Appendix

3FL 42104 AAAA WBZZA Edition 2 - July 2005

3.1 Appendix

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Objectives
Network Planning - Appendix 3-1-

3

To be able to understand the modulation concepts. To be able in an example to calculate the unavailability objective due to the equipment failures. To be able to understand the general concepts of the M.21xx series and the differences between G.821/826 and M.21xx recommendations.

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Table of Contents
Network Planning - Appendix 3-1-

5

Switch to notes view!
1 Refresh on modulation concepts Modulation Concepts BB Transmission Bandwidth Formula Modulated Signal Spectrum 2-PSK 4-PSK 16-QAM 16-TCM Performances Versus Noise Exercise Main Modulation Types Characteristics Thermal Noise (C/N versus BER) Comparison of Different Mod. Schemes Roll-off calculation example Blank Page 2 Equipment unavailability Introduction Unavailability objective Unavailability of a non-protected section (1+0) Unavailability of a protected section (1+1) 3 M.21xx-series Recommendations End of Module
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Table of Contents [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3-1-

6

Switch to notes view!

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Network Planning - Appendix

3-1-7

1 Refresh on modulation concepts

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Modulation Concepts
Network Planning - Appendix 3-1-8

Why modulation? Modulation is necessary to occupy RF narrow bandwidth! Without modulation (BB transmission) the occupied bandwidth is:

Bw =

fb (1 + 2

)

where:

fb = bit rate = roll-off factor

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BB Transmission [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3-1-9

Ideal Transmission Channel

Att.

Att. = constant

Tx 0 f

Rx

0

f

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BB Transmission
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 10

Real Transmission Channel
Att. Att. = Kost. Rx
1 2fc 3 2fc

Tx

Att. =

0

fc

f
2 2fc 3 2 1

t

Att.

Att. = Kost.

3

2

1

Att. =

0
T T

fc

f
T T

t
T= 1 2fc

T=

1 fb

fb = Bit rate frequency

1 1 = fb 2fc

fc =

fb 2

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Bandwidth Formula
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 11

R(f) a
0.3
= 1.0

0.1

Roll Off =

a = c

C

R(f) -2fC -fC +fC +2fC

Antisymmetrical Freq. Responce

-fc

+f c
= 1.0 = 0.3 = 0.1

r (t)
0 < fb Bw = 2 < 1

Ideal Freq. Responce

Bw = fb fb (1+ ) 2

Bw =
-4T -3T -2T -T 0 +T +2T +3T +4T

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1 Refresh on modulation concepts

Modulated Signal Spectrum
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 12

V

f0

fc

f MOD

70-fc

70

70+fc Bw = 2fc

70 MHz

B 2fc

IF LO f0

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1 Refresh on modulation concepts

2-PSK [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 13

2 PSK Modulator
1

B

A 0 2 PSK Mixer

100111 Data

DIFF. ENC. BTF IF L.O.

IF signal Post Conversion Filter

2 PSK Demodulator

IF signal BTF

DIFF. DEC. IF L.O.

100111 Data

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1 Refresh on modulation concepts

2-PSK [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 14

2-PSK Waveforms - Modulator

+V DATA IN -V

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

CARRIER

IF OUTPUT

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2-PSK [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 15

2-PSK Waveforms - Demodulator

CARRIER

IF INPUT

DEMODULATED SIGNAL

+V DATA OUT -V 1
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1

0

1

0

1

1

0

0
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2-PSK [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 16

Absolute Coding 0=B 1=A

Differential Coding 0 = No change in the phase of the carrier 1 = 180° change in the phase of the carrier
Switch ON

0 A A 0

1 B B 1 B 1

0 B B 0 B 0

1 A A 1 A 1

1 B B 1 B 1

0 B B 0 B 0

1 A A 1 A 1

TX
A 1 0 B

A A

RX B

A 1

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2-PSK

Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 17

BTF Binary Transversal Filter (digital filter)
IN T 5 X A 5 X T 5 A 2 X T 5 A 5 X T 5 A 10 X
0.4

H(f)
0

A 10

=1

OUT

IN

A A/10 T/5 T/5 A/5 A/2 T/5 T/5

-2fN

-fN

fN

fN(1+ )

2fN

H(t)

A/5 A/10 - 1 W - 1 2W + 1 2W + 1 W

OUT

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4-PSK [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 18
1 2 PSK Mixer 0

4-PSK Modulator

BTF L.O. IF

0010111

S P

DIFFER. ENCODER

90°

Post Convertion Filter 0

RF L.O.

