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Wima Takto – One or Two ? Archaeological and Numismatic evidence from Gandhāra
M. Nasim Khan
The Kushan history of Gandhāra is mainly based on numismatic and epigraphic evidence as well as literary sources. Despite the large number of researches on Kushan history based on these proofs, we do not find any agreement on certain aspects of the Kushan history, particularly the chronological order of the rulers and other related issues; this may be due to lack of concrete evidence. The recent researches on Kushan chronology which is mainly founded on numismatic study and epigraphic evidence has given answers to some of the important questions, particularly regarding the nameless king “Soter Megas”, who is now identified with Wima Takto, and is known as the second great Kushan ruler in Gandhāra. The general chronological sequence for the early Kushan rulers is established as follows.
Kujula Kadphises Wima Takto Wima Kadphises Kanishka I Huvishka Vasudeva I
Research activities in the region of Gandhāra and its surroundings has continued for many decades and have, so far, resulted the discoveries of thousands of antiquities where among others the most important are the numismatic evidence. During these archaeological activities, coins belonging to the early Kushan period have been recorded in large number but unfortunately that most of them do not show their exact archaeological context. For example, more than one-hundred and thirty Wima Takto coins are stored in the Peshawar Museum (Ali, I. et al 2004: 27-76) but they neither show their archaeological context nor their exact provenance1. Compared to other Kushan rulers, a limited number of coins of Wima Takto were recorded during excavations. Although found during excavations, most of these coins still do not show their exact stratigraphic context. They either came from debris or were found in pits or even in groups. The total number of such coins recorded during excavation, so far, is about two hundred and two and majority of them were found in different sites at Taxila. The rest of these were recovered from other sites such as Tulamba, Manikiyala, Butkara I and III, Saidu Sharif, Shnaisha, Andandheri, Sri Bahlol, Mir Ziyarat, Ghaz Dheri, Pakhana, Shaikhan Dheri, Ranigat, Kashmir Smast and Aziz Dheri (see fig. 1).
Although the above order of succession of the early Kushan rulers is widely accepted, the result of recent archaeological excavations at Aziz Dheri may differ with it and particularly with that of Wima Takto, or the result of the excavations may add more to the chronological order of the early Kushan rulers. Before going into the results of the excavations conducted in 2007/2008, an attempt has been made to survey the different findings of Wima Takto coins that came from several different archaeological sites, so far, excavated in Pakistan, particularly in the region of Gandhāra.
The Peshawar Museum collection shows mainly two groups of coins based on their denomination, the 8g series and the 2g coins. The last group consists of only four coins (PM_07098, PM_07099, PM_07104 and PM_09936).
Gandhāran Studies 4
The number of excavated Wima Takto coins from sites in Gandhāra may not be as significant as other groups of coins of Kushan dynasty but their contextual study is as important as the study of other cultural materials recovered from the above mentioned sites. Such a study may help us in understanding the order of succession of the early Kushan rulers particularly the place of Wima Takto. A single specimen of Wima Takto coin was found at Tulamba, an important historic period site located in the district of Multan. About fifty-one layers were exposed in the nine feet deposit of the mound and above the natural soil. The number of coins found at the site was six (Mughal 1967: 150-152). Only two of them were identified; one belongs to Apollodotus, one to Wima Takto and two were attributed to Shahbuddin Mohammad Ghori. The Wima Takto coin was recovered from layer 45 in the deposit between Indo-Greek and the Islamic period. Similarly, from Sonala Pind at Manikyala, only one coin of Wima Takto was recovered from the centre of the stupa. (Errington 2000: table). A number of important Wima Takto coins were recovered at the archaeological sites of Taxila during the excavations conducted by Marshall in1913-1936 (fig. 1). Apart from the one-hundred and eight coins of Wima Takto, thousands of other coins belonging to different periods were found where majority of them are associated with the Kushan period. The coins of Wima Takto (Marshall, vol. II: 786; see also the table below), on the basis of their weight standard, can mainly be classified into two groups. Thirty-six of
them are of about 2g series while seventytwo are of 8g denomination. Out of 7665 coins recovered from all the strata’s of Sirkap, twelve coins belong to Wima Takto (Marshall 1951: 210, 212) and are of common type, a radiate bust on the obverse and a horse rider on the reverse. The exact stratigraphic position for most of these coins is unclear. From the Buddhist remains at Dharmarajika and in the filling on which stands K3 stupa, three coins of Kanishka and one of Wima Takto were recovered from a deposit. Some more were recovered from the site but unfortunately no stratigraphic difference was made in the floors of the court, and the antiques have been taken together as a whole collection (e.g. Marshall 1951: 240, 247, 261, 278). This is the case not only for Dharmarajika but for all the sites excavated by Sir John Marshal or his colleagues in Taxila. Two-hundred-seventy-two coins were found at Akhuari (site B) wherein ten belong to Wima Takto (Marshall 1951: 317) while two hundred-thirty-eight are associated to Vasu Deva and the rest to the other Kushan rulers such as Wima Kadphises, Kanishka and Huvishka. In cell 13 of Site C and at the north side of the steps, from the square base of the stupa thirty-eight coins were recovered including those of Azes I, Azes II, Wima Kadphises, Kanishka, Huvishka, Gondophares and sixteen of Wima Takto (Marshall 1951: 318). From D1, at the stupa court and room 10a of Khader Mohra, one Wima Takto coin was recorded (Marshall 1951: 319). These coins were mostly found in groups and a conclusive chronology for the site is difficult to establish.
