ulture. )orster di!!erentiates between

"onservative and radi"al thin ing, illustrated in $art by his "ontrasts between 2edieval (2r. (eebe, 2iss (artlett, 9e"il Gyse) and Eenaissan"e "hara"ters (7u"y, the E&ersons). 7u"y $ersoni!ies the young and i&$ressionable generation e&erging during that era, during whi"h wo&en*s su!!rage would gain strong ground. )orster, &ani!esting his own ho$es !or so"iety, ends the boo with 7u"y having "hosen her own $ath K a !ree li!e with the &an she loves. >he novel "ould even be "alled a )ildungsroman- as it !ollows the develo$&ent o! the $rotagonist. (inary o$$osites are $layed throughout the novel, and o!ten there are &entions o! ,roo&s, and ,views,. 9hara"ters and $la"es asso"iated with ,roo&s, are, &ore o!ten than not, "onservative and un"reative K 2rs Honey"hur"h is o!ten $i"tured in a roo&, as is 9e"il. 9hara"ters li e )reddy and the E&ersons, on the other hand, are o!ten des"ribed as being ,outside, K re$resenting their o$en, !orward#thin ing and &odern "hara"ter ty$es. >here is also a "onstant the&e o! 7ight and 4ar , where on &any o""asions, 9e"il hi&sel! states how 7u"y re$resents light, but )orster res$onds but stating how 9e"il is the 4ar , alluding to the !a"t that they "an never be together, and that she really belongs with Beorge. /nterestingly, the na&e 7u"y &eans ,light,, while the na&e 9e"il &eans ,blind,, i.e. one who is ,in the dar ,. )orster also "ontrasts the sy&boli" di!!eren"es between /taly and England. He idealiAed /taly as a $la"e o! !reedo& and se%ual e%$ression. /taly $ro&ised raw, natural $assion that ins$ired &any (ritons at the ti&e who wished to es"a$e the "onstri"tions o! English so"iety. 0hile 7u"y is in /taly her views o! the world "hange dra&ati"ally, and s"enes su"h as the &urder in the $iaAAa o$en her eyes to a world beyond her ,$rote"ted li!e in 0indy 9orner,. All!sions%references to other works

2r. (eebe re"alls his !irst en"ounter with 7u"y was hearing her $lay the !irst o! the two &ove&ents o! (eethoven*s !inal $iano sonata, -$us 111, at a talent show in >unbridge 0ells. 0hile visiting the E&ersons 2r. (eebe "onte&$lates the nu&erous boo s strewn around. ,/ !an"y they now how to read K a rare a""o&$lish&ent. 0hat have they gotM (yron. E%a"tly. A Shro#shire Lad. 8ever heard o! it. The ay of All !lesh. 8ever heard o! it. Bibbon. HulloN 4ear Beorge reads Ber&an. I& K

u& K 5"ho$enhauer, 8ietAs"he, and so we go on. 0ell, / su$$ose your generation nows its own business, Honey"hur"h., ?1F >owards the end, 9e"il 6uotes a !ew unidenti!ied stanAas (,9o&e down, &aid, !ro& yonder &ountain height,, et".). >hey are !ro& >ennyson*s narrative $oe& ,>he 3rin"ess,. /n the E&ersons* ho&e, the wardrobe has ,2istrust all enter$rises that re6uire new "lothes., (a 6uote !ro& Henry 4avid >horeau*s alden) $ainted u$on it.