Branching Filter

BTF

2 PSK Mixer

fs Bw = fb (1+ ) 2 PSK 4 PSK 8 PSK 16 PSK fs = fb fb 2 f fs = b 3 f fs = b 4 fs = 22 23 24 C (11) D (01) Bw = fs (1+ )
1

B (10)

A (00)

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4-PSK [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 19

Differential Coding
B (10) A (00) +

C (11)

D (01)

001001110101.........
Switch ON

00 A B B 11

10 B C C 10

01 D B B 01

11 C B B 11

01 D C C 01

01 D 00 = No change B B 01 01 = -90° change 10 = +90° change 11 = -180° change

TX RX

B D

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1 Refresh on modulation concepts

4-PSK

Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 20

4-PSK Demodulator

2 PSK Mixer

Decision Circuit

BTF

X1

X1

IF

L.O. 90° Y1

DIFFER. DECODER
Decision Circuit BTF Y1

P S

2 PSK Mixer

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16-QAM [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 21

16-QAM Modulator
X1 X1 X1 BTF X2 X2 X2 X2 2R X2 L.O. IF 90° Y1 BTF Y2 Y2 Y2 Y2 2R Y2 Y1 2R Y1 X1 2R X1

S P
Y1

DIFFER. ENCODER
Y1

FEC

Vy

X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 1 0 0

X Y

11

1 +3V 0 +1V 1 0 -1V -3V
00 01

10

10 01

11

Vx

00

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16-QAM

Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 22

16-QAM Demodulator

Decision Circuit L.O. 90°

X1 BTF X2

X1 X2

X1 X2

IF

DIFFER. DECODER
Decision Circuit Y1 BTF Y2 Y2 Y2 Y1 Y1

P S

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16-TCM [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 23

16-TCM Modulator

X1

X1

X1 BTF

X1

2R 2R

X1

X2

DIFFER. + CONVOL.

X2

X2

X2

X2 L.O. IF 90°

S P
Y1

MAPPING
Y1 Y1 BTF Y1 2R 2R Y1

ENCODER

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

Y2

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1 Refresh on modulation concepts

16-TCM [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 24

16-TCM Demodulator

Decision Circuit L.O. 90°

X1 BTF X2

X1 X2

X1 X2

IF

VITERBI DECODER + DIFFER. DECODER
Decision Circuit Y1 BTF Y2 Y2 Y1

P S
Y1 Y2

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16-TCM [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 25

TCM Principles - State Diagram (Example with 8-TCM)

S P

a b

b c 0/0

b c 0/1

S0

S1 c

0 0
S0 S1

b c 1/0

0 1
S0 S1

b c 1/1

1 1
S0 S1

b c 0/0

b c 0/1

CONVOLUTIONAL ENCODER

b c 1/0

1 0
S0 S1

b c 1/1

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16-TCM [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 26

TCM Principles - Mapping (Example with 8-TCM)
2 3 1 0

4 5 6

7

0 a b c 0 0 0

1 0 0 1

2 0 1 0

3 0 1 1

4 1 0 0

5 1 0 1

6 1 1 0

7 1 1 1

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16-TCM

Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 27

TCM Principles - Trellis Diagram (Example with 8-TCM)
T0 T1 T2 T3

S0 0

S1 0
b=1

b=0 0 4 0 4 2 2 6 b=0 6 0 4

0

1
1 b=1 5

6

2 0 4 1 5

1

0
7

3

3 7 1 5

3 7

1

1

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Performances Versus Noise [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 28

2-PSK

C+N C = Carrier N = Noise B 1 C 1

N A

Threshold

We have "ERROR" if

N>C

N>1

Errors depend of the distance between two points.