357). “Evidently this hoard had been hidden. A good number of three-hundred-nine coins were found at Giri monastery which includes five Wima Takto coins recovered from C debris and D4. A hoard of copper coins. 1a: Map showing finding spots of Wima Takto coins discovered in Taxila At the monastery of Kalwan and in Court C. 364).Gandhāran Studies 4 13 Fig. twenty-four coins comprising of the Indo-Greek. in a hole in the wall. Among these. containing one Wima Takto coin. 386). .”. The rest of the objects were found scattered among the debris (Marshall 1951: 356. Ninetynine coins were found at Jaulian Monastery including two Wima Takto coins. seventeen coins in copper were found. The excavation at Kholay in Taxila also produced two Wima Takto coins. was discovered at Court F. twelve of them were found near the steps of the stupa where they had seemingly been buried after the earlier stupa had fallen to ruin but before the later was built. 7 and 10 (Marshall 1951: 347). during the reign of Vasu Deva.. IndoScythian and Kushan period were discovered. probably above the doorway. One of Wima Takto coins as well as three Vasu Deva coins and three Sasanian coins were recovered from cell 3 (Marshall 1951: 385. one belongs to Wima Takto and was found at D5 together with the coin of Kanishka (Marshall 1951: 334). fourteen are of Wima Takto. At Jandial. Two of them are of Wima Takto (Marshall 1951: 363. and had remained there for the best part of three centuries until the wall itself collapsed during the wholesale destruction of the monastery. Among these. Marshall stated (Marshall 1951 336). The total number of coins found at Mohra Moradu is eighty-four.
layer 3. then it would be difficult to believe late or early Kushan date of the monastery (Aiyar 1917: 2-3. was also recovered. layer 3). a copper coin of Samanta Deva. Marshall 1960: 181) because of the presence of the HinduShahi period coin found together within the hoard or recovered from the same level. Fig. Huvishka and Vasudeva I coins (Khan. The catalogue of the coins shows that majority of these. two were found during 1916-17 excavations and the other one probably in 2005. late 14 Kushan or belong to the Hindu Shahi period were found in Trench X/12. If the finding spot for all these coins is the same. the last one was in a coins hoard which mostly consisted of Wima Kadphises. a Hindu Shahi ruler. Kanishka. From the same trench and the same layer (X/12. whether they are early Kushan. et al 2010). According to the excavator.1b: Map showing location of Wima Takto coins discovered in Swat and Peshawar valley . Aiyer in 191617 and then in 2005 and onwards by the Federal Directorate of Archaeology and Museums. The only possibility to give reason for the presence of Samanta Deva coin found together with the Kushan coins would be to suppose that either the hoard was deposited during the Hindu Shahi period or the site was extremely disturbed or the Kushan period coins were reused during the Hindu Shahi period which seems difficult to believe. A.Gandhāran Studies 4 The site of Badalpur which was for the first time excavated by N. Govt of Pakistan has also produced three copper coins of Wima Takto.
The only Wima Takto coin recorded at the site was found in the lowest stratum of the site and in a . As it comes from debris (see below) of the later period. 2. vol. The other coins from the site belong to the late Kushan or Hindu Shahi period. The other coins include those of Huvishka. The stupa site at Saidu Sharif has also produced a number of coins of the early Kushan period including four copper coins of Wima Takto. about twenty copper coins of Wima Takto were recovered. 19. According to the excavator. 231-233).1b). IV: Plate No. Most of these coins belong to the late Kushan period.Gandhāran Studies 4 From the different Buddhist sites in Swat (fig. P. four structural phases were observed. 2 and 3) while the Vasu Deva coin was found on the floor. It weighs 8. two of them are drachm series and the other two didrachm. The Butkara I coins were found in the different areas of the mound but mostly in the same level where other Kushan period coins were observed (see table 3). it cannot help us to date this stupa in the early phase of the early Kushan rulers. Vasudeva and later Kushan (Callieri. Fig. During Shnaisha excavation. one probably of Wima Kadphises and the other of Wima Takto (Dani 1968. 6:1. altogether two coins were recorded. During excavation at Butkara III.) and four hoards were found. Both of these were not recovered from the same level and context. one from Butkara III. fourteen from Butkara I.1g and measures 20mm (Rahman 1993: 16. 3: Butkara III. a single coin of Wima Takto was found on a paved floor associated with a votive stupa no. The coin of Wima Takto was found in the courtyard of the site and was recovered from underneath a damaged stucco sculpture seated crossed legs on a podium (figs. four from Saidu Sharif and one from Shnaisha stupa site. two odd coins. The early phase is 15 dated to the Pre-Soter Megas while the last one is associated with the coin of Vasudeva (Rahman 1991: 154). one of these belongs to Wima Takto and the other to Vasu Deva (Rahman 1991: 154-155). 2: Vima Takto coin from Butkara III Fig. 39). Finding spot of the Wima Takto coin During Andandheri excavation.
pl. are dated on the basis of numismatic evidence. “On the topmost layers a number of coins of Vasudeva I (copper coin of Siva and bull type) were recovered. from where thousands of antiquities were recovered. To give an example of Sirkap. One more coin of the same ruler was found on surface at the Pakhana Dheri site.Gandhāran Studies 4 trench CO (Dani 1968: 41). so far. 2008: 51).In old times the practice of burying valuables deep beneath the ground floor or basement rooms was common. the coin depicts a bust. Period III is associated to the early Kushan period that includes the time of Soter Megas. only five coins are of 2g series. and Kujula Kadhpises while period II is associated to Kanishka and Huvishka and period I to the time of Vasudeva. which followed the rebuilding of the city after the great earthquake.” . “This coin was found in the Deep South Trench in the main stupa area ( S5E2). table 3) which has produced a total number of four-hundred and five coins including thirty-five coins of Wima Takto. produced five copper coins of Wima Takto (Nasim Khan et al. (Errington 1999/2000: 213) but their stratigraphic levels are unclear. Wima Kadphises. The most important evidence of Wima Takto coins is found during excavation at 16 Shaikhan Dheri (fig. for eight of Wima Takto coins the exact stratigraphic context is unknown (see table 3). One of these is weighing 3. According to Dani.” (Dani 1966: 23). In one example. At Ranigat. the obverse shows diademed bust to the right while the reverse is marked with a horse standing to the left with raised foreleg. period I is associated with the early Kushan. Marshall says. It is the bust and horse rider coin and weighing 8. Charsadda. period II dated to the 3rd century AD and period III to the time of the Shaka (Dani 1968: 37). We do not know about their exact finding spots. affecting all the lower strata. 9. thirteen coins are associated to the early Kushana period and twenty-five to the middle Kushana.. Similarly. 18). Interestingly. These were the last issues on Shaikhan Dheri. The reverse shows horse rider to the right.45g. only one coin was found and according to the excavator. Charsadda (Muhammadzai 2010: 63. Among coins from Shaikhan Dheri. Most of the coins recorded at Taxila or in most of the other sites mentioned above are either found in groups. This is all necessary because of the widespread disturbance of the ground.3mm. Only one coin of Wima Takto was found at Mir Ziyarat (Marshal and Vogel ) and one at Ghaz Dheri. facing right. the Hindu shrine at Kashmir Smast has. having sun rays. A single specimen of Wima Takto was found at Sri Bahlol Mound B. 18. No. The three periods.4g. and the evidence available must be handled with the great caution. In another example. But looking at Dani’s chart 2. fig. 8. this coin equally does not show its exact stratigraphic level.77g and measures 18. almost the same layer in which we found the No-1 coin” (Odani 1988: 119). He classified the construction of the city into three different phases: Phase A-C. I-III. it may give us another picture. Phase A is further subdivided into three periods. recovered from debris or found on surface or came through illegal diggings. From strata II of the West Trench Azes copper coins were recovered (Nishikawa et al 1988). The average weight for the rest of the four coins is 1. I-III. among the rest of the twenty seven coins.. The rest of the coins depict a standing figure on the obverse while the city goddess on the reverse. “The inferences to be drawn from stratification are far from being as clearcut and definite as could be wished. with the result that such valuables are sometimes found in the stratum below the one to which they properly belong.
It was found in a reliquary which was deposited in a double storey chamber. characteristic of the late Buddhist art of Gandhāra (Behrendt 64-65.Gandhāran Studies 4 (Marshall 1951: 118). to put the excavated materials in their archaeological context and to understand coins and other cultural materials through such a study to know the cultural profile of a site. Pataka to the Indo-Greek and Aziz Dheri 17 is associated with the Indo-Greek to the Kushano-Sasanian period. Therefore. studied in segregation without regards to their stratigraphic context. Its plinth is added with stucco sculptures. the art style which is generally dated to the late or post Kushan period. the excavation at Butkara III has produced two coins. was established before the advent of Kuṣāṇa rule. This muddle in deposits or may be an unscientific and a carless excavation is one of the reasons that each group of the antiquities recovered from a site is studied thematically leaving aside their contextual details and stratigraphic context which sometimes lead to a great divergence in results and dates obtained from the studies of other remains although belonging to the same site and period (see below). which belongs to the later Indo-Greek ruler Apollodotus II. Same is the situation for Pataka from where only one coin was recovered and is identified as the coin of Apollodotus II. If Swati’s date for the stupa is accepted then we have to look for reasons for the presence of the 2 On exact location of the site see Swati 1997. in one of the ruined stupa at Pataka (Swat)2. “However. the coin. Pataka and Aziz Dheri. “But owing to the large scale disturbance in the strata. Zwalf 1996: vol. such evidence are studied to establish chronology of a site rather than to study the stratigraphy. mostly. They are associated to different periods using numismatic evidences even though the stratigraphic study may contradict and give a different picture of a site. Butkara III is dated to the Kushan. separated by a dress square piece of stone (Swati 1997: 250). Most of these sites are barely dated taking for examples the three Buddhist sites in Gandhāra – Butkara III. 1: 31. it would mean that the stupa was constructed in the preKushan time but was renovated or reconstructed during a late period. at least the stupa from which the coin was recovered. About the very recent excavation conducted at Shnaisha site. The objects found during excavations are. The Wima Takto coin was found placed underneath a stucco figure. As mentioned earlier.” (Swati 1997: 253-254). If we believe Swati’s date for the stupa on one hand and the art historians on the other. suggests that the site or. they were found almost in the same area. According to Swati. because of the style of architecture and due to the presence of stucco sculptures and its iconography. one belongs to Wima Takto and the other to Vasudeva I. Coins are considered as one of the most useful tools for studying and reconstructing the history of a region and it is with this fact that dating of most of the Buddhist remains in Gandhāra is mainly based on these numismatic evidences overlooking the stratigraphic study of a site from where they have been recovered. This may be seen from the negative evidence of the absence of any Kuṣāṇa coins in the reliquary. On the basis of this single piece of evidence. probably during Kushan or post Kushan time. The construction of the stupa seems to be a work of single phase and was made of diaper masonry which may not be dated to the pre-Kushan period. 70-71). the excavator says. . Such is the case for most of the historic period sites in Gandhāra. this oversight can always lead to a great confusion in understanding the history of a site and its occupants. 6). each one shows a large single or double hallow behind his body (fig. the site is dated to the pre-Kushana period. even this piece of evidence may only be cautiously used when drawing scientific conclusion” (Rahman 1993: 16).