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Performances Versus Noise [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 29

4-PSK
B
1

Two Different Threshold A If the Noise (N) is: 2 = 0.7 2 D 2 N > 0.7 you have error

1

C

Modulation Type 2 PSK 4 PSK

Error Condition N>1 N > 0.7

Bandwidth

Symbol Freq. (fs) fb fb 2

BW BW (-3dB) 2

Noise Power (N) = Amplitde x Bandwidth

2 PSK and 4 PSK have the same performance versus noise, but for this reason is never used 2 PSK due to its double bandwidth

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Performances Versus Noise
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 30

IF

DEMODULATOR

data

ERROR DETECTOR

10-6

S = 13.5 dB N 10-6 4 PSK

S = 18.6 dB N 10-6 8 PSK

S = 20.5 dB N 10-6 16 QAM

S = 26.5 dB N 10-6 64 QAM

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Exercise

Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 31

Why is used the 16 QAM modulation and not the 16 PSK?

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Main Modulation Types Characteristics
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 32

Modulation type

4 PSK

8 PSK

16 QAM

64 QAM

Position of Vectorial modulation states (levels) at equal peak power (Cmax)

Peak-to-Mean power ratio (dB) Nyquist Bandwidth (Bny) Symbol frequency (S) (R = Binary information capacity) Modulation efficiency (bit/sec/Hz) (Theoretical) S/N (dB) (Theoretical at BER = 10-6)

0 R/2

0 R/3

2.5 R/4

3.7 R/6

2

3

4

6

13.5

18.6

20.5

26.5

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Thermal Noise (C/N versus BER)
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 33

8 PSK

Q

16 QAM

Q

v v Phase level decision threshold

I

I

Mod. 2 PSK

v 1 1 1 1 1 0.70 0.38 0. 19

C/N (20log v/ ) 0 (normalized) +3.1 dB +8.4 dB +14.2 dB +9.7 dB +15.6 dB +22.1 dB

= noise voltage v = carrier peak voltage

4 PSK 8 PSK 16 PSK 16 QAM 64 QAM 256 QAM

0.7 0.23 0.6 0.10 0.6 0.047

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Comparison of Different Mod. Schemes [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 34

16 QAM

16 PSK

Bit/s 6 (Hz)
BER = 10-6

QAM 16 16 4

64 PSK 8

4
8

32

2

4 2 2

FSK

10
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15

20

25 W (dB)
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Comparison of Different Mod. Schemes [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix
10-2 16QAM 10-3 32PSK 8PSK 10-4 2PSK 4PSK 64QAM 16PSK

3 - 1 - 35

10

-5

10-6

10-7

10-8

10-9

10-10 5 10 15 20 25 W (dB)

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Comparison of Different Mod. Schemes [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 36

Comparison of different modulation schemes (Theoretical W and S/N values at 10-6 BER; calculated values may have slightly different assumptions) a) Basic modulation scheme
System FSK Variants 2-state FSK with discriminator detection 3-state FSK (duo-binary) 4-state FSK 2-state PSK with coherent detection 4-state PSK with coherent detection 8-state PSK with coherent detection 16-state PSK with coherent detection 16-QAM with coherent detection 32-QAM with coherent detection 64-QAM with coherent detection 128-QAM with coherent detection 256-QAM with coherent detection 512-QAM with coherent detection 16-QAM with coherent detection 32-QAM with coherent detection 64-QAM with coherent detection 128-QAM with coherent detection 256-QAM with coherent detection 512-QAM with coherent detection W (dB) 13.4 15.9 20.1 10.5 10.5 14.0 18.4 17.0 18.9 22.5 24.3 27.8 28.9 13.9 15.6 19.4 21.1 24.7 25.8 S/N (dB) 13.4 15.9 23.1 10.5 13.5 18.8 24.4 20.5 23.5 26.5 29.5 32.6 35.5 17.6 20.6 23.8 26.7 29.8 23.4 Nyquist Bandwidth (bn) B B B/2 B B/2 B/3 B/4 B/4 B/5 B/6 B/7 B/8 B/9 B/4*(1+r) B/5*(1+r) B/6*(1+r) B/7*(1+r) B/8*(1+r) B/9*(1+r)

PSK

(1)

QAM

As an example, error correction with redundancy (r) of 6.7% is used for calculation in this Table.