One of the slabs is still lying buried in the stupa while the other one is removed but is still lying at the site. 4. the material used for the yashti and catra/s was probably white marble or other materials in white colour. Three different accounts are available. one of the excavator of the site. The presence of the Kharosthi inscription in a cursive form may indicate late date of the relic-casket. Relic-casket containing among other antiquities. the then draftsman of the Department of archaeology. A detailed report is going to be published in the coming issue of the Gandharan Studies. While the layout and sectional drawings prepared on the spot by Mr. It seems to be written in cursive Kharoshthi letters but its reading is 3 18 extremely difficult due to its faint nature. Plinth of the stupa with stucco sculptures . 5) which contradicts to S. Finding spot of the reliquary Fig. 5 The inner surface of the receptacle is divided into four sectors by a horizontal and a vertical line crossing each other at right angles. S. show that they were found side by side. it shows that the large one was found above the small and may have been buried in two different chambers. These lines may show the four cardinal points of the universe. The two relic-caskets4 found during excavation at Pataka were carefully examined by the author and it was found that the large one is inscribed with an inscription on the inner surface of the receptacle5. 6. Khan statement. Pataka. One of the photographs of the large relic casket found in situ shows that a harmika and chatra/s were found also fixed into the opening of the lid of the relic casket (fig. As far as the photographic record of the chambers and the large relict casket found in situ is concerned.N. Daud Kamal. 5. two long and almost round slabs were recovered from the centre and the base of the main stupa at Aziz Dheri arranged in the same manner as the engraved lines of the relic casket. Khan (verbal communication). a square coin of Apollodotus II Fig. 4 Contradictions have been observed in the statements about the finding spots of the two relic caskets found in the same stupa at Pataka. Pataka. Fig. Interestingly. We do not know about the exact direction of the slabs but we were told by the excavator of the stupa that they were arranged in north-south and east-west directions.Gandhāran Studies 4 stucco sculptures in this early period of Gandhāra (see below)3. As shown by the relevant photographs. said that the small relic casket was placed above the large one to cover the opening in the lid of the large relic casket. Swati found them in two different chambers of the stupa and arranged one above the other.
we were very particular to note any sculptural finding in this level but to our surprise we got none. so far . 7. reveal the problem that antiquities recovered from a similar deposit are generally hard to understand and difficult to put in a proper chronological sequence. The structures and levels of these sites are mostly re-used for decades and the antiquities of different periods are sometime found together and in most of the cases it is difficult to understand and differentiate the different stratas.” (Dani 1966: 39). Such facts. whether recovered from a proper stratigraphic context. Relief panel from Pataka As far as Aziz Dheri is concerned. it is always the already established chronological sequence which is generalised even it sometimes contradict to the chronology of the site as it is the case with Aziz Dheri in regards to Wima Takto (see below).). “Our conclusion therefore must be that the first Buddha images could have been made during the rule of Wima Kadphises” (Lohuizen 1946: 99). Fig. The earliest sculptures in our dig belong to the time of Kanishka. “This conclusion has to be modified in the light of the present evidence. Moreover. As the house of Naradakha was existing during the time of Wima Kadphises. A detailed analysis of these coins. According to Dani. late Kushan period coins have been recovered from behind the stair risers of the main stupa (Errington 2000: 197) and the basis of these coins the stupa is believed to be dated to the late Kushan period which is not really the case as shown by the recent archaeological investigation at Aziz Dheri (Nasim Khan 2010. particularly coins. or found in groups or recovered from debris do not help us to establish an exact chronological profile of any of the mentioned sites and the sequence of the coins in order of succession. The reason may not only be an improper excavation of certain sites or an inexact recording of the antiquities but the main explanation would also be the general nature of the historic period sites. mostly those of the late or postKushan period taking for example the site of Aziz Dheri (Nasim Khan 2010) where many hotchpotch were found during excavation. The above examples show that the finding of a coin in a site does not always prove that the remains from where the coin was recovered would be regarded as contemporary to the object. according to the excavator of 1993 season excavation. The Wima Takto coins so far found in Gandhāra are catalogued under our Table 3. can be generalized. Same is the case for other sites in Gandhāra. particularly those found inside the structures. if the excavations. The object could have been dropped. therefore. donated or reused in a later period for many reasons until and unless they were found in a proper stratigraphic context conforming to answer also other related questions. For such antiquities or those found in a well stratified deposits. the architecture and the study of art may also not be generously used and be considered as a sure criteria of dating as it is already observed.Gandhāran Studies 4 19 carried out at Shaikhan Dheri.
Believing on the already established chronology of the Kushan kings would mean the site of Aziz Dheri is either extremely disturbed or the objects are not properly recorded or some of them have been re-used otherwise there is something wrong with sequential order of Kushan rulers. If the already established sequence of the Kushan rulers is followed then we will not be able to work-out of the different occupational levels of the mound (see Nasim Khan 2010. 1). According to G. Although these coins are extremely important for the numismatic study and for the archaeology of the site.R. this is based on the different antiquities. the site was found very well preserved with an uninterrupted and complete cultural sequence starting from at least the Indo-Greek to the Hindu Shahi period. Hundreds of coins were recovered from the site. Khan 2002:). But the first excavation of the site has taken place in 1993 which continued till 2006 but with some intervals.R. particularly those of the Kushan kings. Shaikhan Dheri excavation (1963/1964) Being one of the most important sites in Gandhāra .N. sixty coins were recovered from Layer 4 wherein only one was of Wima Takto. From Layer 6.Gandhāran Studies 4 20 Fig. may do not conform to the numismatic research. 8. Khan (Khan. one out of the seventy-two coins belongs to Wima Takto while majority of the rest of the coins are associated with the . 1999). particularly inscriptions. vol. seal and sealings recorded at the site. G. During the whole season of work. they have created a great confusion in understanding the site simply because their study in a context. at least five coins of Wima Takto were recorded. the To answer these questions and to understand the true cultural profile of the site excavation at Aziz Dheri was carried out in 2007/08. The rest were mostly of the late Kushan or Kushano Sasanian rulers. the stupa and settlement site of Aziz Dheri was discovered in 1976 (S. coins. Before the 2007 excavation.
5g (7. no record of its finding spot and other stratigraphic details are available. 12). 1.Gandhāran Studies 4 late Kushan and Kushano-Sasanian periods. Huvishka and Vasu Deva I. to believe reuse of these coins in a later period.63g). As already discussed. The last coin was found during the 2004 21 season excavation and is recorded under registration No.3g. 13).85m below the surface. Three of these five coins show an average weight of about 1. The other two were recovered from the upper levels of the trench and show an average weight of 7.) Fig. Kanishka I.10: Aziz Dheri. the gap between these two different weight standard coins is filled with the coins of Wima Kadphises. C. 9: Aziz Dheri. was found 2. Three of them were found in the different levels of Trench DVI-3 (fig. Unfortunately. But this can also be doubted for a very simple reason that why only the heavy weight standard coins of Wima Takto were reused and not . may be during or after Kanishka I. one of these. The other two coins of the same ruler were excavated at trench BCV-9/3 (fig. The excavations carried out in 2007/2008 at Aziz Dheri produced five more coins of Wima Takto. weighing 1. the other was found at the depth of 1. In each trench. Fig. (1.42g. one was recorded at the depth of 1. Two coins of Wima Takto were found in layer 8 while the rest of the twenty-eight coins mostly belong to the late Kushan or Kushano-Sasanian period.528g. If these two groups of coins belong to the same ruler.3m depth. The supposed container of the KS hoard (Courtesy Setsuko. the site of Aziz Dheri was found undisturbed with a regular stratigraphy with inclusion of different sorts of cultural materials including numismatic evidences which were found in their proper chronological sequence. Find spot of the Kushano-Sasanian coins haord. the finding of Wima Takto coins at the two different levels of the mound may not be a coincidence.3m below the surface while the other one. weighing 7. the finding of these two groups of Wima Takto coins at the two different levels of each trench may need reasons and explanations.52g).16g and 1.4g. If these two groups of coins belong to the same period and to the same ruler the reason for the use of one group of Wima Takto coins after Kanishka I would be. was recorded 85cm below the surface.48 and 7. 414).57m and the last one was observed at 1.