Basic modulation schemes with FEC QAM with block (1) codes

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Comparison of Different Mod. Schemes
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 37

B) Coded modulation scheme
System BCM
(2)

Variants 16 BCM - 8D (QAM. One step partition) 80 BCM - 8D (QAM. One step partition) 88 BCM - 6D (QAM. One step partition) 96 BCM - 4D (QAM. One step partition) 128 BCM - 8D (QAM. One step partition) 16 TCM - 2D 32 TCM - 2D 64 TCM - 4D 128 TCM - 2D 128 TCM - 4D 512 TCM - 2D 512 TCM - 4D 32-MLCM - 2D (QAM) 64-MLCM - 2D (QAM) 128-MLCM - 2D (QAM)

W (dB) 15.3 23.5 23.8 24.4 23.6 12.1 13.9 18.3 19.0 20.0 23.8 24.8 14.1 18.1 19.6

S/N (dB) 18.5 28.4 28.8 29.0 28.2 14.3 17.6 21.9 23.6 24.9 29.8 31.1 18.3 21.7 24.5

Nyquist (1) Bandwidth (bn) B/3.75 B/6 B/6 B/6 B/6 B/3 B/4 B/5.5 B/6 B/6.5 B/8 B/8.5 B/4.5 B/5.5 B/6.5

TCM

(3)

MLCM

(4)

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(1) (2) (3)

The bit rate B does not include code redundancy. The block code length is half the number of the BCM signal dimensions. The performances depend upon the implemented decoding algorithm. In this example, an optimum number is used. In this example, convolutional code is used for lower 2 levels and block codes are used for the third level to give overall redundancies as those of 4D-TCM. Specially redundancies on the two convolutional coded levels are 3/2, 8/7 and 24/23 on the block coded third level.

(4)

3FL 42104 AAAA WBZZA Edition 2 - July 2005 Section 3 - Module 1 - Page 37

1 Refresh on modulation concepts

Roll-off calculation example [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 38

Example 1 Available bandwidth Transmitted stream Modulation type Roll-off BW 40 a = = =

= = = =

40 MHz 34 Mbit/s 2 PSK ?

fb (1+K) 34 (1+ K) 40/34-1 =

0.05

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN fb and fs AS FUNCTION OF THE MODULATION TYPE 2 PSK 4 PSK 8 PSK 16 QAM fs = fb fs = fb/2 fs = fb/3 fs = fb/4 fb = 34 Mbit/s fs = 34 MHz fb = 34 Mbit/s fs = 17 MHz fb = 34 Mbit/s fs = 11.3 MHz fb = 34 Mbit/s fs = 8.5 MHz

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Roll-off calculation example
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 39

Example 2 Available bandwidth Transmitted stream Modulation type BW n 27 28 = = = = fb/n fb/BW 128 256

= = =

20 MHz 140 Mbit/s ?

= 140/20 = 7 128 QAM 256 QAM with K = 0 with K = 1

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Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 41

2 Equipment unavailability

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2 Equipment unavailability

Introduction [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 42

Unavailability = Part of the time in which the link is out of order.