vol. The date for Wima Takto rule is fixed by Errington between c. This is based on the two over-struck coins preserved in the British Museum. 1: 124) the reign of Gondophares may be fixed somewhere in the first half of the first century AD rather than in the last half of the first century BC as suggested by Senior (Senior 2001. they still show that Pakores was a director or indirect successor of Sassan. Due to lack of concrete evidence. Fig. the table lists Pakores as one of the last rulers of the Indo-Parthian kingdom.Gandhāran Studies 4 the other group of coins..R. The Soter Megas tamga6 is visible in the right field of the obverse side. Pakores coin is over-struck on Wima Takto 8g series coin suggesting that Pakores was either ruling sometime after Wima Takto in the region or may have been a contemporary ruler of the said king (Senior 2001: 127). The date for Sassan reign is considered as c. vol. AD 64-70. The date for Vasudeva I reign is c. Errington and Curtis 2007: 61. AD 90-113 (Errington and Curtis 2007: 253). AD 64-70 (Errington and Curtis 2007: 253).b. Coin of Pakores (Courtesy BM) We do not have yet any exact chronological table for the different rulers of the Indo-Parthian dynasty.. This important Kharoshthi inscription was found in the area of Dir and was first published by Akira Sadakata (Sadakata. In one of the examples (fig. vol. an exact date of theIndo-Parthian rule would be difficult to give. 11. 1: table 27) and showing the order of succession of the Indo-Parthian rulers suggests that Kujula Kadphises was contemporary to Abdagases whose date seems suggested from c. AD 190227). The table established by Senior (Senior 2001. 11). places the rule of Abdagases in c. BC 5-AD 20).7).) but unfortunately ignored or unsolicited by scholars for unknown reasons. The date of Wima Takto reign is fixed between 90-113 AD while the IndoPathians were supposedly ruling in 6 22 Gandhāra during c. The other example of the British Museum shows that the coin of Wima Takto is over-struck on Sasan (Sims-Williams and Cribb 1995/6: fig. An epigraphic evidence found in Dir. The inscription on the obverse reads: ÞAONANOÞAO BAZOΔHO KOÞANO (see G. Another coin over struck on Wima Takto is the specimen from Vasudeva Oesho and bull type. If it is We are not sure whether the supposed tamga was only used or introduced by Wima Takto or it has been used before or after by other rulers. Should we take it also as a coincidence? The discovery of Wima Takto coins atthe two different levels and in two different areas of the mound may not be taken as a coincidence. AD 32-70 (Errington 2007: 253). but these discoveries in fact compel us to think about revisiting the sequence of the early Kushan rulers using archaeological evidence side by side with the numismatic studies to reach a certain conclusion. 11. But the other recent work gives a late date to Abdagases and places his rule between c. . AD 4060. The Dir relic casket inscription suggests that being an immediate successor of Gondophares in Gandhāra (Senior 2001. Khan. 1: 126). present issue: F5a). Although these two coins do not help us to give an exact date to Pakores and Sassan rule. The numismatic evidence suggests that Wima Takto was ruling after the reign of the Indo-Parthian ruler Sassan and may be before Pakores who seems to be one of the last Indo-Parthian rulers.
is about 8g and may be associated to another ruler of the same name. 23 7 The site of Aziz Dheri is a very well preserved site with a very thick deposit and there is great potential in the site to answer the said question. the rule of Sasan can be suggested between c. The site needs a large scale excavation. To combine both numismatic studies with archaeological consideration as well as epigraphic evidence one can suggest that there were most probably two different kings issuing the same type of coins with different weight standard. The one mentioned in the Rabatak inscription certainly comes before Wima Kadphises. Although this is a fragmentary approach to the subject. 1: Table 27) may. if not contemporary to Pakores. AD 60-80. which were found above the level of Kanishka or Huvishka and were recovered together with Vasudeva I coins. keeping aside the question of subordinate sovereigns. While denomination of the second group of coins. Wima Takto as the second great Kushan ruler is also confirmed by the archaeological evidences from Aziz Dheri. The average coin denomination of the said ruler is about 2g.Gandhāran Studies 4 the case and if we consider an average reign of 20 years of the different rulers of the Indo-Parthian dynasty. in the first half of the 2nd century AD. . therefore. vol. The accumulative total length of region for the rest of the Indo-Parthian rulers listed by Senior (Senior 2001. not be less than 80 years which will give an approximate date to Pakores reign AD 140-160. I hope further scientific and systematic excavations and fresh research based on new materials in the region can help us to say for sure whether there was one or two Wima Takto7. The coin of Pakores over-struck on the heavy weight Wima Takto coin suggests that the region of Wima Takto can be put.
Trench BCV-9/3.Gandhāran Studies 4 24 Fig. 12: Excavation at Aziz Dheri (2007/2008): Trench DVI-3 Fig. 13: Excavation at Aziz Dheri (2007/2008). .
R. holding a sceptre.R. Rev: Mounted horseman. 1.8) Context: Layer 6.6m.8) Context: Layer 8. walking r. depth 7m. walking r.: Nasim Khan 2008: fig. Tamga in front. G. Khan 1999: 108:7 Context: Layer 8.16gr. Rev: Mounted horseman.10) Context: DVI-3. G. holding a sceptre.539g Measurement: 14. Defaced Greek legend in the margin (see below).R. locus BII Weight: 6.63gr. locus BII Weight: 1.9x2 2 (Ref.85g Measurment: 19mm 4 (Ref. 1. Depth 1.57m Material: Copper Measurement: Dia.5mm 3 (Ref.R.42gr. 1. depth 6. 1. Khan 1999: 109. depth 8.3m.737g Measurmenent: 20.85m Material: Copper Measurement: Dia. G. Depth 2. holding whip.3cm Weight: 1. Greek legend in the margin: [ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΣΩTHP ΜΕΓΑΣ] 2 (Ref. 3 (Nasim Khan et al 2008: 2. G. Nasim Khan et al 2008: 2. Locus BI Weight: 1. Tamga in front.4cm Weight: 1. As above . Depth 1. locus BI Weight: 6.9) Context: DVI-3.35m Material: Copper Measurement: Dia.8) Context: Layer 4.553g Measurement: 17.1m. depth 6. Obv: Diademed and radiate (?) bust to r. Khan 1999: 109.Gandhāran Studies 4 Table.3cm Weight: 1. Coins of Wima-Takto from Aziz Dheri (1993/1994) 25 1 (Ref. Khan 1999: 109. Probably tamga in the background.8) Context: BCV-9/3.2mm Table 2: Catalogue of Wima Takto coins from Aziz Dheri (2007/2008) 1 (Nasim Khan et al 2008: 2. 40. holding whip. Obv: Diademed and radiate (?) bust to r.
52gr. Depth 1.6) Context: BCV-9/3. Fragmentary Greek legend in the margin: [ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΣΩTHP ΜΕΓΑΣ] 5 (Nasim Khan et al 2008: 2.48gr.3m Material: Copper Measurement: Dia. Obv: Diademed and radiate (?) bust to r. 2cm Weight: 7. holding whip. Tamga in front. 2.1cm Weight: 7. Rev: Mounted horseman. As above .Gandhāran Studies 4 26 4 (Nasim Khan et al 2008: 2.7) Context: DVI-3. Depth 85cm Material: Copper Measurement: Dia. Tamga behind the head. walking r. holding a sceptre.
SR11.1. 1 later Kushan) From C debris and D4. Vima Kadphises) 12. 386 14 15 Kholay? Badalpur 2 3 2 from 1917 excavation 1 from Trench X/12. 7. 2. 1. CRF. 289. layer 1 (L. layer 2 (L. 3. SR 11.2. Kanishka I. 7. CQD. P. layer 4. FA. Weight 7. 9. layer 4 (L. close to the pot Underneath a seated stucco figure 1. Apollodotus I) CRN. Found singly 1 from cell 3 (found together with 2 Vasudeva and 3 Sasanians) Weight Ref. L. Eukratides I) 13.2. 5. III 4 from stratum I Bust of king and horseman type From debris 1 from debris of court A 1 from court J. 27 Mughal 1967: 151 Errington 1999/2000: 213 Marshall 1951: 782 Five Samantadeva coins from stratum I-III were also recovered Marshall 1951: 224-225 Marshall 1951: 239. A. 7. on F2a CML. 2.3. layer 1 CRC.. layer 1 CSK. XXI. 261.1. layer 5 (L. CRM. layer 4 CSG. layer 4. Azes II) CMP.4. 292 4 5 Jandial temple Dharmarajika 4 22+3 6 Site B Akhauri 10 Marshall 1951: 317 7 8 9 Site C Site D Khader Mohra Kalawan 16 1 5 Marshall 1951: 318 Marshall 1951: 319 Marshall 1951: 334.4. 3B 3. 10. room 6 2 coins from pradakshina patha (from debris) 1 coin from apartments (from debris) 1 coin from debris in the tank 1 coin from court A of the monastery 1 coin from Room 6 of Court J. L. 247. FA.26g 1.Gandhāran Studies 4 Table 3: List of coins and their provenance No. in the filling FA.85g 2. 8.336 10 11 12 13 Giri Jandial B Mohra Moradu Jaulian 5 19 14 2 2 or Marshall 1951: 347 Marshall 1951: 356 (7).A 1. VI. layer 1 (L. Tr. Layer 45 In the middle of the stupa 8 from stratum II. FA. in a pot 14. 3C Floor of votive stupa 2 Marshall 1951: 786. Vasudeva 1. 2g 3.9g 4. cell 8 (a hoard including 117 Vasudeva coins) 2 from court F (hoard including 1 Kanishka and 2 Vasudeva) 1 from court F. G3. L. (Trench X/12. layer 3 (L. 786 Marshall 1951: 364 Marshal 1951: 385. 2.1. 231-233 S 2201 S 2202 S 2248 S 2249 Rahman 1993: 16 . FA. 2. 1 2 3 Name of site Tulamba Manikyala Sonala Pind Sirkap No. court A.8g ? 19 Shnaisha 1 Rahman 1991: 154-155 Callieri. D5 together with Kanishka 1 from court F. Layer 3 (depth. The rest are mainly from debris 3 from floor of cell F13 3 from F15 2 from F19 2 found in different part of the ruins All from cell 13 From D1.24). 279. CMU. Aiyar 1917: 2-3 2. Huvishka) 11. cell 8 1 from court C.CRF. court 5 (including 1 Kanishka and 2 Vasudeva. 7 and 10 12 found together near the foot of the stupa steps. 1. SR 11. 3C 4. 1. 198199 16 But Kara I 14 17 18 Butkara III Saidu Sharif I 1 4 8. layer 3 – Samanata Deva) N. 4. of coins 1 1 12 Locus TLB-I. Tr. 278. Khan. 6. CQE. note 2 1. Pr. 3A 2.3g). layer 6 GSt. Vasudeva I) CRM. 240. et al 2009 Faccena 1980: Part 1. Kujula.