U=

MTTR MTTR+ MTBF

Where:

MTTR = Mean Time To Repair

E quipment unavailability

MTBF = Mean Time Between Failures

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2 Equipment unavailability

Introduction

Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 43

By supposing: Failures statistically independent MTTR << MTBF UNAVAILABILITY OF SERIES BLOCKS
A B

1

2

U1-2 = UA + UB

UNAVAILABILITY OF PARALLEL BLOCKS
A

U1-2 = UA • UB
1 B 2

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2 Equipment unavailability

Unavailability objective
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 44

EQUIPMENT UNAVAILABILITY OBJECTIVE for HRDP (L = 2500 km) is supposed to be 1/3 of the total unavailability:
Ueq. < 0.1% = 0.001

The HRDP consists of 9 switching sections (section length = 280 km approx.)

Ueq.s =

Ueq. 9

1.1• 10 4

For one-direction of the link only: Ueq.s1 < 55.10-6

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2 Equipment unavailability

Unavailability of a non-protected section (1+0) [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 45

Suppose that a radio section consists of: 1 Tx Terminal 1 Rx Terminal 5 Repeaters (egual each other)

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2 Equipment unavailability

Unavailability of a non-protected section (1+0) [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 46

Z' Mod. Tx Rx Dem Mod Tx Rx Dem

Z

PSU

PSU

PSU

L = 50 km

L = 50 km

1+0 radio section: 6 hops, 5 repeater stations

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2 Equipment unavailability

Unavailability of a non-protected section (1+0)
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 47

UTx Term. = UTerm. Mod + UTx + UPSU URep. = URx + URep. Dem + URep. Mod + UTx + UPSU URx Term. = URx + UTerm. Dem + UPSU

Unavailability of the non-protected section (uni-directional) (points Z-Z’): US(1+0) = UTx Term + 5 • URep. + URx Term

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2 Equipment unavailability

Unavailability of a protected section (1+1) [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 48

US R' TS RS R

US Lp

TS = Tx part of the switching system, the failure of which causes the total unavailability of the section. RS = Rx part of the switching system, the failure of which causes the total unavailability of the section. Lp = Part of the switching system, the failure of which doesn’t allow the regular operation of the switching system. MTBFs = Global MTBF of the switching system “series” part. MTBFp = Global MTBF of the switching system “parallel” part.

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2 Equipment unavailability

Unavailability of a protected section (1+1) [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 49

Z' Mod. Tx Rx Dem Mod Tx Rx Dem

Z

R'

PSU

PSU

PSU

R

Z' Mod. Tx Rx Dem Mod Tx Rx Dem

Z

PSU L = 50 km

PSU L = 50 km

PSU

LOGIC

1+1 radio section: 6 hops, 5 repeater stations

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2 Equipment unavailability

Unavailability of a protected section (1+1)
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 50

Global unavailability of the 1+1 protected section:
2 Us(1+1) = Us(1+0) + User + $ Upar • Us(1+0)

($

0.5)

The section is unavailable due to: failures of the 2 channels failure of the “series” part of the switching system failure of a channel and of the “parallel” part of the switching system

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Network Planning - Appendix

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3 M.21xx-series Recommendations

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3 M.21xx-series Recommendations

General concepts [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 52

Differences between Recommendations G.821/G.826 and the M.21xx series start with their different origins: G-series Recommendations are from ITU-T Study Group 13 (General network issues); M-series are from Study Group 4 (Network Maintenance and TMN). Main differences: G.821/G.826 define long-term performance objectives to be met. G.821/G.826 require very long test intervals (one month). The M-series Recommendations are particularly useful when bringing-into-service new transmission equipment. They are intended to assure that the requirements of the G series are met in every case. As a general rule, the requirements of the M-series are tougher than those of the G-series. For practical reasons, the M.21xx-series Recommendations allow short test intervals.

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3 M.21xx-series Recommendations

General concepts [cont.]
Network Planning - Appendix 3 - 1 - 53

Media independent (ITU-T) M.2100 for PDH paths sections and transmission systems M.2110 how to apply M.2100 and M.2101 for BIS (Bring-Into-Service) M.2120 how to apply M.2100 and M.2101 for maintenance M.2101 for SDH paths and multiplex section

Radio specific (ITU-R) F.1330 for parts of international PDH and SDH paths and sections.

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Network Planning - Appendix

3 - 1 - 54

End of Module

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