layer 2 A1.94g 6. 26. 27. 21. 23.1g 6.5) 1.9g 1. 6. 6. layer 4 D1. 8.1) 8. 5. layer 3 I10. BII (see Table 1. layer 6 Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known Not known 7. 11.6 2. K.58g 1. 1994: Pl. 17. 4. depth 6. 18. 29.10 2.4) 7.86 1.Layer 6.8g 1.4g 7. Depth 85cm.42g 1.38g 1. 16. BI (see Table 1. 19. 5.84g 1. 8. layer 4.R. 27.2) 9. 34. Vogel: 190203:152 Qasim Jan 2010: Nishikawa. layer 5b A1/A2.1m di-drachm 6. 2.32g 0. layer 5b C1. 28. layer 3 C3. 15.8 SSAQ: 1963-2-02 SSAQ: 1963-2-145 SSAQ: 1963-2-281 SSAQ: 1963-2-37 SSAQ: 1963-2-183 SSAQ: 1963-2-117 SSAQ: 1963-2-161 SSAQ: 1963-2-166 SSAQ: 1963-2-163 SSAQ: 1963-2-13 SSAQ: 1963-2-231 SSAQ: 1963-2-02 SSAQ: 1963-2-60 SSAQ: 1963-2-96 SSAQ: 1963-2-84 SSAQ: 1963-2-188 SSAQ: 1963-2-144 SSAQ: 1963-2-116 SSAQ: 1963-2-155 SSAQ: 1963-2-71 SSAQ: 1963-2-86 SSAQ: 1963-2-147 SSAQ: 1963-2-114 SSAQ: 1963-2-110 SSAQ: 1963-2-180 SSAQ: 1963-2-06 SSAQ: 1963-2-157 SSAQ: 1963-2-286 SSAQ: 1963-2-287 SSAQ: 1963-2-288 SSAQ: 1963-2-289 SSAQ: 1963-2-290 SSAQ: 1963-2-291 SSAQ: 1963-2-292 SSAQ: 1963-2-293 See also Dani 1964: 31. Depth 1.3) 4. 14.57m. 22. No. 22.85g 6. G. 23. 20. vol. 31. 109 22 23 24 25 26 Balahisar Pakhana Dheri Ranigat Aziz Dheri 1 1 2 10 Trail pit From surface 1.64g 6. layer 4a D1. 3. 18. 19. 12. layer 5a D1.8g 1. lower stratum Mound B From the will WXY di-drachm 28 Dani 1968: 41. 4.64g 0. 6. 28. depth 6. 30.53g ? 2004 unpublished (Reg. 33. 20. layer 2 A3. 31. layer 4 A2. 15. 1999: 28. DVI-3 (see Table 2. 32. 7.1m. DVI-3 (see Table 2. layer 4 C1/B1. 29. 22. 31. 26. 108.5) 10. 7. 3. 28. layer 2 A5/B5.Layer 4. 14. 17. 25.63g 2008: 91.2) 3. 25. 21. layer 3 B3/B4. B5. 5.44g 6.58g 1. 10.44g 1. Depth 1. 30. layer 4 A1. layer 2 A0. 33. 13. 30. 14. 19. 2. depth 8. Depth 1.5g 4. 414) Nasim Khan 2010. 24.38g 1. depth 1. 15.7 2. layer 5 D0.7g 0. 33. layer 3 K8.85m. 10. 13. 6.7g 1.4) 2.1) 2.06g 1. BCV-9/3 (see Table 2. layer 4 C1/D1. 23. BII (see Table 1.52g 1.98g 2. 35. Trench E5.48g 1. layer 5 C0.56g 0. 21.4) 5. 24. 10. 2.82g 0. 9.3m.72g 0. layer 3 A1.Layer 8. 4. 9. depth 7m. 3.3) 27 Shaikhan Dheri 1963 38 1.7g 6. 9/3 (see Table 2. 8.42 Errington 1999/2000: 213 Marshal & Vogel1902-3: 159 Errington 1999/2000: 213 This may be from Mir Ziyarat Marshal. 29. Depth 2. 2: report 6.55g 1.3g 0. 35. 209: Nos. BI (see Table 1. 1. 20. 9.Gandhāran Studies 4 20 21 Andan Dheri Sri Bahlol Mir Ziyarat Ghaz Dheri 1 1 1 1 Trench CO. 24.Layer 8. 17.14g 1. 18. chart 2 . 26. layer 5 C1/D1. 35.24g 5.56g 5. BCV. 16.4g 7.35m. 32. 29. 25.7 Khan. 12. 27. 34. S5E2 (8. pit A4/A5. layer 5 B0.3g 1. 7. layer 3 A3. DVI-3 (see Table 2. 11.6m. 34. 13.36g 3. 16. 2.85g 1. 11.34g 5. layer 3 A4. S1W1 (10.9 2.3m.56g 3. 12. layer 5 C0. 32. 1g 10.
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